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Graphic Standards
Programming and Schematic Design
June 1999

Ambulatory Surgery

Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Advantages of
Movable Modular Casework



Functional Areas

Functional Program


Waiting, Reception, Admitting,

and Business Office

Bubble Diagram


Pre-Operative Holding

Block Diagram


Scrub Area

Operating Room

Preliminary Plan


Post-Anesthesia Care Unit

(PACU/Recovery Room)

Schematic Plan


Future Trends


Equipment Storage


Sterile Storage


Preparation and Packaging




Anesthesia Workroom


Satellite Lab


Satellite Pharmacy


Staff Conference/Locker Room


Supervisor or Physician Office


Ambulatory Surgery 2

Ambulatory Surgery

The ambulatory surgery unit is
responsible for the surgical procedures,
or operations, performed on patients who
can be admitted, treated, and discharged
in the same day. Many types and kinds of
surgical procedures do not require
overnight hospitalization of the patient,
and these are carried out on an outpatient
basis. The primary benefit derived from
this unit is the reduction of costs to both
the patient and the hospital.
The ambulatory surgery unit may be
positioned as

A completely freestanding or off-site


A department within the hospital but

separated from the surgery

A suite of rooms, or shared rooms,

within the surgery department.

Because surgical procedures are

performed under the strictest sterile
techniques and infection control
practices, the design of the unit and the
flow of the patients, staff, and supplies
must be rigidly controlled.

Traffic Zones

Flow of Patients

The layout of the ambulatory surgery unit

is a similar but simplified version of the
surgery department, with additional areas
for administrative, family, and
ambulatory patient needs.

The patient enters the ambulatory surgery

unit, reporting to admitting for data
collection and the development of a
medical record. The patient will move to
a dressing room or cubicle for changing
into hospital attire and then to a preoperative holding area for medication
and intravenous fluid administration.

The ambulatory surgery unit includes not

only operating rooms, but pre- and postanesthesia areas, dressing rooms,
technical support and supply areas, and
business office and administrative staff
The basic zones of traffic flow will
consistently include the following:

If the unit contains laboratory and/or

diagnostic radiology services, these may
be performed at this time.
The patient is then moved to the
operating room, anesthesia administered,
and the surgical procedure performed.

Unrestricted Areas

The unrestricted area is a public space,

such as the business offices and waiting
rooms, for visitors, families, and
administrative staff attired in street

Following surgery, the patient is moved

to the post-anesthesia care unit,
remaining there until ready to dress and
be discharged.

Semi-Restricted Areas

These areas, such as pre-operative

holding, require staff to be attired in
surgical garments including scrub suits or
dresses and hair covers.
Restricted Areas

The most restricted areas of the unit are

the operating rooms, requiring staff to be
attired in surgical garments and face


Ambulatory Surgery 3

Ambulatory Surgery

Ambulatory surgery units typically have two lines of authority physicians and nurses
and a support staff.

Physician Staff

Nursing Staff

Support Staff

Chief of Ambulatory Surgery

Ambulatory Surgery Supervisor

Business Office Manager

The chief of ambulatory surgery (an MD

or DO) will oversee the physicians and
the surgical procedures, as well as
medical recommendations for the unit.

The supervisor or director of ambulatory

surgery (usually an RN) will be in charge
of nursing procedures and practices and
also will be responsible for the business
aspects of the unit, such as budgets,
staffing, etc. This person generally has
had additional operating room
experience as well as advanced education
in nursing or management.

The responsibilities of this position

include the management of patient data
gathering, maintenance of medical
records, and collection of medical
insurance payments and/or reimbursements.

Chief of Anesthesiology

The chief of anesthesiology (an MD or

DO) will supervise other anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, and anesthesia
technicians working in the unit. This
position is responsible for policies and
procedures regarding administration of

Circulating Nurse

This is a registered nurse (RN) working

within the operating room who
coordinates activity in the room for a
particular surgical procedure by opening
and furnishing supplies to the scrub nurse
from outside the sterile field, applying
dressings, etc. This position also assists
in the delivery of patient care such as
positioning the patient, skin preparation,
and assisting in anesthesia as necessary.

Support Staff

Other administrative and medical staff

will vary based on the size of the unit and
may include a unit secretary, receptionist,
insurance clerks, admission clerks, and
vocational nurses.

Scrub Nurse/Instrument Nurse

This registered nurse (RN) or surgical

technician maintains the sterile operating
field and organizes and passes sterile
instruments to the operating surgeon.


Ambulatory Surgery 4

Ambulatory Surgery

Advantages of Movable Modular Casework

Advantages of Movable Modular Casework
Ambulatory surgery units may vary widely in type of unit, square footage, method of
operation, and staffing, but each ambulatory surgery unit has certain functional areas in
common. The following pages describe the advantages of movable modular casework,
give a brief description of the functional areas of ambulatory surgery, and provide
typical plan views of movable modular casework applications.

Movable Modular Casework

Materials Handling Components

Financial Advantages

Movable modular casework offers the

following major advantages and
differences when compared with fixed
casework or millwork:

Movable modular materials handling

components can be especially useful in
the operating room for supporting
effective and efficient delivery, storage,
use, and removal of supplies.

The initial cost of movable modular

casework is competitive with fixed
casework or millwork. However, the life
cycle cost of movable modular casework
is far less than fixed casework because of

Specialized supplies can easily be

transported on demand from a central
location. Each component can become
mobile by combining it with a wheeled
component, quickly and easily making
the change from storage to mobile.

Longer product life.

Ability to install and reconfigure with

little downtime.

Accelerated depreciation rate,

especially important to for-profit

All movable modular casework

components can be easily rearranged
or reused by the end user, allowing
ongoing changes with new
Movable modular casework
components have been specifically
designed to meet the functional
requirements of ambulatory surgery
Components are sanitizable, and
every configuration can be
disassembled to easily clean parts.
Movable modular components can
quickly and easily be relocated to the
opposite wall in an operating room
when a specific procedure requires
that the operating table be turned
Additional components can be added
at any time.


Specific components appropriate for use

in the ambulatory surgery unit include

L carts.
Crash carts.
Supply carts.
Case carts.
Process tables.
Extra-deep modular shelving units.

Modular Furniture Systems

Panel systems for administrative

areas offer the use of less space, the
flexibility to make changes easily,
and increased worker productivity.

The system provides cantilevered

work surfaces and efficiently
arranged workstations.

Minimal maintenance cost.

Continual reuse of the components
for new or different functions.

For preliminary budget purposes,

movable modular casework for an
ambulatory surgery unit has an average
price in the range of $276 to $414 per
linear foot.
This range will be affected by the density
of overhead and undercounter storage
components and the type of support
structure used (wall-mounted versus

Ambulatory Surgery 5

Ambulatory Surgery

Waiting, Reception, Admitting, Business Office

Functional Areas
Waiting, Reception, Admitting,
and Business Office
A waiting area should be provided for
patients and families or companions
awaiting admission. The receptionist will
greet patients and originate the
Patients will then proceed to an admitting
interview area. Admitting booths,
which may vary from open-counter type
stations to closed cubicles, should allow
for acoustical privacy.

Movable Modular Casework and Furniture Systems Applications

Movable modular casework and modular furniture systems components allow for
future flexibility and change and may include

The business office staff is responsible

for the retrieval of the necessary
administrative, pre-diagnosis, and
financial information from the patient or
the patients family. This staff also will
handle accounts payable and receivable,
record keeping for reimbursing agencies
such as Medicare and other health
insurance companies, charges and
billings to patients, credits, collections,
and other facility operation expenses.

Frame and/or panel system with

ability to change and reconfigure for
different functions.
Integral computer support
components, such as keyboard trays,
turntables, etc.
Integrated form trays and chart
Task lighting where needed.

Overhead shelves for manuals and

reference materials.

Above work surface counter or

transactional work surface.

Cantilevered work surfaces.

Lateral filing components.
Unlimited electrical capabilities.
Comfortable, durable waiting room

Work areas in the business office should

include file or chart storage, computer
stations, and general work areas.

Plan View of a Waiting, Reception,

Admitting, and Business Office

Waiting and reception areas will range in

size from 20 to 35 square feet per seat.
Admitting and business office areas will
range in size from 85 to 110 square feet
per employee.


53 linear feet work surface

64 linear feet overhead storage
800 filing inches
1500 square feet

Ambulatory Surgery 6

Ambulatory Surgery

Pre-Operative Holding
Pre-Operative Holding
Patients arriving for surgical procedures
are held in this area until the appropriate
operating room is ready.
Patients will change into hospital attire in
dressing cubicles before entering the preoperative holding area. An area should
be available to store patients clothing
and personal belongings.
This area also may be called preanesthesia as patients may be given
medications or intravenous fluids under
close observation of the nursing staff.
A nurses control station and medication
preparation area are often an integral part
of this area.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

A pre-operative holding area can be

planned using movable modular
casework and may include

Small workstation.

Procedure/supply carts.

Locker to hold patient care supplies.

L cart, procedure/supply cart, or railhung C frame storage unit placed
near each stretcher.

Extra-deep modular shelving units.

Sink unit.
Med prep area.

Plan View of a Pre-Operative Holding Area

A pre-operative holding area will range in

size from 350 to 800 square feet.
8 linear feet work surface
6 linear feet overhead storage
40 filing inches
1 locker for medications
1 locker for IVs
2 lockers for supplies
1 C frame storage unit per bed
504 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 7

Ambulatory Surgery

Scrub Area, Operating Room

Scrub Area
Scrub areas are placed strategically
outside operating rooms. Surgical scrub
sinks are generally ceramic or stainless
steel with foot or knee controls. It is
helpful to place shelves above the sink to
hold scrub brushes and masks.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

Depending on the design of the scrub area,

scrub brushes and masks can be housed in
modular shelving hung on rail, on wall
strips above the sinks, or in rail-hung
C frame storage units with drawers beside
the sinks.
Plan View of a Scrub Area

8 linear feet overhead storage (2 feet per sink)

50 square feet

Operating Room
An operating room is the area where
surgical procedures are performed under
strict sterile techniques.
For sanitization purposes, operating
rooms should contain little or no built-in
casework. Supplies and equipment are
moved in and out as needed. Rather than
using wall strips, horizontally mounted
rail with rail-hung components are
appropriate for hanging work surfaces
for documenting/charting. Rail-hung
shelves or CST units are suitable for
overhead storage.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

An operating room can be planned using movable modular casework and may include
L carts or procedure/supply carts used for

Lockers used for

Monitoring equipment.

Prep and dressing.

Process tables used as

Anesthesia supplies and equipment.

Suction and cautery equipment.

Stainless steel case carts which can also be

used as a back table.

General supply storage.

Backup supplies.
Specialty procedure carts.

Administrative/computer workstations.
Back table for instruments.

Plan View of an Operating Room

An operating room will range in size from

300 to 450 square feet.
4 linear feet work surface
4 linear feet overhead storage
3 lockers for supplies
1 L cart
1 anesthesia cart
case carts as required
336 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 8

Ambulatory Surgery

Post-Anesthesia Care Unit

Post-Anesthesia Care Unit
(PACU/Recovery Room)
This area is adjacent to the operating
room. Patients are brought to this area
after surgery to recover from anesthesia
and regain stable vital signs. After the
patients are stable, they are moved to
secondary recovery before being
The space is usually in an open area with
patients separated with cubicle curtains.
Those patients who need to be isolated
are kept in a separate isolation recovery
room. The isolation room also can be
used for pediatric patients.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

Movable modular casework components appropriate for use in the post-anesthesia

care unit include

Nurses control station.

L carts or rail-hung C frame storage
units with drawers for supplies for
each patient.

Lockers for linen and medical


Cantilevered sink units.

Dictation area.

The layout of this space usually includes

a nurses control station with a medication
preparation area, a physicians dictation
area, an area for supplies and equipment,
hand-washing sinks, and a patient toilet.

Plan View of a Post-Anesthesia Care Unit

A post-anesthesia care unit will range in

size from 2000 to 4000 square feet.
26 linear feet work surface
18 linear feet overhead storage
80 filing inches
8 lockers for supplies
1 locker for medications
1 L cart for supplies
1 L cart for isolation cart
1 emergency cart
1 C frame storage unit per bed
dictation area
2126 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 9

Ambulatory Surgery

Equipment Storage
Equipment Storage
There is a large amount of equipment
that needs to be stored for use in the
operating rooms. A single large room for
general equipment storage and/or
specific smaller rooms for specialty
equipment storage, such as orthopedic,
can be planned.
In addition to needing floor space for
housing large equipment, overhead
shelving can be used so equipment can
be placed underneath for maximum use
of space.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

An equipment storage room can be

planned using movable modular
casework and may include

Extra-deep modular shelving units

and/or lockers with shelves to keep
smaller items off the floor.

Cantilevered work surfaces.

Much of this equipment must be

accessible to electrical outlets to
maintain battery charges.

Plan View of an Equipment Storage Room

An equipment storage room will range in

size from 200 to 400 square feet.
32 linear feet storage
4 lockers for supplies
225 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 10

Ambulatory Surgery

Sterile Storage
Sterile Storage
Supplies may be reprocessed within this
facility or sent from an affiliated hospital
and stored in a sterile storage room.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

A sterile storage room can be planned

using movable modular casework and
may require

Lockers or supply carts to store

clean/sterile supplies or to stage
supplies for packing case carts
(if assembled here).

Specialty procedure carts.

Wire racks for suture storage.

Space for bulk supply or wire carts to

hold sterile linen, bulky supplies, and
instrument trays.

Case carts.

Plan View of a Sterile

Storage Room

A sterile storage room

will range in size from
200 to 400 square feet.
9 lockers for supplies
3 bulk supply carts
4 case carts
wire rack for suture storage
287 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 11

Ambulatory Surgery

Preparation and Packaging

Preparation and Packaging
Also known as prep and pack, this is a
clean area where items from decontamination are delivered and reassembled into
appropriate sets, packaged in sterile
containers or wraps, and sterilized for
Sterilization equipment may be part of
this area, and storage also is required for
supplies used in assembling instrument
sets and other sterilized items. Employees wear scrub attire. Other stringent
management controls and work processes
are observed in this area to ensure quality

Movable Modular Casework Applications

Movable modular casework components can be used to plan the prep and pack area
and may require

Process tables, lockers with shelves

on wall strips, and/or TR3 carts used
in a staging area to place items
received from decontamination.

Wire wrapper rack for storage of


Wire carts for staging prior to and

after sterilization.

Process tables with casters and

C frame storage units for associated
supplies where instrument sets are

Extra-deep modular shelving units,

lockers with drawers and shelves, and
dispensing rail with subcontainers for
storage of supplies and instruments.

Large process tables for wrapping

packs to be sterilized.

Modular administrative workstation

for quality control documentation and
policy and procedure manuals.

Plan View of a Preparation and

Packaging Area

A preparation and packaging area will

range in size from 150 to 300 square feet.
12 linear feet work surface
8 linear feet overhead storage
2 lockers
wire wrapper rack
wire staging carts
177 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 12

Ambulatory Surgery

Soiled items such as carts (including case
carts), instruments, procedure trays,
equipment, and used linen are brought
here from the operating rooms to be
cleaned or held until they are reprocessed.
Decontamination is considered a
restricted area with increased potential
for contamination from blood or body
fluid pathogens on the soiled utensils and

Movable Modular Casework Applications

Movable modular casework components appropriate for use in a decontamination

area may include

Shelves on wall strips for storage of

cleaning supplies.

Process table to hold small items

waiting to be processed.

Lockers to hold sterile containers.

Stainless steel case carts.

If the ambulatory surgery unit processes

its own instrument sets, this room may
function as the decontamination area and
should be large enough to accommodate
washing and decontaminating equipment.
Ambulatory surgery units processing
their own instruments may also require
stainless steel sinks (double and triple
bowls) and a counter for washing
instruments and utensils. This area
generally is a very wet area.

Plan View of a Decontamination Area

A decontamination area will range in size

from 150 to 250 square feet.
10 linear feet work surface
6 linear feet overhead storage
stainless steel case carts
cart washer
154 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 13

Ambulatory Surgery

Anesthesia Workroom
Anesthesia Workroom
Anesthesia will have a workroom with an
area for washing equipment and
maintaining/testing anesthesia machines.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

Anesthesia supply carts are generally

replenished from this room, and at the
end of the day, these carts may be parked
and secured here.

The anesthesia workroom can be planned using movable modular casework and may

Work surfaces or process tables to

receive and clean equipment.
Small administrative area with work
surface, file storage, tackboards,
space for computer, overhead storage
for manuals and binders.
Cantilevered sink unit.

Extra-deep modular shelving units.

Bulk supply carts.

Medication storage using locked

drawers and cassettes.

Specialty procedure carts.

Anesthesia carts storage.

Shelves and lockers for supply


Plan View of an Anesthesia Workroom

An anesthesia workroom will range in

size from 120 to 250 square feet.
8 linear feet work surface
12 linear feet overhead storage
4 lockers for supplies
139 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 14

Ambulatory Surgery

Satellite Lab
Satellite Lab
Ambulatory surgery may have a satellite
lab for STAT testing of blood, urine, and
tissues and for creating and reading
frozen section slides.

Movable Modular Casework Applications

A satellite lab can be planned using

movable modular casework and may

Heavy-duty work surfaces or process

tables to hold centrifuges, blood gas
analyzers, blood glucose monitors,
microscopes, and urine testing

Wall strips, modules, or support

panels to hold work surfaces and
overhead storage.

File storage.
Flipper units, lockers, C frame
storage units, and L carts for storage.

Plan View of a Satellite Lab

A satellite lab will range in size from

150 to 400 square feet.
43 linear feet work surface
65 linear feet overhead storage
1 locker (optional)
332 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 15

Ambulatory Surgery

Satellite Pharmacy
Satellite Pharmacy
A satellite pharmacy may exist in the
ambulatory surgery unit. This decentralization of the pharmacy function allows
for more rapid response to the needs of
the patient.
The satellite pharmacy usually is staffed,
stocked, and serviced by the primary

Movable Modular Casework Applications

The same movable modular casework components used in the main pharmacy are
appropriate for the satellite pharmacy, allowing for continual flexibility and change in
the space and may include

Medication locker or cart.

Cantilevered sink unit.

Double-locking drawers for storing

controlled substances.

Cantilevered work surfaces.

Extra-deep modular shelving units.
Dispensing rail.

Modular carts are appropriate for the

transfer of medications to the satellite

Plan View of a Satellite Pharmacy

A satellite pharmacy will range in size

from 120 to 250 square feet.
18 linear feet work surface
28 linear feet overhead storage
80 drug bins average
1 locker
1 medication cart
140 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 16

Ambulatory Surgery

Staff Conference/Locker Room

Staff Conference/Locker Room
Staff locker rooms are provided for male
and female staff to change from street
clothing into surgery attire. Clothing
lockers, toilet facilities, and showers are
A staff lounge or in-service conference
room is often found adjacent to the
locker rooms. This space is used
primarily for in-service training,
conferences, lunches or meals, and coffee
Space should be provided for a
refrigerator, microwave oven, and large
coffee maker.

Movable Modular Casework and Furniture Systems Applications

This environment should be easily cleaned, offer a warm, enjoyable atmosphere, and
may require

Wall strips with work surface and

overhead storage or heavy-duty work
surface with C frame storage unit and
drawers for a coffee maker and

Tackboards for displaying


Lockers or wire carts for surgical

attire dresses, suits, caps, shoe

L cart for microwave.

Base cabinets for storage.

Tables and seating.

Cantilevered work surfaces.

Overhead storage units.

Plan View of a Staff Conference/Locker


A staff conference/locker room will

range in size from 200 to 400 square feet.
8 linear feet work surface
24 linear feet overhead storage
40 filing inches
275 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 17

Ambulatory Surgery

Supervisor or Physician Office

Supervisor or Physician Office
Private office spaces are required for
medical and business management staff.

Movable Modular Casework and Furniture Systems Applications

These offices may be furnished with modular furniture systems and seating and may

Cantilevered work surfaces.

Work surface with keyboard drawer

or tray to accommodate computers
and printers.

Overhead storage, flipper units,

display shelves, and marker boards
for displaying information.

Task lights and personal lights.

Tool bar with accessories for paper


Freestanding, under-work-surface, or
wall-attached drawers and files.

Plan View of a Supervisor or Physician


A supervisor or physician office will

range in size from 100 to 150 square feet.
8 linear feet work surface
20 linear feet overhead storage
136 filing inches
109 square feet


Ambulatory Surgery 18

Ambulatory Surgery

Functional Program
Functional Program

Department Area

Square Feet

Movable Modular Casework

Pre-Operative Holding Area
Scrub Areas @________ sq. ft.
Operating Rooms @________ sq. ft.
Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU/Recovery Room)
Primary Recovery
Secondary Recovery
Isolation Recovery
Equipment Storage Room
Sterile Storage Room
Preparation and Packaging Area
Decontamination Area
Anesthesia Workroom
Satellite Lab
Satellite Pharmacy
Staff Toilets @________ sq. ft.
Janitors Closet

Modular Furniture Systems

Waiting Area
Reception Area
Admitting Area
Business Office
Staff Conference/Locker Room
Supervisor or Physician Office


Net-to-Gross Conversion Factor



Ambulatory Surgery 19

Ambulatory Surgery

Bubble Diagram
Bubble Diagram
The bubble diagram of the
ambulatory surgery unit demonstrates typical departmental
relationships and interaction between
areas. Necessary adjacencies within
the department become clear.




















Ambulatory Surgery 20

Ambulatory Surgery

Block Diagram
Block Diagram
The block diagram demonstrates the adjacencies and relative sizes for the areas within
a typical ambulatory surgery unit. Evaluation of the work flow and materials flow
from the bubble diagram has determined this initial general layout.
The size of each area is determined by combining the typical movable modular
casework plans for each identified function. Traffic patterns are developed, and an
overview of the general work process can be evaluated.




Ambulatory Surgery 21

Ambulatory Surgery

Preliminary Plan
Preliminary Plan
The preliminary plan clarifies the ambulatory surgery unit space requirements by
showing the location of all the fixed walls and open areas and identifies entrances,
exits, and exact traffic patterns.





Ambulatory Surgery 22

Ambulatory Surgery

Schematic Plan
Schematic Plan
The schematic plan shows all of the specific movable modular casework, modular
furniture systems, and materials handling components appropriate for a typical
ambulatory surgery unit.




Ambulatory Surgery 23

Ambulatory Surgery

Future Trends
Future Trends



Ambulatory surgery, as a method of

patient care, has gone through intensive
growth in recent years. This growth has
been fostered by related shifts in the
entire healthcare field because of
improved technology, emphasis on cost
containment, and increased competition
for patients and staff.

The average patient of today is better

informed, well educated, and more
demanding of a wider range of services.
Emphasis is placed on early diagnosis
and new minimally invasive surgical
techniques, with outpatient surgery
being high on the patients criteria.

Freestanding facilities for ambulatory

surgery began in the 1960s, primarily
developed by surgical specialists as a
method of freeing hospital beds and
providing conveniences for both patients
and physicians. With increased competition
from freestanding ambulatory surgery
centers, hospitals began expanding
ambulatory services. This expansion
allowed outpatient surgery to utilize
existing support services, such as
anesthesia, admitting, nursing staff, etc.

Approximately 60 percent of all surgical

procedures are presently performed on
an outpatient basis, and that percentage
is continuing to increase.
The compounded effect of managedcare pressures, advancements in
minimally invasive procedure
capabilities, and the increasing
miniaturization of technology has given
rise to the prediction that, in the next
few years, 80 percent of all healthcare
services (including surgery) will be
delivered in an outpatient setting.

The increased volume of outpatient

surgery for general, ophthalmic,
gynecological, orthopedic, and
oncologic procedures will continue to
be enhanced by the improvement of
laser and endoscopic technology,
minimizing tissue damage and reducing
the incidence of complications.
Early post-operative ambulation,
advances in anesthetic technology, a
decrease in required narcotic
medication, and less psychological
stress with hospitalization are
documented benefits to the patient.

Most hospitals, however, were planned and

organized for inpatient care, and
ambulatory surgical care was superimposed
on facilities not designed for this function.
Accordingly, hospitals are now either
enlarging to incorporate an ambulatory
surgery unit or building an ambulatory
surgery center on the hospital campus. This
satellite unit, owned by the hospital,
provides the decentralized cost-effective
service with the centralized backup facility
as support.
Some centers also are moving more toward
the hospitality concept in meeting patients
needs, providing recovery centers,
staffed by registered nurses, and offering
private rooms comparable to hotel rooms.
These settings cost less to build and
accommodate patients desires for
Hospitals, physicians, and architects will
be challenged to provide patients with yet
more extensive outpatient services and
advanced medical care in a noninstitutional, aesthetically pleasing facility
and to do so in a cost-effective manner.
Freestanding, unbundled facilities will
continue to be economical.


Ambulatory Surgery 24

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