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INVESTIGACIN DE OPERACIONES 2

Sesin 7: PDD Produccin e Inventarios

LOGRO DE LA SESIN

Los estudiantes al finalizar la sesin


tendrn las competencias para resolver
problemas de decisin de produccin e
inventarios
mediante
el
uso
de
programacin dinmica determinstica.

PROGRAMACIN DINMICA DE LA PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

Se descompone el tiempo en N perodos.


Demanda conocida, se debe satisfacer a tiempo (Inventario + Produccin)
Capacidad de produccin limitada.
Costos de produccin (fijos y variables).
Capacidad limitada de almacenamiento, costos asociados.
Niveles de inventario inicial y final conocidos.

Cuntas unidades se deben producir en cada perodo?


Minimizar el CT de satisfacer las demandas a tiempo.

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS


Se tiene una empresa que fabrica mquinas de afeitar elctricas, con las siguientes
caractersticas:

La demanda para los prximos 6 meses se ha pronosticado en 200, 300, 400, 500,
600 y 200 unidades respectivamente.
El costo de produccin es de $25 por unidad.
El costo de almacenamiento es de $0.20 por unidad-mes.
La produccin se hace en lotes de 100.
La capacidad mxima de produccin es de 800 unidades.
La capacidad mxima de almacenamiento es de 600 unidades.
No se cuenta con inventario inicial.
El inventario final, en el sexto mes, debe ser 0 unidades con el fin de reducir costos.

Determinar el plan de produccin para los prximos 6 meses que minimice los costos
totales.

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS


x1
y1

x2

x6
y3

y2
1

f1(x1,y1)

f2(x2,y2)

y6

Variables de Decisin:
xi : Cantidad (cientos) de mquinas a producir el mes i

Variables de Estado:
yi : Inventario de mquinas (cientos) al inicio del mes i
i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

y7
3

f6(x6,y6)

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS


x1
y1

x2

x6
y3

y2
1

f1(x1,y1)

f2(x2,y2)

y6

y7
3

f6(x6,y6)

Condiciones de borde:
y1 = 0

y7 = 0

Parmetros:
di: demanda de cientos de mquinas durante el mes i
d1 = 2
d2 = 3
d3 = 4
d4 = 5
d5 = 6
d6 = 2

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS


x1
y1

x2

x6
y3

y2
1

f1(x1,y1)

f2(x2,y2)

y6

y7
3

f6(x6,y6)

Reglas de transformacin:
IF = II + Produccin demanda

yi + 1 = yi + xi di 0
y7 = y6 + x6 2 0
y4 = y3 + x3 4 0

y6 = y5 + x5 6 0
y3 = y2 + x2 3 0

y5 = y4 + x4 5 0
y2 = y1 + x1 2 0

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS


Funciones de retorno:
fi(xi, yi) = costos de produccin + costos de almacenamiento

fi(xi, yi) = 25xi + 0.2(yi + xi di) para: i= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


Funciones recursivas:
F6(Y6) = mn {25x6 + 0.2(y6 + x6 2)}

F5(Y5) = mn {25x5 + 0.2(y5 + x5 6) + F6(Y6)}


F4(Y4) = mn {25x4 + 0.2(y4 + x4 5) + F5(Y5)}
F3(Y3) = mn {25x3 + 0.2(y3 + x3 4) + F4(Y4)}
F2(Y2) = mn {25x2 + 0.2(y2 + x2 3) + F3(Y3)}
F1(Y1) = mn {25x1 + 0.2(y1 + x1 2) + F2(Y2)}

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

y6 + x6 2 0, d6= 2

Etapa 6:

X6

F6(Y6)

X6

NP

NP

[ (25 * 2) + 0.2 * (0
+ 2 - 2) ]= 50

50

NP

[ (25 * 1) + 0.2 * (1
+ 1 - 2) ] = 25

NP

25

[ (25 * 0) + 0.2 * (2
+ 0 - 2) ] = 0

NP

NP

Y6

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

X5
Y5
0

6 y5 + x5 8, d5 = 6

Etapa 5:
0

[ (25 * 6) +
[ (25 * 7) +
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (0 + 6 - 0.2 * (0 + 7 - 0.2 * (0 + 8 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 50 =
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
200
200.2
200.4
[ (25 * 5) +
[ (25 * 6) +
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (1 + 5 - 0.2 * (1 + 6 - 0.2 * (1 + 7 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 50 =
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
175
175.2
175.4
[ (25 * 4) +
[ (25 * 5) +
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (2 + 4 - 0.2 * (2 + 5 - 0.2 * (2 + 6 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 50 =
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
150
150.2
175.4
[ (25 * 3) +
[ (25 * 4) +
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (3 + 3 - 0.2 * (3 + 4 - 0.2 * (3 + 5 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 50 =
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
125
125.2
125.4
[ (25 * 2) +
[ (25 * 3) +
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (4 + 2 - 0.2 * (4 + 3 - 0.2 * (4 + 4 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 50 =
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
100
100.2
100.4
[ (25 * 2) +
[ (25 * 3) +
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (5 + 2 - 0.2 * (5 + 3 NP
0.2 * (5 + 1 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
6) ] + 50 = 75
75.2
75.4
[ (25 * 6) +
[ (25 * 7) +
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (1 + 6 - 0.2 * (1 + 7 0.2 * (6 + 0 NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
6) ] + 25 =
6) ] + 0 =
6) ] + 50 = 50
175.2
175.4

F5(Y5)

X5

200

175

150

125

100

75

50

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

X4
Y4
0

5 y4 + x4 11, d4 = 5

Etapa 4:
0
NP

NP

NP

NP

NP
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (5 + 0 5) ] + 200 =
200
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (6 + 0 5) ] + 175 =
175.2

1
NP

NP

NP

NP
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (4 + 1 5) ] + 200 =
225
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (5 + 1 5) ] + 175 =
200.2
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (6 + 1 5) ] + 150 =
175.4

2
NP

NP

NP
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (3 + 2 5) ] + 200 =
250
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (4 + 2 5) ] + 175 =
225.2
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (5 + 2 5) ] + 150 =
200.4
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (6 + 2 5) ] + 125 =
175.6

3
NP

NP
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (2 + 3 5) ] + 200 =
275
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (3 + 3 5) ] + 175 =
250.2
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (4 + 3 5) ] + 150 =
225.4
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (5 + 3 5) ] + 125 =
200.6
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (6 + 3 5) ] + 100 =
175.8

4
NP
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (1 + 4 5) ] + 200 =
300
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (2 + 4 5) ] + 175 =
275.2
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (3 + 4 5) ] + 150 =
250.4
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (4 + 4 5) ] + 125 =
225.6
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (5 + 4 5) ] + 100 =
200.8
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (6 + 4 5) ] + 75 =
176

F4(Y4)

X4

[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (0 + 5 5) ] + 200 =
325
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (1 + 5 5) ] + 175 =
300.2
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (2 + 5 5) ] + 150 =
275.4
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (3 + 5 5) ] + 125 =
250.6
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (4 + 5 5) ] + 100 =
225.8
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (5 + 5 5) ] + 75 =
201
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (6 + 5 5) ] + 50 =
176.2

[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (0 + 6 5) ] + 175 =
325.2
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (1 + 6 5) ] + 150 =
300.4
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (2 + 6 5) ] + 125 =
275.6
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (3 + 6 5) ] + 100 =
250.8
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (4 + 6 5) ] + 75 =
226
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (5 + 6 5) ] + 50 =
201.2

[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (0 + 7 5) ] + 150 =
325.4
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (1 + 7 5) ] + 125 =
300.6
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (2 + 7 5) ] + 100 =
275.8
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (3 + 7 5) ] + 75 =
251
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (4 + 7 5) ] + 50 =
226.2

[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (0 + 8 5) ] + 125 =
325.6
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (1 + 8 5) ] + 100 =
300.8
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (2 + 8 5) ] + 75 =
276
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (3 + 8 5) ] + 50 =
251.2

325

300

275

250

NP

225

NP

NP

200

NP

NP

NP

175.2

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

X3
Y3
0

4 y3 + x3 10, d3 = 4

Etapa 3:
0
NP

NP

NP

NP
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (4 + 0 4) ] + 325 =
325
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (5 + 0 4) ] + 300 =
300.2
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (6 + 0 4) ] + 275 =
275.4

1
NP

NP

NP
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (3 + 1 4) ] + 325 =
350
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (4 + 1 4) ] + 300 =
325.2
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (5 + 1 4) ] + 275 =
300.4
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (6 + 1 4) ] + 250 =
275.6

2
NP

NP
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (2 + 2 4) ] + 325 =
375
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (3 + 2 4) ] + 300 =
350.2
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (4 + 2 4) ] + 275 =
325.4
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (5 + 2 4) ] + 250 =
300.6
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (6 + 2 4) ] + 225 =
275.8

3
NP
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (1 + 3 4) ] + 325 =
400
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (2 + 3 4) ] + 300 =
375.2
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (3 + 3 4) ] + 275 =
350.4
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (4 + 3 4) ] + 250 =
325.6
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (5 + 3 4) ] + 225 =
300.8
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (6 + 3 4) ] + 200 =
276

F3(Y3)

X3

[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (0 + 4 4) ] + 325 =
425
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (1 + 4 4) ] + 300 =
400.2
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (2 + 4 4) ] + 275 =
375.4
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (3 + 4 4) ] + 250 =
350.6
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (4 + 4 4) ] + 225 =
325.8
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (5 + 4 4) ] + 200 =
301
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (6 + 4 4) ] + 275.2 =
276.4

[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (0 + 5 4) ] + 300 =
425.2
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (1 + 5 4) ] + 275 =
400.4
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (2 + 5 4) ] + 250 =
375.6
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (3 + 5 4) ] + 225 =
350.8
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (4 + 5 4) ] + 200 =
326
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (5 + 5 4) ] + 175.2 =
301.4

[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (0 + 6 4) ] + 275 =
425.4
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (1 + 6 4) ] + 250 =
400.6
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (2 + 6 4) ] + 225 =
375.8
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (3 + 6 4) ] + 200 =
351
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (4 + 6 4) ] + 175.2 =
326.4

[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (0 + 7 4) ] + 250 =
425.6
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (1 + 7 4) ] + 225 =
400.8
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (2 + 7 4) ] + 200 =
376
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (3 + 7 4) ] + 175.2 =
351.4

[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (0 + 8 4) ] + 225 =
425.8
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (1 + 8 4) ] + 200 =
401
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (2 + 8 4) ] + 175.2 =
376.4

425

400

375

NP

350

NP

NP

325

NP

NP

NP

300.2

NP

NP

NP

NP

275.4

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

X2
Y2
0

3 y2 + x2 9, d2 = 3

Etapa 2:
0
NP

NP

NP
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (3 + 0 3) ] + 425 =
425
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (4 + 0 3) ] + 400 =
400.2
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (5 + 0 3) ] + 375 =
375.4
[ (25 * 0) +
0.2 * (6 + 0 3) ]+ 350 =
350.6

1
NP

NP
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (2 + 1 3) ] + 425 =
450
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (3 + 1 3) ] + 400 =
425.2
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (4 + 1 3) ] + 375 =
400.4
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (5 + 1 3) ] + 350 =
375.6
[ (25 * 1) +
0.2 * (6 + 1 3) ] + 325 =
350.8

2
NP
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (1 + 2 3) ] + 425 =
475
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (2 + 2 3) ] + 400 =
450.2
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (3 + 2 3) ] + 375 =
425.4
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (4 + 2 3) ] + 350 =
400.6
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (5 + 2 3) ] + 325 =
375.8
[ (25 * 2) +
0.2 * (6 + 2 3) ] + 300.2 =
351.2

F2(Y2)

X2

[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (0 + 3 3) ] + 425 =
500
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (1 + 3 3) ] + 400 =
475.2
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (2 + 3 3) ] + 375 =
450.4
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (3 + 3 3) ] + 350 =
425.6
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (4 + 3 3) ] + 325 =
400.8
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (5 + 3 3) ] + 300.2 =
376.2
[ (25 * 3) +
0.2 * (6 + 3 3) ] + 275.4 =
351.6

[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (0 + 4 3) ] + 400 =
500.2
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (1 + 4 3) ] + 375 =
475.4
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (2 + 4 3) ] + 350 =
450.6
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (3 + 4 3) ] + 325 =
425.8
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (4 + 4 3) ] + 300.2 =
401.2
[ (25 * 4) +
0.2 * (5 + 4 3) ] + 275.4 =
376.6

[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (0 + 5 3) ] + 375 =
500.4
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (1 + 5 3) ] + 350 =
475.6
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (2 + 5 3) ] + 325 =
450.8
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (3 + 5 3) ] + 300.2 =
426.2
[ (25 * 5) +
0.2 * (4 + 5 3) ] + 275.4 =
401.6

[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (0 + 6 3) ] + 350 =
500.6
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (1 + 6 3) ] + 325 =
475.8
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (2 + 6 3) ] + 300.2 =
451.2
[ (25 * 6) +
0.2 * (3 + 6 3) ] + 275.4 =
426.6

[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (0 + 7 3) ] + 325 =
500.8
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (1 + 7 3) ] + 300.2 =
476.2
[ (25 * 7) +
0.2 * (2 + 7 3) ] + 275.4 =
451.6

[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (0 + 8 3) ] + 300.2 =
501.2
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (1 + 8 3) ] + 275.4 =
476.6

500

475

NP

450

NP

NP

425

NP

NP

NP

400.2

NP

NP

NP

NP

375.4

NP

NP

NP

NP

NP

350.6

CASO 1: PRODUCCIN E INVENTARIOS

2 x1 8, d1 = 2

Etapa 1:

X1
Y1

[ (25 * 2) +
[ (25 * 3) +
[ (25 * 4) +
[ (25 * 5) +
[ (25 * 6) +
[ (25 * 7) +
[ (25 * 8) +
0.2 * (0 + 2 - 0.2 * (0 + 3 - 0.2 * (0 + 4 - 0.2 * (0 + 5 - 0.2 * (0 + 6 - 0.2 * (0 + 7 - 0.2 * (0 + 8 2) ] + 500 = 2) ] + 475 = 2) ] + 450 = 2) ] + 425 = 2) ] + 400.2 = 2) ] + 375.4 = 2) ] + 350.6 =
550
550.2
550.4
550.6
551
551.4
551.8

F1 ( Y1)

X1

550

Plan ptimo de produccin:


x1 = 2
x2 = 3
x3 = 4
x4 = 5
x5 = 6
x6 = 2

y2 = 0
y3 = 0
y4 = 0
y5 = 0
y6 = 0
y7 = 0

Mes
1
2
3
4
5
6

II
0
0
0
0
0
0

Prod
200
300
400
500
600
200

di
200
300
400
500
600
200

IF
0
0
0
0
0
0

PRACTIQUEMOS LO APRENDIDO
PROBLEMA 1:
Se tiene una empresa que fabrica mquinas de afeitar elctricas, con las siguientes
caractersticas:

La demanda para los prximos 6 meses se ha pronosticado en 300, 200, 300, 200,
300 y 400 unidades respectivamente.
El costo de produccin es de $50 por unidad.
El costo de almacenamiento es de $0.50 por unidad-mes.
La produccin se hace en lotes de 100.
La capacidad mxima de produccin es de 500 unidades.
La capacidad mxima de almacenamiento es de 400 unidades.
Se cuenta con inventario inicial de 100 unidades.
El inventario final, en el sexto mes, debe ser 0 unidades con el fin de reducir costos.

Determinar el plan de produccin para los prximos 6 meses que minimice los costos
totales.

BIBLIOGRAFA

AUTOR

TITULO

EDICIN,AO DE
PUBLICACIN,EDITORIAL

CDIGO

658.4034
TAHA

Taha, Hamdy

Investigacin de Operaciones

658.4034
WINS/I

Winston, Wayne.

Investigacin de Operaciones: 4ta. Ed., Thomson, Mxico


Aplicaciones y Algoritmos
D.F., 2005.

9na.
Ed.,
Pearson
Educacin, Mxico D.F.,
Mxico, 2012.