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# 1

CHAPTER

Limits
9.

## 1.1 Concepts Review

x3 4 x 2 + x + 6
x 1
x +1
lim

( x + 1)( x 2 5 x + 6)
x 1
x +1

1. L; c

= lim

2. 6

= lim ( x 2 5 x + 6)
x 1
2

3. L; right

= (1) 5(1) + 6

4. lim f ( x) = M

= 12

x c

## Problem Set 1.1

x2
= lim( x 2 + 2 x 1) = 1
x 0

1. lim( x 5) = 2

x 0

x 3

2. lim (1 2t ) = 3

11.

t 1

3.
4.

## lim ( x 2 + 2 x 1) = (2) 2 + 2(2) 1 = 1

= t t = 2t

lim ( x 2 + 2t 1) = (2) 2 + 2t 1 = 3 + 2t

x 2

) ( ( 1)

6. lim t 2 x 2 =
t 1

12.

) ( ( 1) 1) = 0

5. lim t 2 1 =
t 1

x2 4
( x 2)( x + 2)
= lim
x2 x 2
x2
x2
= lim( x + 2)

x2 9
x 3 x 3
( x 3)( x + 3)
= lim
x 3
x3
= lim( x + 3)
lim

x 3

x2 = 1 x2

7. lim

=3+3=6
13.

x2

lim

(t + 4)(t 2) 4
(3t 6) 2

t 2

= lim

=2+2=4
8.

x2 t 2
( x + t )( x t )
= lim
xt x + t
x t
x+t
= lim ( x t )
lim

x t

x 2

x 4 + 2 x3 x 2

10. lim

(t 2) 2 t + 4
9(t 2) 2

t 2

t 2 + 4t 21
t 7
t+7
(t + 7)(t 3)
= lim
t 7
t+7
= lim (t 3)

t+4
9

= lim

lim

t 2

2+4
6
=
9
9

t 7

= 7 3 = 10

14.

(t 7)3
t 7

lim

t 7+

= lim
t 7

= lim

t 7+

(t 7) t 7
t 7
t 7

= 77 = 0

## Instructors Resource Manual

Section 1.1

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

15. lim

x 4 18 x 2 + 81

x 3

( x 3)

= lim

x 3

( x 3) 2 ( x + 3) 2

= lim

x 3

( x 3)

( x 2 9) 2
( x 3)

= lim( x + 3)2 = (3 + 3) 2

lim

t 0

## (3u + 4)(2u 2)3

(u 1) 2

u 1

= lim

( x sin x ) 2 / x 2

21.

x 3

1.

0.0251314

0.1

2.775 106

0.01

2.77775 1010

(u 1) 2

0.001

2.77778 1014

1.
0.1

0.0251314
2.775 106

0.01

2.77775 1010

0.001

2.77778 1014

= 36

16. lim

1 cos t
=0
2t

u 1

## = lim 8(3u + 4)(u 1) = 8[3(1) + 4](1 1) = 0

u 1

17.

(2 + h) 2 4
4 + 4h + h 2 4
= lim
h0
h0
h
h
lim

h 2 + 4h
= lim(h + 4) = 4
h 0
h 0
h

= lim

lim

( x sin x) 2
x2

x 0

18.

( x + h) 2 x 2
x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 x 2
= lim
h0
h 0
h
h
lim

h 2 + 2 xh
= lim(h + 2 x) = 2 x
h 0
h 0
h

= lim

sin x
2x

19.

(1 cos x ) / x

22.

0.211322

0.1

0.00249584

0.01
0.001

0.0000249996
2.5 107

1.

0.211322

0.1

0.00249584
0.0000249996
2.5 107

0.420735

0.1

0.499167

0.01

0.499992

0.01

0.001

0.49999992

0.001

1.

0.420735

0.1

0.499167

0.01

0.499992

0.001

0.49999992

0.01
0.001

x2

x 0

(t 1) /(sin(t 1))

23.

=0

1.1

2.1035

1.01

2.01003

1.001

2.001

0.229849

1.1884

0.0249792

0.9

1.90317

0.00249998

0.99

1.99003

0.999

1.999

1 cos t
2t

0.1

(1 cos x) 2

3.56519

sin x
= 0.5
x 0 2 x

1.

lim

2.

lim

0.00024999998

1.

1.

20.

=0

t 1
=2
1)
2

lim

64

1.

0.229849

0.1

0.0249792

0.01

0.00249998

0.001

0.00024999998

Section 1.1

t 1 sin(t

## Instructors Resource Manual

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x sin( x 3) 3
x 3

24.

4.

1. + 4
0.1 +

0.158529

3.1

2.

lim

x
4

(1 + sin( x 3 / 2)) /( x )

x
1. +

0.4597

0.1 +

0.0500

0.01 +

0.0050

0.001 +

0.0005

0.0050

0.001 +

0.0005

1 + sin ( x 32 )
x

=0

0.1 +

0.0000210862
2.12072 107

0.536908

0.00226446

0.0000213564
2.12342 107

2 2sin u
lim
=0

u
3u
2

29. a.

0.896664

0.01

0.989967

0.001

0.999

d.

1.

1.64209

e.

0.1

1.09666

f.

0.01

1.00997

0.001

1.001

lim f ( x) = 2

x 3

b. f(3) = 1
c.

g.

= 1
h.

i.

## Instructors Resource Manual

0.00199339

0.001 +

0.1

1
t

0.11921

0.01 +

0.357907

1 cot t

= 0.25
(2 2sin u ) / 3u

0.001 +

1.

t 0

(tan x 1)2

0.01 + 2

(1 cot t ) /(1 / t )

lim

(x )

0.2505

0.1 + 2

26.

0.255008

1. + 2

0.0500

0.01 +

lim

0.300668

28.

0.4597

0.1 +

0.674117

2
4

1. + 2

1. +

0.2495

0.001 + 4

x sin( x 3) 3
=0
lim
x 3
x3
25.

0.245009

0.01 + 4

0.0000166666
1.66667 107

2.999

0.1 + 4

0.00166583

2.99

0.201002

1. + 4

0.158529

2.9

0.001 +

0.0000166666
1.66667 107

3.001

0.0320244

0.01 +

0.00166583

3.01

( x / 4) 2 /(tan x 1) 2

27.

## f(1) does not exist.

lim f ( x) =

x 1

5
2

f(1) = 2
lim f(x) does not exist.
x1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1+

lim f ( x ) =
+

x 1

5
2

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65

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

b.

b.

f(3) = 1

c.

f(1) = 2

c.

f(1) = 1

d.

30. a.

d.

x 3

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

e.

f(1) = 1

f.

g.
h.
i.
31. a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
32. a.
b.
c.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1+

34.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1

## lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 1+

lim f ( x ) = 2

x 1+

a.

f(3) = 2
f(3) is undefined.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

c.

x 3

lim f ( x) = 4

x 3+

d.

x 3

lim g ( x) = 0

35.

lim g ( x ) = 1

x2

lim g ( x ) = 1

x 2+

f ( x) = x [ x ]

## lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 3+

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1+

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

d. f (1) = 2
e.

lim f ( x) = 0

f.

f (1) = 0

x 1

a.
b.

33.
c.

d.

a.

66

f(0) = 0
lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 0

lim f ( x ) = 1

x 0

lim f ( x) =

x 1
2

1
2

lim f ( x) = 0

x 0

Section 1.1

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

f ( x) =

36.

x
x

xa

xa

43. a.

x 1

lim

x 1

lim

x 1
x 1

x 1

b.

a.

b.

x 0

lim

x 1

lim

c.

x 1
x 1
x 1

= 1 and lim

x 1

x 1

=1

= 1

x2 x 1 1
x 1

x 1

x 1

= 3

lim f ( x ) = 1

c.

x 0

d.

1
1
lim

## does not exist.

x 1
x 1
x 1

d.

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1

44. a.

x2 1
37. lim
does not exist.
x 1 x 1
lim

x 1

x 0

= lim

c1f
lim dd gg does not exist.
+ x
x 0 e h

x+2 2
x

c.

lim x(1)ed

( x + 2 2)( x + 2 + 2)

d.

x 0

x+22
x( x + 2 + 2)

= lim

x 0

39. a.
b.

c1/ x f
hg

x 0

= lim

x 0

2
=
=
=
4
0+2 + 2 2 2
x+2+ 2

=0

c1/ x f
hg

x 0

45. a) 1

x( x + 2 + 2)

lim a x b (1)ed

x( x + 2 + 2)

x 0

= lim

x a xb = 0

b.

x2 1
x2 1
=2
= 2 and lim
x 1
x 1+ x 1

38. lim

lim
x 1+

b) 0

c)

=0

d)

c)

b) 0
d) 0.556

x 1

lim f ( x) = 0

x 0

x 0

40.

x is not defined

for x < 0.
48.

lim x x = 1

x 0+

49. lim

x 0

x =0
x

50. lim x = 1
x 0

sin 2 x 1
=
x 0 4 x
2

51. lim

## Instructors Resource Manual

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

52. lim

x 0

## 7. If x is within 0.001 of 2, then 2x is within 0.002

of 4.

sin 5 x 5
=
3x
3

1
53. lim cos does not exist.
x 0
x
1
54. lim x cos = 0
x 0
x

x3 1

55. lim

56. lim

x 0

57.

=6

2x + 2 2

x 1

x sin 2 x
sin( x 2 )

lim

x 2

58. lim

x 1

of 4.

=2

x2 x 2
= 3
x2

2
1/( x 1)

1+ 2

=0

x 0

lim

x 0

0.002 of 4.

8 x is within

## 1.2 Concepts Review

1. L ; L +
2. 0 < x a < ; f ( x) L <
10. If x is within 0.001 of 2, then
3.

8
is within 0.002
x

of 4.

4. ma + b

## Problem Set 1.2

1. 0 < t a < f (t ) M <
2. 0 < u b < g (u ) L <

2x 1+ 1 < 2x <

2 x <

x <

## 5. 0 < c x < f ( x) L <

6. 0 < t a < g (t ) D <

68

## 11. 0 < x 0 < (2 x 1) (1) <

Section 1.2

= ;0 < x 0 <

2
(2 x 1) (1) = 2 x = 2 x < 2 =

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

## 12. 0 < x + 21 < (3x 1) (64) <

3 x 1 + 64 < 3 x + 63 <

3( x + 21) <

2 x 2 11x + 5
(2 x 1)( x 5)
9 <
9 <
x5
x5

3 x + 21 <
x + 21 <

2x 1 9 <

2( x 5) <

= ; 0 < x + 21 <

3
(3 x 1) (64) = 3 x + 63 = 3 x + 21 < 3 =

x 2 25
13. 0 < x 5 <
10 <
x5
x 2 25
( x 5)( x + 5)
10 <
10 <
x5
x5
x + 5 10 <

x5 <

= ;0 < x 5 <
2

2 x 11x + 5
(2 x 1)( x 5)
9 =
9
x5
x5
2

= 2 x 1 9 = 2( x 5) = 2 x 5 < 2 =

## 16. 0 < x 1 <

x5 <

2x 2 <

2x 2 <

= ; 0 < x 5 <

( 2 x 2 )( 2 x + 2 )

x 25
( x 5)( x + 5)
10 =
10 = x + 5 10
x5
x5

2x + 2

2x 2

2x + 2

= x5 < =
2

2x x
14. 0 < x 0 <
(1) <
x
2 x2 x
x(2 x 1)
+1 <
+1 <
x
x
2x <
2 x <

= ;0 < x 0 <
2

2 x2 x
x(2 x 1)
(1) =
+ 1 = 2x 1+ 1
x
x

<

x 1
2x + 2

<

2
; 0 < x 1 <
2
( 2 x 2)( 2 x + 2)
2x 2 =
2x + 2

2x 2
2x + 2
2 x 1
2 x 1 2

<
=
2x + 2
2
2

## 17. 0 < x 4 <

2x 1
x3

= 2 x = 2 x < 2 =

<

2x 1 +1 <

x <

2 x 2 11x + 5
9 <
x5

## 15. 0 < x 5 <

2x 1
x3

7 <

7 <

2 x 1 7( x 3)
x3

<

( 2 x 1 7( x 3))( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
2 x 1 (7 x 21)
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
5( x 4)
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

<

<
<

Section 1.2

69

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x4

To bound

5
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

1
2

1
2

, agree that

7
9
< x < , so
2
2

5
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

hence x 4

## < 1.65 and

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

<

2x 1

7 = x4
x 3
x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))
< x 4 (1.65) < 1. 65
1
1

## since = only when

so 1.65 .
2
2 1. 65

14 x 2 20 x + 6
8 <
x 1

14 x 2 20 x + 6
2(7 x 3)( x 1)
8 <
8 <
x 1
x 1
2(7 x 3) 8 <
14( x 1) <
14 x 1 <

14

( x 1)2

4 <

4 <

10 x 6 4 <
10 x 1 <
x 1 <

1.65
For whatever is chosen, let be the smaller of
1

and
.
1.65
2
1

= min ,
, 0 < x 4 <
2 1. 65

x 1 <

4 <

10( x 1) <

## 18. 0 < x 1 <

( x 1) 2

( x 1)2

x4 <

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

. If , then
0.65 <

<

14

10

10

; 0 < x 1 <

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6
( x 1) 2

4 =

(10 x 6)( x 1) 2
( x 1) 2

= 10 x 6 4 = 10( x 1)
= 10 x 1 < 10 =

## 20. 0 < x 1 < (2 x 2 + 1) 3 <

2 x2 + 1 3 = 2 x2 2 = 2 x + 1 x 1

## To bound 2 x + 2 , agree that 1 .

x 1 < implies

2x + 2 = 2x 2 + 4
2x 2 + 4

<2+4=6

; = min 1, ; 0 < x 1 <
6

(2 x + 1) 3 = 2 x 2 2
2

= 2x + 2 x 1 < 6 =
6

; 0 < x 1 <

14 x 2 20 x + 6
2(7 x 3)( x 1)
8 =
8
x 1
x 1
= 2(7 x 3) 8
= 14( x 1) = 14 x 1 < 14 =

70

Section 1.2

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

## 21. 0 < x + 1 < ( x 2 2 x 1) 2 <

x2 2 x 1 2 = x2 2 x 3 = x + 1 x 3

## To bound x 3 , agree that 1 .

x + 1 < implies

1
25. For all x 0 , 0 sin 2 1 so
x
1

x 4 sin 2 x 4 for all x 0 . By Problem 18,
x
4
lim x = 0, so, by Problem 20,
x0

4
2 1
lim x sin = 0.
x
x0

x 3 = x + 1 4 x + 1 + 4 < 1 + 4 = 5

; = min 1, ; 0 < x + 1 <
5

## 26. 0 < x <

( x 2 x 1) 2 = x 2 2 x 3
2

= x +1 x 3 < 5

x 0 =

x = x <

2
For x > 0, ( x ) = x.

x < ( x )2 = x < 2

## 22. 0 < x < x 4 0 = x 4 <

x 4 = x x3 . To bound x3 , agree that
3

1. x < 1 implies x3 = x 1 so
.
= min{1, }; 0 < x < x 4 = x x3 < 1

27.

## lim x : 0 < x < x 0 <

x 0 +

For x 0 , x = x .

## = ; 0 < x < x 0 = x = x < =

Thus, lim+ x = 0.
x0

x c

## some 1 > 0 such that

0 < x c < 1 f ( x ) L < .

x 0

since x 0.

x = x

Thus, lim x = 0,

xc

## Let = min{1 , 2 } and choose x 0 such that

0 < x0 c < .
Thus, f ( x0 ) L < < f ( x0 ) L <
f ( x0 ) < L < f ( x0 ) +
f ( x0 ) < L < f ( x0 ) + .
Similarly,
f ( x0 ) < M < f ( x0 ) + .
Thus,
2 < L M < 2 . As 0, L M 0, so
L = M.

x0

x 0 +

x 0

x 0

x a

.
B

## Let = min{1, 1} , then f ( x) < B for

x a < or x a < f ( x) < B. Thus,
x a < f ( x) g ( x) 0 = f ( x) g ( x)
= f ( x) g ( x) < B

= so lim f ( x)g(x) = 0.
x a

xc

## can find > 0 such that whenever

x c < , G ( x) < .
Take any > 0 and the corresponding that
works for G(x), then x c < implies
F ( x) 0 = F ( x) G ( x ) < since
lim G(x) = 0.
xc

Thus, lim F( x) = 0.
xc

## Instructors Resource Manual

Section 1.2

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x a

## > 0 such that for 0 < x a < , f ( x) L < .

That is, for
a < x < a or a < x < a + ,
L < f ( x) < L + .
Let f(a) = A,
M = max { L , L + , A } , c = a ,

## d = a + . Then for x in (c, d), f ( x) M , since

either x = a, in which case
f ( x) = f (a ) = A M or 0 < x a < so

1. 48
2. 4
3. 8; 4 + 5c
4. 0

## Problem Set 1.3

1. lim (2 x + 1)
= lim 2 x + lim 1
x1

x 1

## and = min{1 , 2} where

2
0 < x a < 1 f ( x) L < and

2.

x 1

## L < f(x) < L + and M < g(x) < M + .

Combine the inequalities and use the fact
that f ( x) g ( x) to get
L < f(x) g(x) < M + which leads to
L < M + or L M < 2.
However,
L M = > 2
Thus L M .

x+6

x 4x + x 2 + x + 6
an asymptote at x 3.49.

c.

= 3(1) 1 = 2

## 3. lim [(2 x +1)( x 3)]

+ 1 has

1
, then 2.75 < x < 3
4
or 3 < x < 3.25 and by graphing

x0

x 0

x 0

x 0
x 0 x0
x 0

## = 2 lim x + lim 1 lim x lim 3

x 0

x 0
x0
x 0
= [2(0) +1](0 3) = 3
lim [(2 x 2 + 1)(7 x 2 + 13)]

x 2

x 2

If

y = g ( x) =

2, 1

## = lim (2 x 2 + 1) lim (7 x 2 + 13)

x 4 4x 3 + x 2 + x + 6
3

x1

= 3 lim x lim 1
x 1
x 1

4.

x 3 x 2 2x 4

x1

x 1

## 32. For every > 0 and > 0 there is some x with

0 < x c < such that f ( x ) L > .

= 3 lim x 2 lim 1

limit.

b. No, because

lim (3x 2 1)

x 1

= lim 3x 2 lim 1

g(x) =

2,1

x1

= 2(1) + 1 = 3

## 0 < x a < 2 g ( x) M < .

33. a.

x1

= 2 lim x + lim 1

take <

x1

x 2

4, 5
3
2, 1

6
4, 3

## = 2 lim x 2 + lim 1 7 lim x 2 + lim 13 8,1

x 2 x 2
x 2
x 2
2
2

= 2 lim x + 1 7 lim x + 13
2
x 2
x 2

## = [2( 2 ) 2 + 1][7( 2 ) 2 + 13] = 135

x3 x 2 2 x 4

x 4 4 x3 + x 2 + x + 6
on the interval [2.75, 3.25], we see that
0<

x3 x 2 2 x 4

<3
x 4 4 x3 + x 2 + x + 6
so m must be at least three.

72

Section 1.3

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

2x + 1
x2 5 3x
lim (2 x + 1)
= x2
lim (5 3 x)

9.

5. lim

4, 5

x2

3, 1

lim 5 lim 3 x

x2

13

4, 3

= 2 lim t 3 + lim 15
t 2
t 2

lim 2 x + lim 1

x2

t 2

t2

x2

## lim (2t 3 +15)13

13

2 lim x + 1
x2

= 2 lim t + lim 15
t 2 t 2

x2

2, 1

= [2(2) 3 + 15]13 = 1

5 3 lim x

13

x2

2(2) + 1
=
= 5
5 3(2 )

10.

6.

4x +1

lim

x 3 7 2 x 2

lim (4 x + 1)

lim (7 2 x )
lim 4 x 3 + lim 1
x 3

lim 7 lim 2 x 2

x 3

x 3

x 3

13

5, 3

= 3 lim x lim 5

2, 1

x 3

lim

x 3

5x2 + 2 x

lim (5 x + 2 x )

x 3

= 5 lim x 2 + 2 lim x
x 3

x 3

4 lim y 3 + 8 lim y
y 2
y 2
=

y + lim 4
ylim

2
2

8, 1
1/ 3

= 3(3) 5 = 2

8.

4, 3
13

lim (3 x 5)

x 3

x 3

lim (4 y 3 + 8 y )
y 2

=
( y + 4)
ylim

7. lim 3 x 5

4 y3 + 8 y
= lim

y 2 y + 4

4 y3 + 8 y
lim

y 2 y + 4

1/ 3

x 3

4 lim x + 1
x 3
=
2
7 2 lim x
x 3
4(3)3 + 1 107
=
=
11
7 2(3) 2

1/ 3

11.

7 2 lim x 2

w 2

= 3(2)3 + 7(2) 2 = 2 13

3, 1

x 3

4 lim x 3 + 1

4, 3

= 3 lim w + 7 lim w
w 2
w 2

x 3

lim (3w3 + 7 w2 )

4, 5

w 2

w 2

x 3

x 3

3w3 + 7 w2

= 3 lim w3 + 7 lim w2

lim

w 2

4, 3

4 lim y + 8 lim y
y 2
y 2
=

lim y + 4

y 2

1/ 3

4(2)3 + 8(2)
=

2+4

=2

= 5 lim x + 2 lim x
x 3
x 3

= 5(3)2 + 2(3) = 39

## Instructors Resource Manual

Section 1.3

73

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

12.

lim (2 w 4 9 w 3 +19)1 /2
1

= lim

w 5

2w 9 w3 + 19
lim 1
w5
4

1, 9

2w 9 w + 19

lim

w 5

x2

19. lim

## lim (2w 9 w3 + 19)

w 5

1
lim 2 w4 lim 9 w3 + lim 19

w5

w5

2 lim w 9 lim w3 + 19
w5

1
4

1
144

x2

x2 4
2

x +4

(
lim ( x

) 44
=
=0
+ 4) 4 + 4

lim x 4

x2

x2

= lim ( x 3) = 1
x2

( x 3)( x + 1)
x2 2 x 3
= lim
x 1
x 1
x +1
( x + 1)
lim

= lim ( x 3) = 4

16.

17.

lim

x 1

x2 + x
x2 + 1

(
lim ( x

) 0
= =0
+ 1) 2

lim x + x

x 1

x 1

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
x3
= lim
x 1 ( x 1)( x 2)( x + 7)
x 1 x + 7
lim

1 3
2
=
1 + 7
3

u u 6
u x x+2
= lim
=
5
u 2 u 3
u 2

( u + 2 )( u x )
u 2 ( u + 2)(u 3)

= lim

x 2 + ux x u
( x 1)( x + u)
= lim
2
x1 x + 2 x 3
x 1 ( x 1)( x + 3)
x + u 1+ u u + 1
= lim
=
=
4
x1 x + 3 1+ 3

2 x2 6 x + 4 2

2( x )( x 2 )
x
x
x ( x )( x + )
2( x 2) 2( 2 )
= lim
=
= 1
+
x x +

23. lim

24.

lim

= lim

(w + 2)(w 2 w 6)

w 2 + 4w + 4
( w + 2) 2 ( w 3)
= lim
= lim ( w 3)
( w + 2 )2
w 2
w 2
= 2 3 = 5
w 2

25. lim

xa

f 2 ( x) + g 2 ( x)

lim f 2 ( x) + lim g 2 ( x)

xa

xa

= lim f ( x) + lim g ( x)
x a
xa

= (3) 2 + (1)2 = 10
[2 f ( x) 3 g ( x)]
2 f ( x) 3g ( x ) xlim
= a
x a f ( x) + g ( x)
lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)]

26. lim

xa

2 lim f ( x) 3 lim g ( x)
xa

xa

lim f ( x) + lim g ( x)

xa

Section 1.3

= lim

u2 ux + 2u 2 x

lim

74

( x + 2)( x 1)
( x + 1)( x 1)

( x + 3)( x 17)
x 3 x 4 x 21
x 3 ( x + 3)( x 7)
x 17 3 17
= lim
=
=2
3 7
x 3 x 7

x 1

x 1

22. lim

1
12

( x 3)( x 2 )
x2 5x + 6
14. lim
= lim
x2
x2
x2
( x 2)

15.

2(5)4 9(5)3 + 19

lim

13.

21.

2 lim w 9 lim w + 19
w 5
w5
1

= lim

x 2 14 x 51

lim

w5

1,3

20.

w5

x 1
x + 2 1+ 2 3
= lim
=
=
x 1 x + 1
1+1 2

4,5

x2 + x 2

x 1

x 2 + 7 x + 10
( x + 2)( x + 5)
= lim
x2
x

2
x+2
x+2
= lim( x + 5) = 7

18. lim

w 5

xa

2(3) 3(1) 9
=
3 + (1)
2

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

xa

xa

xa

x a
xa
xa

= 6

## 28. lim [ f ( x) 3]4 = lim ( f ( x) 3)

xa
xa

= lim f (t ) + 3 lim g (t )
t a

u a
u a
3

## = lim f (u ) + 3 lim g(u) = [3 + 3( 1)]3 = 0

u a

u a
3x 2

12
3( x 2 )(x + 2)
31. lim
= lim
x

2
x 2
x2
x2
= 3 lim (x + 2) = 3(2 + 2) = 12
x2

(3x 2 + 2 x + 1) 17
3x 2 + 2 x 16
= lim
x2
x2
x2
x 2
(3 x + 8)( x 2)
= lim
= lim (3 x + 8)
x2
x2
x 2
= 3 lim x + 8 = 3(2) + 8 = 14
x2

1
2

= lim

2 x
2x

= lim

34.

3
4

x2

3( 4 x 2 )

= lim

4x2

3( x + 2 )( x 2 )

= lim

4x2

x2
x2
x2
3 lim x + 2
3( x + 2)
= 3(2 + 2)
= lim
= x 2
2
2
x2
4x
4(2)2
4 lim x
x2
3
=
4
x2

xc

xc

g ( x) M <

L + M +1

L + M +1

. Let

## = min{1 , 2 , 3 }, then 0 < x c <

f ( x) g ( x) LM g ( x) f ( x) L + L g ( x ) M

< ( M + 1)

L + M +1

+L

L + M +1

Hence,
lim f ( x) g ( x) = LM = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
x c
x c

x2

## 36. Say lim g ( x ) = M , M 0 , and choose

x c

1
M
.
2
There is some 1 > 0 such that

1 =

1
M or
2

1
1
M < g ( x) < M + M .
2
2
1
1
1
1
M M M and M + M M
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
so g ( x) > M and
<
g ( x)
M
2
M

x 2

lim

## 0 < x c < 1 , g ( x) < M + 1. Choose > 0.

Since lim f (x) = L and lim g(x) = M, there

## 0 < x c < 1 g ( x) M < 1 =

x2
2x

x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2
1
1
1
1
= lim
=
=
=
2 lim x 2(2)
4
x2 2 x
x2

3
x2

x c

x c

32. lim

f ( x) g ( x) LM g ( x) f ( x) L + L g ( x ) M

## as shown in the text. Choose 1 = 1. Since

lim g ( x) = M , there is some 1 > 0 such that if

f ( x) L <

= 3 + 3 1 = 6

33. lim

xc

M 1 M + 1 and M + 1 M + 1 so for

t a
t a
t a

1
x

xc

## 0 < x c < 1 , g ( x) M < 1 = 1 or

M 1 < g(x) < M + 1

= lim f ( x) lim 3 = (3 3) 4 = 0
x a
xa

t a

## 35. Suppose lim f (x) = L and lim g(x) = M.

Choose > 0.
Since lim g(x) = M there is 2 > 0 such that
xc

0< xc <

1 2
M .
2

1
1
M g ( x)

=
g ( x) M
g ( x) M

1
2
2 1 2
M
g ( x) M <
g ( x) M =
2
M g ( x)
M
M2 2

## Instructors Resource Manual

Section 1.3

75

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Thus, lim
xc

1
1
1
=
=
.
g(x) M lim g (x)

43.

xc

## Using statement 6 and the above result,

f ( x)
1
lim
= lim f ( x) lim
x c g ( x )
x c
x c g ( x )
lim f ( x )
1
.
= lim f ( x)
= x c
lim g ( x ) lim g ( x)
x c
x c

xc

x 3+

x c

## lim f (x) lim L = 0

lim [ f (x) L] = 0

45.

xc

## 38. lim f (x) = 0 lim f (x) = 0

xc
xc

x2 9

x 3+

46.

lim f ( x) = 0

x2 9
x+3

32 9
=0
3+3

lim

x 1

x c

xc

( x 3) x 2 9

( x 3) x 2 9
= lim
x 3+ ( x 3)( x + 3)
x 3+

44.

x c

x2 9

= lim

= lim

x c

x3

lim

lim

x 2+

1+ x
1+1
2
=
=
4 + 4 x 4 + 4(1)
8
( x 2 + 1) x
(3 x 1)

(22 + 1) 2
(3 2 1)

## lim ( x x ) = lim x lim

x 3

x 3

x 3

5 2
5

2
5

x = 3 2 =1

xc

lim f 2 ( x) = 0

47.

x c

lim

x c

f 2 ( x) = 0

48.

lim f ( x) = 0

lim

x
= 1
x

lim

x 2 + 2 x = 32 + 2 3 = 15

x 0

x 3+

xc

## 39. lim x = lim x =

x c
x c

lim x

x c

lim x 2

x c

x +1
x5
, g ( x) =
and c = 2, then
x2
x2
lim [ f (x) + g (x)] exists, but neither

xc

## lim f (x) nor lim g(x) exists.

xc

2
, g ( x) = x, and c = 0, then
x
lim [ f (x) g( x)] exists, but lim f (x) does

b. If f ( x) =
xc

xc

not exist.
41.

42.

76

lim

x 3+

3+ x
33
=
=0
x
3

3 + x3
=
x
x +
lim

Section 1.3

1
f ( x)

lim g ( x) = 0 lim

1
=0
f ( x)

If f ( x) =

xc

f ( x) g ( x) = 1; g ( x) =

x a

= lim x = c 2 = c
x c

40. a.

49.

3 + ( )3
=0

x a

1
=0
lim f ( x)

xa

x a

## must not exist.

1
x
50. R has the vertices ,
2
2

x 2 + 1 so the

## perimeter of Q is 4 x 2 + 1. R has two sides of

length 1 and two sides of length

x 2 so the

perimeter of R is 2 + 2 x 2 .
lim

x 0 +

perimeter of R
2 x2 + 2
= lim
perimeter of Q x 0+ 4 x 2 + 1

2 02 + 2
2

4 0 +1

2 1
=
4 2

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

NO = (0 0)2 + (1 0)2 = 1

51. a.

4. lim

OP = ( x 0)2 + ( y 0) 2 = x 2 + y 2
= x2 + x
NP = ( x 0)2 + ( y 1)2 = x 2 + y 2 2 y + 1
= x + x 2 x +1
MO = (1 0) 2 + (0 0) 2 = 1
y2 + x2 2 x + 1

= x2 x + 1
perimeter of NOP
lim
x 0+ perimeter of MOP
= lim
=

1+ 1
1+ 1

1 + x2 + x + x2 x + 1
=1

x
1
(1)( x) =
2
2
1
x
Area of MOP = (1)( y ) =
2
2

b. Area of NOP =

area of NOP
x
= lim 2 = lim
x
+
+
+
MOP
area
of

x
x 0
x 0
x 0
lim

= lim

x 0+

x =0

## 1.4 Concepts Review

1. 0

0
=0
1

5. lim

sin x 1
sin x 1
1
= lim
= 1 =
2x
2 x 0 x
2
2

sin 3
3 sin 3 3
sin 3
= lim
= lim
3
2 0 3
0 2
0 2
3
3
= 1 =
2
2

6. lim

sin 3
sin 3
cos sin 3
= lim sin = lim
0 tan
0
0
sin
cos

sin 3 1
= lim cos 3
sin
0
3

sin 3 1
= 3 lim cos
sin
0
3

= 3 1 1 1 = 3

sin 5

sin 5
tan 5
= lim cos 5 = lim
0 sin 2
0 sin 2
0 cos 5 sin 2
sin 5 1 2
1
= lim
5

5 2 sin 2
0 cos 5
5
sin 5 2
1
= lim

2 0 cos 5 5 sin 2
5
5
= 111 =
2
2

8. lim

cot sin
= lim
0
0
2 sec

9. lim

cos
sin

sin

2
cos

2sin
cos cos sin 1
= lim

sin
2
0
1
sin

sin
2 0
1
1
1111 =
=
2
2
= lim

2. 1

4. 1

## Problem Set 1.4

cos x 1
= =1
x 0 x + 1 1

sin 2 3t
9t sin 3t sin 3t
= lim

= 0 1 1 = 0
t 0
t

0
2t
2 3t
3t

1. lim

2.

3 x tan x
3x (sin x / cos x)
3x
= lim
= lim
x 0
x 0 cos x
sin x
sin x

7. lim

1 + x2 + x + x2 + x 2 x + 1

x 0+

x 0

MP = ( x 1)2 + ( y 0) 2 =

x 0

lim cos =

/ 2

10. lim

0 = 0

cos 2 t
cos 2 0
1
=
=
=1
t 0 1 + sin t 1 + sin 0 1 + 0

3. lim

tan 2 3t
sin 2 3t
= lim
t 0
t 0 (2t )(cos 2 3t )
2t

11. lim

= lim
t 0

3(sin 3t ) sin 3t

= 0 1 = 0
3t

2 cos 2 3t

tan 2t
0
=
=0
t 0 sin 2t 1
1

12. lim

## Instructors Resource Manual

Section 1.4

77

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

sin(3t ) + 4t
4t
sin 3t
= lim
+

t 0 t sec t
t sec t
t sec t
sin 3t
4t
= lim
+ lim
t 0 t sec t t 0 t sec t
sin 3t
= lim 3cos t
+ lim 4 cos t
t 0
t 0
3t
= 3 1 + 4 = 7

13. lim

t 0

14.

sin 2
sin sin
lim
= lim
2

0
0
sin
sin
= lim
lim
= 1 1 = 1

0
0

19. lim 1 +
x 0

sin x
=2
x

t 0

## the proof of the theorem. Then

lim cos t = lim cos(c + h)
t c

h 0

h 0

h 0

x 0

h 0

h0

= cos c
lim sin t
sin t t c
sin c
=
=
= tan c
t c cos t
lim cos t cos c

t c

t c

t c

## 16. lim x sin 1/ x 2 = 0

x 0

t c

lim cos t

cos t t c
cos c
=
=
= cot c
sin t lim sin t sin c
t c

1
1
=
= sec c
cos t cos c
1
1
lim csc t = lim
=
= csc c
t c
t c sin t
sin c

t c

t c

## 23. BP = sin t , OB = cos t

area( OBP) area (sector OAP)
area (OBP) + area( ABPQ)

## 17. lim 1 cos 2 x / x = 0

x 0

1
1
1
OB BP t (1) 2 OB BP + (1 OB ) BP
2
2
2
1
1
1
sin t cos t t sin t cos t + (1 cos t ) sin t
2
2
2
t
2 cos t
sin t
1
sin t
1

## for < t < .

2 cos t
t
cos t
2
2
1
sin t
1
lim
lim
lim
t 0 2 cos t t 0 t
t 0 cos t
sin t
1
1 lim
t 0 t
sin t
= 1.
Thus, lim
t 0 t

cos t

x 0

78

Section 1.4

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

24. a.

Written response
6.

b.

c.

1
1
AB BP = (1 cos t ) sin t
2
2
sin t (1 cos t )
=
2
1
1
t sin t cos t
E = t (1)2 OB BP =
2
2
2
2
D sin t (1 cos t )
=
E
t sin t cos t
D=

D
lim = 0.75
+
t 0 E

2 x 100 x

8.

10.

## 1. x increases without bound; f(x) gets close to L as

x increases without bound

4. x = 6; vertical

sin 2

lim

2 5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

lim

x
1
= lim
=1
x 5 x 1 5

lim

x2

x 5 x3

lim

t2

t 7 t

lim

t t

= lim

x 5
x3

= lim

1 5
2

= lim

= 0 so lim

sin 2

2 5

=0

3 x3 / 2 + 3 x
2 x3 / 2

x3 + 3x
x3 + 3 x
lim 3
= 3 lim
x
x 2 x3 + 7 x
2 x3 + 7 x
3
x2
+ 72
x

+
2

=3

=0
2

13.
1

t 7
t2

= lim

2 x3
3+ 3

3 x3 + 3 x

lim

= 3 lim

1
x

1 5

12.

3 1 3
3 x3 x 2
x =
= lim
lim
3
2
x x 5 x
x 5
x

= lim

1
1
=
2 100
2
x

= lim

= lim

5 5 4

2 5

11.

lim

lim

## 2. f(x) increases without bound as x approaches c

from the right; f(x) decreases without bound as x
approaches c from the left
3. y = 6; horizontal

x3

7. lim

9.

## 1.5 Concepts Review

1
x2
lim
= lim
=1
2
8
x x 8 x + 15 x 1 + 15
x x2

= 1

t
1
= lim
=1
5 t 1 5
t

= 3 lim

14.

x2
x2
= lim
x ( x 5)(3 x) x x 2 + 8 x 15

## Instructors Resource Manual

1
x2

+8

x 1 + 4
x2

lim

1
= lim
= 1
8
x 1 + 15
x x2

1 + 8x
1 + 8x
lim 3
= 3 lim
2
x x + 4
x x 2 + 4

lim

= 38 =2

x2 + x + 3
=
( x 1)( x + 1)

lim

1 + 1x + 32
x

1 12

lim

x2 + x + 3

x 2 1

= 1 =1

15.

lim

n
1
1
= lim
=
2n + 1 n 2 + 1 2
n

Section 1.5

79

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

16. lim

n2
n2 + 1

= lim

1+

1
n2

1
=1
1+ 0

23.

lim n
n2
n

n
= lim
=
=
=
1
n n + 1 n
1 1+ 0

1+
lim 1 +
n n n

17. lim

18. lim

n
n2 + 1

1+

lim

1
n2

0
=0
1+ 0

x2 + 3

= lim

2 + 1x

x 2 +3
x

20.

21.

2
1

1+

3
x2

lim

= lim

2 x 2 + 3 (2 x 2 5)
2 x2 + 3 + 2 x2 5
8
2

2 x + 3 + 2 x2 5
8
x

2+

3
x2

8
x
2 x 2 +3 + 2 x 2 5
x2

+ 2

22.
lim x 2 + 2 x x

x 2 + 2 x x x 2 + 2 x + x

= lim
2
x
x + 2x + x

= lim

= lim

x + 2x x

= lim

2x

x 2 + 2 x + x x x 2 + 2 x + x
2
2
= =1
1+ 2 +1 2

bn
xn

1
1
1+ 2
n

a0
b0
1

1+ 0

=1

t 3+

## 29. As t 3 , t 2 9 while 9 t 2 0+.

t 3

t2

9 t2

=
+

30. As x 3 5 , x 2 52 / 3 while 5 x3 0 .
x3 5

5
x2

= lim

an
xn

t2 9
(t + 3)(t 3)
= lim
+
+
t +3
t 3 t + 3
t 3
= lim (t 3) = 6

lim

=0

+ +

bn 1
x n 1

lim

lim

= lim

an 1
x n 1

27. As x 4+ , x 4 while x 4 0 .
x
lim
=
+
x

4
x 4
28.

2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 5 2 x 2 + 3 + 2 x 2 5

= lim
2
2
x
2x + 3 + 2x 5

= lim

+ +

+ 12

lim 2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 5

n2

n
n3/ 2
= lim
= =
3
n
1
2
1
n + 2n + 1
1+ 2 + 3
n
n

26. lim

2x +1
x
= lim
= lim
=0
x+4
x 1 + 4
x 1 + 4
x
x

= lim

b0 +

b1
x

n +1

2
x

y 1

=2
2 x +1
x2

a1
x

2 + 1x

= lim

a0 +

25. lim

## 19. For x > 0, x = x 2 .

2x + 1

= lim

b0 x n + b1 x n 1 ++ bn 1 x + bn

lim

y2 2 y + 2

a0 x n + a1 x n 1 ++ an 1 x + an

= lim

1
n

= lim

24.

lim

1
y2
2+ 2
y y2

9y +

9 y3 + 1

x2
+

5 x3

## 31. As x 5 , x 2 25, x 5 0 , and

3 x 2.
x2
lim
=
x 5 ( x 5)(3 x)
32. As + , 2 2 while sin 0 .

2
=
+ sin
lim

80

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33. As x 3 , x3 27, while x 3 0 .

43.

lim

x 3

x
=
x3

+
2
,
while cos 0 .
2
2

=
lim
+ cos

34. As

35.

3
3
= 0, lim
= 0;
x +1
x x + 1
Horizontal asymptote y = 0.
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ;
x 1+ x + 1
x 1 x + 1
Vertical asymptote x = 1
lim

lim

x 3

x2 x 6
( x + 2)( x 3)
= lim
x3
x3
x 3

= lim ( x + 2) = 5
x 3

36.

x2 + 2 x 8

lim

x 2+

= lim

x 2+

x 4
x+4 6 3
= lim
= =
x 2+ x + 2 4 2

( x + 4)( x 2)
( x + 2)( x 2)

## 37. For 0 x < 1 , x = 0 , so for 0 < x < 1,

thus lim

x 0 +

x
x

44.

x
x

lim

x ( x + 1)

= 0, lim

x ( x + 1) 2

= 0;

Horizontal asymptote y = 0.
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ;
2
2

+
x 1 ( x + 1)
x 1 ( x + 1)
Vertical asymptote x = 1

=0

=0

## 38. For 1 x < 0 , x = 1 , so for 1 < x < 0,

x
1
thus lim
= .

x
x
x
x 0
1
(Since x < 0, > 0. )
x
x

lim

x 0

x
x

= lim

x 0

x
= 1
x

x 0 +

45.

x
x

= lim

x 0 +

x
=1
x

## 41. As x 0 , 1 + cos x 2 while sin x 0 .

1 + cos x
lim
=

sin x
x 0

lim

2x
2
= lim
= 2,
x 3 x 1 3
x

2x
2
lim
= lim
= 2,
x x 3 x 1 3
x

Horizontal asymptote y = 2
2x
2x
lim
= , lim
= ;
x 3+ x 3
x 3 x 3
Vertical asymptote x = 3

1
sin x
lim = 0, so lim
= 0.
x x
x x

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

46.

lim

3
2

x 9

= 0, lim

49. f ( x ) = 2 x + 3

= 0;

x 9 x
x
Horizontal asymptote y = 0
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ,
2
2

+
x 3 9 x
x 3 9 x
3
3
lim
= , lim
= ;
2
2
x 3+ 9 x
x 3 9 x
Vertical asymptotes x = 3, x = 3

50.

14

x 2 x

f ( x) = 3x + 4

4x + 3
x2 + 1

, thus

x c +

## negative number M there corresponds a > 0

such that 0 < x c < f(x) < M.

14

= 0, lim

, thus

4x + 3
lim [ f ( x) (3 x + 4)] = lim

x
x x 2 + 1
4+ 3
x x2
= lim
=0.

x
1 + 12

x
The oblique asymptote is y = 3x + 4.

= 0;
x 2 x2 + 7
+7
Horizontal asymptote y = 0
2
Since 2x + 7 > 0 for all x, g(x) has no vertical
asymptotes.
lim

x 1

## lim [ f ( x) (2 x + 3)] = lim

=0
3
x
x x 1
The oblique asymptote is y = 2x + 3.

51. a.

47.

1
3

x c

## positive number M there corresponds a > 0

such that 0 < c x < f(x) > M.
We say that lim f ( x) = if to each

52. a.

## positive number M there corresponds an

N > 0 such that N < x f(x) > M.
b. We say that lim f ( x ) = if to each
x

## positive number M there corresponds an

N < 0 such that x < N f(x) > M.
53. Let > 0 be given. Since lim f ( x ) = A, there is
x

48.

lim

lim

2x
2

x +5

= lim

2x
x2 + 5

= lim

2
1+

5
x2

2
1+

5
x2

2
1
=

= 2,
2
1

2

= 2

asymptotes.

## number M2 such that x > M 2 g ( x) B < .

2
Let M = max{M1 , M 2 } , then
x > M f ( x) + g ( x) ( A + B)
= f ( x) A + g ( x) B f ( x) A + g ( x) B

=
2 2
Thus, lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)] = A + B
<

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

55. a.

56.

## between 1 and 1 as x increases.

1
, then as x , u 0+.
x
1
lim sin = lim sin u = 0
x u 0 +
x

b. Let u =

c.

1
Let u = , then as x , u 0+.
x
1
1
sin u
lim x sin = lim sin u = lim
=1
+
x u 0+ u
u
x
u 0

d. Let u =
lim x

3/ 2

e.

h.

59.

60.
3/ 2

1 v2 / c2

v c

3x 2 + x +1 3
=
2
2
x 2x 1
2 x 2 3x

lim

5x + 1

2
5

3
lim 2 x 2 + 3x 2 x 2 5 =

2 2

2x +1

lim

3x 2 + 1

sin u

10

1 sin u

= lim+
=
u 0
u u

## As x , sin x oscillates between 1 and 1,

1
while x 1/ 2 =
0.
x

62.

1
lim 1 + = e 2.718
x
x

1/ 2

sin x = 0

1
, then
x
1

x
x
6
6
u

1
= sin =
6 2

1
1

, so lim sin x +
x
x
x

1
1
1

x
x
x

x
x

1
1

## = lim sin x cos 1 + cos x sin

x
x
x

1
1
As x , cos 1 so cos 1 0.
x
x
1
From part b., lim sin = 0.
x
x
As x both sin x and cos x oscillate
between 1 and 1.

1

x
x

=1
x

1
63. lim 1 +
x
x

Let u =

As x , x +

lim

1
lim 1 +
x
x

lim x

g.

1
1
sin = lim+
x u 0 u

58.

v c

61.

f.

1
, then
x

57.

m0

## lim m(v) = lim

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

1
lim 1 +
x
x

70.

71.

=
sin x

=1

sin x 3

lim

x 3

= 1

x3

sin x 3

lim

x 3

tan( x 3)

= 1

lim

cos( x 3)
=
x3

lim

cos x
= 1
x 2

x 3

x
2

69.

x2

lim (1 + x )

x 0 +

1
x

= e 2.718

lim (1 + x )1/ x =

x 0+

lim (1 + x ) x = 1

x 0+

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

13.

## 1.6 Concepts Review

t 3+

lim f (t ) = lim (t 3) = 0

t 3

1. lim f ( x)
x c

t 3

## lim f (t ) = f (3); continuous

t 3

2. every integer
3.

lim f (t ) = lim (3 t ) = 0

t 3+

## lim f ( x) = f (a); lim f ( x) = f (b)

xa+

14.

x b

lim f (t ) = lim (3 t )2 = 0

t 3+

t 3+

lim f (t ) = lim (t 2 9) = 0

t 3

4. a; b; f(c) = W

t 3

t 3

t 3

x 3

x 3

3. lim

x 3 x 3

continuous at 3.

## 16. g is discontinuous at x = 3, 4, 6, 8; g is left

continuous at x = 4, 8; g is right continuous at
x = 3, 6
17. h is continuous on the intervals
(, 5), [ 5, 4] , (4, 6), [ 6,8] , (8, )
x 2 49
( x 7)( x + 7)
= lim
= lim ( x + 7)
x7
x 7 x 7
x 7
x 7
= 7 + 7 = 14
Define f(7) = 14.

18. lim

t 3

continuous at 3.
t 3

## and h(3) do not exist, so h(t) is not

t 3
continuous at 3.

5. lim

2 x 2 18
2( x + 3)( x 3)
= lim
3 x
x 3 3 x
x 3
= lim[2( x + 3)] = 2(3 + 3) = 12

19. lim

t 3

x 3

## 6. h(3) does not exist, so h(t) is not continuous at 3.

7. lim t = 3 = f (3); continuous
t 3

20. lim

t 3

21. lim

t 1

t 3 27
(t 3)(t 2 + 3t + 9)
= lim
t 3
t 3 t 3
t 3
= lim(t 2 + 3t + 9) = (3)2 + 3(3) + 9 = 27 = r (3)

22.

t 3

## continuous at 3 because lim r (t ) r (3).

t 3

t 1

1)( t + 1)
1
Define H(1) = .
2
t 1 (t

11. lim

continuous

t 1
( t 1)( t + 1)
= lim
t 1 t 1 (t 1)( t + 1)

= lim

t 3

=1

Define g(0) = 1
0

## 8. lim t 2 = 1 = g (3); continuous

9. h(3) does not exist, so h(t) is not continuous at 3.

sin( )

= lim

t 1

1
t +1

1
2

x4 + 2 x2 3
( x 2 1)( x 2 + 3)
= lim
x +1
x +1
x 1
x 1
lim

( x + 1)( x 1)( x 2 + 3)
x +1
x 1

= lim

## = lim [( x 1)( x 2 + 3)]

x 1

= (1 1)[(1)2 + 3] = 8
Define (1) = 8.

84

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

23.

x2 1
( x 1)( x + 1)
lim sin
= lim sin

x +1
x 1

x + 1 x 1
= lim sin( x 1) = sin(1 1) = sin(2) = sin 2

37.

x 1

## Define F(1) = sin 2.

24. Discontinuous at x = ,30
25.

33 x 2
( x)( x 3)
Discontinuous at x = 3,
f ( x) =

38.

## 26. Continuous at all points

27. Discontinuous at all = n + where n is any
2
integer.
28. Discontinuous at all u 5

39.

29. Discontinuous at u = 1
30. Continuous at all points
31. G ( x) =

1
(2 x)(2 + x)

Discontinuous on (, 2] [2, )
32. Continuous at all points since
lim f ( x) = 0 = f (0) and lim f ( x) = 1 = f (1).
x 0

40.

x 1

## 33. lim g ( x ) = 0 = g (0)

x 0

lim g ( x) = 1, lim g ( x) = 1

x 1+

x 1

## lim g(x ) does not exist, so g(x) is discontinuous

x1

at x = 1.
34. Discontinuous at every integer
35. Discontinuous at t = n +

1
where n is any integer
2

## Discontinuous at all points except x = 0, because

lim f ( x ) f (c) for c 0 . lim f ( x ) exists only
x c

x c

## at c = 0 and lim f ( x) = 0 = f (0) .

x 0

36.
41. Continuous.
42. Discontinuous: removable, define f (10) = 20
43. Discontinuous: removable, define f (0) = 1
44. Discontinuous: nonremovable.
45. Discontinuous, removable, redefine g (0) = 1
46. Discontinuous: removable, define F (0) = 0

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## 47. Discontinuous: nonremovable.

48. Discontinuous: removable, define f (4) = 4
49. The function is continuous on the intervals
( 0,1] , (1, 2], (2,3],

## 52. Let f ( x) = x3 + 3 x 2. f is continuous on [0, 1].

f(0) = 2 < 0 and f(1) = 2 > 0. Thus, there is at
least one number c between 0 and 1 such that
x 3 + 3x 2 = 0.
53. Because the function is continuous on [ 0,2 ] and
(cos 0)03 + 6sin 5 0 3 = 3 < 0,

Cost \$

0.60

## (cos 2)(2)3 + 6sin 5 (2) 3 = 83 3 > 0, there

is at least one number c between 0 and 2 such

0.48

0.72

0.36

## 54. Let f ( x ) = x 7 x + 14 x 8 . f(x) is

continuous at all values of x.
f(0) = 8, f(5) = 12
Because 0 is between 8 and 12, there is at least
one number c between 0 and 5 such that
3

0.24
0.12
1
3
5
2
4
6
Length of call in minutes

## 50. The function is continuous on the intervals

[0, 200], (200,300], (300, 400],

f ( x ) = x 3 7 x 2 + 14 x 8 = 0 .

Cost \$
80
60
40

20

Miles Driven

## 51. The function is continuous on the intervals

(0, 0.25], (0.25, 0.375], (0.375, 0.5],

values of x 0.
f(0) = 1, f(/2) = / 2
Because 0 is between 1 and / 2 , there is at
least one number c between 0 and /2 such that
f ( x ) = x cos x = 0.
The interval [0.6,0.7] contains the solution.

Cost \$
4
3
2
1

0.25

0.5
0.75
Miles Driven

56. Let f ( x) = x5 + 4 x3 7 x + 14
f(x) is continuous at all values of x.
f(2) = 36, f(0) = 14
Because 0 is between 36 and 14, there is at least
one number c between 2 and 0 such that
f ( x) = x5 + 4 x3 7 x + 14 = 0.

86

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## 57. Suppose that f is continuous at c, so

lim f ( x) = f (c). Let x = c + t, so t = x c, then
x c

## as x c , t 0 and the statement

lim f ( x) = f (c) becomes lim f (t + c ) = f (c).
x c

t 0

t 0

## c, so t = x c. Since c is fixed, t 0 means that

x c and the statement lim f (t + c) = f (c)
t 0

## becomes lim f ( x) = f (c) , so f is continuous at

x c

c.
58. Since f(x) is continuous at c,
lim f ( x) = f (c) > 0. Choose = f ( c ) , then
x c

## there exists a > 0 such that

0 < x c < f ( x) f (c) < .
Thus, f ( x ) f ( c ) > = f ( c ) , or f ( x ) > 0 .
Since also f ( c ) > 0 , f ( x ) > 0 for all x in
(c , c + ).

## 59. Let g(x) = x f(x). Then,

g(0) = 0 f(0) = f(0) 0 and g(1) = 1 f(1) 0
since 0 f(x) 1 on [0, 1] . If g(0) = 0, then
f(0) = 0 and c = 0 is a fixed point of f. If g(1) = 0,
then f(1) = 1 and c = 1 is a fixed point of f. If
neither g(0) = 0 nor g(1) = 0, then g(0) < 0 and
g(1) > 0 so there is some c in [0, 1] such that
g(c) = 0. If g(c) = 0 then c f(c) = 0 or
f(c) = c and c is a fixed point of f.
60. For f(x) to be continuous everywhere,
f(1) = a(1) + b = 2 and f(2) = 6 = a(2) + b
a+b=2
2a + b = 6
a = 4
a = 4, b = 2

## 63. Let f(x) be the difference in times on the hikers

watch where x is a point on the path, and suppose
x = 0 at the bottom and x = 1 at the top of the
mountain.
So f(x) = (time on watch on the way up) (time
on watch on the way down).
f(0) = 4 11 = 7, f(1) = 12 5 = 7. Since time is
continuous, f(x) is continuous, hence there is
some c between 0 and 1 where f(c) = 0. This c is
the point where the hikers watch showed the
same time on both days.

64. Let f be the function on 0, 2 such that f() is

## the length of the side of the rectangle which

makes angle with the x-axis minus the length of
the sides perpendicular to it. f is continuous on

0, 2 . If f(0) = 0 then the region is

## circumscribed by a square. If f(0) 0, then

observe that f (0) = f . Thus, by the
2
Intermediate Value Theorem, there is an angle

0 between 0 and

such that f ( 0 ) = 0.
2
Hence, D can be circumscribed by a square.
65. Yes, g is continuous at R .
lim g ( r ) =

r R

= lim g ( r )

GMm

r R+

R2

## 66. No. By the Intermediate Value Theorem, if f

were to change signs on [a,b], then f must be
0 at some c in [a,b]. Therefore, f cannot
change sign.
67. a.

## f(x) = f(x + 0) = f(x) + f(0), so f(0) = 0. We

want to prove that lim f (x) = f (c), or,
xc

## equivalently, lim [ f (x) f (c)] = 0. But

xc

61. For x in [0, 1], let f(x) indicate where the string
originally at x ends up. Thus f(0) = a, f(1) = b.
f(x) is continuous since the string is unbroken.
Since 0 a, b 1 , f(x) satisfies the conditions of
Problem 59, so there is some c in [0, 1] with
f(c) = c, i.e., the point of string originally at c
ends up at c.
62. The Intermediate Value Theorem does not imply
the existence of a number c between 2 and 2
such that f (c ) = 0. The reason is that the

## f(x) f(c) = f(x c), so

lim[ f ( x) f (c)] = lim f ( x c). Let
x c

x c

h = x c then as x c, h 0 and
lim f ( x c) = lim f (h) = f (0) = 0. Hence
x c

h 0

xc

## Thus, f is continuous everywhere, since c

was arbitrary.
b. By Problem 43 of Section 0.5, f(t) = mt for
all t in Q. Since g(t) = mt is a polynomial
function, it is continuous for all real
numbers. f(t) = g(t) for all t in Q, thus
f(t) = g(t) for all t in R, i.e. f (t ) = mt.

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

## 68. If f(x) is continuous on an interval then

lim f ( x) = f (c) for all points in the interval:
x c

## lim f ( x) = f (c) lim f ( x)

x c

x c

= lim

x c

f 2 ( x) = lim f ( x)
x c

3 3
Domain: , ;
4 4
3
3
Range: , 0,
4
4

= ( f (c))2 = f (c )

1 if x 0
69. Suppose f ( x) =
. f(x) is
1 if x < 0
discontinuous at x = 0, but g(x) = f ( x) = 1 is

b. At x = 0
3
3
c. If x = 0, f ( x) = 0 , if x = , f ( x) = and
4
4
3
3
3
3
if x = , f ( x) = , so x = , 0, are
4
4
4
4
fixed points of f.

continuous everywhere.
70. a.

## 1.7 Chapter Review

Concepts Test
1. False.

Consider f ( x ) = x at x = 2.

2. False:
c may not be in the domain of f(x), or
it may be defined separately.
3. False:
c may not be in the domain of f(x), or
it may be defined separately.
b. If r is any rational number, then any deleted
interval about r contains an irrational
1
number. Thus, if f (r ) = , any deleted
q
interval about r contains at least one point c
1
1
such that f (r ) f (c) = 0 = . Hence,
q
q
lim f (x) does not exist.
xr

## If c is any irrational number in (0, 1), then as

p
p
x = c (where
is the reduced form
q
q
of the rational number) q , so
f ( x) 0 as x c. Thus,
lim f ( x) = 0 = f (c) for any irrational
x c

4. True.

By definition, where c = 0, L = 0.

5. False:

## If f(c) is not defined, lim f ( x ) might

xc

exist; e.g., f ( x) =

88

## Suppose the block rotates to the left. Using

3
geometry, f ( x) = . Suppose the block
4
rotates to the right. Using geometry,
3
f ( x) = . If x = 0, the block does not rotate,
4
so f(x) = 0.

Section 1.7

x 4
.
x+2
x2 4
= 4.
x 2 x + 2

## f(2) does not exist, but lim

6. True:

x 2 25
( x 5)( x + 5)
= lim
x5
x 5 x 5
x 5
= lim ( x + 5) = 5 + 5 = 10
lim

x 5

7. True:
8. False:

number c.
71. a.

9. False:

10. True:

Substitution Theorem
lim

x 0

sin x
=1
x

## The tangent function is not defined for

all values of c.
sin x
,
cos x
then cos x 0 , and Theorem A.7
applies..

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

11. True:

## Since both sin x and cos x are

continuous for all real numbers, by
Theorem C we can conclude that
f ( x) = 2 sin 2 x cos x is also
continuous for all real numbers.

12. True.

By definition, lim f ( x ) = f ( c ) .

13. True.

2 [1,3]

14. False:

25. True:

x2

## such that 0 < x 2 <

f ( x ) f (2) < 0. 001 f (2), or
0. 001 f (2 ) < f ( x ) f (2 )
< 0.001f(2)
Thus, 0.999f(2) < f(x) < 1.001f(2) and
f(x) < 1.001f(2) for 0 < x 2 < .
Since f(2) < 1.001f(2), as f(2) > 0,
f(x) < 1.001f(2) on (2 , 2 + ).

x c

x 0

## Choose = 0. 001 f (2) then since

lim f ( x ) = f (2), there is some

26. False:

## That lim [ f ( x ) + g ( x )] exists does

xc

15. False:

Consider f ( x) = sin x.

16. True.

interval.

17. False:

## Since 1 sin x 1 for all x and

1
sin x
lim = 0 , we get lim
=0.
x x
x x

18. False.

lim f ( x ) = 2

xc

xc

g ( x) =

## The graph has many vertical

asymptotes; e.g., x = /2, 3/2,
5/2,

20. True:

x = 2 ; x = 2

21. True:

## As x 1+ both the numerator and

denominator are positive. Since the
numerator approaches a constant and
the denominator approaches zero, the
limit goes to + .

22. False:

Squeeze Theorem

28. True:

## A function has only one limit at a

point, so if lim f ( x ) = L and
x a

lim f ( x ) = M , L = M
x a

29. False:

24. True:

x +x6
and
x2

5
x, then f(x) g(x) for all x,
2
but lim f ( x ) = lim g ( x ) = 5.
x 2

x2

30. False:

x2

## if there is a discontinuity point (2, 10).

For example,
x3 + 6 x 2 2 x 12
f ( x) =
< 10 for
x2
all x, but lim f ( x) = 10.

## lim f ( x) = f lim x = f (c), so f is

x c
continuous at x = c.

x 2.3

g ( x) =

x c

x
= 1 = f ( 2.3)
2

x c

example, if f ( x) =

x c

lim

## That f(x) g(x) for all x does not

imply that lim f ( x) lim g ( x). For
x c

continuous at x = c.
23. True:

x+7
for c = 2 .
x+2

27. True:

19. False:

x3
and
x+2

x 2

31. True:

lim f ( x) = lim

x a

x a

f 2 ( x)

= lim f ( x) = (b)2 = b
xa

32. True:

## If f is continuous and positive on

[a, b], the reciprocal is also
continuous, so it will assume all
1
1
and
.
values between
f ( a)
f (b )
Section 1.7

89

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

## Sample Test Problems

14.

x2 22 0
=
= =0
x 2 x + 2
2+2 4

1. lim

u 2 1 12 1
=
=0
1+1
u 1 u + 1

u2 1
(u 1)(u + 1)
= lim
= lim (u + 1)
u 1
u 1 u 1
u 1
u 1
=1+1=2
u +1

u +1

= lim

u 1 (u + 1)(u 1)

1
does not exist
1 2x

5. lim

= lim

x 2
x

= lim

x 2 ( x 2)( x + 2)

x2 x 2

4
1
1
=
=
2 (2 + 2 ) 8

z2 4

u 1 u 1

= lim

x2

1 cos 2 x
2 1 cos 2 x
= lim
3x
2x
x 0
x 0 3
2
1 cos 2 x 2
= lim
= 0 = 0
3 x 0
2x
3

1
x ( x + 2)

1
1
x 1
x = 1+ 0 = 1
17. lim
= lim
2 1+ 0
x x + 2
x
1+
x

## 18. Since 1 sin t 1 for all t and lim

= lim

get lim

19. lim

sin x

tan x
1
cos x
= lim
= lim
x 0 sin 2 x
x 0 2 sin x cos x
x 0 2 cos 2 x
1
1
=
=
2
2 cos 0 2

y 1 y 2

( y 1)( y 2 + y + 1)
y 1 ( y 1)( y + 1)

t+2

( t 2 )2

20.

= lim

21.

y 2 + y + 1 12 + 1 + 1 3
=
=
1+1
2
y +1
y 1
x4
x 2

x4

= lim

( x 2)( x + 2)

x 4

x 2

= lim ( x + 2) = 4 + 2 = 4
x4

12.

13.

90

lim

x 0

lim

x (1/ 2)+

lim

t 2

= lim

x 0

x
= lim (1) = 1
x x 0

4x = 2

cos x
= , because as x 0+ , cos x 1
x 0 + x
while the denominator goes to 0 from the right.
lim

Section 1.7

x / 4

tan 2 x = because as x ( / 4 ) ,

2 x ( / 2 ) , so tan 2 x .

22.

1 + sin x
= , because as x 0+ ,
+
x
x 0
lim

## 1 + sin x 1 while the denominator goes to

0 from the right.

| 2 x 6 |< 2 | x 3 |<
| x 3 |<

. Choose =

## Let > 0. Choose = / 2. Thus,

t t ) = lim t lim t = 1 2 = 1
t 2

= because as t 0, t + 2 4

## 23. Preliminary analysis: Let > 0. We need to find

a > 0 such that
0 <| x 3 |< | ( 2 x + 1) 7 |< .

cos x
does not exist.
x 0 x

10. lim

11.

sin t
=0.
t

lim

= lim

9. lim

= 0 , we

## while the denominator goes to 0 from the right.

7. lim

y3 1

t t

t 2

8. lim

1 x
= 1 since x 1 < 0 as
x 1

16. lim

z 2 ( z + 3)( z

z 2 z 2

x 1

sin 5 x
5 sin 5 x
= lim
x 0 3 x
x 0 3 5 x
5
sin 5 x 5
5
= lim
= 1 =
3 x 0 5 x
3
3

( z + 2)( z 2)
2)
+z6
z +2 2 + 2 4
=
=
= lim
5
z 2 z + 3 2 + 3

6. lim

x 1

= lim

15. lim

3. lim

u 1 u 2

x 1

x 1

2. lim

4. lim

x 1

lim

t 2

( 2 x + 1) 7

= 2 x 6 = 2 x 3 < 2 ( / 2 ) = .

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

24. a. f(1) = 0
b.
c.
d.

28.

lim f ( x) = lim (1 x) = 0

x 1+

x 1+

lim f ( x) = lim x = 1

x 1

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1 because

x 1

## lim f ( x) = lim x3 = 1 and

x 1

x 1

lim f ( x) = lim x = 1

x 1+

25. a.

x 1+

## f is discontinuous at x = 1 because f(1) = 0,

but lim f (x ) does not exist. f is
x1

## discontinuous at x = 1 because f(1) does

not exist.
b. Define f(1) = 1
26. a.
b.
27. a.

## 0 < u a < g (u ) M <

0 < a x < f ( x) L <

lim[2 f ( x) 4 g ( x)]

Horizontal: lim

c.
d.

x 3

x2 9
lim g ( x)
= lim g ( x )( x + 3)
x 3 x 3
x 3
= lim g ( x ) lim ( x + 3) = 2 (3 + 3) = 12
x 3

+1

Horizontal: lim

x2

x x 2

= lim

x2

+ 1 x x 2 + 1
y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

g(3) = 2
lim g ( f ( x)) = g lim f ( x) = g (3) = 2
x 3
x 3

lim

x 3

f ( x) 8 g ( x)
2

= lim f ( x) 8 lim g ( x)
x 3
x 3

## 33. Vertical: x = 1, x = 1 because lim

x 1+

lim

x 3

g ( x) g (3)
f ( x)

2 g (3)
3

lim

x 1

x2
x2 1

Horizontal: lim

= 1 , so

x2
x2 1

x2

= lim

x2

1 x x 2 1
y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

= 0 , so

x x 2

= (3) 2 8(2) = 5

f.

x x 2

## 32. Vertical: None, denominator is never 0.

and
e.

= lim

+1
y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.

= 2(3) 4(2) = 14

x 3

x x 2

= 2 lim f ( x) 4 lim g ( x )

b.

30. Let f ( x) = x5 4 x3 3 x + 1
f(2) = 5, f(3) = 127
Because f(x) is continuous on [2, 3] and
f(2) < 0 < f(3), there exists some number c
between 2 and 3 such that f(c) = 0.
31. Vertical: None, denominator is never 0.

x 3

x 3

b = 1; a + b = 1
a1=1
a=2

= 1 , so

2 (2)
3

=0

## Instructors Resource Manual

Section 1.7

91

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or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x

lim

x 2+

x 4

= and

x x 2

lim

x x 2

4
asymptotes.

lim

x 2

x3

Horizontal: lim

2. a.
3

x 4

= and

## 35. Vertical: x = / 4, 3 / 4, 5 / 4, because

lim tan 2 x = and similarly for other odd
x / 4

g ( 2 ) = 1/ 2

b.

c.

## g ( 2.1) g ( 2 ) = 0.476 0.5 = 0.024

d.

g ( 2.1) g ( 2 )
2.1 2

0.024
= 0.24
0.1

e.

g ( a + h ) = 1/ ( a + h )

f.

g ( a + h ) g ( a ) = 1/ ( a + h ) 1/ a =

multiples of / 4.
Horizontal: None, because lim tan 2 x and
x

g.

sin x
1 sin x
lim
= lim
=.
2
+
+
x
x 0
x 0 x x

h.

## lim tan 2 x do not exist.

g (a + h) g (a)

(a + h) a

3. a.

Horizontal: y = 0, because
lim

sin x
x2

= lim

sin x

x2

1. a.

c.

## f ( 2.1) f ( 2 ) = 4.41 4 = 0.41

d.
e.

f.

g.

h.

f ( 2.1) f ( 2 )
2.1 2

0.41
=
= 4.1
0.1

f ( a + h ) = ( a + h ) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2
2

f ( a + h ) f ( a ) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2 a 2
= 2ah + h 2
f (a + h) f (a)

(a + h) a

lim

h0

2ah + h 2
=
= 2a + h
h

f (a + h) f ( a)

(a + h) a

g (a + h) g (a)

(a + h) a

h0

h 0

c.

d.

F ( 2.1) F ( 2 )
2.1 2

## Review and Preview

0.035
= 0.35
0.1

e.

F (a + h) = a + h

f.

F (a + h) F (a) = a + h a

g.

h.

F (a + h) F (a)

lim

a+h a
h

( a + h) a

F (a + h) F (a)

h0

= lim

(a + h) a

a+h a

h 0

= lim

h 0

h 0

= lim

h 0

92

1
a2

F ( 2 ) = 2 1.414

= lim
= lim ( 2a + h ) = 2a

1
a (a + h)

f ( 2 ) = 22 = 4

b.

lim

b.
= 0.

h
a (a + h)

h
a (a + h)

(
(

h0

)(

a+h + a

a+h + a

a+ha
a+h + a
h
a+h + a
1

a+h + a

a+h a
h

= lim

)
)
1
2 a

a
2a

## Instructors Resource Manual

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form
or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

4. a.

G ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 8 + 1 = 9
3

10.

b.

c.

## G ( 2.1) G ( 2 ) = 10.261 9 = 1.261

d.
e.

G ( 2.1) G ( 2 )
2.1 2

1.261
= 12.61
0.1

4
32
3
cm3
V0 = ( 2 ) =
3
3
4
62.5 125
3
=
cm3
V1 = ( 2.5 ) =
3
3
6
125
32
V = V1 V0 =
cm3
cm3
6
3
61
= cm3 31.940 cm3
6

11. a.

G ( a + h) = ( a + h) + 1
3

= a 3 + 3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3 + 1
f.

G ( a + h ) G ( a ) = ( a + h ) + 1 a + 1

) (

b.

d = 6002 + 4002
= 721 miles

c.

d = 6752 + 5002
= 840 miles

= a3 + 3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3 + 1 a 3 + 1
2

= 3a h + 3ah + h

g.

G ( a + h) G ( a)

(a + h) a

## North plane has traveled 600miles. East

plane has traveled 400 miles.

3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3
h

= 3a 2 + 3ah + h 2

h.

lim

h0

G ( a + h) G ( a)

(a + h) a

= lim 3a 2 + 3ah + h 2
h 0

= 3a 2

5. a.

( a + b )3 = a3 + 3a 2b +

b.

( a + b ) 4 = a 4 + 4 a 3b +

c.

( a + b )5 = a 5 + 5 a 4 b +

6.

( a + b )n = a n + na n 1b +

## 7. sin ( x + h ) = sin x cos h + cos x sin h

8. cos ( x + h ) = cos x cos h sin x sin h
9. a.

## The point will be at position (10, 0 ) in all

three cases ( t = 1, 2,3 ) because it will have
made 4, 8, and 12 revolutions respectively.

## b. Since the point is rotating at a rate of 4

revolutions per second, it will complete 1
1
revolution after second. Therefore, the
4