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1

CHAPTER

Limits
9.

1.1 Concepts Review

x3 4 x 2 + x + 6
x 1
x +1
lim

( x + 1)( x 2 5 x + 6)
x 1
x +1

1. L; c

= lim

2. 6

= lim ( x 2 5 x + 6)
x 1
2

3. L; right

= (1) 5(1) + 6

4. lim f ( x) = M

= 12

x c

Problem Set 1.1

x2
= lim( x 2 + 2 x 1) = 1
x 0

1. lim( x 5) = 2

x 0

x 3

2. lim (1 2t ) = 3

11.

t 1

3.
4.

lim ( x 2 + 2 x 1) = (2) 2 + 2(2) 1 = 1

= t t = 2t

lim ( x 2 + 2t 1) = (2) 2 + 2t 1 = 3 + 2t

x 2

) ( ( 1)

6. lim t 2 x 2 =
t 1

12.

) ( ( 1) 1) = 0

5. lim t 2 1 =
t 1

x2 4
( x 2)( x + 2)
= lim
x2 x 2
x2
x2
= lim( x + 2)

x2 9
x 3 x 3
( x 3)( x + 3)
= lim
x 3
x3
= lim( x + 3)
lim

x 3

x2 = 1 x2

7. lim

=3+3=6
13.

x2

lim

(t + 4)(t 2) 4
(3t 6) 2

t 2

= lim

=2+2=4
8.

x2 t 2
( x + t )( x t )
= lim
xt x + t
x t
x+t
= lim ( x t )
lim

x t

x 2

x 4 + 2 x3 x 2

10. lim

(t 2) 2 t + 4
9(t 2) 2

t 2

t 2 + 4t 21
t 7
t+7
(t + 7)(t 3)
= lim
t 7
t+7
= lim (t 3)

t+4
9

= lim

lim

t 2

2+4
6
=
9
9

t 7

= 7 3 = 10

14.

(t 7)3
t 7

lim

t 7+

= lim
t 7

= lim

t 7+

(t 7) t 7
t 7
t 7

= 77 = 0

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Section 1.1

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2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

15. lim

x 4 18 x 2 + 81

x 3

( x 3)

= lim

x 3

( x 3) 2 ( x + 3) 2

= lim

x 3

( x 3)

( x 2 9) 2
( x 3)

= lim( x + 3)2 = (3 + 3) 2

lim

t 0

(3u + 4)(2u 2)3


(u 1) 2

u 1

= lim

( x sin x ) 2 / x 2

21.

x 3

1.

0.0251314

0.1

2.775 106

8(3u + 4)(u 1)3

0.01

2.77775 1010

(u 1) 2

0.001

2.77778 1014

1.
0.1

0.0251314
2.775 106

0.01

2.77775 1010

0.001

2.77778 1014

= 36

16. lim

1 cos t
=0
2t

u 1

= lim 8(3u + 4)(u 1) = 8[3(1) + 4](1 1) = 0


u 1

17.

(2 + h) 2 4
4 + 4h + h 2 4
= lim
h0
h0
h
h
lim

h 2 + 4h
= lim(h + 4) = 4
h 0
h 0
h

= lim

lim

( x sin x) 2
x2

x 0

18.

( x + h) 2 x 2
x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 x 2
= lim
h0
h 0
h
h
lim

h 2 + 2 xh
= lim(h + 2 x) = 2 x
h 0
h 0
h

= lim

sin x
2x

19.

(1 cos x ) / x

22.

0.211322

0.1

0.00249584

0.01
0.001

0.0000249996
2.5 107

1.

0.211322

0.1

0.00249584
0.0000249996
2.5 107

0.420735

0.1

0.499167

0.01

0.499992

0.01

0.001

0.49999992

0.001

1.

0.420735

0.1

0.499167

0.01

0.499992

0.001

0.49999992

0.01
0.001

x2

x 0

(t 1) /(sin(t 1))

23.

=0

1.1

2.1035

1.01

2.01003

1.001

2.001

0.229849

1.1884

0.0249792

0.9

1.90317

0.00249998

0.99

1.99003

0.999

1.999

1 cos t
2t

0.1

(1 cos x) 2

3.56519

sin x
= 0.5
x 0 2 x

1.

lim

2.

lim

0.00024999998

1.

1.

20.

=0

t 1
=2
1)
2

lim

64

1.

0.229849

0.1

0.0249792

0.01

0.00249998

0.001

0.00024999998

Section 1.1

t 1 sin(t

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x sin( x 3) 3
x 3

24.

4.

1. + 4
0.1 +

0.158529

3.1

2.

lim

x
4

(1 + sin( x 3 / 2)) /( x )

x
1. +

0.4597

0.1 +

0.0500

0.01 +

0.0050

0.001 +

0.0005

0.0050

0.001 +

0.0005

1 + sin ( x 32 )
x

=0

0.1 +

0.0000210862
2.12072 107

0.536908

0.00226446

0.0000213564
2.12342 107

2 2sin u
lim
=0

u
3u
2

29. a.

0.896664

0.01

0.989967

0.001

0.999

d.

1.

1.64209

e.

0.1

1.09666

f.

0.01

1.00997

0.001

1.001

lim f ( x) = 2

x 3

b. f(3) = 1
c.

g.

= 1
h.

i.

Instructors Resource Manual

0.00199339

0.001 +

0.1

1
t

0.11921

0.01 +

0.357907

1 cot t

= 0.25
(2 2sin u ) / 3u

0.001 +

1.

t 0

(tan x 1)2

0.01 + 2

(1 cot t ) /(1 / t )

lim

(x )

0.2505

0.1 + 2

26.

0.255008

1. + 2

0.0500

0.01 +

lim

0.300668

28.

0.4597

0.1 +

0.674117

2
4

1. + 2

1. +

0.2495

0.001 + 4

x sin( x 3) 3
=0
lim
x 3
x3
25.

0.245009

0.01 + 4

0.0000166666
1.66667 107

2.999

0.1 + 4

0.00166583

2.99

0.201002

1. + 4

0.158529

2.9

0.001 +

0.0000166666
1.66667 107

3.001

0.0320244

0.01 +

0.00166583

3.01

( x / 4) 2 /(tan x 1) 2

27.

f(1) does not exist.


lim f ( x) =

x 1

5
2

f(1) = 2
lim f(x) does not exist.
x1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1+

lim f ( x ) =
+

x 1

5
2

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65

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

lim f ( x) does not exist.

b.

lim f ( x) does not exist.

b.

f(3) = 1

c.

f(1) = 2

c.

f(1) = 1

d.

30. a.

d.

x 3

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

e.

f(1) = 1

f.

lim f ( x) does not exist.

g.
h.
i.
31. a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
32. a.
b.
c.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1+

34.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1

lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 1+

lim f ( x ) = 2

x 1+

a.

f(3) = 2
f(3) is undefined.

x 1

b. g(1) does not exist.

lim f ( x) = 2

c.

x 3

lim f ( x) = 4

x 3+

d.

lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 3

lim g ( x) = 0

35.

lim g ( x ) = 1

x2

lim g ( x ) = 1

x 2+

f ( x) = x [ x ]

lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 3+

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1+

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

d. f (1) = 2
e.

lim f ( x) = 0

f.

f (1) = 0

x 1

a.
b.

33.
c.

d.

a.

66

f(0) = 0
lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 0

lim f ( x ) = 1

x 0

lim f ( x) =

x 1
2

1
2

lim f ( x) = 0

x 0

Section 1.1

Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

f ( x) =

36.

41. lim f ( x) exists for a = 1, 0, 1.

x
x

xa

42. The changed values will not change lim f ( x) at


xa

any a. As x approaches a, the limit is still a 2 .


43. a.

x 1

lim

x 1

lim

x 1
x 1

x 1

b.

f (0) does not exist.

a.

lim f ( x) does not exist.

b.

x 0

lim

x 1

lim

c.

x 1
x 1
x 1

does not exist.


= 1 and lim

x 1

x 1

=1

= 1

x2 x 1 1
x 1

x 1

x 1

= 3

lim f ( x ) = 1

c.

x 0

d.

1
1
lim

does not exist.


x 1
x 1
x 1

d.

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1

44. a.

x2 1
37. lim
does not exist.
x 1 x 1
lim

x 1

x 0

= lim

c1f
lim dd gg does not exist.
+ x
x 0 e h

x+2 2
x

c.

lim x(1)ed

( x + 2 2)( x + 2 + 2)

d.

x 0

x+22
x( x + 2 + 2)

= lim

x 0

39. a.
b.

c1/ x f
hg

x 0

= lim

x 0

2
=
=
=
4
0+2 + 2 2 2
x+2+ 2

=0

c1/ x f
hg

x 0

45. a) 1

x( x + 2 + 2)

lim a x b (1)ed

x( x + 2 + 2)

x 0

= lim

x a xb = 0

b.

x2 1
x2 1
=2
= 2 and lim
x 1
x 1+ x 1

38. lim

lim
x 1+

b) 0

c)

=0

d)

46. a) Does not exist


c)

lim f ( x) does not exist.

b) 0
d) 0.556

x 1

lim f ( x) = 0

47. lim x does not exist since


x 0

x 0

40.

x is not defined

for x < 0.
48.

lim x x = 1

x 0+

49. lim

x 0

x =0
x

50. lim x = 1
x 0

sin 2 x 1
=
x 0 4 x
2

51. lim

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Section 1.2

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

52. lim

x 0

7. If x is within 0.001 of 2, then 2x is within 0.002


of 4.

sin 5 x 5
=
3x
3

1
53. lim cos does not exist.
x 0
x
1
54. lim x cos = 0
x 0
x

x3 1

55. lim

56. lim

x 0

57.

=6

2x + 2 2

x 1

x sin 2 x
sin( x 2 )

lim

x 2

58. lim

x 1

8. If x is within 0.0005 of 2, then x2 is within 0.002


of 4.

=2

x2 x 2
= 3
x2

2
1/( x 1)

1+ 2

=0

59. lim x ; The computer gives a value of 0, but


x 0

lim

x 0

9. If x is within 0.0019 of 2, then


0.002 of 4.

8 x is within

x does not exist.

1.2 Concepts Review


1. L ; L +
2. 0 < x a < ; f ( x) L <
10. If x is within 0.001 of 2, then
3.

8
is within 0.002
x

of 4.

4. ma + b

Problem Set 1.2


1. 0 < t a < f (t ) M <
2. 0 < u b < g (u ) L <

2x 1+ 1 < 2x <

3. 0 < z d < h( z ) P <

2 x <

4. 0 < y e < ( y ) B <

x <

5. 0 < c x < f ( x) L <


6. 0 < t a < g (t ) D <

68

11. 0 < x 0 < (2 x 1) (1) <

Section 1.2

= ;0 < x 0 <

2
(2 x 1) (1) = 2 x = 2 x < 2 =

Instructors Resource Manual

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

12. 0 < x + 21 < (3x 1) (64) <


3 x 1 + 64 < 3 x + 63 <

3( x + 21) <

2 x 2 11x + 5
(2 x 1)( x 5)
9 <
9 <
x5
x5

3 x + 21 <
x + 21 <

2x 1 9 <

2( x 5) <

= ; 0 < x + 21 <

3
(3 x 1) (64) = 3 x + 63 = 3 x + 21 < 3 =

x 2 25
13. 0 < x 5 <
10 <
x5
x 2 25
( x 5)( x + 5)
10 <
10 <
x5
x5
x + 5 10 <

x5 <

= ;0 < x 5 <
2

2 x 11x + 5
(2 x 1)( x 5)
9 =
9
x5
x5
2

= 2 x 1 9 = 2( x 5) = 2 x 5 < 2 =

16. 0 < x 1 <

x5 <

2x 2 <

2x 2 <

= ; 0 < x 5 <

( 2 x 2 )( 2 x + 2 )

x 25
( x 5)( x + 5)
10 =
10 = x + 5 10
x5
x5

2x + 2

2x 2

2x + 2

= x5 < =
2

2x x
14. 0 < x 0 <
(1) <
x
2 x2 x
x(2 x 1)
+1 <
+1 <
x
x
2x <
2 x <

= ;0 < x 0 <
2

2 x2 x
x(2 x 1)
(1) =
+ 1 = 2x 1+ 1
x
x

<

x 1
2x + 2

<

2
; 0 < x 1 <
2
( 2 x 2)( 2 x + 2)
2x 2 =
2x + 2

2x 2
2x + 2
2 x 1
2 x 1 2

<
=
2x + 2
2
2

17. 0 < x 4 <


2x 1
x3

= 2 x = 2 x < 2 =

Instructors Resource Manual

<

2x 1 +1 <

x <

2 x 2 11x + 5
9 <
x5

15. 0 < x 5 <

2x 1
x3

7 <

7 <

2 x 1 7( x 3)
x3

<

( 2 x 1 7( x 3))( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
2 x 1 (7 x 21)
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
5( x 4)
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

<

<
<

Section 1.2

69

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x4

To bound

5
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

1
2

1
2

, agree that

7
9
< x < , so
2
2

5
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

hence x 4

19. 0 < x 1 <

< 1.65 and

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

<

2x 1

7 = x4
x 3
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
< x 4 (1.65) < 1. 65
1
1

since = only when


so 1.65 .
2
2 1. 65

14 x 2 20 x + 6
8 <
x 1

14 x 2 20 x + 6
2(7 x 3)( x 1)
8 <
8 <
x 1
x 1
2(7 x 3) 8 <
14( x 1) <
14 x 1 <

14

( x 1)2

4 <

4 <

10 x 6 4 <
10 x 1 <
x 1 <

1.65
For whatever is chosen, let be the smaller of
1

and
.
1.65
2
1

= min ,
, 0 < x 4 <
2 1. 65

x 1 <

(10 x 6)( x 1)2

4 <

10( x 1) <

18. 0 < x 1 <

( x 1) 2

( x 1)2

x4 <

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

. If , then
0.65 <

<

14

10

10

; 0 < x 1 <

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6
( x 1) 2

4 =

(10 x 6)( x 1) 2
( x 1) 2

= 10 x 6 4 = 10( x 1)
= 10 x 1 < 10 =

20. 0 < x 1 < (2 x 2 + 1) 3 <


2 x2 + 1 3 = 2 x2 2 = 2 x + 1 x 1

To bound 2 x + 2 , agree that 1 .


x 1 < implies

2x + 2 = 2x 2 + 4
2x 2 + 4

<2+4=6


; = min 1, ; 0 < x 1 <
6

(2 x + 1) 3 = 2 x 2 2
2


= 2x + 2 x 1 < 6 =
6

; 0 < x 1 <

14 x 2 20 x + 6
2(7 x 3)( x 1)
8 =
8
x 1
x 1
= 2(7 x 3) 8
= 14( x 1) = 14 x 1 < 14 =

70

Section 1.2

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

21. 0 < x + 1 < ( x 2 2 x 1) 2 <


x2 2 x 1 2 = x2 2 x 3 = x + 1 x 3

To bound x 3 , agree that 1 .


x + 1 < implies

1
25. For all x 0 , 0 sin 2 1 so
x
1

x 4 sin 2 x 4 for all x 0 . By Problem 18,
x
4
lim x = 0, so, by Problem 20,
x0

4
2 1
lim x sin = 0.
x
x0

x 3 = x + 1 4 x + 1 + 4 < 1 + 4 = 5


; = min 1, ; 0 < x + 1 <
5

26. 0 < x <

( x 2 x 1) 2 = x 2 2 x 3
2

= x +1 x 3 < 5

x 0 =

x = x <

2
For x > 0, ( x ) = x.

x < ( x )2 = x < 2

= 2; 0 < x < x < = 2 =

22. 0 < x < x 4 0 = x 4 <


x 4 = x x3 . To bound x3 , agree that
3

1. x < 1 implies x3 = x 1 so
.
= min{1, }; 0 < x < x 4 = x x3 < 1

27.

lim x : 0 < x < x 0 <

x 0 +

For x 0 , x = x .

= ; 0 < x < x 0 = x = x < =


Thus, lim+ x = 0.
x0

lim x : 0 < 0 x < x 0 <

23. Choose > 0. Then since lim f ( x) = L, there is


x c

some 1 > 0 such that


0 < x c < 1 f ( x ) L < .

x 0

For x < 0, x = x; note also that


since x 0.

x = x

= ;0 < x < x = x = x < =

Since lim f (x) = M, there is some 2 > 0 such

Thus, lim x = 0,

that 0 < x c < 2 f ( x) M < .

since lim x = lim x = 0, lim x = 0.

xc

Let = min{1 , 2 } and choose x 0 such that


0 < x0 c < .
Thus, f ( x0 ) L < < f ( x0 ) L <
f ( x0 ) < L < f ( x0 ) +
f ( x0 ) < L < f ( x0 ) + .
Similarly,
f ( x0 ) < M < f ( x0 ) + .
Thus,
2 < L M < 2 . As 0, L M 0, so
L = M.

24. Since lim G(x) = 0, then given any > 0, we

x0

x 0 +

x 0

x 0

28. Choose > 0. Since lim g( x) = 0 there is some


x a

1 > 0 such that

0 < x a < 1 g(x ) 0 <

.
B

Let = min{1, 1} , then f ( x) < B for


x a < or x a < f ( x) < B. Thus,
x a < f ( x) g ( x) 0 = f ( x) g ( x)
= f ( x) g ( x) < B

= so lim f ( x)g(x) = 0.
x a

xc

can find > 0 such that whenever


x c < , G ( x) < .
Take any > 0 and the corresponding that
works for G(x), then x c < implies
F ( x) 0 = F ( x) G ( x ) < since
lim G(x) = 0.
xc

Thus, lim F( x) = 0.
xc

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

29. Choose > 0. Since lim f ( x) = L, there is a

1.3 Concepts Review

x a

> 0 such that for 0 < x a < , f ( x) L < .


That is, for
a < x < a or a < x < a + ,
L < f ( x) < L + .
Let f(a) = A,
M = max { L , L + , A } , c = a ,

d = a + . Then for x in (c, d), f ( x) M , since


either x = a, in which case
f ( x) = f (a ) = A M or 0 < x a < so

1. 48
2. 4
3. 8; 4 + 5c
4. 0

Problem Set 1.3


1. lim (2 x + 1)
= lim 2 x + lim 1
x1

x 1

and = min{1 , 2} where


2
0 < x a < 1 f ( x) L < and

2.

x 1

L < f(x) < L + and M < g(x) < M + .


Combine the inequalities and use the fact
that f ( x) g ( x) to get
L < f(x) g(x) < M + which leads to
L < M + or L M < 2.
However,
L M = > 2
which is a contradiction.
Thus L M .

x+6

x 4x + x 2 + x + 6
an asymptote at x 3.49.

c.

= 3(1) 1 = 2

3. lim [(2 x +1)( x 3)]

+ 1 has

1
, then 2.75 < x < 3
4
or 3 < x < 3.25 and by graphing

x0

= lim (2 x +1) lim (x 3)


x 0

x 0

= lim 2 x + lim 1 lim x lim 3


x 0
x 0 x0
x 0

= 2 lim x + lim 1 lim x lim 3

x 0

x 0
x0
x 0
= [2(0) +1](0 3) = 3
lim [(2 x 2 + 1)(7 x 2 + 13)]

x 2

x 2

If

y = g ( x) =

2, 1

= lim (2 x 2 + 1) lim (7 x 2 + 13)

x 4 4x 3 + x 2 + x + 6
3

x1

= 3 lim x lim 1
x 1
x 1

4.

x 3 x 2 2x 4

x1

x 1

32. For every > 0 and > 0 there is some x with


0 < x c < such that f ( x ) L > .

= 3 lim x 2 lim 1

31. (b) and (c) are equivalent to the definition of


limit.

b. No, because

lim (3x 2 1)

x 1

= lim 3x 2 lim 1

Thus, for 0 < x a < ,

g(x) =

2,1

x1

= 2(1) + 1 = 3

0 < x a < 2 g ( x) M < .

33. a.

x1

= 2 lim x + lim 1

30. Suppose that L > M. Then L M = > 0. Now

take <

x1

L < f ( x) < L + and f ( x) < M .

x 2

4, 5
3
2, 1

6
4, 3

= 2 lim x 2 + lim 1 7 lim x 2 + lim 13 8,1


x 2 x 2
x 2
x 2
2
2

= 2 lim x + 1 7 lim x + 13
2
x 2
x 2

= [2( 2 ) 2 + 1][7( 2 ) 2 + 13] = 135

x3 x 2 2 x 4

x 4 4 x3 + x 2 + x + 6
on the interval [2.75, 3.25], we see that
0<

x3 x 2 2 x 4

<3
x 4 4 x3 + x 2 + x + 6
so m must be at least three.

72

Section 1.3

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

2x + 1
x2 5 3x
lim (2 x + 1)
= x2
lim (5 3 x)

9.

5. lim

4, 5

x2

3, 1

lim 5 lim 3 x

x2

13

4, 3

= 2 lim t 3 + lim 15
t 2
t 2

lim 2 x + lim 1

x2

t 2

= lim (2t3 + 15)


t2

x2

lim (2t 3 +15)13

13

2 lim x + 1
x2

= 2 lim t + lim 15
t 2 t 2

x2

2, 1

= [2(2) 3 + 15]13 = 1

5 3 lim x

13

x2

2(2) + 1
=
= 5
5 3(2 )

10.

6.

4x +1

lim

x 3 7 2 x 2

lim (4 x + 1)

lim (7 2 x )
lim 4 x 3 + lim 1
x 3

lim 7 lim 2 x 2

x 3

x 3

x 3

13

5, 3

= 3 lim x lim 5

2, 1

x 3

lim

x 3

5x2 + 2 x

lim (5 x + 2 x )

x 3

= 5 lim x 2 + 2 lim x
x 3

x 3

4 lim y 3 + 8 lim y
y 2
y 2
=

y + lim 4
ylim

2
2

8, 1
1/ 3

= 3(3) 5 = 2

8.

4, 3
13

lim (3 x 5)

x 3

x 3

lim (4 y 3 + 8 y )
y 2

=
( y + 4)
ylim

7. lim 3 x 5

4 y3 + 8 y
= lim

y 2 y + 4

4 y3 + 8 y
lim

y 2 y + 4

1/ 3

x 3

4 lim x + 1
x 3
=
2
7 2 lim x
x 3
4(3)3 + 1 107
=
=
11
7 2(3) 2

1/ 3

11.

7 2 lim x 2

w 2

= 3(2)3 + 7(2) 2 = 2 13

3, 1

x 3

4 lim x 3 + 1

4, 3

= 3 lim w + 7 lim w
w 2
w 2

x 3

lim (3w3 + 7 w2 )

4, 5

w 2

w 2

x 3

x 3

3w3 + 7 w2

= 3 lim w3 + 7 lim w2

lim

w 2

4, 3

4 lim y + 8 lim y
y 2
y 2
=

lim y + 4

y 2

1/ 3

4(2)3 + 8(2)
=

2+4

=2

= 5 lim x + 2 lim x
x 3
x 3

= 5(3)2 + 2(3) = 39

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73

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

12.

lim (2 w 4 9 w 3 +19)1 /2
1

= lim

w 5

2w 9 w3 + 19
lim 1
w5
4

1, 9

2w 9 w + 19

lim

w 5

x2

19. lim

lim (2w 9 w3 + 19)

w 5

1
lim 2 w4 lim 9 w3 + lim 19

w5

w5

2 lim w 9 lim w3 + 19
w5

1
4

1
144

x2

x2 4
2

x +4

(
lim ( x

) 44
=
=0
+ 4) 4 + 4

lim x 4

x2

x2

= lim ( x 3) = 1
x2

( x 3)( x + 1)
x2 2 x 3
= lim
x 1
x 1
x +1
( x + 1)
lim

= lim ( x 3) = 4

16.

17.

lim

x 1

x2 + x
x2 + 1

(
lim ( x

) 0
= =0
+ 1) 2

lim x + x

x 1

x 1

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
x3
= lim
x 1 ( x 1)( x 2)( x + 7)
x 1 x + 7
lim

1 3
2
=
1 + 7
3

u u 6
u x x+2
= lim
=
5
u 2 u 3
u 2

( u + 2 )( u x )
u 2 ( u + 2)(u 3)

= lim

x 2 + ux x u
( x 1)( x + u)
= lim
2
x1 x + 2 x 3
x 1 ( x 1)( x + 3)
x + u 1+ u u + 1
= lim
=
=
4
x1 x + 3 1+ 3

2 x2 6 x + 4 2

2( x )( x 2 )
x
x
x ( x )( x + )
2( x 2) 2( 2 )
= lim
=
= 1
+
x x +

23. lim

24.

lim

= lim

(w + 2)(w 2 w 6)

w 2 + 4w + 4
( w + 2) 2 ( w 3)
= lim
= lim ( w 3)
( w + 2 )2
w 2
w 2
= 2 3 = 5
w 2

25. lim

xa

f 2 ( x) + g 2 ( x)

lim f 2 ( x) + lim g 2 ( x)

xa

xa

= lim f ( x) + lim g ( x)
x a
xa

= (3) 2 + (1)2 = 10
[2 f ( x) 3 g ( x)]
2 f ( x) 3g ( x ) xlim
= a
x a f ( x) + g ( x)
lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)]

26. lim

xa

2 lim f ( x) 3 lim g ( x)
xa

xa

lim f ( x) + lim g ( x)

xa

Section 1.3

= lim

u2 ux + 2u 2 x

lim

74

( x + 2)( x 1)
( x + 1)( x 1)

( x + 3)( x 17)
x 3 x 4 x 21
x 3 ( x + 3)( x 7)
x 17 3 17
= lim
=
=2
3 7
x 3 x 7

x 1

x 1

22. lim

1
12

( x 3)( x 2 )
x2 5x + 6
14. lim
= lim
x2
x2
x2
( x 2)

15.

2(5)4 9(5)3 + 19

lim

13.

21.

2 lim w 9 lim w + 19
w 5
w5
1

= lim

x 2 14 x 51

lim

w5

1,3

20.

w5

x 1
x + 2 1+ 2 3
= lim
=
=
x 1 x + 1
1+1 2

4,5

x2 + x 2

x 1

x 2 + 7 x + 10
( x + 2)( x + 5)
= lim
x2
x

2
x+2
x+2
= lim( x + 5) = 7

18. lim

w 5

xa

2(3) 3(1) 9
=
3 + (1)
2

Instructors Resource Manual

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

27. lim 3 g ( x) [ f ( x) + 3] = lim 3 g ( x) lim [ f ( x) + 3]


xa

xa

xa

= 3 lim g ( x) lim f ( x) + lim 3 = 3 1 (3 + 3)


x a
xa
xa

= 6

28. lim [ f ( x) 3]4 = lim ( f ( x) 3)


xa
xa

= lim f (t ) + 3 lim g (t )
t a

30. lim [ f (u) + 3g(u)] = lim [ f (u) + 3g(u)]

u a
u a
3

= lim f (u ) + 3 lim g(u) = [3 + 3( 1)]3 = 0


u a

u a
3x 2

12
3( x 2 )(x + 2)
31. lim
= lim
x

2
x 2
x2
x2
= 3 lim (x + 2) = 3(2 + 2) = 12
x2

(3x 2 + 2 x + 1) 17
3x 2 + 2 x 16
= lim
x2
x2
x2
x 2
(3 x + 8)( x 2)
= lim
= lim (3 x + 8)
x2
x2
x 2
= 3 lim x + 8 = 3(2) + 8 = 14
x2

1
2

= lim

2 x
2x

= lim

34.

3
4

x2

3( 4 x 2 )

= lim

4x2

3( x + 2 )( x 2 )

= lim

4x2

x2
x2
x2
3 lim x + 2
3( x + 2)
= 3(2 + 2)
= lim
= x 2
2
2
x2
4x
4(2)2
4 lim x
x2
3
=
4
x2

xc

xc

exist 2 and 3 such that 0 < x c < 2

g ( x) M <

and 0 < x c < 3

L + M +1

L + M +1

. Let

= min{1 , 2 , 3 }, then 0 < x c <


f ( x) g ( x) LM g ( x) f ( x) L + L g ( x ) M

< ( M + 1)

L + M +1

+L

L + M +1

Hence,
lim f ( x) g ( x) = LM = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
x c
x c

x2

36. Say lim g ( x ) = M , M 0 , and choose


x c

1
M
.
2
There is some 1 > 0 such that

1 =

1
M or
2

1
1
M < g ( x) < M + M .
2
2
1
1
1
1
M M M and M + M M
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
so g ( x) > M and
<
g ( x)
M
2
M

x 2

lim

0 < x c < 1 , g ( x) < M + 1. Choose > 0.


Since lim f (x) = L and lim g(x) = M, there

0 < x c < 1 g ( x) M < 1 =

x2
2x

x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2
1
1
1
1
= lim
=
=
=
2 lim x 2(2)
4
x2 2 x
x2

3
x2

x c

x c

32. lim

f ( x) g ( x) LM g ( x) f ( x) L + L g ( x ) M

as shown in the text. Choose 1 = 1. Since


lim g ( x) = M , there is some 1 > 0 such that if

f ( x) L <

= 3 + 3 1 = 6

33. lim

xc

M 1 M + 1 and M + 1 M + 1 so for

29. lim f (t ) + 3g (t ) = lim f (t ) + 3 lim g (t )


t a
t a
t a

1
x

xc

0 < x c < 1 , g ( x) M < 1 = 1 or


M 1 < g(x) < M + 1

= lim f ( x) lim 3 = (3 3) 4 = 0
x a
xa

t a

35. Suppose lim f (x) = L and lim g(x) = M.

Choose > 0.
Since lim g(x) = M there is 2 > 0 such that
xc

0 < x c < 2 g ( x) M <

Let = min{1 , 2}, then


0< xc <

1 2
M .
2

1
1
M g ( x)

=
g ( x) M
g ( x) M

1
2
2 1 2
M
g ( x) M <
g ( x) M =
2
M g ( x)
M
M2 2

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Thus, lim
xc

1
1
1
=
=
.
g(x) M lim g (x)

43.

xc

Using statement 6 and the above result,


f ( x)
1
lim
= lim f ( x) lim
x c g ( x )
x c
x c g ( x )
lim f ( x )
1
.
= lim f ( x)
= x c
lim g ( x ) lim g ( x)
x c
x c

xc

x 3+

x c

lim f (x) lim L = 0


lim [ f (x) L] = 0

45.

xc

38. lim f (x) = 0 lim f (x) = 0

xc
xc

x2 9

x 3+

46.

lim f ( x) = 0

x2 9
x+3

32 9
=0
3+3

lim

x 1

x c

xc

( x 3) x 2 9

( x 3) x 2 9
= lim
x 3+ ( x 3)( x + 3)
x 3+

44.

x c

x2 9

= lim

= lim

x c

37. lim f (x) = L lim f ( x) = lim L

x3

lim

lim

x 2+

1+ x
1+1
2
=
=
4 + 4 x 4 + 4(1)
8
( x 2 + 1) x
(3 x 1)

(22 + 1) 2
(3 2 1)

lim ( x x ) = lim x lim

x 3

x 3

x 3

5 2
5

2
5

x = 3 2 =1

xc

lim f 2 ( x) = 0

47.

x c

lim

x c

f 2 ( x) = 0

48.

lim f ( x) = 0

lim

x
= 1
x

lim

x 2 + 2 x = 32 + 2 3 = 15

x 0

x 3+

xc

39. lim x = lim x =


x c
x c

lim x

x c

lim x 2

x c

x +1
x5
, g ( x) =
and c = 2, then
x2
x2
lim [ f (x) + g (x)] exists, but neither

xc

lim f (x) nor lim g(x) exists.


xc

2
, g ( x) = x, and c = 0, then
x
lim [ f (x) g( x)] exists, but lim f (x) does

b. If f ( x) =
xc

xc

not exist.
41.

42.

76

lim

x 3+

3+ x
33
=
=0
x
3

3 + x3
=
x
x +
lim

Section 1.3

1
f ( x)

lim g ( x) = 0 lim

1
=0
f ( x)

If f ( x) =

xc

f ( x) g ( x) = 1; g ( x) =

x a

= lim x = c 2 = c
x c

40. a.

49.

3 + ( )3
=0

x a

1
=0
lim f ( x)

xa

No value satisfies this equation, so lim f ( x)


x a

must not exist.


1
x
50. R has the vertices ,
2
2

Each side of Q has length

x 2 + 1 so the

perimeter of Q is 4 x 2 + 1. R has two sides of


length 1 and two sides of length

x 2 so the

perimeter of R is 2 + 2 x 2 .
lim

x 0 +

perimeter of R
2 x2 + 2
= lim
perimeter of Q x 0+ 4 x 2 + 1

2 02 + 2
2

4 0 +1

2 1
=
4 2

Instructors Resource Manual

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

NO = (0 0)2 + (1 0)2 = 1

51. a.

4. lim

OP = ( x 0)2 + ( y 0) 2 = x 2 + y 2
= x2 + x
NP = ( x 0)2 + ( y 1)2 = x 2 + y 2 2 y + 1
= x + x 2 x +1
MO = (1 0) 2 + (0 0) 2 = 1
y2 + x2 2 x + 1

= x2 x + 1
perimeter of NOP
lim
x 0+ perimeter of MOP
= lim
=

1+ 1
1+ 1

1 + x2 + x + x2 x + 1
=1

x
1
(1)( x) =
2
2
1
x
Area of MOP = (1)( y ) =
2
2

b. Area of NOP =

area of NOP
x
= lim 2 = lim
x
+
+
+
MOP
area
of

x
x 0
x 0
x 0
lim

= lim

x 0+

x =0

1.4 Concepts Review


1. 0

0
=0
1

5. lim

sin x 1
sin x 1
1
= lim
= 1 =
2x
2 x 0 x
2
2

sin 3
3 sin 3 3
sin 3
= lim
= lim
3
2 0 3
0 2
0 2
3
3
= 1 =
2
2

6. lim

sin 3
sin 3
cos sin 3
= lim sin = lim
0 tan
0
0
sin
cos

sin 3 1
= lim cos 3
sin
0
3

sin 3 1
= 3 lim cos
sin
0
3

= 3 1 1 1 = 3

sin 5

sin 5
tan 5
= lim cos 5 = lim
0 sin 2
0 sin 2
0 cos 5 sin 2
sin 5 1 2
1
= lim
5

5 2 sin 2
0 cos 5
5
sin 5 2
1
= lim

2 0 cos 5 5 sin 2
5
5
= 111 =
2
2

8. lim

cot sin
= lim
0
0
2 sec

9. lim

cos
sin

sin

2
cos

cos sin cos


2sin
cos cos sin 1
= lim


sin
2
0
1
sin

lim cos cos


sin
2 0
1
1
1111 =
=
2
2
= lim

2. 1

3. the denominator is 0 when t = 0 .


4. 1

Problem Set 1.4


cos x 1
= =1
x 0 x + 1 1

sin 2 3t
9t sin 3t sin 3t
= lim

= 0 1 1 = 0
t 0
t

0
2t
2 3t
3t

1. lim

2.

3 x tan x
3x (sin x / cos x)
3x
= lim
= lim
x 0
x 0 cos x
sin x
sin x

7. lim

1 + x2 + x + x2 + x 2 x + 1

x 0+

x 0

MP = ( x 1)2 + ( y 0) 2 =

x 0

lim cos =

/ 2

10. lim

0 = 0

cos 2 t
cos 2 0
1
=
=
=1
t 0 1 + sin t 1 + sin 0 1 + 0

3. lim

tan 2 3t
sin 2 3t
= lim
t 0
t 0 (2t )(cos 2 3t )
2t

11. lim

= lim
t 0

3(sin 3t ) sin 3t

= 0 1 = 0
3t

2 cos 2 3t

tan 2t
0
=
=0
t 0 sin 2t 1
1

12. lim

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Section 1.4

77

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

sin(3t ) + 4t
4t
sin 3t
= lim
+

t 0 t sec t
t sec t
t sec t
sin 3t
4t
= lim
+ lim
t 0 t sec t t 0 t sec t
sin 3t
= lim 3cos t
+ lim 4 cos t
t 0
t 0
3t
= 3 1 + 4 = 7

13. lim

t 0

14.

sin 2
sin sin
lim
= lim
2

0
0
sin
sin
= lim
lim
= 1 1 = 1

0
0

19. lim 1 +
x 0

sin x
=2
x

20. The result that lim cos t = 1 was established in


t 0

the proof of the theorem. Then


lim cos t = lim cos(c + h)
t c

h 0

= lim (cos c cos h sin c sin h)


h 0

= lim cos c lim cos h sin c lim sin h

15. lim x sin (1/ x ) = 0

h 0

x 0

h 0

h0

= cos c
lim sin t
sin t t c
sin c
=
=
= tan c
t c cos t
lim cos t cos c

21. lim tan t = lim


t c

t c

lim cot t = lim


t c

16. lim x sin 1/ x 2 = 0


x 0

t c

lim cos t

cos t t c
cos c
=
=
= cot c
sin t lim sin t sin c
t c

1
1
=
= sec c
cos t cos c
1
1
lim csc t = lim
=
= csc c
t c
t c sin t
sin c

22. lim sec t = lim


t c

t c

23. BP = sin t , OB = cos t


area( OBP) area (sector OAP)
area (OBP) + area( ABPQ)

17. lim 1 cos 2 x / x = 0


x 0

1
1
1
OB BP t (1) 2 OB BP + (1 OB ) BP
2
2
2
1
1
1
sin t cos t t sin t cos t + (1 cos t ) sin t
2
2
2
t
2 cos t
sin t
1
sin t
1

for < t < .


2 cos t
t
cos t
2
2
1
sin t
1
lim
lim
lim
t 0 2 cos t t 0 t
t 0 cos t
sin t
1
1 lim
t 0 t
sin t
= 1.
Thus, lim
t 0 t

cos t

18. lim cos 2 x = 1


x 0

78

Section 1.4

Instructors Resource Manual

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

24. a.

Written response
6.

b.

c.

1
1
AB BP = (1 cos t ) sin t
2
2
sin t (1 cos t )
=
2
1
1
t sin t cos t
E = t (1)2 OB BP =
2
2
2
2
D sin t (1 cos t )
=
E
t sin t cos t
D=

D
lim = 0.75
+
t 0 E

2 x 100 x

8.

10.

1. x increases without bound; f(x) gets close to L as


x increases without bound

4. x = 6; vertical

sin 2

lim

2 5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

lim

x
1
= lim
=1
x 5 x 1 5

lim

x2

x 5 x3

lim

t2

t 7 t

lim

t t

= lim

x 5
x3

= lim

1 5
2

= lim

= 0 so lim

sin 2

2 5

=0

3 x3 / 2 + 3 x
2 x3 / 2

x3 + 3x
x3 + 3 x
lim 3
= 3 lim
x
x 2 x3 + 7 x
2 x3 + 7 x
3
x2
+ 72
x

+
2

=3

=0
2

13.
1

t 7
t2

= lim

2 x3
3+ 3

; 0 sin 2 1 for all and

3 x3 + 3 x

lim

= 3 lim

1
x

1 5

12.

3 1 3
3 x3 x 2
x =
= lim
lim
3
2
x x 5 x
x 5
x

= lim

Problem Set 1.5

1
1
=
2 100
2
x

= lim

= lim

5 5 4

2 5

11.

lim

lim

2. f(x) increases without bound as x approaches c


from the right; f(x) decreases without bound as x
approaches c from the left
3. y = 6; horizontal

x3

7. lim

9.

1.5 Concepts Review

1
x2
lim
= lim
=1
2
8
x x 8 x + 15 x 1 + 15
x x2

= 1

t
1
= lim
=1
5 t 1 5
t

= 3 lim

14.

x2
x2
= lim
x ( x 5)(3 x) x x 2 + 8 x 15

Instructors Resource Manual

1
x2

+8

x 1 + 4
x2

lim

1
= lim
= 1
8
x 1 + 15
x x2

1 + 8x
1 + 8x
lim 3
= 3 lim
2
x x + 4
x x 2 + 4

lim

= 38 =2

x2 + x + 3
=
( x 1)( x + 1)

lim

1 + 1x + 32
x

1 12

lim

x2 + x + 3

x 2 1

= 1 =1

15.

lim

n
1
1
= lim
=
2n + 1 n 2 + 1 2
n

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

16. lim

n2
n2 + 1

= lim

1+

1
n2

1
=1
1+ 0

23.

lim n
n2
n

n
= lim
=
=
=
1
n n + 1 n
1 1+ 0

1+
lim 1 +
n n n

17. lim

18. lim

n
n2 + 1

1+

lim

1
n2

0
=0
1+ 0

x2 + 3

= lim

2 + 1x

x 2 +3
x

20.

21.

2
1

1+

3
x2

lim

= lim

2 x 2 + 3 (2 x 2 5)
2 x2 + 3 + 2 x2 5
8
2

2 x + 3 + 2 x2 5
8
x

2+

3
x2

8
x
2 x 2 +3 + 2 x 2 5
x2

+ 2

22.
lim x 2 + 2 x x

x 2 + 2 x x x 2 + 2 x + x

= lim
2
x
x + 2x + x

= lim

= lim

x + 2x x

= lim

2x

x 2 + 2 x + x x x 2 + 2 x + x
2
2
= =1
1+ 2 +1 2

bn
xn

1
1
1+ 2
n

a0
b0
1

1+ 0

=1

t 3+

29. As t 3 , t 2 9 while 9 t 2 0+.


t 3

t2

9 t2

=
+

30. As x 3 5 , x 2 52 / 3 while 5 x3 0 .
x3 5

5
x2

= lim

an
xn

t2 9
(t + 3)(t 3)
= lim
+
+
t +3
t 3 t + 3
t 3
= lim (t 3) = 6

lim

=0

+ +

bn 1
x n 1

lim

lim

= lim

an 1
x n 1

27. As x 4+ , x 4 while x 4 0 .
x
lim
=
+
x

4
x 4
28.

2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 5 2 x 2 + 3 + 2 x 2 5

= lim
2
2
x
2x + 3 + 2x 5

= lim

+ +

+ 12

lim 2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 5

n2

n
n3/ 2
= lim
= =
3
n
1
2
1
n + 2n + 1
1+ 2 + 3
n
n

26. lim

2x +1
x
= lim
= lim
=0
x+4
x 1 + 4
x 1 + 4
x
x

= lim

b0 +

b1
x

n +1

2
x

y 1

=2
2 x +1
x2

a1
x

2 + 1x

= lim

a0 +

25. lim

19. For x > 0, x = x 2 .


2x + 1

= lim

b0 x n + b1 x n 1 ++ bn 1 x + bn

lim

y2 2 y + 2

a0 x n + a1 x n 1 ++ an 1 x + an

= lim

1
n

= lim

24.

lim

1
y2
2+ 2
y y2

9y +

9 y3 + 1

x2
+

5 x3

31. As x 5 , x 2 25, x 5 0 , and


3 x 2.
x2
lim
=
x 5 ( x 5)(3 x)
32. As + , 2 2 while sin 0 .

2
=
+ sin
lim

80

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.


33. As x 3 , x3 27, while x 3 0 .

43.

lim

x 3

x
=
x3

+
2
,
while cos 0 .
2
2

=
lim
+ cos

34. As

35.

3
3
= 0, lim
= 0;
x +1
x x + 1
Horizontal asymptote y = 0.
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ;
x 1+ x + 1
x 1 x + 1
Vertical asymptote x = 1
lim

lim

x 3

x2 x 6
( x + 2)( x 3)
= lim
x3
x3
x 3

= lim ( x + 2) = 5
x 3

36.

x2 + 2 x 8

lim

x 2+

= lim

x 2+

x 4
x+4 6 3
= lim
= =
x 2+ x + 2 4 2

( x + 4)( x 2)
( x + 2)( x 2)

37. For 0 x < 1 , x = 0 , so for 0 < x < 1,

thus lim

x 0 +

x
x

44.

x
x

lim

x ( x + 1)

= 0, lim

x ( x + 1) 2

= 0;

Horizontal asymptote y = 0.
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ;
2
2

+
x 1 ( x + 1)
x 1 ( x + 1)
Vertical asymptote x = 1

=0

=0

38. For 1 x < 0 , x = 1 , so for 1 < x < 0,


x
1
thus lim
= .

x
x
x
x 0
1
(Since x < 0, > 0. )
x
x

39. For x < 0, x = x, thus


lim

x 0

x
x

= lim

x 0

x
= 1
x

40. For x > 0, x = x, thus lim

x 0 +

45.

x
x

= lim

x 0 +

x
=1
x

41. As x 0 , 1 + cos x 2 while sin x 0 .


1 + cos x
lim
=

sin x
x 0

lim

2x
2
= lim
= 2,
x 3 x 1 3
x

2x
2
lim
= lim
= 2,
x x 3 x 1 3
x

Horizontal asymptote y = 2
2x
2x
lim
= , lim
= ;
x 3+ x 3
x 3 x 3
Vertical asymptote x = 3

42. 1 sin x 1 for all x, and


1
sin x
lim = 0, so lim
= 0.
x x
x x

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

46.

lim

3
2

x 9

= 0, lim

49. f ( x ) = 2 x + 3

= 0;

x 9 x
x
Horizontal asymptote y = 0
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ,
2
2

+
x 3 9 x
x 3 9 x
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ;
2
2
x 3+ 9 x
x 3 9 x
Vertical asymptotes x = 3, x = 3

50.

14

x 2 x

f ( x) = 3x + 4

4x + 3
x2 + 1

, thus

We say that lim f ( x) = if to each


x c +

negative number M there corresponds a > 0


such that 0 < x c < f(x) < M.

14

= 0, lim

, thus

4x + 3
lim [ f ( x) (3 x + 4)] = lim

x
x x 2 + 1
4+ 3
x x2
= lim
=0.

x
1 + 12

x
The oblique asymptote is y = 3x + 4.

= 0;
x 2 x2 + 7
+7
Horizontal asymptote y = 0
2
Since 2x + 7 > 0 for all x, g(x) has no vertical
asymptotes.
lim

x 1

lim [ f ( x) (2 x + 3)] = lim


=0
3
x
x x 1
The oblique asymptote is y = 2x + 3.

51. a.

47.

1
3

b. We say that lim f ( x) = if to each


x c

positive number M there corresponds a > 0


such that 0 < c x < f(x) > M.
We say that lim f ( x) = if to each

52. a.

positive number M there corresponds an


N > 0 such that N < x f(x) > M.
b. We say that lim f ( x ) = if to each
x

positive number M there corresponds an


N < 0 such that x < N f(x) > M.
53. Let > 0 be given. Since lim f ( x ) = A, there is
x

48.

lim

lim

2x
2

x +5

= lim

2x
x2 + 5

= lim

2
1+

5
x2

2
1+

5
x2

2
1
=

a corresponding number M1 such that

= 2,
2
1

x > M1 f ( x) A < . Similarly, there is a


2

= 2

Since x 2 + 5 > 0 for all x, g(x) has no vertical


asymptotes.

number M2 such that x > M 2 g ( x) B < .


2
Let M = max{M1 , M 2 } , then
x > M f ( x) + g ( x) ( A + B)
= f ( x) A + g ( x) B f ( x) A + g ( x) B

=
2 2
Thus, lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)] = A + B
<

54. Written response

82

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

55. a.

lim sin x does not exist as sin x oscillates

56.

between 1 and 1 as x increases.


1
, then as x , u 0+.
x
1
lim sin = lim sin u = 0
x u 0 +
x

b. Let u =

c.

1
Let u = , then as x , u 0+.
x
1
1
sin u
lim x sin = lim sin u = lim
=1
+
x u 0+ u
u
x
u 0

d. Let u =
lim x

3/ 2

e.

h.

59.

60.
3/ 2

1 v2 / c2

v c

3x 2 + x +1 3
=
2
2
x 2x 1
2 x 2 3x

lim

5x + 1

2
5

3
lim 2 x 2 + 3x 2 x 2 5 =

2 2

2x +1

lim

3x 2 + 1

sin u

10

1 sin u

= lim+
=
u 0
u u

As x , sin x oscillates between 1 and 1,


1
while x 1/ 2 =
0.
x

62.

1
lim 1 + = e 2.718
x
x

1/ 2

sin x = 0

1
, then
x
1

lim sin + = lim+ sin + u


x
x
6
6
u

1
= sin =
6 2

1
1

, so lim sin x +
x
x
x

does not exist. (See part a.)


1
1
1

sin x + = sin x cos + cos x sin


x
x
x

lim sin x + sin x


x
x

1
1

= lim sin x cos 1 + cos x sin


x
x
x

1
1
As x , cos 1 so cos 1 0.
x
x
1
From part b., lim sin = 0.
x
x
As x both sin x and cos x oscillate
between 1 and 1.

1

lim sin x + sin x = 0.


x
x

Instructors Resource Manual

=1
x

1
63. lim 1 +
x
x

Let u =

As x , x +

lim

1
lim 1 +
x
x

lim x

g.

1
1
sin = lim+
x u 0 u

58.

v c

61.

f.

1
, then
x

57.

m0

lim m(v) = lim

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

1
lim 1 +
x
x

70.

71.

=
sin x

=1

sin x 3

lim

x 3

= 1

x3

sin x 3

lim

x 3

tan( x 3)

= 1

lim

cos( x 3)
=
x3

lim

cos x
= 1
x 2

x 3

x
2

69.

x2

lim (1 + x )

x 0 +

1
x

= e 2.718

lim (1 + x )1/ x =

x 0+

lim (1 + x ) x = 1

x 0+

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

13.

1.6 Concepts Review

t 3+

lim f (t ) = lim (t 3) = 0

t 3

1. lim f ( x)
x c

t 3

lim f (t ) = f (3); continuous

t 3

2. every integer
3.

lim f (t ) = lim (3 t ) = 0

t 3+

lim f ( x) = f (a); lim f ( x) = f (b)

xa+

14.

x b

lim f (t ) = lim (3 t )2 = 0

t 3+

t 3+

lim f (t ) = lim (t 2 9) = 0

t 3

4. a; b; f(c) = W

t 3

lim f (t ) = f (3); continuous

t 3

15. lim f ( x) = 2 = f (3); continuous

Problem Set 1.6

t 3

1. lim[( x 3)( x 4)] = 0 = f (3); continuous


x 3

2. lim ( x 2 9) = 0 = g (3); continuous


x 3

3. lim

x 3 x 3

and h(3) do not exist, so h(x) is not

continuous at 3.

16. g is discontinuous at x = 3, 4, 6, 8; g is left


continuous at x = 4, 8; g is right continuous at
x = 3, 6
17. h is continuous on the intervals
(, 5), [ 5, 4] , (4, 6), [ 6,8] , (8, )
x 2 49
( x 7)( x + 7)
= lim
= lim ( x + 7)
x7
x 7 x 7
x 7
x 7
= 7 + 7 = 14
Define f(7) = 14.

18. lim

4. lim t 4 and g(3) do not exist, so g(t) is not


t 3

continuous at 3.
t 3

and h(3) do not exist, so h(t) is not


t 3
continuous at 3.

5. lim

2 x 2 18
2( x + 3)( x 3)
= lim
3 x
x 3 3 x
x 3
= lim[2( x + 3)] = 2(3 + 3) = 12

19. lim

t 3

x 3

Define f(3) = 12.

6. h(3) does not exist, so h(t) is not continuous at 3.


7. lim t = 3 = f (3); continuous
t 3

20. lim

t 3

21. lim

t 1

t 3 27
(t 3)(t 2 + 3t + 9)
= lim
t 3
t 3 t 3
t 3
= lim(t 2 + 3t + 9) = (3)2 + 3(3) + 9 = 27 = r (3)

22.

12. From Problem 11, lim r (t ) = 27, so r(t) is not


t 3

continuous at 3 because lim r (t ) r (3).


t 3

t 1

1)( t + 1)
1
Define H(1) = .
2
t 1 (t

11. lim

continuous

t 1
( t 1)( t + 1)
= lim
t 1 t 1 (t 1)( t + 1)

= lim

10. f(3) does not exist, so f(x) is not continuous at 3.

t 3

=1

Define g(0) = 1
0

8. lim t 2 = 1 = g (3); continuous


9. h(3) does not exist, so h(t) is not continuous at 3.

sin( )

= lim

t 1

1
t +1

1
2

x4 + 2 x2 3
( x 2 1)( x 2 + 3)
= lim
x +1
x +1
x 1
x 1
lim

( x + 1)( x 1)( x 2 + 3)
x +1
x 1

= lim

= lim [( x 1)( x 2 + 3)]


x 1

= (1 1)[(1)2 + 3] = 8
Define (1) = 8.

84

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

23.

x2 1
( x 1)( x + 1)
lim sin
= lim sin

x +1
x 1

x + 1 x 1
= lim sin( x 1) = sin(1 1) = sin(2) = sin 2

37.

x 1

Define F(1) = sin 2.


24. Discontinuous at x = ,30
25.

33 x 2
( x)( x 3)
Discontinuous at x = 3,
f ( x) =

38.

26. Continuous at all points


27. Discontinuous at all = n + where n is any
2
integer.
28. Discontinuous at all u 5

39.

29. Discontinuous at u = 1
30. Continuous at all points
31. G ( x) =

1
(2 x)(2 + x)

Discontinuous on (, 2] [2, )
32. Continuous at all points since
lim f ( x) = 0 = f (0) and lim f ( x) = 1 = f (1).
x 0

40.

x 1

33. lim g ( x ) = 0 = g (0)


x 0

lim g ( x) = 1, lim g ( x) = 1

x 1+

x 1

lim g(x ) does not exist, so g(x) is discontinuous


x1

at x = 1.
34. Discontinuous at every integer
35. Discontinuous at t = n +

1
where n is any integer
2

Discontinuous at all points except x = 0, because


lim f ( x ) f (c) for c 0 . lim f ( x ) exists only
x c

x c

at c = 0 and lim f ( x) = 0 = f (0) .


x 0

36.
41. Continuous.
42. Discontinuous: removable, define f (10) = 20
43. Discontinuous: removable, define f (0) = 1
44. Discontinuous: nonremovable.
45. Discontinuous, removable, redefine g (0) = 1
46. Discontinuous: removable, define F (0) = 0

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

47. Discontinuous: nonremovable.


48. Discontinuous: removable, define f (4) = 4
49. The function is continuous on the intervals
( 0,1] , (1, 2], (2,3],

52. Let f ( x) = x3 + 3 x 2. f is continuous on [0, 1].


f(0) = 2 < 0 and f(1) = 2 > 0. Thus, there is at
least one number c between 0 and 1 such that
x 3 + 3x 2 = 0.
53. Because the function is continuous on [ 0,2 ] and
(cos 0)03 + 6sin 5 0 3 = 3 < 0,

Cost $

0.60

(cos 2)(2)3 + 6sin 5 (2) 3 = 83 3 > 0, there


is at least one number c between 0 and 2 such

0.48

that (cos t )t 3 + 6sin 5 t 3 = 0.

0.72

0.36

54. Let f ( x ) = x 7 x + 14 x 8 . f(x) is


continuous at all values of x.
f(0) = 8, f(5) = 12
Because 0 is between 8 and 12, there is at least
one number c between 0 and 5 such that
3

0.24
0.12
1
3
5
2
4
6
Length of call in minutes

50. The function is continuous on the intervals


[0, 200], (200,300], (300, 400],

f ( x ) = x 3 7 x 2 + 14 x 8 = 0 .

This equation has three solutions (x = 1,2,4)

Cost $
80
60
40

55. Let f ( x ) = x cos x. . f(x) is continuous at all

20

100 200 300 400 500


Miles Driven

51. The function is continuous on the intervals


(0, 0.25], (0.25, 0.375], (0.375, 0.5],

values of x 0.
f(0) = 1, f(/2) = / 2
Because 0 is between 1 and / 2 , there is at
least one number c between 0 and /2 such that
f ( x ) = x cos x = 0.
The interval [0.6,0.7] contains the solution.

Cost $
4
3
2
1

0.25

0.5
0.75
Miles Driven

56. Let f ( x) = x5 + 4 x3 7 x + 14
f(x) is continuous at all values of x.
f(2) = 36, f(0) = 14
Because 0 is between 36 and 14, there is at least
one number c between 2 and 0 such that
f ( x) = x5 + 4 x3 7 x + 14 = 0.

86

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

57. Suppose that f is continuous at c, so


lim f ( x) = f (c). Let x = c + t, so t = x c, then
x c

as x c , t 0 and the statement


lim f ( x) = f (c) becomes lim f (t + c ) = f (c).
x c

t 0

Suppose that lim f (t + c) = f (c) and let x = t +


t 0

c, so t = x c. Since c is fixed, t 0 means that


x c and the statement lim f (t + c) = f (c)
t 0

becomes lim f ( x) = f (c) , so f is continuous at


x c

c.
58. Since f(x) is continuous at c,
lim f ( x) = f (c) > 0. Choose = f ( c ) , then
x c

there exists a > 0 such that


0 < x c < f ( x) f (c) < .
Thus, f ( x ) f ( c ) > = f ( c ) , or f ( x ) > 0 .
Since also f ( c ) > 0 , f ( x ) > 0 for all x in
(c , c + ).

59. Let g(x) = x f(x). Then,


g(0) = 0 f(0) = f(0) 0 and g(1) = 1 f(1) 0
since 0 f(x) 1 on [0, 1] . If g(0) = 0, then
f(0) = 0 and c = 0 is a fixed point of f. If g(1) = 0,
then f(1) = 1 and c = 1 is a fixed point of f. If
neither g(0) = 0 nor g(1) = 0, then g(0) < 0 and
g(1) > 0 so there is some c in [0, 1] such that
g(c) = 0. If g(c) = 0 then c f(c) = 0 or
f(c) = c and c is a fixed point of f.
60. For f(x) to be continuous everywhere,
f(1) = a(1) + b = 2 and f(2) = 6 = a(2) + b
a+b=2
2a + b = 6
a = 4
a = 4, b = 2

63. Let f(x) be the difference in times on the hikers


watch where x is a point on the path, and suppose
x = 0 at the bottom and x = 1 at the top of the
mountain.
So f(x) = (time on watch on the way up) (time
on watch on the way down).
f(0) = 4 11 = 7, f(1) = 12 5 = 7. Since time is
continuous, f(x) is continuous, hence there is
some c between 0 and 1 where f(c) = 0. This c is
the point where the hikers watch showed the
same time on both days.

64. Let f be the function on 0, 2 such that f() is

the length of the side of the rectangle which


makes angle with the x-axis minus the length of
the sides perpendicular to it. f is continuous on

0, 2 . If f(0) = 0 then the region is

circumscribed by a square. If f(0) 0, then



observe that f (0) = f . Thus, by the
2
Intermediate Value Theorem, there is an angle

0 between 0 and

such that f ( 0 ) = 0.
2
Hence, D can be circumscribed by a square.
65. Yes, g is continuous at R .
lim g ( r ) =

r R

= lim g ( r )

GMm

r R+

R2

66. No. By the Intermediate Value Theorem, if f


were to change signs on [a,b], then f must be
0 at some c in [a,b]. Therefore, f cannot
change sign.
67. a.

f(x) = f(x + 0) = f(x) + f(0), so f(0) = 0. We


want to prove that lim f (x) = f (c), or,
xc

equivalently, lim [ f (x) f (c)] = 0. But


xc

61. For x in [0, 1], let f(x) indicate where the string
originally at x ends up. Thus f(0) = a, f(1) = b.
f(x) is continuous since the string is unbroken.
Since 0 a, b 1 , f(x) satisfies the conditions of
Problem 59, so there is some c in [0, 1] with
f(c) = c, i.e., the point of string originally at c
ends up at c.
62. The Intermediate Value Theorem does not imply
the existence of a number c between 2 and 2
such that f (c ) = 0. The reason is that the

function f ( x ) is not continuous on [ 2, 2] .

Instructors Resource Manual

f(x) f(c) = f(x c), so


lim[ f ( x) f (c)] = lim f ( x c). Let
x c

x c

h = x c then as x c, h 0 and
lim f ( x c) = lim f (h) = f (0) = 0. Hence
x c

h 0

lim f (x) = f (c) and f is continuous at c.


xc

Thus, f is continuous everywhere, since c


was arbitrary.
b. By Problem 43 of Section 0.5, f(t) = mt for
all t in Q. Since g(t) = mt is a polynomial
function, it is continuous for all real
numbers. f(t) = g(t) for all t in Q, thus
f(t) = g(t) for all t in R, i.e. f (t ) = mt.

Section 1.6

87

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

68. If f(x) is continuous on an interval then


lim f ( x) = f (c) for all points in the interval:
x c

lim f ( x) = f (c) lim f ( x)

x c

x c

= lim

x c

f 2 ( x) = lim f ( x)
x c

3 3
Domain: , ;
4 4
3
3
Range: , 0,
4
4

= ( f (c))2 = f (c )

1 if x 0
69. Suppose f ( x) =
. f(x) is
1 if x < 0
discontinuous at x = 0, but g(x) = f ( x) = 1 is

b. At x = 0
3
3
c. If x = 0, f ( x) = 0 , if x = , f ( x) = and
4
4
3
3
3
3
if x = , f ( x) = , so x = , 0, are
4
4
4
4
fixed points of f.

continuous everywhere.
70. a.

1.7 Chapter Review


Concepts Test
1. False.

Consider f ( x ) = x at x = 2.

2. False:
c may not be in the domain of f(x), or
it may be defined separately.
3. False:
c may not be in the domain of f(x), or
it may be defined separately.
b. If r is any rational number, then any deleted
interval about r contains an irrational
1
number. Thus, if f (r ) = , any deleted
q
interval about r contains at least one point c
1
1
such that f (r ) f (c) = 0 = . Hence,
q
q
lim f (x) does not exist.
xr

If c is any irrational number in (0, 1), then as


p
p
x = c (where
is the reduced form
q
q
of the rational number) q , so
f ( x) 0 as x c. Thus,
lim f ( x) = 0 = f (c) for any irrational
x c

4. True.

By definition, where c = 0, L = 0.

5. False:

If f(c) is not defined, lim f ( x ) might


xc

exist; e.g., f ( x) =

88

Suppose the block rotates to the left. Using


3
geometry, f ( x) = . Suppose the block
4
rotates to the right. Using geometry,
3
f ( x) = . If x = 0, the block does not rotate,
4
so f(x) = 0.

Section 1.7

x 4
.
x+2
x2 4
= 4.
x 2 x + 2

f(2) does not exist, but lim

6. True:

x 2 25
( x 5)( x + 5)
= lim
x5
x 5 x 5
x 5
= lim ( x + 5) = 5 + 5 = 10
lim

x 5

7. True:
8. False:

number c.
71. a.

9. False:

10. True:

Substitution Theorem
lim

x 0

sin x
=1
x

The tangent function is not defined for


all values of c.
sin x
,
cos x
then cos x 0 , and Theorem A.7
applies..

If x is in the domain of tan x =

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

11. True:

Since both sin x and cos x are


continuous for all real numbers, by
Theorem C we can conclude that
f ( x) = 2 sin 2 x cos x is also
continuous for all real numbers.

12. True.

By definition, lim f ( x ) = f ( c ) .

13. True.

2 [1,3]

14. False:

25. True:

x2

such that 0 < x 2 <


f ( x ) f (2) < 0. 001 f (2), or
0. 001 f (2 ) < f ( x ) f (2 )
< 0.001f(2)
Thus, 0.999f(2) < f(x) < 1.001f(2) and
f(x) < 1.001f(2) for 0 < x 2 < .
Since f(2) < 1.001f(2), as f(2) > 0,
f(x) < 1.001f(2) on (2 , 2 + ).

x c

lim may not exist

x 0

Choose = 0. 001 f (2) then since


lim f ( x ) = f (2), there is some

26. False:

That lim [ f ( x ) + g ( x )] exists does


xc

15. False:

Consider f ( x) = sin x.

16. True.

By the definition of continuity on an


interval.

17. False:

Since 1 sin x 1 for all x and


1
sin x
lim = 0 , we get lim
=0.
x x
x x

18. False.

It could be the case where


lim f ( x ) = 2

not imply that lim f ( x ) and


xc

lim g( x ) exist; e.g., f ( x) =


xc

g ( x) =

The graph has many vertical


asymptotes; e.g., x = /2, 3/2,
5/2,

20. True:

x = 2 ; x = 2

21. True:

As x 1+ both the numerator and


denominator are positive. Since the
numerator approaches a constant and
the denominator approaches zero, the
limit goes to + .

22. False:

lim f ( x) must equal f(c) for f to be

Squeeze Theorem

28. True:

A function has only one limit at a


point, so if lim f ( x ) = L and
x a

lim f ( x ) = M , L = M
x a

29. False:

24. True:

x +x6
and
x2

5
x, then f(x) g(x) for all x,
2
but lim f ( x ) = lim g ( x ) = 5.
x 2

x2

30. False:

If f(x) < 10, lim f ( x ) could equal 10


x2

if there is a discontinuity point (2, 10).


For example,
x3 + 6 x 2 2 x 12
f ( x) =
< 10 for
x2
all x, but lim f ( x) = 10.

lim f ( x) = f lim x = f (c), so f is


x c
continuous at x = c.

x 2.3

g ( x) =

x c

x
= 1 = f ( 2.3)
2

x c

example, if f ( x) =

x c

lim

That f(x) g(x) for all x does not


imply that lim f ( x) lim g ( x). For
x c

continuous at x = c.
23. True:

x+7
for c = 2 .
x+2

27. True:

19. False:

x3
and
x+2

x 2

31. True:

lim f ( x) = lim

x a

x a

f 2 ( x)

= lim f ( x) = (b)2 = b
xa

32. True:

Instructors Resource Manual

If f is continuous and positive on


[a, b], the reciprocal is also
continuous, so it will assume all
1
1
and
.
values between
f ( a)
f (b )
Section 1.7

89

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Sample Test Problems

14.

x2 22 0
=
= =0
x 2 x + 2
2+2 4

1. lim

u 2 1 12 1
=
=0
1+1
u 1 u + 1

u2 1
(u 1)(u + 1)
= lim
= lim (u + 1)
u 1
u 1 u 1
u 1
u 1
=1+1=2
u +1

u +1

= lim

u 1 (u + 1)(u 1)

1
does not exist
1 2x

5. lim

= lim

x 2
x

= lim

x 2 ( x 2)( x + 2)

x2 x 2

4
1
1
=
=
2 (2 + 2 ) 8

z2 4

u 1 u 1

= lim

x2

1 cos 2 x
2 1 cos 2 x
= lim
3x
2x
x 0
x 0 3
2
1 cos 2 x 2
= lim
= 0 = 0
3 x 0
2x
3

1
x ( x + 2)

1
1
x 1
x = 1+ 0 = 1
17. lim
= lim
2 1+ 0
x x + 2
x
1+
x

18. Since 1 sin t 1 for all t and lim


= lim

get lim

19. lim

sin x

tan x
1
cos x
= lim
= lim
x 0 sin 2 x
x 0 2 sin x cos x
x 0 2 cos 2 x
1
1
=
=
2
2 cos 0 2

y 1 y 2

( y 1)( y 2 + y + 1)
y 1 ( y 1)( y + 1)

t+2

( t 2 )2

20.

= lim

21.

y 2 + y + 1 12 + 1 + 1 3
=
=
1+1
2
y +1
y 1
x4
x 2

x4

= lim

( x 2)( x + 2)

x 4

x 2

= lim ( x + 2) = 4 + 2 = 4
x4

12.

13.

90

lim

x 0

lim

x (1/ 2)+

lim

t 2

= lim

x 0

x
= lim (1) = 1
x x 0

4x = 2

cos x
= , because as x 0+ , cos x 1
x 0 + x
while the denominator goes to 0 from the right.
lim

Section 1.7

x / 4

tan 2 x = because as x ( / 4 ) ,

2 x ( / 2 ) , so tan 2 x .

22.

1 + sin x
= , because as x 0+ ,
+
x
x 0
lim

1 + sin x 1 while the denominator goes to


0 from the right.

| 2 x 6 |< 2 | x 3 |<
| x 3 |<

. Choose =

Let > 0. Choose = / 2. Thus,

t t ) = lim t lim t = 1 2 = 1
t 2

= because as t 0, t + 2 4

23. Preliminary analysis: Let > 0. We need to find


a > 0 such that
0 <| x 3 |< | ( 2 x + 1) 7 |< .

cos x
does not exist.
x 0 x

10. lim

11.

sin t
=0.
t

lim

= lim

9. lim

= 0 , we

while the denominator goes to 0 from the right.

7. lim

y3 1

t t

t 2

8. lim

1 x
= 1 since x 1 < 0 as
x 1

16. lim

z 2 ( z + 3)( z

z 2 z 2

x 1

sin 5 x
5 sin 5 x
= lim
x 0 3 x
x 0 3 5 x
5
sin 5 x 5
5
= lim
= 1 =
3 x 0 5 x
3
3

( z + 2)( z 2)
2)
+z6
z +2 2 + 2 4
=
=
= lim
5
z 2 z + 3 2 + 3

6. lim

x 1

= lim

15. lim

3. lim

u 1 u 2

x 1

x 1

2. lim

4. lim

x 1

lim

t 2

( 2 x + 1) 7

= 2 x 6 = 2 x 3 < 2 ( / 2 ) = .

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

24. a. f(1) = 0
b.
c.
d.

28.

lim f ( x) = lim (1 x) = 0

x 1+

x 1+

lim f ( x) = lim x = 1

x 1

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1 because

x 1

lim f ( x) = lim x3 = 1 and

x 1

x 1

lim f ( x) = lim x = 1

x 1+

25. a.

x 1+

f is discontinuous at x = 1 because f(1) = 0,


but lim f (x ) does not exist. f is
x1

discontinuous at x = 1 because f(1) does


not exist.
b. Define f(1) = 1
26. a.
b.
27. a.

0 < u a < g (u ) M <


0 < a x < f ( x) L <

lim[2 f ( x) 4 g ( x)]

Horizontal: lim

c.
d.

x 3

x2 9
lim g ( x)
= lim g ( x )( x + 3)
x 3 x 3
x 3
= lim g ( x ) lim ( x + 3) = 2 (3 + 3) = 12
x 3

+1

Horizontal: lim

x2

x x 2

= lim

x2

+ 1 x x 2 + 1
y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

g(3) = 2
lim g ( f ( x)) = g lim f ( x) = g (3) = 2
x 3
x 3

lim

x 3

f ( x) 8 g ( x)
2

= lim f ( x) 8 lim g ( x)
x 3
x 3

33. Vertical: x = 1, x = 1 because lim

x 1+

lim

x 3

g ( x) g (3)
f ( x)

2 g (3)
3

lim

x 1

x2
x2 1

Horizontal: lim

= 1 , so

x2
x2 1

x2

= lim

x2

1 x x 2 1
y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

= 0 , so

x x 2

= (3) 2 8(2) = 5

f.

x x 2

32. Vertical: None, denominator is never 0.

and
e.

= lim

+1
y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.

= 2(3) 4(2) = 14

x 3

x x 2

= 2 lim f ( x) 4 lim g ( x )

b.

30. Let f ( x) = x5 4 x3 3 x + 1
f(2) = 5, f(3) = 127
Because f(x) is continuous on [2, 3] and
f(2) < 0 < f(3), there exists some number c
between 2 and 3 such that f(c) = 0.
31. Vertical: None, denominator is never 0.

x 3

x 3

29. a(0) + b = 1 and a(1) + b = 1


b = 1; a + b = 1
a1=1
a=2

= 1 , so

2 (2)
3

=0

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Section 1.7

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

34. Vertical: x = 2, x = 2 because


x

lim

x 2+

x 4

= and

x x 2

lim

x x 2

4
asymptotes.

lim

x 2

x3

Horizontal: lim

2. a.
3

x 4

= and

= , so there are no horizontal

35. Vertical: x = / 4, 3 / 4, 5 / 4, because


lim tan 2 x = and similarly for other odd
x / 4

g ( 2 ) = 1/ 2

b.

g ( 2.1) = 1/ 2.1 0.476

c.

g ( 2.1) g ( 2 ) = 0.476 0.5 = 0.024

d.

g ( 2.1) g ( 2 )
2.1 2

0.024
= 0.24
0.1

e.

g ( a + h ) = 1/ ( a + h )

f.

g ( a + h ) g ( a ) = 1/ ( a + h ) 1/ a =

multiples of / 4.
Horizontal: None, because lim tan 2 x and
x

g.

36. Vertical: x = 0, because


sin x
1 sin x
lim
= lim
=.
2
+
+
x
x 0
x 0 x x

h.

lim tan 2 x do not exist.

g (a + h) g (a)

(a + h) a

3. a.

Horizontal: y = 0, because
lim

sin x
x2

= lim

sin x

x2

1. a.

f ( 2.1) = 2.12 = 4.41

c.

f ( 2.1) f ( 2 ) = 4.41 4 = 0.41

d.
e.

f.

g.

h.

f ( 2.1) f ( 2 )
2.1 2

0.41
=
= 4.1
0.1

f ( a + h ) = ( a + h ) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2
2

f ( a + h ) f ( a ) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2 a 2
= 2ah + h 2
f (a + h) f (a)

(a + h) a

lim

h0

2ah + h 2
=
= 2a + h
h

f (a + h) f ( a)

(a + h) a

g (a + h) g (a)

(a + h) a

h0

h 0

c.

F ( 2.1) F ( 2 ) = 1.449 1.414 = 0.035

d.

F ( 2.1) F ( 2 )
2.1 2

Review and Preview

0.035
= 0.35
0.1

e.

F (a + h) = a + h

f.

F (a + h) F (a) = a + h a

g.

h.

F (a + h) F (a)

lim

a+h a
h

( a + h) a

F (a + h) F (a)

h0

= lim

(a + h) a

a+h a

h 0

= lim

h 0

h 0

= lim

h 0

92

1
a2

F ( 2 ) = 2 1.414

= lim
= lim ( 2a + h ) = 2a

1
a (a + h)

F ( 2.1) = 2.1 1.449

f ( 2 ) = 22 = 4

b.

lim

b.
= 0.

Review and Preview Problems

h
a (a + h)

h
a (a + h)

(
(

h0

)(

a+h + a

a+h + a

a+ha
a+h + a
h
a+h + a
1

a+h + a

a+h a
h

= lim

)
)
1
2 a

a
2a

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

4. a.

G ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 8 + 1 = 9
3

10.

b.

G ( 2.1) = ( 2.1) + 1 = 9.261 + 1 = 10.261

c.

G ( 2.1) G ( 2 ) = 10.261 9 = 1.261

d.
e.

G ( 2.1) G ( 2 )
2.1 2

1.261
= 12.61
0.1

4
32
3
cm3
V0 = ( 2 ) =
3
3
4
62.5 125
3
=
cm3
V1 = ( 2.5 ) =
3
3
6
125
32
V = V1 V0 =
cm3
cm3
6
3
61
= cm3 31.940 cm3
6

11. a.

G ( a + h) = ( a + h) + 1
3

= a 3 + 3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3 + 1
f.

G ( a + h ) G ( a ) = ( a + h ) + 1 a + 1

) (

b.

d = 6002 + 4002
= 721 miles

c.

d = 6752 + 5002
= 840 miles

= a3 + 3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3 + 1 a 3 + 1
2

= 3a h + 3ah + h

g.

G ( a + h) G ( a)

(a + h) a

North plane has traveled 600miles. East


plane has traveled 400 miles.

3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3
h

= 3a 2 + 3ah + h 2

h.

lim

h0

G ( a + h) G ( a)

(a + h) a

= lim 3a 2 + 3ah + h 2
h 0

= 3a 2

5. a.

( a + b )3 = a3 + 3a 2b +

b.

( a + b ) 4 = a 4 + 4 a 3b +

c.

( a + b )5 = a 5 + 5 a 4 b +

6.

( a + b )n = a n + na n 1b +

7. sin ( x + h ) = sin x cos h + cos x sin h


8. cos ( x + h ) = cos x cos h sin x sin h
9. a.

The point will be at position (10, 0 ) in all


three cases ( t = 1, 2,3 ) because it will have
made 4, 8, and 12 revolutions respectively.

b. Since the point is rotating at a rate of 4


revolutions per second, it will complete 1
1
revolution after second. Therefore, the
4
point will first return to its starting position
1
at time t = .
4

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Review and Preview

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.