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CHAPTER

Limits

9.

x3 4 x 2 + x + 6

x 1

x +1

lim

( x + 1)( x 2 5 x + 6)

x 1

x +1

1. L; c

= lim

2. 6

= lim ( x 2 5 x + 6)

x 1

2

3. L; right

= (1) 5(1) + 6

4. lim f ( x) = M

= 12

x c

x2

= lim( x 2 + 2 x 1) = 1

x 0

1. lim( x 5) = 2

x 0

x 3

2. lim (1 2t ) = 3

11.

t 1

3.

4.

= t t = 2t

lim ( x 2 + 2t 1) = (2) 2 + 2t 1 = 3 + 2t

x 2

) ( ( 1)

6. lim t 2 x 2 =

t 1

12.

) ( ( 1) 1) = 0

5. lim t 2 1 =

t 1

x2 4

( x 2)( x + 2)

= lim

x2 x 2

x2

x2

= lim( x + 2)

x2 9

x 3 x 3

( x 3)( x + 3)

= lim

x 3

x3

= lim( x + 3)

lim

x 3

x2 = 1 x2

7. lim

=3+3=6

13.

x2

lim

(t + 4)(t 2) 4

(3t 6) 2

t 2

= lim

=2+2=4

8.

x2 t 2

( x + t )( x t )

= lim

xt x + t

x t

x+t

= lim ( x t )

lim

x t

x 2

x 4 + 2 x3 x 2

10. lim

(t 2) 2 t + 4

9(t 2) 2

t 2

t 2 + 4t 21

t 7

t+7

(t + 7)(t 3)

= lim

t 7

t+7

= lim (t 3)

t+4

9

= lim

lim

t 2

2+4

6

=

9

9

t 7

= 7 3 = 10

14.

(t 7)3

t 7

lim

t 7+

= lim

t 7

= lim

t 7+

(t 7) t 7

t 7

t 7

= 77 = 0

Section 1.1

63

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

15. lim

x 4 18 x 2 + 81

x 3

( x 3)

= lim

x 3

( x 3) 2 ( x + 3) 2

= lim

x 3

( x 3)

( x 2 9) 2

( x 3)

= lim( x + 3)2 = (3 + 3) 2

lim

t 0

(u 1) 2

u 1

= lim

( x sin x ) 2 / x 2

21.

x 3

1.

0.0251314

0.1

2.775 106

0.01

2.77775 1010

(u 1) 2

0.001

2.77778 1014

1.

0.1

0.0251314

2.775 106

0.01

2.77775 1010

0.001

2.77778 1014

= 36

16. lim

1 cos t

=0

2t

u 1

u 1

17.

(2 + h) 2 4

4 + 4h + h 2 4

= lim

h0

h0

h

h

lim

h 2 + 4h

= lim(h + 4) = 4

h 0

h 0

h

= lim

lim

( x sin x) 2

x2

x 0

18.

( x + h) 2 x 2

x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 x 2

= lim

h0

h 0

h

h

lim

h 2 + 2 xh

= lim(h + 2 x) = 2 x

h 0

h 0

h

= lim

sin x

2x

19.

(1 cos x ) / x

22.

0.211322

0.1

0.00249584

0.01

0.001

0.0000249996

2.5 107

1.

0.211322

0.1

0.00249584

0.0000249996

2.5 107

0.420735

0.1

0.499167

0.01

0.499992

0.01

0.001

0.49999992

0.001

1.

0.420735

0.1

0.499167

0.01

0.499992

0.001

0.49999992

0.01

0.001

x2

x 0

(t 1) /(sin(t 1))

23.

=0

1.1

2.1035

1.01

2.01003

1.001

2.001

0.229849

1.1884

0.0249792

0.9

1.90317

0.00249998

0.99

1.99003

0.999

1.999

1 cos t

2t

0.1

(1 cos x) 2

3.56519

sin x

= 0.5

x 0 2 x

1.

lim

2.

lim

0.00024999998

1.

1.

20.

=0

t 1

=2

1)

2

lim

64

1.

0.229849

0.1

0.0249792

0.01

0.00249998

0.001

0.00024999998

Section 1.1

t 1 sin(t

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x sin( x 3) 3

x 3

24.

4.

1. + 4

0.1 +

0.158529

3.1

2.

lim

x

4

(1 + sin( x 3 / 2)) /( x )

x

1. +

0.4597

0.1 +

0.0500

0.01 +

0.0050

0.001 +

0.0005

0.0050

0.001 +

0.0005

1 + sin ( x 32 )

x

=0

0.1 +

0.0000210862

2.12072 107

0.536908

0.00226446

0.0000213564

2.12342 107

2 2sin u

lim

=0

u

3u

2

29. a.

0.896664

0.01

0.989967

0.001

0.999

d.

1.

1.64209

e.

0.1

1.09666

f.

0.01

1.00997

0.001

1.001

lim f ( x) = 2

x 3

b. f(3) = 1

c.

g.

= 1

h.

i.

0.00199339

0.001 +

0.1

1

t

0.11921

0.01 +

0.357907

1 cot t

= 0.25

(2 2sin u ) / 3u

0.001 +

1.

t 0

(tan x 1)2

0.01 + 2

(1 cot t ) /(1 / t )

lim

(x )

0.2505

0.1 + 2

26.

0.255008

1. + 2

0.0500

0.01 +

lim

0.300668

28.

0.4597

0.1 +

0.674117

2

4

1. + 2

1. +

0.2495

0.001 + 4

x sin( x 3) 3

=0

lim

x 3

x3

25.

0.245009

0.01 + 4

0.0000166666

1.66667 107

2.999

0.1 + 4

0.00166583

2.99

0.201002

1. + 4

0.158529

2.9

0.001 +

0.0000166666

1.66667 107

3.001

0.0320244

0.01 +

0.00166583

3.01

( x / 4) 2 /(tan x 1) 2

27.

lim f ( x) =

x 1

5

2

f(1) = 2

lim f(x) does not exist.

x1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1+

lim f ( x ) =

+

x 1

5

2

Section 1.1

65

2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

b.

b.

f(3) = 1

c.

f(1) = 2

c.

f(1) = 1

d.

30. a.

d.

x 3

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

e.

f(1) = 1

f.

g.

h.

i.

31. a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

32. a.

b.

c.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1+

34.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1

x 1+

lim f ( x ) = 2

x 1+

a.

f(3) = 2

f(3) is undefined.

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

c.

x 3

lim f ( x) = 4

x 3+

d.

x 3

lim g ( x) = 0

35.

lim g ( x ) = 1

x2

lim g ( x ) = 1

x 2+

f ( x) = x [ x ]

x 3+

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1+

lim f ( x) = 2

x 1

d. f (1) = 2

e.

lim f ( x) = 0

f.

f (1) = 0

x 1

a.

b.

33.

c.

d.

a.

66

f(0) = 0

lim f ( x) does not exist.

x 0

lim f ( x ) = 1

x 0

lim f ( x) =

x 1

2

1

2

lim f ( x) = 0

x 0

Section 1.1

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

f ( x) =

36.

x

x

xa

xa

43. a.

x 1

lim

x 1

lim

x 1

x 1

x 1

b.

a.

b.

x 0

lim

x 1

lim

c.

x 1

x 1

x 1

= 1 and lim

x 1

x 1

=1

= 1

x2 x 1 1

x 1

x 1

x 1

= 3

lim f ( x ) = 1

c.

x 0

d.

1

1

lim

x 1

x 1

x 1

d.

lim f ( x) = 1

x 1

44. a.

x2 1

37. lim

does not exist.

x 1 x 1

lim

x 1

x 0

= lim

c1f

lim dd gg does not exist.

+ x

x 0 e h

x+2 2

x

c.

lim x(1)ed

( x + 2 2)( x + 2 + 2)

d.

x 0

x+22

x( x + 2 + 2)

= lim

x 0

39. a.

b.

c1/ x f

hg

x 0

= lim

x 0

2

=

=

=

4

0+2 + 2 2 2

x+2+ 2

=0

c1/ x f

hg

x 0

45. a) 1

x( x + 2 + 2)

lim a x b (1)ed

x( x + 2 + 2)

x 0

= lim

x a xb = 0

b.

x2 1

x2 1

=2

= 2 and lim

x 1

x 1+ x 1

38. lim

lim

x 1+

b) 0

c)

=0

d)

c)

b) 0

d) 0.556

x 1

lim f ( x) = 0

x 0

x 0

40.

x is not defined

for x < 0.

48.

lim x x = 1

x 0+

49. lim

x 0

x =0

x

50. lim x = 1

x 0

sin 2 x 1

=

x 0 4 x

2

51. lim

Section 1.2

67

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

52. lim

x 0

of 4.

sin 5 x 5

=

3x

3

1

53. lim cos does not exist.

x 0

x

1

54. lim x cos = 0

x 0

x

x3 1

55. lim

56. lim

x 0

57.

=6

2x + 2 2

x 1

x sin 2 x

sin( x 2 )

lim

x 2

58. lim

x 1

of 4.

=2

x2 x 2

= 3

x2

2

1/( x 1)

1+ 2

=0

x 0

lim

x 0

0.002 of 4.

8 x is within

1. L ; L +

2. 0 < x a < ; f ( x) L <

10. If x is within 0.001 of 2, then

3.

8

is within 0.002

x

of 4.

4. ma + b

1. 0 < t a < f (t ) M <

2. 0 < u b < g (u ) L <

2x 1+ 1 < 2x <

2 x <

x <

6. 0 < t a < g (t ) D <

68

Section 1.2

= ;0 < x 0 <

2

(2 x 1) (1) = 2 x = 2 x < 2 =

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

3 x 1 + 64 < 3 x + 63 <

3( x + 21) <

2 x 2 11x + 5

(2 x 1)( x 5)

9 <

9 <

x5

x5

3 x + 21 <

x + 21 <

2x 1 9 <

2( x 5) <

= ; 0 < x + 21 <

3

(3 x 1) (64) = 3 x + 63 = 3 x + 21 < 3 =

x 2 25

13. 0 < x 5 <

10 <

x5

x 2 25

( x 5)( x + 5)

10 <

10 <

x5

x5

x + 5 10 <

x5 <

= ;0 < x 5 <

2

2 x 11x + 5

(2 x 1)( x 5)

9 =

9

x5

x5

2

= 2 x 1 9 = 2( x 5) = 2 x 5 < 2 =

x5 <

2x 2 <

2x 2 <

= ; 0 < x 5 <

( 2 x 2 )( 2 x + 2 )

x 25

( x 5)( x + 5)

10 =

10 = x + 5 10

x5

x5

2x + 2

2x 2

2x + 2

= x5 < =

2

2x x

14. 0 < x 0 <

(1) <

x

2 x2 x

x(2 x 1)

+1 <

+1 <

x

x

2x <

2 x <

= ;0 < x 0 <

2

2 x2 x

x(2 x 1)

(1) =

+ 1 = 2x 1+ 1

x

x

<

x 1

2x + 2

<

2

; 0 < x 1 <

2

( 2 x 2)( 2 x + 2)

2x 2 =

2x + 2

2x 2

2x + 2

2 x 1

2 x 1 2

<

=

2x + 2

2

2

2x 1

x3

= 2 x = 2 x < 2 =

<

2x 1 +1 <

x <

2 x 2 11x + 5

9 <

x5

2x 1

x3

7 <

7 <

2 x 1 7( x 3)

x3

<

( 2 x 1 7( x 3))( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

2 x 1 (7 x 21)

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

5( x 4)

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

<

<

<

Section 1.2

69

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x4

To bound

5

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

1

2

1

2

, agree that

7

9

< x < , so

2

2

5

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

hence x 4

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

<

2x 1

7 = x4

x 3

x 3( 2 x 1 + 7( x 3))

< x 4 (1.65) < 1. 65

1

1

so 1.65 .

2

2 1. 65

14 x 2 20 x + 6

8 <

x 1

14 x 2 20 x + 6

2(7 x 3)( x 1)

8 <

8 <

x 1

x 1

2(7 x 3) 8 <

14( x 1) <

14 x 1 <

14

( x 1)2

4 <

4 <

10 x 6 4 <

10 x 1 <

x 1 <

1.65

For whatever is chosen, let be the smaller of

1

and

.

1.65

2

1

= min ,

, 0 < x 4 <

2 1. 65

x 1 <

4 <

10( x 1) <

( x 1) 2

( x 1)2

x4 <

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

. If , then

0.65 <

<

14

10

10

; 0 < x 1 <

10 x3 26 x 2 + 22 x 6

( x 1) 2

4 =

(10 x 6)( x 1) 2

( x 1) 2

= 10 x 6 4 = 10( x 1)

= 10 x 1 < 10 =

2 x2 + 1 3 = 2 x2 2 = 2 x + 1 x 1

x 1 < implies

2x + 2 = 2x 2 + 4

2x 2 + 4

<2+4=6

; = min 1, ; 0 < x 1 <

6

(2 x + 1) 3 = 2 x 2 2

2

= 2x + 2 x 1 < 6 =

6

; 0 < x 1 <

14 x 2 20 x + 6

2(7 x 3)( x 1)

8 =

8

x 1

x 1

= 2(7 x 3) 8

= 14( x 1) = 14 x 1 < 14 =

70

Section 1.2

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x2 2 x 1 2 = x2 2 x 3 = x + 1 x 3

x + 1 < implies

1

25. For all x 0 , 0 sin 2 1 so

x

1

x 4 sin 2 x 4 for all x 0 . By Problem 18,

x

4

lim x = 0, so, by Problem 20,

x0

4

2 1

lim x sin = 0.

x

x0

x 3 = x + 1 4 x + 1 + 4 < 1 + 4 = 5

; = min 1, ; 0 < x + 1 <

5

( x 2 x 1) 2 = x 2 2 x 3

2

= x +1 x 3 < 5

x 0 =

x = x <

2

For x > 0, ( x ) = x.

x < ( x )2 = x < 2

x 4 = x x3 . To bound x3 , agree that

3

1. x < 1 implies x3 = x 1 so

.

= min{1, }; 0 < x < x 4 = x x3 < 1

27.

x 0 +

For x 0 , x = x .

Thus, lim+ x = 0.

x0

x c

0 < x c < 1 f ( x ) L < .

x 0

since x 0.

x = x

Thus, lim x = 0,

xc

0 < x0 c < .

Thus, f ( x0 ) L < < f ( x0 ) L <

f ( x0 ) < L < f ( x0 ) +

f ( x0 ) < L < f ( x0 ) + .

Similarly,

f ( x0 ) < M < f ( x0 ) + .

Thus,

2 < L M < 2 . As 0, L M 0, so

L = M.

x0

x 0 +

x 0

x 0

x a

.

B

x a < or x a < f ( x) < B. Thus,

x a < f ( x) g ( x) 0 = f ( x) g ( x)

= f ( x) g ( x) < B

= so lim f ( x)g(x) = 0.

x a

xc

x c < , G ( x) < .

Take any > 0 and the corresponding that

works for G(x), then x c < implies

F ( x) 0 = F ( x) G ( x ) < since

lim G(x) = 0.

xc

Thus, lim F( x) = 0.

xc

Section 1.2

71

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x a

That is, for

a < x < a or a < x < a + ,

L < f ( x) < L + .

Let f(a) = A,

M = max { L , L + , A } , c = a ,

either x = a, in which case

f ( x) = f (a ) = A M or 0 < x a < so

1. 48

2. 4

3. 8; 4 + 5c

4. 0

1. lim (2 x + 1)

= lim 2 x + lim 1

x1

x 1

2

0 < x a < 1 f ( x) L < and

2.

x 1

Combine the inequalities and use the fact

that f ( x) g ( x) to get

L < f(x) g(x) < M + which leads to

L < M + or L M < 2.

However,

L M = > 2

which is a contradiction.

Thus L M .

x+6

x 4x + x 2 + x + 6

an asymptote at x 3.49.

c.

= 3(1) 1 = 2

+ 1 has

1

, then 2.75 < x < 3

4

or 3 < x < 3.25 and by graphing

x0

x 0

x 0

x 0

x 0 x0

x 0

x 0

x 0

x0

x 0

= [2(0) +1](0 3) = 3

lim [(2 x 2 + 1)(7 x 2 + 13)]

x 2

x 2

If

y = g ( x) =

2, 1

x 4 4x 3 + x 2 + x + 6

3

x1

= 3 lim x lim 1

x 1

x 1

4.

x 3 x 2 2x 4

x1

x 1

0 < x c < such that f ( x ) L > .

= 3 lim x 2 lim 1

limit.

b. No, because

lim (3x 2 1)

x 1

= lim 3x 2 lim 1

g(x) =

2,1

x1

= 2(1) + 1 = 3

33. a.

x1

= 2 lim x + lim 1

take <

x1

x 2

4, 5

3

2, 1

6

4, 3

x 2 x 2

x 2

x 2

2

2

= 2 lim x + 1 7 lim x + 13

2

x 2

x 2

x3 x 2 2 x 4

x 4 4 x3 + x 2 + x + 6

on the interval [2.75, 3.25], we see that

0<

x3 x 2 2 x 4

<3

x 4 4 x3 + x 2 + x + 6

so m must be at least three.

72

Section 1.3

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

2x + 1

x2 5 3x

lim (2 x + 1)

= x2

lim (5 3 x)

9.

5. lim

4, 5

x2

3, 1

lim 5 lim 3 x

x2

13

4, 3

= 2 lim t 3 + lim 15

t 2

t 2

lim 2 x + lim 1

x2

t 2

t2

x2

13

2 lim x + 1

x2

= 2 lim t + lim 15

t 2 t 2

x2

2, 1

= [2(2) 3 + 15]13 = 1

5 3 lim x

13

x2

2(2) + 1

=

= 5

5 3(2 )

10.

6.

4x +1

lim

x 3 7 2 x 2

lim (4 x + 1)

lim (7 2 x )

lim 4 x 3 + lim 1

x 3

lim 7 lim 2 x 2

x 3

x 3

x 3

13

5, 3

= 3 lim x lim 5

2, 1

x 3

lim

x 3

5x2 + 2 x

lim (5 x + 2 x )

x 3

= 5 lim x 2 + 2 lim x

x 3

x 3

4 lim y 3 + 8 lim y

y 2

y 2

=

y + lim 4

ylim

2

2

8, 1

1/ 3

= 3(3) 5 = 2

8.

4, 3

13

lim (3 x 5)

x 3

x 3

lim (4 y 3 + 8 y )

y 2

=

( y + 4)

ylim

7. lim 3 x 5

4 y3 + 8 y

= lim

y 2 y + 4

4 y3 + 8 y

lim

y 2 y + 4

1/ 3

x 3

4 lim x + 1

x 3

=

2

7 2 lim x

x 3

4(3)3 + 1 107

=

=

11

7 2(3) 2

1/ 3

11.

7 2 lim x 2

w 2

= 3(2)3 + 7(2) 2 = 2 13

3, 1

x 3

4 lim x 3 + 1

4, 3

= 3 lim w + 7 lim w

w 2

w 2

x 3

lim (3w3 + 7 w2 )

4, 5

w 2

w 2

x 3

x 3

3w3 + 7 w2

= 3 lim w3 + 7 lim w2

lim

w 2

4, 3

4 lim y + 8 lim y

y 2

y 2

=

lim y + 4

y 2

1/ 3

4(2)3 + 8(2)

=

2+4

=2

= 5 lim x + 2 lim x

x 3

x 3

= 5(3)2 + 2(3) = 39

Section 1.3

73

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

12.

lim (2 w 4 9 w 3 +19)1 /2

1

= lim

w 5

2w 9 w3 + 19

lim 1

w5

4

1, 9

2w 9 w + 19

lim

w 5

x2

19. lim

w 5

1

lim 2 w4 lim 9 w3 + lim 19

w5

w5

2 lim w 9 lim w3 + 19

w5

1

4

1

144

x2

x2 4

2

x +4

(

lim ( x

) 44

=

=0

+ 4) 4 + 4

lim x 4

x2

x2

= lim ( x 3) = 1

x2

( x 3)( x + 1)

x2 2 x 3

= lim

x 1

x 1

x +1

( x + 1)

lim

= lim ( x 3) = 4

16.

17.

lim

x 1

x2 + x

x2 + 1

(

lim ( x

) 0

= =0

+ 1) 2

lim x + x

x 1

x 1

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

x3

= lim

x 1 ( x 1)( x 2)( x + 7)

x 1 x + 7

lim

1 3

2

=

1 + 7

3

u u 6

u x x+2

= lim

=

5

u 2 u 3

u 2

( u + 2 )( u x )

u 2 ( u + 2)(u 3)

= lim

x 2 + ux x u

( x 1)( x + u)

= lim

2

x1 x + 2 x 3

x 1 ( x 1)( x + 3)

x + u 1+ u u + 1

= lim

=

=

4

x1 x + 3 1+ 3

2 x2 6 x + 4 2

2( x )( x 2 )

x

x

x ( x )( x + )

2( x 2) 2( 2 )

= lim

=

= 1

+

x x +

23. lim

24.

lim

= lim

(w + 2)(w 2 w 6)

w 2 + 4w + 4

( w + 2) 2 ( w 3)

= lim

= lim ( w 3)

( w + 2 )2

w 2

w 2

= 2 3 = 5

w 2

25. lim

xa

f 2 ( x) + g 2 ( x)

lim f 2 ( x) + lim g 2 ( x)

xa

xa

= lim f ( x) + lim g ( x)

x a

xa

= (3) 2 + (1)2 = 10

[2 f ( x) 3 g ( x)]

2 f ( x) 3g ( x ) xlim

= a

x a f ( x) + g ( x)

lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)]

26. lim

xa

2 lim f ( x) 3 lim g ( x)

xa

xa

lim f ( x) + lim g ( x)

xa

Section 1.3

= lim

u2 ux + 2u 2 x

lim

74

( x + 2)( x 1)

( x + 1)( x 1)

( x + 3)( x 17)

x 3 x 4 x 21

x 3 ( x + 3)( x 7)

x 17 3 17

= lim

=

=2

3 7

x 3 x 7

x 1

x 1

22. lim

1

12

( x 3)( x 2 )

x2 5x + 6

14. lim

= lim

x2

x2

x2

( x 2)

15.

2(5)4 9(5)3 + 19

lim

13.

21.

2 lim w 9 lim w + 19

w 5

w5

1

= lim

x 2 14 x 51

lim

w5

1,3

20.

w5

x 1

x + 2 1+ 2 3

= lim

=

=

x 1 x + 1

1+1 2

4,5

x2 + x 2

x 1

x 2 + 7 x + 10

( x + 2)( x + 5)

= lim

x2

x

2

x+2

x+2

= lim( x + 5) = 7

18. lim

w 5

xa

2(3) 3(1) 9

=

3 + (1)

2

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

xa

xa

xa

x a

xa

xa

= 6

xa

xa

= lim f (t ) + 3 lim g (t )

t a

u a

u a

3

u a

u a

3x 2

12

3( x 2 )(x + 2)

31. lim

= lim

x

2

x 2

x2

x2

= 3 lim (x + 2) = 3(2 + 2) = 12

x2

(3x 2 + 2 x + 1) 17

3x 2 + 2 x 16

= lim

x2

x2

x2

x 2

(3 x + 8)( x 2)

= lim

= lim (3 x + 8)

x2

x2

x 2

= 3 lim x + 8 = 3(2) + 8 = 14

x2

1

2

= lim

2 x

2x

= lim

34.

3

4

x2

3( 4 x 2 )

= lim

4x2

3( x + 2 )( x 2 )

= lim

4x2

x2

x2

x2

3 lim x + 2

3( x + 2)

= 3(2 + 2)

= lim

= x 2

2

2

x2

4x

4(2)2

4 lim x

x2

3

=

4

x2

xc

xc

g ( x) M <

L + M +1

L + M +1

. Let

f ( x) g ( x) LM g ( x) f ( x) L + L g ( x ) M

< ( M + 1)

L + M +1

+L

L + M +1

Hence,

lim f ( x) g ( x) = LM = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)

x c

x c

x2

x c

1

M

.

2

There is some 1 > 0 such that

1 =

1

M or

2

1

1

M < g ( x) < M + M .

2

2

1

1

1

1

M M M and M + M M

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

so g ( x) > M and

<

g ( x)

M

2

M

x 2

lim

Since lim f (x) = L and lim g(x) = M, there

x2

2x

x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2

1

1

1

1

= lim

=

=

=

2 lim x 2(2)

4

x2 2 x

x2

3

x2

x c

x c

32. lim

f ( x) g ( x) LM g ( x) f ( x) L + L g ( x ) M

lim g ( x) = M , there is some 1 > 0 such that if

f ( x) L <

= 3 + 3 1 = 6

33. lim

xc

M 1 M + 1 and M + 1 M + 1 so for

t a

t a

t a

1

x

xc

M 1 < g(x) < M + 1

= lim f ( x) lim 3 = (3 3) 4 = 0

x a

xa

t a

Choose > 0.

Since lim g(x) = M there is 2 > 0 such that

xc

0< xc <

1 2

M .

2

1

1

M g ( x)

=

g ( x) M

g ( x) M

1

2

2 1 2

M

g ( x) M <

g ( x) M =

2

M g ( x)

M

M2 2

Section 1.3

75

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Thus, lim

xc

1

1

1

=

=

.

g(x) M lim g (x)

43.

xc

f ( x)

1

lim

= lim f ( x) lim

x c g ( x )

x c

x c g ( x )

lim f ( x )

1

.

= lim f ( x)

= x c

lim g ( x ) lim g ( x)

x c

x c

xc

x 3+

x c

lim [ f (x) L] = 0

45.

xc

xc

xc

x2 9

x 3+

46.

lim f ( x) = 0

x2 9

x+3

32 9

=0

3+3

lim

x 1

x c

xc

( x 3) x 2 9

( x 3) x 2 9

= lim

x 3+ ( x 3)( x + 3)

x 3+

44.

x c

x2 9

= lim

= lim

x c

x3

lim

lim

x 2+

1+ x

1+1

2

=

=

4 + 4 x 4 + 4(1)

8

( x 2 + 1) x

(3 x 1)

(22 + 1) 2

(3 2 1)

x 3

x 3

x 3

5 2

5

2

5

x = 3 2 =1

xc

lim f 2 ( x) = 0

47.

x c

lim

x c

f 2 ( x) = 0

48.

lim f ( x) = 0

lim

x

= 1

x

lim

x 2 + 2 x = 32 + 2 3 = 15

x 0

x 3+

xc

x c

x c

lim x

x c

lim x 2

x c

x +1

x5

, g ( x) =

and c = 2, then

x2

x2

lim [ f (x) + g (x)] exists, but neither

xc

xc

2

, g ( x) = x, and c = 0, then

x

lim [ f (x) g( x)] exists, but lim f (x) does

b. If f ( x) =

xc

xc

not exist.

41.

42.

76

lim

x 3+

3+ x

33

=

=0

x

3

3 + x3

=

x

x +

lim

Section 1.3

1

f ( x)

lim g ( x) = 0 lim

1

=0

f ( x)

If f ( x) =

xc

f ( x) g ( x) = 1; g ( x) =

x a

= lim x = c 2 = c

x c

40. a.

49.

3 + ( )3

=0

x a

1

=0

lim f ( x)

xa

x a

1

x

50. R has the vertices ,

2

2

x 2 + 1 so the

length 1 and two sides of length

x 2 so the

perimeter of R is 2 + 2 x 2 .

lim

x 0 +

perimeter of R

2 x2 + 2

= lim

perimeter of Q x 0+ 4 x 2 + 1

2 02 + 2

2

4 0 +1

2 1

=

4 2

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

NO = (0 0)2 + (1 0)2 = 1

51. a.

4. lim

OP = ( x 0)2 + ( y 0) 2 = x 2 + y 2

= x2 + x

NP = ( x 0)2 + ( y 1)2 = x 2 + y 2 2 y + 1

= x + x 2 x +1

MO = (1 0) 2 + (0 0) 2 = 1

y2 + x2 2 x + 1

= x2 x + 1

perimeter of NOP

lim

x 0+ perimeter of MOP

= lim

=

1+ 1

1+ 1

1 + x2 + x + x2 x + 1

=1

x

1

(1)( x) =

2

2

1

x

Area of MOP = (1)( y ) =

2

2

b. Area of NOP =

area of NOP

x

= lim 2 = lim

x

+

+

+

MOP

area

of

x

x 0

x 0

x 0

lim

= lim

x 0+

x =0

1. 0

0

=0

1

5. lim

sin x 1

sin x 1

1

= lim

= 1 =

2x

2 x 0 x

2

2

sin 3

3 sin 3 3

sin 3

= lim

= lim

3

2 0 3

0 2

0 2

3

3

= 1 =

2

2

6. lim

sin 3

sin 3

cos sin 3

= lim sin = lim

0 tan

0

0

sin

cos

sin 3 1

= lim cos 3

sin

0

3

sin 3 1

= 3 lim cos

sin

0

3

= 3 1 1 1 = 3

sin 5

sin 5

tan 5

= lim cos 5 = lim

0 sin 2

0 sin 2

0 cos 5 sin 2

sin 5 1 2

1

= lim

5

5 2 sin 2

0 cos 5

5

sin 5 2

1

= lim

2 0 cos 5 5 sin 2

5

5

= 111 =

2

2

8. lim

cot sin

= lim

0

0

2 sec

9. lim

cos

sin

sin

2

cos

2sin

cos cos sin 1

= lim

sin

2

0

1

sin

sin

2 0

1

1

1111 =

=

2

2

= lim

2. 1

4. 1

cos x 1

= =1

x 0 x + 1 1

sin 2 3t

9t sin 3t sin 3t

= lim

= 0 1 1 = 0

t 0

t

0

2t

2 3t

3t

1. lim

2.

3 x tan x

3x (sin x / cos x)

3x

= lim

= lim

x 0

x 0 cos x

sin x

sin x

7. lim

1 + x2 + x + x2 + x 2 x + 1

x 0+

x 0

MP = ( x 1)2 + ( y 0) 2 =

x 0

lim cos =

/ 2

10. lim

0 = 0

cos 2 t

cos 2 0

1

=

=

=1

t 0 1 + sin t 1 + sin 0 1 + 0

3. lim

tan 2 3t

sin 2 3t

= lim

t 0

t 0 (2t )(cos 2 3t )

2t

11. lim

= lim

t 0

3(sin 3t ) sin 3t

= 0 1 = 0

3t

2 cos 2 3t

tan 2t

0

=

=0

t 0 sin 2t 1

1

12. lim

Section 1.4

77

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

sin(3t ) + 4t

4t

sin 3t

= lim

+

t 0 t sec t

t sec t

t sec t

sin 3t

4t

= lim

+ lim

t 0 t sec t t 0 t sec t

sin 3t

= lim 3cos t

+ lim 4 cos t

t 0

t 0

3t

= 3 1 + 4 = 7

13. lim

t 0

14.

sin 2

sin sin

lim

= lim

2

0

0

sin

sin

= lim

lim

= 1 1 = 1

0

0

19. lim 1 +

x 0

sin x

=2

x

t 0

lim cos t = lim cos(c + h)

t c

h 0

h 0

h 0

x 0

h 0

h0

= cos c

lim sin t

sin t t c

sin c

=

=

= tan c

t c cos t

lim cos t cos c

t c

t c

t c

x 0

t c

lim cos t

cos t t c

cos c

=

=

= cot c

sin t lim sin t sin c

t c

1

1

=

= sec c

cos t cos c

1

1

lim csc t = lim

=

= csc c

t c

t c sin t

sin c

t c

t c

area( OBP) area (sector OAP)

area (OBP) + area( ABPQ)

x 0

1

1

1

OB BP t (1) 2 OB BP + (1 OB ) BP

2

2

2

1

1

1

sin t cos t t sin t cos t + (1 cos t ) sin t

2

2

2

t

2 cos t

sin t

1

sin t

1

2 cos t

t

cos t

2

2

1

sin t

1

lim

lim

lim

t 0 2 cos t t 0 t

t 0 cos t

sin t

1

1 lim

t 0 t

sin t

= 1.

Thus, lim

t 0 t

cos t

x 0

78

Section 1.4

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

24. a.

Written response

6.

b.

c.

1

1

AB BP = (1 cos t ) sin t

2

2

sin t (1 cos t )

=

2

1

1

t sin t cos t

E = t (1)2 OB BP =

2

2

2

2

D sin t (1 cos t )

=

E

t sin t cos t

D=

D

lim = 0.75

+

t 0 E

2 x 100 x

8.

10.

x increases without bound

4. x = 6; vertical

sin 2

lim

2 5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

lim

x

1

= lim

=1

x 5 x 1 5

lim

x2

x 5 x3

lim

t2

t 7 t

lim

t t

= lim

x 5

x3

= lim

1 5

2

= lim

= 0 so lim

sin 2

2 5

=0

3 x3 / 2 + 3 x

2 x3 / 2

x3 + 3x

x3 + 3 x

lim 3

= 3 lim

x

x 2 x3 + 7 x

2 x3 + 7 x

3

x2

+ 72

x

+

2

=3

=0

2

13.

1

t 7

t2

= lim

2 x3

3+ 3

3 x3 + 3 x

lim

= 3 lim

1

x

1 5

12.

3 1 3

3 x3 x 2

x =

= lim

lim

3

2

x x 5 x

x 5

x

= lim

1

1

=

2 100

2

x

= lim

= lim

5 5 4

2 5

11.

lim

lim

from the right; f(x) decreases without bound as x

approaches c from the left

3. y = 6; horizontal

x3

7. lim

9.

1

x2

lim

= lim

=1

2

8

x x 8 x + 15 x 1 + 15

x x2

= 1

t

1

= lim

=1

5 t 1 5

t

= 3 lim

14.

x2

x2

= lim

x ( x 5)(3 x) x x 2 + 8 x 15

1

x2

+8

x 1 + 4

x2

lim

1

= lim

= 1

8

x 1 + 15

x x2

1 + 8x

1 + 8x

lim 3

= 3 lim

2

x x + 4

x x 2 + 4

lim

= 38 =2

x2 + x + 3

=

( x 1)( x + 1)

lim

1 + 1x + 32

x

1 12

lim

x2 + x + 3

x 2 1

= 1 =1

15.

lim

n

1

1

= lim

=

2n + 1 n 2 + 1 2

n

Section 1.5

79

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

16. lim

n2

n2 + 1

= lim

1+

1

n2

1

=1

1+ 0

23.

lim n

n2

n

n

= lim

=

=

=

1

n n + 1 n

1 1+ 0

1+

lim 1 +

n n n

17. lim

18. lim

n

n2 + 1

1+

lim

1

n2

0

=0

1+ 0

x2 + 3

= lim

2 + 1x

x 2 +3

x

20.

21.

2

1

1+

3

x2

lim

= lim

2 x 2 + 3 (2 x 2 5)

2 x2 + 3 + 2 x2 5

8

2

2 x + 3 + 2 x2 5

8

x

2+

3

x2

8

x

2 x 2 +3 + 2 x 2 5

x2

+ 2

22.

lim x 2 + 2 x x

x 2 + 2 x x x 2 + 2 x + x

= lim

2

x

x + 2x + x

= lim

= lim

x + 2x x

= lim

2x

x 2 + 2 x + x x x 2 + 2 x + x

2

2

= =1

1+ 2 +1 2

bn

xn

1

1

1+ 2

n

a0

b0

1

1+ 0

=1

t 3+

t 3

t2

9 t2

=

+

30. As x 3 5 , x 2 52 / 3 while 5 x3 0 .

x3 5

5

x2

= lim

an

xn

t2 9

(t + 3)(t 3)

= lim

+

+

t +3

t 3 t + 3

t 3

= lim (t 3) = 6

lim

=0

+ +

bn 1

x n 1

lim

lim

= lim

an 1

x n 1

27. As x 4+ , x 4 while x 4 0 .

x

lim

=

+

x

4

x 4

28.

2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 5 2 x 2 + 3 + 2 x 2 5

= lim

2

2

x

2x + 3 + 2x 5

= lim

+ +

+ 12

lim 2 x 2 + 3 2 x 2 5

n2

n

n3/ 2

= lim

= =

3

n

1

2

1

n + 2n + 1

1+ 2 + 3

n

n

26. lim

2x +1

x

= lim

= lim

=0

x+4

x 1 + 4

x 1 + 4

x

x

= lim

b0 +

b1

x

n +1

2

x

y 1

=2

2 x +1

x2

a1

x

2 + 1x

= lim

a0 +

25. lim

2x + 1

= lim

b0 x n + b1 x n 1 ++ bn 1 x + bn

lim

y2 2 y + 2

a0 x n + a1 x n 1 ++ an 1 x + an

= lim

1

n

= lim

24.

lim

1

y2

2+ 2

y y2

9y +

9 y3 + 1

x2

+

5 x3

3 x 2.

x2

lim

=

x 5 ( x 5)(3 x)

32. As + , 2 2 while sin 0 .

2

=

+ sin

lim

80

Section 1.5

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

33. As x 3 , x3 27, while x 3 0 .

43.

lim

x 3

x

=

x3

+

2

,

while cos 0 .

2

2

=

lim

+ cos

34. As

35.

3

3

= 0, lim

= 0;

x +1

x x + 1

Horizontal asymptote y = 0.

3

3

lim

= , lim

= ;

x 1+ x + 1

x 1 x + 1

Vertical asymptote x = 1

lim

lim

x 3

x2 x 6

( x + 2)( x 3)

= lim

x3

x3

x 3

= lim ( x + 2) = 5

x 3

36.

x2 + 2 x 8

lim

x 2+

= lim

x 2+

x 4

x+4 6 3

= lim

= =

x 2+ x + 2 4 2

( x + 4)( x 2)

( x + 2)( x 2)

thus lim

x 0 +

x

x

44.

x

x

lim

x ( x + 1)

= 0, lim

x ( x + 1) 2

= 0;

Horizontal asymptote y = 0.

3

3

lim

= , lim

= ;

2

2

+

x 1 ( x + 1)

x 1 ( x + 1)

Vertical asymptote x = 1

=0

=0

x

1

thus lim

= .

x

x

x

x 0

1

(Since x < 0, > 0. )

x

x

lim

x 0

x

x

= lim

x 0

x

= 1

x

x 0 +

45.

x

x

= lim

x 0 +

x

=1

x

1 + cos x

lim

=

sin x

x 0

lim

2x

2

= lim

= 2,

x 3 x 1 3

x

2x

2

lim

= lim

= 2,

x x 3 x 1 3

x

Horizontal asymptote y = 2

2x

2x

lim

= , lim

= ;

x 3+ x 3

x 3 x 3

Vertical asymptote x = 3

1

sin x

lim = 0, so lim

= 0.

x x

x x

Section 1.5

81

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

46.

lim

3

2

x 9

= 0, lim

49. f ( x ) = 2 x + 3

= 0;

x 9 x

x

Horizontal asymptote y = 0

3

3

lim

= , lim

= ,

2

2

+

x 3 9 x

x 3 9 x

3

3

lim

= , lim

= ;

2

2

x 3+ 9 x

x 3 9 x

Vertical asymptotes x = 3, x = 3

50.

14

x 2 x

f ( x) = 3x + 4

4x + 3

x2 + 1

, thus

x c +

such that 0 < x c < f(x) < M.

14

= 0, lim

, thus

4x + 3

lim [ f ( x) (3 x + 4)] = lim

x

x x 2 + 1

4+ 3

x x2

= lim

=0.

x

1 + 12

x

The oblique asymptote is y = 3x + 4.

= 0;

x 2 x2 + 7

+7

Horizontal asymptote y = 0

2

Since 2x + 7 > 0 for all x, g(x) has no vertical

asymptotes.

lim

x 1

=0

3

x

x x 1

The oblique asymptote is y = 2x + 3.

51. a.

47.

1

3

x c

such that 0 < c x < f(x) > M.

We say that lim f ( x) = if to each

52. a.

N > 0 such that N < x f(x) > M.

b. We say that lim f ( x ) = if to each

x

N < 0 such that x < N f(x) > M.

53. Let > 0 be given. Since lim f ( x ) = A, there is

x

48.

lim

lim

2x

2

x +5

= lim

2x

x2 + 5

= lim

2

1+

5

x2

2

1+

5

x2

2

1

=

= 2,

2

1

2

= 2

asymptotes.

2

Let M = max{M1 , M 2 } , then

x > M f ( x) + g ( x) ( A + B)

= f ( x) A + g ( x) B f ( x) A + g ( x) B

=

2 2

Thus, lim [ f ( x) + g ( x)] = A + B

<

82

Section 1.5

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

55. a.

56.

1

, then as x , u 0+.

x

1

lim sin = lim sin u = 0

x u 0 +

x

b. Let u =

c.

1

Let u = , then as x , u 0+.

x

1

1

sin u

lim x sin = lim sin u = lim

=1

+

x u 0+ u

u

x

u 0

d. Let u =

lim x

3/ 2

e.

h.

59.

60.

3/ 2

1 v2 / c2

v c

3x 2 + x +1 3

=

2

2

x 2x 1

2 x 2 3x

lim

5x + 1

2

5

3

lim 2 x 2 + 3x 2 x 2 5 =

2 2

2x +1

lim

3x 2 + 1

sin u

10

1 sin u

= lim+

=

u 0

u u

1

while x 1/ 2 =

0.

x

62.

1

lim 1 + = e 2.718

x

x

1/ 2

sin x = 0

1

, then

x

1

x

x

6

6

u

1

= sin =

6 2

1

1

, so lim sin x +

x

x

x

1

1

1

x

x

x

x

x

1

1

x

x

x

1

1

As x , cos 1 so cos 1 0.

x

x

1

From part b., lim sin = 0.

x

x

As x both sin x and cos x oscillate

between 1 and 1.

1

x

x

=1

x

1

63. lim 1 +

x

x

Let u =

As x , x +

lim

1

lim 1 +

x

x

lim x

g.

1

1

sin = lim+

x u 0 u

58.

v c

61.

f.

1

, then

x

57.

m0

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

1

lim 1 +

x

x

70.

71.

=

sin x

=1

sin x 3

lim

x 3

= 1

x3

sin x 3

lim

x 3

tan( x 3)

= 1

lim

cos( x 3)

=

x3

lim

cos x

= 1

x 2

x 3

x

2

69.

x2

lim (1 + x )

x 0 +

1

x

= e 2.718

lim (1 + x )1/ x =

x 0+

lim (1 + x ) x = 1

x 0+

Section 1.5

83

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

13.

t 3+

lim f (t ) = lim (t 3) = 0

t 3

1. lim f ( x)

x c

t 3

t 3

2. every integer

3.

lim f (t ) = lim (3 t ) = 0

t 3+

xa+

14.

x b

lim f (t ) = lim (3 t )2 = 0

t 3+

t 3+

lim f (t ) = lim (t 2 9) = 0

t 3

4. a; b; f(c) = W

t 3

t 3

t 3

x 3

x 3

3. lim

x 3 x 3

continuous at 3.

continuous at x = 4, 8; g is right continuous at

x = 3, 6

17. h is continuous on the intervals

(, 5), [ 5, 4] , (4, 6), [ 6,8] , (8, )

x 2 49

( x 7)( x + 7)

= lim

= lim ( x + 7)

x7

x 7 x 7

x 7

x 7

= 7 + 7 = 14

Define f(7) = 14.

18. lim

t 3

continuous at 3.

t 3

t 3

continuous at 3.

5. lim

2 x 2 18

2( x + 3)( x 3)

= lim

3 x

x 3 3 x

x 3

= lim[2( x + 3)] = 2(3 + 3) = 12

19. lim

t 3

x 3

7. lim t = 3 = f (3); continuous

t 3

20. lim

t 3

21. lim

t 1

t 3 27

(t 3)(t 2 + 3t + 9)

= lim

t 3

t 3 t 3

t 3

= lim(t 2 + 3t + 9) = (3)2 + 3(3) + 9 = 27 = r (3)

22.

t 3

t 3

t 1

1)( t + 1)

1

Define H(1) = .

2

t 1 (t

11. lim

continuous

t 1

( t 1)( t + 1)

= lim

t 1 t 1 (t 1)( t + 1)

= lim

t 3

=1

Define g(0) = 1

0

9. h(3) does not exist, so h(t) is not continuous at 3.

sin( )

= lim

t 1

1

t +1

1

2

x4 + 2 x2 3

( x 2 1)( x 2 + 3)

= lim

x +1

x +1

x 1

x 1

lim

( x + 1)( x 1)( x 2 + 3)

x +1

x 1

= lim

x 1

= (1 1)[(1)2 + 3] = 8

Define (1) = 8.

84

Section 1.6

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

23.

x2 1

( x 1)( x + 1)

lim sin

= lim sin

x +1

x 1

x + 1 x 1

= lim sin( x 1) = sin(1 1) = sin(2) = sin 2

37.

x 1

24. Discontinuous at x = ,30

25.

33 x 2

( x)( x 3)

Discontinuous at x = 3,

f ( x) =

38.

27. Discontinuous at all = n + where n is any

2

integer.

28. Discontinuous at all u 5

39.

29. Discontinuous at u = 1

30. Continuous at all points

31. G ( x) =

1

(2 x)(2 + x)

Discontinuous on (, 2] [2, )

32. Continuous at all points since

lim f ( x) = 0 = f (0) and lim f ( x) = 1 = f (1).

x 0

40.

x 1

x 0

lim g ( x) = 1, lim g ( x) = 1

x 1+

x 1

x1

at x = 1.

34. Discontinuous at every integer

35. Discontinuous at t = n +

1

where n is any integer

2

lim f ( x ) f (c) for c 0 . lim f ( x ) exists only

x c

x c

x 0

36.

41. Continuous.

42. Discontinuous: removable, define f (10) = 20

43. Discontinuous: removable, define f (0) = 1

44. Discontinuous: nonremovable.

45. Discontinuous, removable, redefine g (0) = 1

46. Discontinuous: removable, define F (0) = 0

Section 1.6

85

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

48. Discontinuous: removable, define f (4) = 4

49. The function is continuous on the intervals

( 0,1] , (1, 2], (2,3],

f(0) = 2 < 0 and f(1) = 2 > 0. Thus, there is at

least one number c between 0 and 1 such that

x 3 + 3x 2 = 0.

53. Because the function is continuous on [ 0,2 ] and

(cos 0)03 + 6sin 5 0 3 = 3 < 0,

Cost $

0.60

is at least one number c between 0 and 2 such

0.48

0.72

0.36

continuous at all values of x.

f(0) = 8, f(5) = 12

Because 0 is between 8 and 12, there is at least

one number c between 0 and 5 such that

3

0.24

0.12

1

3

5

2

4

6

Length of call in minutes

[0, 200], (200,300], (300, 400],

f ( x ) = x 3 7 x 2 + 14 x 8 = 0 .

Cost $

80

60

40

20

Miles Driven

(0, 0.25], (0.25, 0.375], (0.375, 0.5],

values of x 0.

f(0) = 1, f(/2) = / 2

Because 0 is between 1 and / 2 , there is at

least one number c between 0 and /2 such that

f ( x ) = x cos x = 0.

The interval [0.6,0.7] contains the solution.

Cost $

4

3

2

1

0.25

0.5

0.75

Miles Driven

56. Let f ( x) = x5 + 4 x3 7 x + 14

f(x) is continuous at all values of x.

f(2) = 36, f(0) = 14

Because 0 is between 36 and 14, there is at least

one number c between 2 and 0 such that

f ( x) = x5 + 4 x3 7 x + 14 = 0.

86

Section 1.6

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

lim f ( x) = f (c). Let x = c + t, so t = x c, then

x c

lim f ( x) = f (c) becomes lim f (t + c ) = f (c).

x c

t 0

t 0

x c and the statement lim f (t + c) = f (c)

t 0

x c

c.

58. Since f(x) is continuous at c,

lim f ( x) = f (c) > 0. Choose = f ( c ) , then

x c

0 < x c < f ( x) f (c) < .

Thus, f ( x ) f ( c ) > = f ( c ) , or f ( x ) > 0 .

Since also f ( c ) > 0 , f ( x ) > 0 for all x in

(c , c + ).

g(0) = 0 f(0) = f(0) 0 and g(1) = 1 f(1) 0

since 0 f(x) 1 on [0, 1] . If g(0) = 0, then

f(0) = 0 and c = 0 is a fixed point of f. If g(1) = 0,

then f(1) = 1 and c = 1 is a fixed point of f. If

neither g(0) = 0 nor g(1) = 0, then g(0) < 0 and

g(1) > 0 so there is some c in [0, 1] such that

g(c) = 0. If g(c) = 0 then c f(c) = 0 or

f(c) = c and c is a fixed point of f.

60. For f(x) to be continuous everywhere,

f(1) = a(1) + b = 2 and f(2) = 6 = a(2) + b

a+b=2

2a + b = 6

a = 4

a = 4, b = 2

watch where x is a point on the path, and suppose

x = 0 at the bottom and x = 1 at the top of the

mountain.

So f(x) = (time on watch on the way up) (time

on watch on the way down).

f(0) = 4 11 = 7, f(1) = 12 5 = 7. Since time is

continuous, f(x) is continuous, hence there is

some c between 0 and 1 where f(c) = 0. This c is

the point where the hikers watch showed the

same time on both days.

64. Let f be the function on 0, 2 such that f() is

makes angle with the x-axis minus the length of

the sides perpendicular to it. f is continuous on

0, 2 . If f(0) = 0 then the region is

observe that f (0) = f . Thus, by the

2

Intermediate Value Theorem, there is an angle

0 between 0 and

such that f ( 0 ) = 0.

2

Hence, D can be circumscribed by a square.

65. Yes, g is continuous at R .

lim g ( r ) =

r R

= lim g ( r )

GMm

r R+

R2

were to change signs on [a,b], then f must be

0 at some c in [a,b]. Therefore, f cannot

change sign.

67. a.

want to prove that lim f (x) = f (c), or,

xc

xc

61. For x in [0, 1], let f(x) indicate where the string

originally at x ends up. Thus f(0) = a, f(1) = b.

f(x) is continuous since the string is unbroken.

Since 0 a, b 1 , f(x) satisfies the conditions of

Problem 59, so there is some c in [0, 1] with

f(c) = c, i.e., the point of string originally at c

ends up at c.

62. The Intermediate Value Theorem does not imply

the existence of a number c between 2 and 2

such that f (c ) = 0. The reason is that the

lim[ f ( x) f (c)] = lim f ( x c). Let

x c

x c

h = x c then as x c, h 0 and

lim f ( x c) = lim f (h) = f (0) = 0. Hence

x c

h 0

xc

was arbitrary.

b. By Problem 43 of Section 0.5, f(t) = mt for

all t in Q. Since g(t) = mt is a polynomial

function, it is continuous for all real

numbers. f(t) = g(t) for all t in Q, thus

f(t) = g(t) for all t in R, i.e. f (t ) = mt.

Section 1.6

87

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

lim f ( x) = f (c) for all points in the interval:

x c

x c

x c

= lim

x c

f 2 ( x) = lim f ( x)

x c

3 3

Domain: , ;

4 4

3

3

Range: , 0,

4

4

= ( f (c))2 = f (c )

1 if x 0

69. Suppose f ( x) =

. f(x) is

1 if x < 0

discontinuous at x = 0, but g(x) = f ( x) = 1 is

b. At x = 0

3

3

c. If x = 0, f ( x) = 0 , if x = , f ( x) = and

4

4

3

3

3

3

if x = , f ( x) = , so x = , 0, are

4

4

4

4

fixed points of f.

continuous everywhere.

70. a.

Concepts Test

1. False.

Consider f ( x ) = x at x = 2.

2. False:

c may not be in the domain of f(x), or

it may be defined separately.

3. False:

c may not be in the domain of f(x), or

it may be defined separately.

b. If r is any rational number, then any deleted

interval about r contains an irrational

1

number. Thus, if f (r ) = , any deleted

q

interval about r contains at least one point c

1

1

such that f (r ) f (c) = 0 = . Hence,

q

q

lim f (x) does not exist.

xr

p

p

x = c (where

is the reduced form

q

q

of the rational number) q , so

f ( x) 0 as x c. Thus,

lim f ( x) = 0 = f (c) for any irrational

x c

4. True.

By definition, where c = 0, L = 0.

5. False:

xc

exist; e.g., f ( x) =

88

3

geometry, f ( x) = . Suppose the block

4

rotates to the right. Using geometry,

3

f ( x) = . If x = 0, the block does not rotate,

4

so f(x) = 0.

Section 1.7

x 4

.

x+2

x2 4

= 4.

x 2 x + 2

6. True:

x 2 25

( x 5)( x + 5)

= lim

x5

x 5 x 5

x 5

= lim ( x + 5) = 5 + 5 = 10

lim

x 5

7. True:

8. False:

number c.

71. a.

9. False:

10. True:

Substitution Theorem

lim

x 0

sin x

=1

x

all values of c.

sin x

,

cos x

then cos x 0 , and Theorem A.7

applies..

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

11. True:

continuous for all real numbers, by

Theorem C we can conclude that

f ( x) = 2 sin 2 x cos x is also

continuous for all real numbers.

12. True.

By definition, lim f ( x ) = f ( c ) .

13. True.

2 [1,3]

14. False:

25. True:

x2

f ( x ) f (2) < 0. 001 f (2), or

0. 001 f (2 ) < f ( x ) f (2 )

< 0.001f(2)

Thus, 0.999f(2) < f(x) < 1.001f(2) and

f(x) < 1.001f(2) for 0 < x 2 < .

Since f(2) < 1.001f(2), as f(2) > 0,

f(x) < 1.001f(2) on (2 , 2 + ).

x c

x 0

lim f ( x ) = f (2), there is some

26. False:

xc

15. False:

Consider f ( x) = sin x.

16. True.

interval.

17. False:

1

sin x

lim = 0 , we get lim

=0.

x x

x x

18. False.

lim f ( x ) = 2

xc

xc

g ( x) =

asymptotes; e.g., x = /2, 3/2,

5/2,

20. True:

x = 2 ; x = 2

21. True:

denominator are positive. Since the

numerator approaches a constant and

the denominator approaches zero, the

limit goes to + .

22. False:

Squeeze Theorem

28. True:

point, so if lim f ( x ) = L and

x a

lim f ( x ) = M , L = M

x a

29. False:

24. True:

x +x6

and

x2

5

x, then f(x) g(x) for all x,

2

but lim f ( x ) = lim g ( x ) = 5.

x 2

x2

30. False:

x2

For example,

x3 + 6 x 2 2 x 12

f ( x) =

< 10 for

x2

all x, but lim f ( x) = 10.

x c

continuous at x = c.

x 2.3

g ( x) =

x c

x

= 1 = f ( 2.3)

2

x c

example, if f ( x) =

x c

lim

imply that lim f ( x) lim g ( x). For

x c

continuous at x = c.

23. True:

x+7

for c = 2 .

x+2

27. True:

19. False:

x3

and

x+2

x 2

31. True:

lim f ( x) = lim

x a

x a

f 2 ( x)

= lim f ( x) = (b)2 = b

xa

32. True:

[a, b], the reciprocal is also

continuous, so it will assume all

1

1

and

.

values between

f ( a)

f (b )

Section 1.7

89

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

14.

x2 22 0

=

= =0

x 2 x + 2

2+2 4

1. lim

u 2 1 12 1

=

=0

1+1

u 1 u + 1

u2 1

(u 1)(u + 1)

= lim

= lim (u + 1)

u 1

u 1 u 1

u 1

u 1

=1+1=2

u +1

u +1

= lim

u 1 (u + 1)(u 1)

1

does not exist

1 2x

5. lim

= lim

x 2

x

= lim

x 2 ( x 2)( x + 2)

x2 x 2

4

1

1

=

=

2 (2 + 2 ) 8

z2 4

u 1 u 1

= lim

x2

1 cos 2 x

2 1 cos 2 x

= lim

3x

2x

x 0

x 0 3

2

1 cos 2 x 2

= lim

= 0 = 0

3 x 0

2x

3

1

x ( x + 2)

1

1

x 1

x = 1+ 0 = 1

17. lim

= lim

2 1+ 0

x x + 2

x

1+

x

= lim

get lim

19. lim

sin x

tan x

1

cos x

= lim

= lim

x 0 sin 2 x

x 0 2 sin x cos x

x 0 2 cos 2 x

1

1

=

=

2

2 cos 0 2

y 1 y 2

( y 1)( y 2 + y + 1)

y 1 ( y 1)( y + 1)

t+2

( t 2 )2

20.

= lim

21.

y 2 + y + 1 12 + 1 + 1 3

=

=

1+1

2

y +1

y 1

x4

x 2

x4

= lim

( x 2)( x + 2)

x 4

x 2

= lim ( x + 2) = 4 + 2 = 4

x4

12.

13.

90

lim

x 0

lim

x (1/ 2)+

lim

t 2

= lim

x 0

x

= lim (1) = 1

x x 0

4x = 2

cos x

= , because as x 0+ , cos x 1

x 0 + x

while the denominator goes to 0 from the right.

lim

Section 1.7

x / 4

tan 2 x = because as x ( / 4 ) ,

2 x ( / 2 ) , so tan 2 x .

22.

1 + sin x

= , because as x 0+ ,

+

x

x 0

lim

0 from the right.

| 2 x 6 |< 2 | x 3 |<

| x 3 |<

. Choose =

t t ) = lim t lim t = 1 2 = 1

t 2

= because as t 0, t + 2 4

a > 0 such that

0 <| x 3 |< | ( 2 x + 1) 7 |< .

cos x

does not exist.

x 0 x

10. lim

11.

sin t

=0.

t

lim

= lim

9. lim

= 0 , we

7. lim

y3 1

t t

t 2

8. lim

1 x

= 1 since x 1 < 0 as

x 1

16. lim

z 2 ( z + 3)( z

z 2 z 2

x 1

sin 5 x

5 sin 5 x

= lim

x 0 3 x

x 0 3 5 x

5

sin 5 x 5

5

= lim

= 1 =

3 x 0 5 x

3

3

( z + 2)( z 2)

2)

+z6

z +2 2 + 2 4

=

=

= lim

5

z 2 z + 3 2 + 3

6. lim

x 1

= lim

15. lim

3. lim

u 1 u 2

x 1

x 1

2. lim

4. lim

x 1

lim

t 2

( 2 x + 1) 7

= 2 x 6 = 2 x 3 < 2 ( / 2 ) = .

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

24. a. f(1) = 0

b.

c.

d.

28.

lim f ( x) = lim (1 x) = 0

x 1+

x 1+

lim f ( x) = lim x = 1

x 1

x 1

lim f ( x) = 1 because

x 1

x 1

x 1

lim f ( x) = lim x = 1

x 1+

25. a.

x 1+

but lim f (x ) does not exist. f is

x1

not exist.

b. Define f(1) = 1

26. a.

b.

27. a.

0 < a x < f ( x) L <

lim[2 f ( x) 4 g ( x)]

Horizontal: lim

c.

d.

x 3

x2 9

lim g ( x)

= lim g ( x )( x + 3)

x 3 x 3

x 3

= lim g ( x ) lim ( x + 3) = 2 (3 + 3) = 12

x 3

+1

Horizontal: lim

x2

x x 2

= lim

x2

+ 1 x x 2 + 1

y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

g(3) = 2

lim g ( f ( x)) = g lim f ( x) = g (3) = 2

x 3

x 3

lim

x 3

f ( x) 8 g ( x)

2

= lim f ( x) 8 lim g ( x)

x 3

x 3

x 1+

lim

x 3

g ( x) g (3)

f ( x)

2 g (3)

3

lim

x 1

x2

x2 1

Horizontal: lim

= 1 , so

x2

x2 1

x2

= lim

x2

1 x x 2 1

y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

= 0 , so

x x 2

= (3) 2 8(2) = 5

f.

x x 2

and

e.

= lim

+1

y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.

= 2(3) 4(2) = 14

x 3

x x 2

= 2 lim f ( x) 4 lim g ( x )

b.

30. Let f ( x) = x5 4 x3 3 x + 1

f(2) = 5, f(3) = 127

Because f(x) is continuous on [2, 3] and

f(2) < 0 < f(3), there exists some number c

between 2 and 3 such that f(c) = 0.

31. Vertical: None, denominator is never 0.

x 3

x 3

b = 1; a + b = 1

a1=1

a=2

= 1 , so

2 (2)

3

=0

Section 1.7

91

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

x

lim

x 2+

x 4

= and

x x 2

lim

x x 2

4

asymptotes.

lim

x 2

x3

Horizontal: lim

2. a.

3

x 4

= and

lim tan 2 x = and similarly for other odd

x / 4

g ( 2 ) = 1/ 2

b.

c.

d.

g ( 2.1) g ( 2 )

2.1 2

0.024

= 0.24

0.1

e.

g ( a + h ) = 1/ ( a + h )

f.

g ( a + h ) g ( a ) = 1/ ( a + h ) 1/ a =

multiples of / 4.

Horizontal: None, because lim tan 2 x and

x

g.

sin x

1 sin x

lim

= lim

=.

2

+

+

x

x 0

x 0 x x

h.

g (a + h) g (a)

(a + h) a

3. a.

Horizontal: y = 0, because

lim

sin x

x2

= lim

sin x

x2

1. a.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

f ( 2.1) f ( 2 )

2.1 2

0.41

=

= 4.1

0.1

f ( a + h ) = ( a + h ) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2

2

f ( a + h ) f ( a ) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2 a 2

= 2ah + h 2

f (a + h) f (a)

(a + h) a

lim

h0

2ah + h 2

=

= 2a + h

h

f (a + h) f ( a)

(a + h) a

g (a + h) g (a)

(a + h) a

h0

h 0

c.

d.

F ( 2.1) F ( 2 )

2.1 2

0.035

= 0.35

0.1

e.

F (a + h) = a + h

f.

F (a + h) F (a) = a + h a

g.

h.

F (a + h) F (a)

lim

a+h a

h

( a + h) a

F (a + h) F (a)

h0

= lim

(a + h) a

a+h a

h 0

= lim

h 0

h 0

= lim

h 0

92

1

a2

F ( 2 ) = 2 1.414

= lim

= lim ( 2a + h ) = 2a

1

a (a + h)

f ( 2 ) = 22 = 4

b.

lim

b.

= 0.

h

a (a + h)

h

a (a + h)

(

(

h0

)(

a+h + a

a+h + a

a+ha

a+h + a

h

a+h + a

1

a+h + a

a+h a

h

= lim

)

)

1

2 a

a

2a

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

4. a.

G ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 8 + 1 = 9

3

10.

b.

c.

d.

e.

G ( 2.1) G ( 2 )

2.1 2

1.261

= 12.61

0.1

4

32

3

cm3

V0 = ( 2 ) =

3

3

4

62.5 125

3

=

cm3

V1 = ( 2.5 ) =

3

3

6

125

32

V = V1 V0 =

cm3

cm3

6

3

61

= cm3 31.940 cm3

6

11. a.

G ( a + h) = ( a + h) + 1

3

= a 3 + 3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3 + 1

f.

G ( a + h ) G ( a ) = ( a + h ) + 1 a + 1

) (

b.

d = 6002 + 4002

= 721 miles

c.

d = 6752 + 5002

= 840 miles

= a3 + 3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3 + 1 a 3 + 1

2

= 3a h + 3ah + h

g.

G ( a + h) G ( a)

(a + h) a

plane has traveled 400 miles.

3a 2 h + 3ah 2 + h3

h

= 3a 2 + 3ah + h 2

h.

lim

h0

G ( a + h) G ( a)

(a + h) a

= lim 3a 2 + 3ah + h 2

h 0

= 3a 2

5. a.

( a + b )3 = a3 + 3a 2b +

b.

( a + b ) 4 = a 4 + 4 a 3b +

c.

( a + b )5 = a 5 + 5 a 4 b +

6.

( a + b )n = a n + na n 1b +

8. cos ( x + h ) = cos x cos h sin x sin h

9. a.

three cases ( t = 1, 2,3 ) because it will have

made 4, 8, and 12 revolutions respectively.

revolutions per second, it will complete 1

1

revolution after second. Therefore, the

4

point will first return to its starting position

1

at time t = .

4

93

or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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