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Algebra

Factoring Formulas

Real numbers : a, b, c
Natural number : n

1. a2 b2 = ( a + b)(a b )
2. a3 b3 = ( a b )(a2 + ab + b2)
3. a3 + b3 = ( a + b )(a2 - ab + b2)
4. a4 b4 = (a2 b2)( a2 + b2) = ( a + b)(a b ) )( a2 + b2)
5. a5 b5 = ( a b)(a4 + a3b + a2b2 + ab3 + b4)
6. a5 + b5 = ( a + b)(a4 - a3b + a2b2 - ab3 + b4)
7. If n is odd, then
an + bn = ( a + b)(an-1 an-2b + an-3b2 - - abn-2 + bn-1).
8. If n is even, then

an bn = ( a - b)(an-1 + an-2b + an-3b2 + + abn-2 + bn-1).


an + bn = ( a + b)(an-1 an-2b + an-3b2 - + abn-2 - bn-1).

Product Formulas
Real numbers : a, b, c
Whole numbers : n, k
9.

( a b )2 = a2 2ab + b2

10.

( a + b )2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

11.

( a b )3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3

12.

( a + b )3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

13.

( a b )4 = a4 4a3b + 6a2b2 4ab3 + b4

14.

( a + b )4 = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4

15.

Binomial Formula
( a + b )n = nC0an + nC1an-1b + nC2an-2b2 + + nCn-1abn-1 + nCn-1bn,

16.

( a + b + c )2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc

17.

( a + b + c + + u + v )2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + + u2 + v2 +
+ 2 ( ab + ac + + au + av + bc + + bu + bv + + uv )

Powers
Bases (positive real numbers) : a, b
Powers (rational numbers) : n, m
18.

aman = am + n

19.

= am n

20.

( ab )m = ambm

21.

22.

(am)n = amn

23.

a0 = 1, a

24.

a1 = 1

25.

a-m =

)m =

26.

Roots

Bases : a, b
Powers (rational numbers) : n, m
a, b

0 for even roots ( n = 2k, k

27.

28.

29.

30.

,b

31.

)p =

32.

)n = a

33.

34.

35.

36.
37.

,b

)m =
=

,a

0.

N)

38.

39.

Logarithms

Positive real numbers : x, y, a, c, k


Natural number : n
40.

Definition of Logarithm
if and only if x =

y=
41.

=0

42.

=1

43.

=-

if a > 1 and +

44.

45.

46.

=n

47.

48.

49.

50.

x=

, a > 0, a

1.

if a < 1

, c > 0, c

1.

51.

Logarithm to Base 10
= log x

52.

Natural Logarithm
= ln x,
= 2.718281828

where e =
=

53.
54.

ln x =

1n x = 0.434294 1n x
logx = 2.302585 log x

Equations

Real numbers : a, b, c, p, q, u, v
Solutions : x1, x2, y1, y2, y3
55.

Linear Equation in One Variable


ax + b = 0 , x = -

56.

Quadratic Equation
ax2 + bx + c = 0, x1,2 =

57.

Discriminant
D = b2 4ac

58.

Vietes Formulas
If x2 + px + q = 0, then
x1 + x2 = -p and
x1x2 = q

59.

ax2 + bx = 0, x1 = 0, x2 = -

60.

ax2 + c = 0, x1,2 =

61.

Cubic Equation. Cardanos Formula.


y3 + py + q = 0,
y1 = u + v, y2,3 = -

( u + v)

( u +v )i,

where

u=

,v=

Inequalities

Variables : x, y, z
Real numbers : a, b, c, d, a1, a2, a3 ,an, m, n
Determinants : D, Dx, Dy, Dz
62.

Inequalities, Interval Notations and Graphs

Inequality
x b

Interval Notation
[a, b]

(a, b]

[a, b)

Graph

(a, b)

b,

(-

, b]

b,

(-

, b)

a
x

x
a

[a,

a
x

x
a

(a,

63.

If a > b, then b < a.

64.

If a > b, then a b > 0 or b a < 0.

65.

If a > b, then a +c > b + c.

66.

If a > b, then a c > b c.

67.

If a > b and c > d, hen a + c > b + d.

68.

If a > b and c > d, hen a - d > b - c.

69.

If a > b and c > d, then ma > mb.

70.

If a > b and m > 0, then

71.

If a > b and m > 0, then ma < mb.

72.

If a > b and m < 0, then

73.

If 0 < a < b and n > 0, then an < bn .

74.

If 0 < a < b and n < 0, then an > bn .

75.

If 0 < a < b, then

76.

<

>

<

,
where a > 0, b > 0; an equality is valid only if a = b.

77.

a+

2, where a > 0 ; an equality takes place only at a = 1.

, where a1, a2, ... , an > 0.

78.
79.

If ax + b > 0 and a > 0, then x > -

80.

If ax + b > 0 and a < 0, then x < -

81.

ax2 + bx + c > 0

a>0

a<0

D>0
x
< x1, x > x2

x1 < x < x2

D=0

x
x1 < x, x > x1

D<0

82.

<x<

83.

If

< a, then a < x < a , where a > 0.

84.

If

< a, then x < -a and x > a, where a > 0.

85.

If x2 < a, then

<

, where a > 0.

86.

If x2 > a, then

>

, where a > 0.

87.

If

> 0 , then f(x) . g(x) > 0 and g(x)

88.

If

< 0 , then f(x) . g(x) < 0 and g(x)

Compound Interest Formulas

Future value : A
Initial deposit : C
Annual rate of interest : r
Number of years invested : t
Number of times compounded per year : n
89.

General Compound Interest Formula

A=C(1+
90.

)nt

Simplified Compound Interest Formula


If interest is compounded once per year, then the previous formula simplifies
to :
A = C ( 1 + r )t .

91.

Continuous Compound Interest


If interest is compounded continually ( n
A = Cert .

), then