Está en la página 1de 8

Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Computational Materials Science


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci

Prediction of residual stresses in low carbon bainiticmartensitic railway


wheels using heat transfer coefcients derived from quenching
experiments
Siva N. Lingamanaik , Bernard K. Chen
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 27 September 2012
Received in revised form 15 February 2013
Accepted 16 April 2013

Keywords:
Residual stresses
Quenching
Heat transfer coefcient
Railway wheels
Finite element modelling

a b s t r a c t
Low carbon bainiticmartensitic (LCBM) steels have been recently developed for railway wheels and have
been shown to provide superior properties compared to conventional pearlitic railway wheel steel
grades. Pearlitic railway wheels are generally quenched at the tread region to promote the formation
of compressive residual stresses in the rim to mitigate the initiation and propagation of cracks due to fatigue. However, this conventional quenching method has been shown to be unsuitable for LCBM railway
wheels. Alternative quenching methods were evaluated using a FE model to develop a successful quenching process to produce LCBM railway wheels. Heat transfer coefcients were determined by employing a
full scale experimental rig and were used in the FE model to model various coolant spray intensities and
congurations. The FE model was used to determine optimal quenching conditions that impart compressive residual stresses to the rim of the LCBM railway wheel and the prediction of residual stresses were
veried experimentally.
2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
In the past decade, the mining industry and heavy-haul freight
service in Australia have been growing due to the increasing
worldwide demand for natural resources such as iron ore and coal.
It is estimated 352,000 railway wheels are in service across the
Australian rail network, with an estimated annual maintenance
cost of $60$190 M [1]. This gure is expected to increase as more
tracks and railway vehicles are added to the rail network to meet
the growing demands. Hence, rail operators, driven by protability,
have been working to reduce maintenance costs while increasing
performance, reliability and safety of railway wheels.
Most railway wheels are made using the specied Association
of American Railroads (AAR) Class steel compositions which have
a pearliticferritic microstructure [2]. Over the years, their performances have been enhanced mainly by cleaner steel production
and by micro alloying of elements to increase the strength of pearlitic wheel steels [2]. However, researchers agree that there is limited scope for further strength improvements in this class of steels
[26]. Merely increasing the carbon content to increase strength
and hardness would inevitably contribute to lower toughness
and higher sensitivity to brittle fracture and increased risk of spalling failure [2].
Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 03 990 53647.
E-mail addresses: Siva.lingamanaik@monash.edu (S. N. Lingamanaik), Bernard.
Chen@monash.edu (B.K. Chen).
0927-0256/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.04.039

Lonsdale and Stone [2] conducted a review of other steel compositions with the potential to improve the life of railway wheels
including martensitic steels and Constable et al. [4] studied the
suitability of low carbon bainitic martensitic (LCBM) steels for railway wheels. Low carbon bainitic martensitic steels (0.20%C,
4.0%Mn, 0.75%Si, 0.004%Mo, 0.003%V, and 0.005%Nb) were found
to have superior strength, hardness and toughness compared to
AAR Class A to C wheel steels [4]. LCBM steels achieved strength
levels up to 1130 MPa in standard mechanical tests which is a
40% improvement over the conventional micro-alloyed AAR Class
C grade steel [4]. LCBM steels have also shown enhanced resistance
to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) and thermal fatigue, which are expected to reduce the need for wheel re-proling and lead to substantial savings in maintenance costs. Additionally, LCBM steels
employ low cost alloying elements and are not expected to result
in additional production costs compared to what is currently used
for AAR Class railway wheels.
Constable et al. [4] have reported an improvement of 69% in
fracture stress for LCBM steels (290 MPa) compared to micro-alloyed AAR Class C steel (160 MPa) at a crack length of 30 mm [4].
Hence, LCBM steels are likely to provide greater safety due to improved fracture toughness compared to AAR Class C grade steels.
Furthermore, fatigue studies by Peng et al. [7] have estimated a
30% increase in the service of railway wheels made from LCBM
steels compared to AAR Class B railway wheels. Rail manufacturers
in Europe have also investigated the use of bainitic type microstructure steels to improve wear of rails [2].

154

S.N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

Although, bainitic as well as martensitic type steels can offer


higher strength and hardness levels when compared to pearlitic
steels at similar carbon content, their use as railway wheels is limited because tensile stresses are formed in the rim of the wheel under the conventional quenching process [2]. Most standards for
railway wheels such as AAR M-107/M-208 [8], BS 5892-3 [9] and
EN 13262 [10], require that railway wheels are manufactured with
compressive rim circumferential residual stresses to retard the initiation and propagation of cracks due to fatigue and since the introduction of these practices, the number of wheel-related
derailments in North America has fallen by an order of magnitude
[11].
Current AAR railway wheels are typically rim-quenched
(quenched at the treads surface) to promote the formation of compressive residual stresses in rim of the wheel. Upon quenching,
austenite transforms to pearlite and thermal contraction which imparts compressive stresses in the tread region of the rim. Typical
as-manufactured compressive residual stresses in AAR wheels are
reported to be approximately 250 MPa at the treads surface [12].
However, during rim-quenching of martensitic type railway
wheels, the transformation from austenite to martensite in the
rim is accompanied by a volume expansion of approximately 4%.
In comparison, there is only a 1% volumetric expansion during
phase transformation of austenite to pearlite in conventional pearlitic railway wheels (as shown in the dilatometry cooling curves in
Fig. 1 [13]. Hence, there is a net volumetric expansion after austenite has transformed to martensite in the rim of the wheel and upon
cooling to room temperature, this large volumetric expansion results in compressive stresses in the inner rim region and tensile
stresses near the treads surface.
Instead of applying conventional rim-quenching, Lingamanaik
and Chen [13] have shown that the quenching process can be modied to achieve compressive residual stresses in the rim of the
LCBM wheel. Their studies were based on FE modelling of the
quenching process based on estimated Heat Transfer Coefcients
(HTC) from the literature [14]. However, HTC values are known
to be highly variable depending on the actual quenching conditions
since factors such as geometry of the part, characteristics of the
coolant sprays, the temperature of the quenched surface and even
the surface nish or roughness can inuence the heat transfer in a
part and its nal stress distribution [1520]. In the present study, a
full-scale experimental quenching rig was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples in selected regions of the railway
wheel to determine actual values of HTC during quenching of
LCBM railway wheels for different spray intensities and spray conguration. These experimentally determined HTC were used in a
thermo-mechanical nite element model to develop a set of viable
quenching conditions for LCBM railway wheels to achieve compressive stresses in the rim of the railway wheels.

L/Lo

1.014
1.012

Pearlitic

1.010

Bainitic -Martensitic

1.008
1.006
1.004
1.002
1.000

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Temperature (oC)
Fig. 1. Dilatometric cooling curves showing phase transformation characteristics of
pearlitic and bainiticmartensitic steels [13].

2. Methodology
2.1. ABAQUS/DANTE thermo-mechanical nite element model
A Finite Element (FE) software ABAQUS 6.7.1 and a heat treatment package DANTE 3.3 were used to model the quenching process of railway wheels and to predict the formation and
distribution of residual stresses in railway wheels [13]. In DANTE
3.3, user-dened material subroutines are used to predict and track
the volume fractions of metallurgical phases as austensite transformed to pearlite, ferrite, bainite and martensite as the part is
cooled. Subsequently, thermal loadings and temperature dependent material properties incorporated in DANTE are used to predict
nal residual stresses [2123].
For steels undergoing martensite phase transformation, the
transformation kinetics is written in the form of a rate equation
as shown in Eq. (1) with a strong dependency on the cooling rate
[22]:

dU
dh
tM CUaC 1  UbC UM S  h
dt
dt

UM S  h, is the unit step function i.e.

UM S  h 1;
UM S h 0;

h P MS

> MS

and tM ; a; b are material carbon dependent quantities determined


from TTT quench data [22].
By integrating the phase transformation strain rate over a time
step Dt, the phase transformation can be computed for each phase.
The dilatational transformation strain increment is given in the following equation:

Exp

Ep  EA
1 EA

The transformation strain for austenite and product phases are


taken to be linear and cubic functions. For martensite, Ep EM :

EM M0 M 1 h M2 h2 M3 h3

The Eq. (3) is temperature dependent and its coefcients are


carbon-dependent.
In DANTEs mechanics module, a hypoelastic response for each
phase is assumed and the effective stress to cause plastic ow in
each phase is given in Eq. (4). The inelastic deformation rate in
Eq. (5) is expressed in terms of deviatoric stresses:

jni j jr0i  ai j  k
Dpi f i hsinh

jni j  Y i h
i

V h

r0i  ai
jr0i  ai j

where f i h and V i h describe the rate dependence of the yield


stress at constant temperature while the function Y i h is the
rate-independent yield stress. Mechanical properties for the material for the various metallurgical phases such as modulus of elasticity and yield strength are obtained from tension and compression
tests as functions of metallurgical phase, temperature, carbon content, strain level and strain rate and are implemented in DANTEs
user-dened subroutines [22].
Phase transformation kinetics parameters can be obtained by
several sources which includes CCT diagrams, TTT diagrams, Jominy Hardness test and dilatometry data. While TTT diagrams are
mainly used for diffusive transformations such as pearlite, CCT diagrams offer data for both diffusive and martensitic transformation
as reported by Li et al. [23]. Jominy tests alone are not adequate for
determining kinetic phase transformations since straintime data

155

S. N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

cannot be obtained as shown by Li et al. [23]. However, Li et al. [23]


demonstrated that Jominy and TTT can be used to verify kinetic
parameters. In DANTE, dilatometry data is preferred over the above
sources as time, temperature and strain can be obtained from dilatometry experiments and cooling transformation kinetic parameters can be easily veried against TTT and CCT data as described
by Li et al. [23].
A set of dilatometry experiments were undertaken to determine
and quantify volumetric changes associated with martensite phase
transformation for a number of different cooling rates for LCBM
steels [13]. Thermal expansion data and kinetic rate equations
from the dilatometry experiments were incorporated into DANTE
in a similar fashion as described in Warke et al. [24]. A CCT diagram
and dilatometry curves for LCBM steel are shown in Figs. 2 [4] and
3 [13] respectively.
DANTE has an inbuilt tting utility which can be used to obtain
kinetic parameters from dilatometry experiments. For martensitic
steels, phase transformation kinetics for martensite have been
determined using the DANTE tting function and good agreement
has been found between predicted and experimental dilatometry
data as reported by Ferguson et al. [25,26]. Since TTT and CCT diagrams are available for common steels, they provide further checks
on the tting model performance as shown by Li et al. [23]. Furthermore, dilatometry data can be used and has shown to provide
thermal expansion and various phase transformation strains at different temperatures as described by Li et al. [23].

Fig. 3. Dilatometry curve for LCBM steel (0.21%C) at 0.9 C s1, 1.5 C s1, 3 C s1
and 9 C s1 [13].

2.2. Development of a quenching rig for LCBM railway wheels


An experimental quenching rig has been constructed with the
exibility to apply different coolant spray intensities at selected
locations on LCBM railway wheels. The main components (Fig. 4)
of the experimental set-up are described as follows:
- A turntable to support and rotate the wheel during quenching
(purple item)
- A variable-speed motor to rotate the table through a speed
reduction and friction wheel drive system which allowed uniformity of the spray nozzles during quenching when the railway wheel is rotated.
- Inner and outer xed lower coolant manifolds (orange and
green items respectively).
- Hinged upper coolant manifold that allows the wheel to be
loaded onto the turntable, prior to positioning of the top spray
nozzles (yellow item).
- A centralised control system to operate the turntable and
pumps.
- Articulated nozzles to allow different regions of LCBM railway
wheels to be quenched independently (Fig. 4a).

(a)

(b)
Fig. 2. CCT diagram of LCBM steel 0.20%C, 4.0%Mn [4].

Fig. 4. (a) Cut-away CAD model of the main experimental quenching rig
highlighting the principle components; and (b) uniformly distributed spray nozzles
and rotation of wheel platform.

156

S.N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

- Control valves and pressure gauges tted to the pumps enable a


range of coolant spray ow rates.

Table 1
Normalised nozzle spray intensities.
Spray location

2.3. Determination of values of HTC for LCBM railway wheels


Thermocouples (K-type-1.5 mm dia.) were embedded at several
locations in LCBM railway wheels (Fig. 5) to measure temperature
histories under three sets of nozzle spray pressures delivering a
Low, Medium and High spray intensities (Table 1). The values
shown in Table 1 have been normalised against the maximum
pressure measured for each set of nozzles. In each experiment, a
LCBM railway wheel was uniformly heated to 920 C and then
transported to the quenching rig located close to the furnace. The
thermocouples were then connected to the data acquisition system
and the coolant sprays switched to one of the three spray intensities to cool the web region of LCBM railway wheel.
A trial and error approach is commonly used for determining
the values of transfer coefcients in quenching experiments [27
30] and this approach was also used in the present study of heat
transfer coefcients during quenching of LCBM railway wheel. At
the start of the analysis, the values heat transfer coefcient as function of the parts surface temperature were estimated at the parts
surface. The temperature history predicted for the node at the thermocouple location is then plotted against the temperatures measured by the thermocouple. The values of heat transfer
coefcients were adjusted and the analysis repeated until the predicted results showed good agreement with the measured
temperatures.
In the FE model, the boundary of the two dimensional FE model
of the LCBM railway (Fig. 5) were divided into several sections and
HTC values were specied around the whole boundary surface. For
surfaces being cooled due to the overow of coolant, a HTC value of
1500 W m2 K and 750 W m2 K were determined when the highest and lowest spray intensities were used respectively. For ambient convection and radiation, a HTC value of 48 W m2 K was
determined and a surface emissivity of 0.95 and StefanBoltzmann
constant of 5.67  108 W m2 K4 was assumed in the FE model.

2.4. Modelling of quenching process for LCBM railway wheels


In this work, a new quenching process is designed for quenching LCBM railway wheels (see Fig. 6) whereby the web and inner
rim regions have been quenched separately. The FE model was
used to investigate three different quenching intensities Low,
Medium and High labelled Cases L, M and Case H respectively.

Web
Rim Region #1
Rim Region #2

Nozzle spray intensities


LOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

0.44
0.25
0.22

0.73
0.56
0.47

1
1
1

Boundary conditions and thermo-physical quantities assumed in


the model are listed below:
(1) At the start of the analysis, the temperature of the railway
wheel was assumed to be 920 C. Time from furnace to
quenching test rig was averaged over multiple quenching
experiments and taken as 240 s. The thermocouples were
connected to the data acquisition system at approximately
150 s prior to the start of the quenching process which corresponds to t = 0 s in Fig. 8.
(2) The values of heat transfer coefcients were assumed to be
dependent on the parts surface temperature (Fig. 9). In the analysis, the initial coolant temperature was assumed to be 19 C.
(3) Thermal conductivities of individual phases were temperature dependent; austenite = 0.016 + 1.3  105 (T) W mm1
C; martensite = 0.025 + 3  106 (T) W mm1 C.
(4) Specic heat capacities individual phases were temperature
dependent; austenite = 370 + 0.298 (T) J kg1 C; martensite = 450 + 0.387 (T) J kg1 C.

2.5. Measurement of residual stresses in LCBM railway wheel


Verication of the presence of residual stresses in the rim of the
quenched LCBM railway wheel was undertaken by a radial saw cut
made to a depth at least one inch deeper than the rim inner diameter as specied in AAR M-107/M-208 [8]. Prior to the cut, gauge
marks were stamped on the outer surfaces of the rim and initial
gauge length readings were taken. Cutting commenced from the
outer rim of the wheel (centrally between the gauge marks) and
progressed radially towards the centre of the wheel (Fig. 7). When
the cut has reached the web of the wheel (approx. 25 mm beyond
the inner rims surface), a nal reading of the gauge lengths was taken and the net displacement computed; a negative reading or
closure indicating compressive residual stress in the rim and positive or opening of the gap indicating the presence of tensile
residual stress.

Fig. 5. A half cross-section of 920 freight S plate LCBM railway wheel showing the locations of embedded thermocouples.

S. N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

157

Support frame
st

Quenching Sprays in 1 Stage

nd

Quenching Sprays in 2 Stage

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the alternate quenching process sequence shown on half cross-section of a 920 freight S plate railway wheel.

3. Results
3.1. Temperature measurements in LCBM railway wheels under
different quenching conditions

Fig. 7. Radial cut of an as-cast experimental LCBM railway wheel using water-jet
cutting system.

Fig. 8 shows the temperature histories measured at thermocouple Location #1 in the web section of LCBM railway wheels under
the different quenching intensities i.e. Low, Medium and High.
In each case, on quenching, the temperature in the web section
of the LCBM railway wheel was shown to rst decrease rapidly
in a non-linear fashion. After, approximately 40 s, the temperature
continued to decrease at a fairly constant cooling rate of about
1.2 C/s. The start of martensite phase transformation is expected
to occur much sooner in the web section at the highest quenching
intensity since it results in the highest cooling rate. For LCBM railway wheels, martensite phase transformation start temperature
was shown to be approx. 330 C [13], occurring in this case approx.
50 s after the start of the quenching process. At the lowest quenching intensity, the start of martensite transformation is expected to
be delayed further by approx. 70 s compared to quenching at the
highest intensity. Therefore, the quenching intensities were found
to critically inuence the kinetics and distribution of martensite
phase transformation and the resultant residual stresses.

Spray switched on

Air cooling (during wheel transit)

Fig. 8. Temperature histories in the web section of LCBM railway wheel measured
at thermocouple Location #1 in Fig. 5 of LCBM railway wheel for different
quenching intensities.

Fig. 9. Experimentally determined heat transfer coefcients for different spray


intensities and those determined by Lee [15].

158

S.N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

3.2. Experimentally determined heat transfer coefcients for


quenching of LCBM railway wheels
The shape of the curve (Fig. 9) was found to be consistent with
the different regimes known to exist during quenching, allowing
for a shift in the position of the nucleate boiling regime (region
of highest heat transfer) due to factors such as the formation of
oxide layers, surface roughness and the coolant characteristics
[1520]. Wendelstorf et al. [16] found that the HTCs were inuenced by the formation of oxide layers during quenching. They
showed that the surface temperature at which nucleate boiling regime occurred was dependent on the oxide layer; the deeper oxide
layer, the higher surface temperature of the nucleate boiling regime. Also, in another study by Wendelstorf et al. [16], the nucleate
boiling regime during quenching was shown to be a function of the
parts surface roughness in which the temperature at which nucleate boiling occurred was shown to increase with a coarser surface.
There is a large variation in the published values of heat transfer
coefcients and this is not unexpected since the different regimes
namely, lm boiling, nucleate boiling and convection have been
shown to depend on several parameters such as surface part temperature, geometry, nozzle distance, surface roughness and coolant
temperature. Lee [15] reported values of HTC ranging from 500 to
3300 W m2 K and Karwa et al. [17] reported a range of values for
heat
transfer
coefcients
between
7000 W m2 K
and
25,000 W m2 K. Krause et al. [18] found the HTCs varied with different nozzle distances and reported values between 4200 W m2
K and 10,000 W m2 K. In a study by Chen and Tseng [19], a wide
range of HTCs (1000100,000 W m2 K) was reported for accelerated cooling of hot steels using spray-like nozzles and water jet
cooling.
Fig. 10 shows the temperature history recorded by the thermocouple located at the web region of LCBM railway wheel (Location
#1 in Fig. 5) under the High spray intensity. Also shown are two
sets of predicted temperature histories, one assuming an average
(constant) HTC (Case A) and another assuming HTCs that are
dependent on surface temperature (Case B). A constant HTC value
is commonly assumed for simplicity in FE models used by Lingamanaik and Chen [13] and Khulman and Gallagher [14] but here, it
leads to an incorrect prediction of a greater heat loss at the early
stages of cooling (t < 375 s); therefore resulting in poor prediction
of the start of martensite phase transformation and volume fraction of transformed martensite. Agreement with experimental
measurements requires the use of a surface dependent HTC which

Fig. 10. Predicted temperature histories for Case A (constant HTC) and Case B
(surface dependent HTC) in the web region of LCBM railway wheel plotted against
temperature measurements at the thermocouple Location #1 in Fig. 5.

was found in this study to vary between 1000 and 3500 W m2 K
depending on both the spray intensity and the parts surface temperature. The results demonstrate the importance of applying a
temperature dependent HTC in the FE model for predicting the
cooling histories, the kinetics of martensitic transformation and
the development of residual stresses during and after quenching
of LCBM railway wheels.
3.3. Prediction of phase transformations and residual stress
distributions in LCBM railway wheel for two different quenching
processes
Fig. 11a and b show the predicted distribution of temperature,
martensite phase distributions (Fig. 11c and d) after the rst stage
of the quenching of LCBM railway wheel and the resultant residual
stresses (Fig. 11eh). The highest and lowest spray intensities for
LCBM railway wheels were modelled as Case H and Case L respectively. As expected for the highest spray intensity, the web section
was predicted to cool much quicker when compared to quenching
at the lowest intensity. For Case H, martensite transformation was
predicted to start at the webs surface after approx. 60 s into the
quenching process and the distribution of martensite was predicted to extend deeper in the central region of the web after
150 s. At the end of the rst quenching stage, the entire web region
of LCBM railway wheel (Fig. 11d) was predicted to have transformed into martensite.
On the other hand, for Case L, martensite phase transformation
was predicted to start in the web approx. 130 s after the commencement of the quenching process. At the end of the rst
quenching stage, martensite phase distribution was predicted to
vary through the thickness of the web. The lower portion of the
web was completely transformed to martensite but the upper
webs surface was only partially transformed (volume fraction of
approx. 0.3, Fig. 11c). For Case L, in which the lowest spray intensity was used in the quenching process of LCBM railway wheel,
tensile residual stresses (Fig. 11g) were predicted to form near
the treads surface and in the ange of the wheel.
However, when the spray intensity was increased (Case H), the
residual stress in the treads surface was predicted to change from
tensile (64 MPa) to compressive (20 MPa) (Fig. 11h). From a basic
conceptual perspective, compressive residual stress acts to resist
cracking by pushing the material together, while tensile residual
stress pulls the material apart increasing the propensity for crack
development.
In the new quenching process, the residual stresses in the web
of LCBM railway wheel (Fig. 11e and f) were predicted to be in
compression in the central region of the web with isolated tensile
stresses (400 MPa) along the inner rims surfaces and inner webs
surface. The resultant stresses in the web from mechanical loadings were found to be signicantly lower than the contact stresses
in the tread region due to the interaction between the wheel and
rail. Besides, the web of the wheel generally tends to be into compression as the load from the wheel axle is transmitted to the rim
which is expected to reduce the near surface tensile stresses predicted along the inner webs surface.
Local stresses due to the wheel-rail contact (combination of static and dynamic loads) and thermal stresses from tread braking
(and wheel skids) in the tread region have a greater inuence on
the fatigue life of the railway wheel than fatigue stresses in the
web region (contact pressure in the tread of the wheel can be as
high as 1944 MPa [7]. Therefore, the high stresses are far more
likely to result in the initiation and propagation of cracks due to fatigue in the tread region [7]. Furthermore, in the literature, tread
defects are far more common in railway wheels and fatigue failures
of railway wheels originate from cracks due to high mechanical
and thermal fatigue loads in the region of the tread [7].

159

S. N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

Case L

Case H

Legend

Temperature
distribution
at the end of
st
1 quenching
stage

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Martensite
distribution
at the end of
st
1 quenching
stage

Final Min.
Principle
residual
stress
distribution
in the web

Final Min.
Principle
residual
stress
distribution
in the rim

Fig. 11. Temperature histories, martensite phase distribution and residual stress distribution during quenching process of LCBM railway wheels under quenching condition
Case L and Case H respectively.

3.4. Evaluation of residual stress measurements for LCBM railway


wheel
The results of the radial cut made on the LCBM railway wheel
quenched using Case H quenching conditions showed a general
net closure of about 0.5 mm in the entire tread, ange and front
and back faces of the rim, conrming the presence of the desired
compressive residual hoop stress in the as-cast experimental LCBM

wheel (Fig. 12). This work has demonstrated the successful development of a quenching process for LCBM railway wheels. Quenching the web region at the highest spray intensity imparts high
compressive residual stresses in the rim of LCBM railway wheel
and signicantly reduces the risks of initiation and propagation
of fatigue cracks. Further work is being conducted to optimise
the quenching process for LCBM railway wheels through adjustments of the quenching periods to increase the level of compres-

160

S.N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen / Computational Materials Science 77 (2013) 153160

References

Fig. 12. Net negative displacement (indicative of the presence of compressive


residual stresses) was measured on the outer rim of the LCBM railway wheel after a
cut made was made through the rim. Yellow markers indicate the location of one
the gauge marks. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this gure legend,
the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

sive residual stresses in the rim, and the option of using another
grade of LCBM steels with a lower carbon content is being
evaluated.
4. Conclusions
A thermo-mechanical nite element model has been developed
to study the effects of quenching conditions on the formation of
residual stresses in new low carbon bainiticmartensitic (LCBM)
railway wheels. Full size railway wheels quenching experiments
have been carried out for different quenching spray intensities and
values of heat transfer coefcients have been determined and applied in the FE model to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour
during quenching of LCBM railway wheels. Quenching at the highest
spray coolant intensity is recommended to promote favourable compressive residual stresses in the rim of LCBM railway wheels.

[1] http://www.annualreport.qrnational.com.au/.
[2] C. Lonsdale, D. Stone, Some possible alternatives for longer-life locomotives
wheels, in: Proceedings of IMECE2002, New Orleans, Louisiana.
[3] P.J. Mutton, R. Boelen, Trans. Inst. Eng., Aust. Mech. Eng. 15 (1989) 110117.
[4] T. Constable, R. Boelen, E. Pereloma, Improved performance for wheels through
the development of low carbon bainiticmartensitic steels, Conference on
Railway Engineering, Brisbane, 2006.
[5] C. P. Lonsdale, L. W. Ishler, Development of locomotive wheels for improved
adhesion and life, in: Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad
Conference, 2001, pp. 2934.
[6] M.R. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Technol. 23 (8) (2007) 970974.
[7] D. Peng, R. Jones, T. Constable, S.N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen, Theor. Appl. Fract.
Mech. 57 (2012) 113.
[8] AAR Specication M-107/M-208, Wheels, Carbon Steel, Association of
American Railroads, (2011).
[9] BS 5892-3, Railway rolling stock materials. Specication for monobloc wheels
for traction and trailing stock, British Standards Institution, 1992.
[10] EN 13262, Railway Applications Wheelsets And Bogies Wheels Product
Requirement, 2004.
[11] D.H. Stone, K. Sawley, D. Kelly, W. Schust, Wheel/rail materials and
interaction: North American heavy haul practices, Proceedings, International
Heavy Haul Association STS Conference, Moscow, Russia, 1999, pp. 155168.
[12] P J Mutton, M.R.L., Improving the safety of railway wheels through nondestructive measurement of residual stresses, Conference on, Railway
Engineering, 2004.
[13] S.N. Lingamanaik, B.K. Chen, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211 (2011) 15471552.
[14] C. Khulman, M. Gallagher, The signicance of material properties on stresses
developed during quenching of railwayroad wheels, in: Proceedings of the
1988 Joint ASME/IEEE Railwayroad Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 1998.
[15] J. Lee, ISIJ Int. 49 (2009) 19201925.
[16] R. Wendelstorf, K.H. Spitzer, J. Wendelstorf, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 51 (2008)
48924901.
[17] N. Karwa, S.R. Kale, P.M.V. Subbarao, Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 32 (2007) 571
579.
[18] C. Krause, E. Wulf, F. Nurnberger, F.W. Bach, Forsh Ingenieurwes 72 (2008)
163173.
[19] S-J Chen, A.A. Tseng, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 13 (1992) 358369.
[20] H.P. Li, G.Q. Zhao, S.T. Niu, Y.G. Luan, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 42 (2006) 1087
1096.
[21] V.C. Prantil, M.L. Callabresi, J.F. Lathrop, G.S. Ramaswamy, M.T. Lusk, J. Eng.
Mater. Technol. 125 (2003) 116124.
[22] D. Bammann, V. Prantil, A. Kumar, J. Lathrop, D. Mosher, M. Callabresi, M. Lusk,
G. Krauss, H. -J. Jou, W. Elliott, Jr., G. Ludtka, W. Dowling, Jr., D. Nikkel, T. Lowe,
D. Shick, Development of a carburizing and quenching simulation tool: a
material model for low carbon steels undergoing phase transformations, in:
American Society of Metals 2nd International Conference on Quenching and
Control of Distortion, 1996.
[23] Z. Li, B.L. Ferguson, A.M. Freborg, Mater. Sci. Technol. 2 (2004) 219226.
[24] V.S. Warke, R.D. Sisson, M.M. Makhlouf, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 518 (2009) 715.
[25] B.L. Ferguson, Z. Li, A.M. Freborg, Comput. Mater. Sci. 34 (2005) 274281.
[26] B.L. Ferguson, Z. Li, A.M. Freborg, G. Petrus, Adv. Mater. Process. (2000) H31
H36.
[27] G. Comini, S.D. Guidice, R.W. Lewis, O.C. Zienkiewicz, Int. J. Numer. Methods
Eng. 8 (1974) 613624.
[28] E.L. Wilson, R.E. Nickell, Nucl. Eng. Des. 4 (1996) 276286.
[29] G. Aguirre-Ramirez, J.T. Oden, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 7 (1973) 345355.
[30] R.E. Beckett, S.-C. Chu, J. Heat Trans. (1973) 126129.