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ITIL V3 FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION


E-LEARNING COURSE
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ITIL V3 Foundation Course Objectives


2

At the end of the course, you should be able to

Discuss the ITIL v3 qualification scheme


Explain the practice of Service Management
Describe Service Lifecycle
Identify key principles and models of ITIL V3
Define generic concepts in ITIL v3
Discuss the processes, roles and functions in ITIL V3
Summarize the use of technology with ITIL V3

Successfully clear your ITIL v3 foundation exam.

ITIL V3 Foundation Course Agenda


3

Module 1: Introduction to Service Management Lifecycle


Principles of Service Management, Processes, The ITIL Service Lifecycle
Module 2: Service Strategy
Concepts and Models, Processes
Module 3: Service Design
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 4: Service Transition
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 5: Service Operations
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes and Functions
Module 6: Continual Service Improvement
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 7 : Summary and Exam Preparation
Review of Key Concepts and Practice Exam

Module 1
4

Introduction
To Service
Management
Lifecycle

Lesson 1.0: What is ITIL ?


5

What is ITIL ?

A set of publications for good practices in IT service


Management.
Why ITIL ?
Focuses on descriptive guidance on IT Service Management thats
easily adapted.
Emphasizes Quality Management approach, standards

ITIL goals

Consistent, comprehensive, hygienic set of Best-Practice guidance


Platform independent discussion of processes
Common Language, Standardized vocabulary
Flexible framework, adaptable to different IT environments.

De-Facto Industry Standard

Lesson 1.1: ITIL V3 Components


6

Lesson 1.2: ITIL Core Publications


7

Each lifecycle phase of ITIL V3 Core


is represented by a Volume in the
Library
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Service Strategy
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Continual Service Improvement

Lesson 1.3: ITIL V3 Qualification Scheme:


Credits System
Lifecycle Modules
Service Strategy
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Continual Service Improvement
Capability Modules
Operational Support and Analysis (OSA)
Planning Protection & Optimization (PPO)
Release Control and Validation (RCV)
Service Offerings & Agreements (SOA)
http://www.itil-officialsite.com/Qualifications/ITILV3QualificationScheme.asp

Lesson 1.4: ITIL V3 Foundation Exam Format


9

Type

Online, Multiple choice, 40 questions. The questions are selected from


the full ITIL Foundation in IT Service Management examination
question bank.

Duration

Maximum 60 minutes. Candidates sitting the examination in a language


other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes

Supervised

Yes

Open Book

No

Pass Score

65% (26 out of 40)

Where ?

Prometric Centers, visit www.prometric.com, Exam Code: EX0-101

10

Lesson 2.0: Principles of IT Service


Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Explain the concept of good practice

Define the concepts of service, Service Management,


Functions, Roles &Processes, and RACI

The role of IT Governance across the Service Lifecycle

Lesson 2.1: ITIL is presented as Good


Practice. What are good Practices?
11

Good Practices are generally commoditized, generally accepted, proven effective ways of
doing things which were previously considered best practices of the pioneering
organizations.

Successful Innovations applied diligently become Best


Practices

Best practice accepted and adopted by others become


common, Good Practices

Good Practices are Commoditized, generally accepted


principles, or regulatory requirements

Lesson 2.2: Why Choose Good practices over


Proprietary ones?
12

Good Practices, Public Standards


and frameworks

Proprietary knowledge

Wide Community Distribution


Public Training and Certification

Difficult to adopt
Difficult to replicate and transfer
Hard to document

Valid in Different applications


Peer Reviewed
Used by different parties

Highly customized
Specific to business needs
Hard to adapt or reuse

Free and publicly available


Labor market skills easy to find

Owners expect compensation

Lesson 2.3: What is a Service?


13

A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customer want to


achieve, without the ownership of specific costs or risks.

Costs and Risks are transferred to service provider.


Customers focus on outcomes versus means.

Customer
Transfer costs and Risks
Retains focus and accountability for
outcomes

Service Provider
Takes on Costs and Risks
Responsible for the means of achieving
outcomes

Lesson 2.4: What is a Service Management?


14

Business Outcomes
Value
Customer Assets
Service Management

Performance
Services
Capabilities

Service Assets

Capabilities

Resources

Resources

A5 Management

Financial Capital

A4 Organization

Infrastructure

A3 Processes

Applications

A2 Knowledge

Information

A1

People

Lesson 2.5: Process, Functions and Roles


15

Process
- A set of activities designed to accomplish a specific
objective. A process takes defined inputs and turns them
into defined outputs. A process may include roles,
responsibilities, tools and management controls required
to deliver the outputs

Lesson 2.6: A Basic Process


16

Data, Information
and Knowledge

Desired
Outcome

Process

Suppliers

Activity 1

Customer

Activity 2

Activity 3

Service Control & Quality


Trigger

Lesson 2.7: Process Characteristics


17

It is measurable
It delivers specific result
Primary result are delivered to customers or stakeholders
It responds to specific events (triggers)

Lesson 2.8: Functions


18

Function
- A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out
one or more processes or activities

Lesson 2.9: Processes across the organization


19

CIO
Operations

Development

Project
Management

Service desk

Website

Project 1

Mainframe

HR
Applications

Project 2

Application

Finance
Applications

Project 3

Networks

Architecture
Enterprise
Architecture

Lesson 2.10: Service Management Roles :


Service Owner
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Service Owner :
The person who is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. They
are responsible for continual improvement and management of change
affecting Services under their care. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service

Responsibilities:
To act as prime Customer contact for all Service related enquiries and issues
To ensure that the ongoing Service delivery and support meet agreed Customer
requirements
To identify opportunities for Service Improvements, discuss with the customer
and to initiate changes for improvements if appropriate.
To liaise with the appropriate Process Owners throughout the Service
Management lifecycle
To solicit required data, statistics and reports for analysis and to facilitate effective
Service monitoring and performance

Lesson 2.11: Service Management Roles :


Process Owner
21

Process Owner :
The person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired
purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. Example: The
owner for the Availability Management Process

Responsibilities:
Assisting with process design
Documenting the process
Make sure the process is being performed as documented
Making sure process meetings it aims
Monitoring and improving the process over time

Lesson 2.12: Connecting with Processes and


Functions: RACI
22

RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of:


Responsible the person or people responsible for getting the job done
Accountable only one person can be accountable for each task
Consulted the people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought
Informed the people who are kept up-to-date on progress.
Service
owner

Process
Owner

Security
Manager

IT
Head

Chief
Architect

Process
Manager

Create a framework for defining IT services

A/R

Build an IT service catalogue

A/R

Define SLA for critical IT services

Monitor and report SL performance

A/R

Review SLAs, OLAs and UCs

Review and Update IT service catalogue

A/R

Create service improvement Plan

A/R

Activities

Example RACI matrix

Lesson 2.13: Key Terminology: Service


Provider
23

Service Provider :
An Organization supplying Services to one or more Internal Customers or
External Customers. Service provider is often used as an short form for IT
Service provider.
There are three types of business models service
providers:
Type I
Internal Service Provider

Type II
Shared Services Provider

Type III
External Service Provider

An internal service provider that


is embedded within a business
unit e.g. one IT organization
within each of the business
units. The key factor is that the
IT Services provide a source of
competitive advantage in the
market space the business
exists in.

An internal service provider that


provides shared IT service to
more than one business unit
e.g. one IT organization to
service all businesses in an
umbrella organization. IT
Services typically dont provide
a source of competitive
advantage, but instead support
effective and efficient business
processes.

Service provider that provides IT


services to external customers
i.e. outsourcing

Lesson 2.14: Key Terminology: Supplier


24

Supplier:
A Third party responsible for supplying goods or Services that
are required to deliver IT services. Examples of suppliers
include commodity hardware and software vendors, network
and telecom providers, and outsourcing Organizations.
Business

Contract:
A legally binding agreement between two or more
parties to supply goods or services

Service Provider

Supplier
Fig: A Basic value Chain

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Lesson 3.0: The Service Lifecycle


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the value of the Service Lifecycle

How the processes integrate with each other, throughout


the Lifecycle

Explain the relationship between Governance and IT


Service Management

Lesson 3.1: Lifecycle Components


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Application Mgmt

Facilities Mgmt

IT Operations Mgmt

Supplier Management

Service Knowledge Management

Infrastructure Mgmt

Information Security Management

Evaluation Management

Service Desk

IT Service Continuity Management

Release & Deployment Management

Access Management

Strategy Generation

Availability Management

Validation & Testing Management

Problem Management

IT Financial Management

Capacity Management

Service Asset & Configuration


Management

Incident Management

Service Portfolio Mgmt

Service Catalog Mgmt

Change Management

Request Fulfillment

Demand Management

Service level Management

Transition Planning & Support

Event Management

Service
Strategy

Service
Design

Service
Transition

Service
Operations

Continual Service Improvement


Service level Management

Service Improvement

Service Reporting

Service Measurement & Analysis

Lesson 3.2: The Lifecycle Interactions


27

The Business / Customers

Service Knowledge Management Systems


(SKMS) Including the Service Portfolio &
Service Catalog

Requirements
Service Strategy

SLPs from
Requirements

Resources &
Constraints

Policies
Strategy

SDPs

Service Design

Standards

Architectures

Solution
Design

SKMS Updated

Service Transition

Tested Solutions
Transition plans

Service Operation

Operations Plan

Continual Service
Improvement

Operational
Services

Improvement
Plans & Actions

Lesson 3.3: Relationship between


Governance and ITSM
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Relationship between Governance and ITSM


Corporate Governance
Ensures the provision strategy and business
plans. Establishes the Corporate policies and
enables strategic direction, objectives, critical
success factors and key result areas.

Establishes IT policy, Standards and Principles,


Assures alignment of IT strategy to corporate
business strategy

IT Governance
Corporate Compliance
Assures adherence to Legal, Industrial and regulatory
requirements.
Assures the design and
operability of IT
policies , processes
and key controls

IT Compliance

Establishes, enables and executes the IT


strategy. Establishes Operations to assure
high-quality, compliant IT service
provisioning. Ensures effective key result
Areas.

IT Service Management

End of Module 1
29

Covered so far

What it ITIL

Process, Function, Technology

Life Cycle of Service i.e. SS,


SD, ST, SO and CSI

We are covering hereon

Lifecycle Phases

Processes and Functions

Tools used for ITSM

But before that a quiz !

Module 1: Quiz
30

Sample question 1:

Which of the following is NOT one of the ITIL core publications?


a) Service Operation
b) Service Transition
c) Service Derivation
d) Service Strategy

Module 1: Quiz
31

Sample question 2:
What is the RACI model used for?
a) Documenting the roles and relationships of stakeholders in a
process or activity
b) Defining requirements for a new service or process
c) Analyzing the business impact of an incident
d) Creating a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of
Service Management

Module 1: Quiz
32

Sample question 3:
A service owner is responsible for which of the following?
a) Designing and documenting a Service
b) Carrying out the Service Operations activities needed to
support a Service
c) Producing a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of
all Services
d) Recommending improvements

Module 1: Quiz
33

Sample question 4:
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
1. Only one person can be responsible for an activity
2. Only one person can be accountable for an activity
a) All of the above
b) 1 only
c) 2 only
d) None of the above

Module 1: Quiz
34

Sample question 5:
Which of the following statements are CORRECT about Functions?
1. They provide structure and stability to organizations
2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and resources
3. They rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and control
4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes
a) 1, 2 and 3 only
b) 1, 2 and 4 only
c) All of the above
d) None of the above

Module 1: Quiz
35

Sample question 6:
Which off the following is a characteristic of every process?
1. It is measurable
2. It is timely
3. It delivers a specific result
4. It responds to a specific event
5. It delivers its primary result to a customer or stakeholder
a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
b) 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
c) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
d) All of the above

36

End of Module 1

Module 2
37

Service
Strategy

38

Lesson 1: Service Strategy

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service


Strategy

Lesson 1.1: Service Strategy Objectives


39

Shows organization how to transform Service Management into


a strategic asset and then think and act in a strategic manner
Helps clarify the relationship between various services, systems
or processes and the business models, strategies or objectives
they support
KEY ROLE: To stop and think about WHY something has to be done, before
thinking HOW.

Lesson 1.2: Key Strategy Questions


40

9 The objectives of service Strategy are to answer questions


such as :
What services should we offer and to whom?
How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
How do we truly create value for our customers?
How do we capture value for our stakeholders?
9

Process in Service Strategy:


Demand management

Service portfolio Management, and


Financial management

41

Lesson 2.0: Key concepts of service strategy


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Describe basics of Value Creation through


Services
Explain Business Case

Lesson 2.1 Key Principles and Models


42

Service Value Creation : Utility & Warranty


Performance Supported ?

Fit for Purpose ?

OR
Constraints removed ?

Utility

Value
Available enough ?
Capacity enough ?
Continuous enough ?

AND

Secure Enough ?

Warranty

Fit for Use ?

Lesson 2.2: Service Value creation: Utility & Warranty


43

Utility

Warranty

Functionality offered by
product /service as the
customer views it

Promise that the product/service will meet agreed requirements

What the customer gets

How it is delivered

Fitness for purpose

Fitness for use


Three Characteristics of warranty
>Provided in terms of availability/capacity of services
>Ensures customer assets continue to receive utility, even if
degraded, through major disruptions
> Ensures Security for value-creating potential of customer
assets

Increases performance
average

Reduces performance variation

Lesson 2.3: Basics of Value Creation: Service Assets


44

Service Assets Resources and capabilities available to an organization.


Resources the IT infrastructure. People, money and others which
might help to deliver an IT service; the assets of an organization.
Capabilities ability to co-ordinate, control, deploy resources; the
intangible assets of an organization.
Resources

Capabilities

Financial Capital

Management

Infrastructure

Organization

Applications

Processes

Information

Knowledge
People

45

Lesson 2.4: Service Packages

Supporting Services
Package
(Enables or Enhances the
value proposition )

Core Services Package


(Basic outcomes desired
by the customer.)

Service Level Packages


(Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package)
Availability Levels

Capacity Levels
Continuity
Service Features
Service Support

Security Levels

Lesson 2.5: Business Case


46

A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely


consequences of a business action
Justification for a significant item of expenditure.
Includes Information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks and
possible problems
Uses qualitative and quantitative terms
Type Business case structure
1. Introduction business objectives addressed
2. Methods and assumptions- boundaries of the business case
3. Business Impacts Financial and non financial
4. Risks and Contingencies
5. Recommendations Specific Actions

Lesson 2.6: Risk


47

Risk

Risk is defined as uncertainty of outcome, whether positive opportunity


or negative threat.

There are two distinct phases. Risk Analysis and Risk Management.

Risk analysis is concerned with gathering information about exposure to


risk so that the organization can make appropriate decisions and
manage risk appropriately.

Risk management supports critical decision making process, in terms of


evaluating and selecting controls.

Management of risk covers a wide range of topics, including business


continuity management (BCM), security, program/Project risk
management and operational service management.

Lesson 2.7: What is a Service Portfolio?


48

Service Portfolio
The Service Portfolio
represents the
commitments and
investments made by a
service provider across
all customers and market
spaces.
It also includes the
ongoing service
improvement plans and
third party services.

Customer
3

Customer
2

Customer
1

Service
Improvement
Plan

Service
Portfolio

Third
Party
Services

Market
Space 1

Market
Space 2

Market
Space 3

Lesson 2.8: Components of Service Portfolio


49

Service Portfolio

Components of
Service
Portfolio

Service Catalog
Service Pipeline

Market
Spaces

Continual service
Improvement

Third
Party
Catalog

Service
Transition

Customers

Service
Design
Resources
Engaged

Service
Operations

Return on Assets
earned during Service
Operations

Common Pool of resources

Retired
Services

Resources
Released

Lesson 2.9: Service management Technology &


Automation
50

Automation (Tools) are extremely useful to improve utility


and warranty of services:

Real time and historical data for analysis

Correlation of data from multiple devices

Service Impact analysis for prioritization

Service

Performance optimization

Lesson 2.9: Service management Technology &


Automation
51

Automation of service processes helps improve the quality


of service, reduce costs and reduce risks by reducing
complexity and uncertainty, and by efficiently resolving
trade-offs.
Some of the areas where service management can benefit
from automation
Design and modeling
Service catalogue
Pattern recognition and analysis
Classification, prioritization and routing
Detection and monitoring
Optimization.

52

Lesson 2.9: Service management


Technology & Automation
Service Management Tools functionality include
Self

Help: a web front-end offering a menu-driven range of


Self-Help and Service Requests with a direct interface into
the back-end process-handling software.
Workflow or Process Engine: should allow responsibilities,
activities, timescales, escalation paths and alerting to be predefined and then automatically managed.
Integrated CMS: CIs, Relationships, Records related to incidents,
problems, KE & Change
Discovery/Deployment technology: populate or verify CMS
data, assist in license management, ability to deploy new
software at target locations

53

Lesson 2.9: Service management


Technology & Automation
Service Management tools functionality include (contd.)
Remote

Control: allow relevant support groups to take control


of the user desktops
Diagnostic scripts & utilities
Reporting & Dashboards

54

Lesson 3.0: Service Strategy Process

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able Objectives
and basic concepts of the two processes in Service
Strategy:
9 Demand Management, and
9 Financial Management.

55

Lesson 3.1: Demand Management:


Objectives

The primary objective of Demand Management is to assist the IT


Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand
for services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands.
Other objectives include:
Identification and analysis of Patterns of Business Activity (PBA) and
user profiles (UP) that generate demand.
Utilizing techniques to influence and manage demand in such a way
that excess capacity is reduced but the business and customer
requirements are still satisfied.

Lesson 3.2: Managing Demand for Services


56

Demand Pattern

Service
Process
Service Belt
Patterns of
Business Activity

Capacity
Management
Plan

Delivery Schedule

Demand
Management

Lesson 3.3: PBA and UP


57

Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)


Workload
Varies

over time

Represents

profile of one or more business activities


changing business demands

User Profile
Pattern
Each

of user demand for IT services

user profile includes one or more PBAs

58

Lesson 3.4: Financial Management: Goals


and Objectives

Business
Opportunities

Business
Technology
Capabilities

Financial
Management

IT

Lesson 3.5: Financial Management: Activities


59

Activities
Budgeting

Predicting the expected future requirements for


funds to deliver the agreed upon services and
monitoring adherence to the defined budgets.

Accounting

Enables the IT organization to account fully for the


way its money is spent.

Chargeback

Charging customers for their use of IT Services.

Demand
Modeling

Working with the process of Demand Management


to anticipate usage of services by the business and
the associated financial implications of future
service demand.

60

Lesson 3.6: Financial Management:


Benefits
Benefits

Enhanced decision making.

Increased speed of change.

Improved Service Portfolio Management.

Financial compliance and control.

Improved operational control.

Greater insight and communication of the value created by IT


services.

Increased visibility of IT leading to increased perception of IT

61

End of Module 2

Objectives and Key concepts of Service Strategy


Service Strategy processes.

Module 2: Quiz
62

Question 1:
Which ITIL process is responsible for drawing up a charging
system ?
a) Availability Management
b) Capacity Management
c) Financial Management for IT Services
d) Service Level Management

Module 2: Quiz
63

Question 2:
A Service Level Package is best described as?
a) A description of customer requirements used to negotiate a
Service Level Agreement
b) A defined level of utility and warranty associated with a core
service package
c) A description of the value that the customer wants and for
which they are willing to pay
d) A document showing the Service Levels achieved during an
agreed reporting period

Module 2: Quiz
64

Question 3:
The utility of a service is best described as:
a) Fit for design
b) Fit for purpose
c) Fit for function
d) Fit for use

Module 2: Quiz
65

Question 4:
The contents of a service package include:
a) Base Service Package, Supporting Service Package, Service
Level Package
b) Core Service Package, Supporting Process Package, Service
Level Package
c) Core Service Package, Base Service Package, Service
Support Package
d) Core Service Package, Supporting Services Package, Service
Level Packages

Module 2: Quiz
66

Question 5:
Setting policies and objectives is the primary concern of which of
the following elements of the Service Lifecycle?
a) Service Strategy
b) Service Strategy and Continual Service Improvement
c) Service Strategy, Service Transition and Service Operation
d) Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service
Operation and Continual Service Improvement

Module 2: Quiz
67

Question 6:
Which of the following questions does guidance in Service Strategy help
answer?
1: What services should we offer and to whom?
2: How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
3: How do we truly create value for our customers?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) All of the above

Module 3
68

Service
Design

69

Lesson 1.0 Service Design


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Service Design
Understand the Value Service Design
provides to the Business.

Lesson 1.1: Service Design Objectives


70

To convert the strategic objectives defined during


Service Strategy into Services and Service Portfolios.

To use a holistic approach for design to ensure


integrated end-to-end business related functionality and
quality.

To ensure consistent design standards and conventions


are followed in all services and processes being
designed.

Lesson 1.2: Value to Business


71

Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)


Improved quality of service
Improved consistency of service
Easier implementation of new or changed services
Improved service alignment
More effective service performance
Improved IT governance
More effective Service Management and IT processes
Improved information and decision-making

72

Lesson 2.0: Service Design Key


Concepts
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the importance of People, Processes,


Products and Partners for Service Management.

Understand the five major aspects of Service


Design.

Explain Service Design Package

Lesson 2.1: 4 Ps in Service Management


73

Skills
Organisation
Experience

Services
Technology
Tools

IT Service Management
Suppliers
Manufacturers
Vendor

Processes

Activities
RACI
Dependencies

74

Lesson 2.2: Major Aspects of Service


Design

New or Changed Service Solutions Design


Service Management systems and tools design
Technology and Management architectures design
Processes design
Measurement systems design

Lesson 2.3: Service Design Package


75

Defines all aspects of an IT Service and its requirements through each


stage of its lifecycle. A service Design package is produced for every
new IT service, a major change or for retiring a service.
Business requirements
Service Applicability
Service Contacts

Contents of a
Service Design
Package

Service Functional
Requirements
Service Level
Requirements

Service Acceptance
Criteria
Service Operational
Acceptance Plan
Service Transition
Plan
Service Program

Service Design &


Topology

Organisational
Readiness

76

Lesson 3.0: Service Design


Processes
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Objectives and basic concepts of the following processes

Service Catalog Management

Service Level Management

Supplier Management

Capacity Management

Availability Management

IT Service Continuity Management

Information Security Management

77

Lesson 3.1: Service Catalogue


Management: Objectives

Objectives

To provide a single source of consistent


information on all of the agreed services, and
ensure that it is widely available to those who
are approved to access it.
To ensure that a Service Catalog is produced,
maintained, and kept current, containing accurate
information on all operational services and those
being prepared to be run operationally.

Key terms

Business Service Catalog


Technical Service Catalog

78

Lesson 3.2: Service Catalogue


Management: Key Terms

Business Service Catalog

Details of all the IT services delivered to the customer,


together with relationships to the business units and the
business process that rely on the IT services. This is the
customer view of the Service Catalogue.

Technical Service Catalog

Contains the details of all the IT services delivered to


the customer, together with relationships to the
supporting services, shared services, components and
CIs necessary to support the provision of the service to
the business.

79

Lesson 3.3: Service Level Management:


Objectives

Objectives

To ensure an agreed level of IT service is


provided for all current IT services, and future
services have an achievable target.
To define , document, agree on, monitor
measure, report and review the level of IT
services provided.
To provide and improve the relationship and
communication with the business and customers.
Proactive measures to improve the levels of
service delivered are implemented in a costjustified manner.

Key terms

Service Level requirements (SLRs), Service


Catalog, Service Level Agreement (SLA),
Operational Level Agreement (OLA),
Underpinning contract (UPC)

80

Lesson 3.4: Service Level Management:


Process Activities

Design and
Plan SLAs

Determine
and Document
Requirements

Service Design

SLA
Improvement

Monitor
Service
Performance

Negotiate
& Continual Service
Negotiate &
Agree
Improvement

Conduct Service
review and
Instigate Service
Improvement

Produce
Service
Reports

81

Lesson 3.5: Service Level Management:


Terminology
Service Level
requirements (SLR)

Detailed recording of the Customers needs, forming the


basis for design criteria for a new or modified service.

Service Catalog

A written statement of available IT services, default


levels, options, prices and identification of which
business processes or customers use them.

Service Level
Agreement (SLA)

An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a


Customer. The SLA describes the IT Service, documents
Service Level targets, and specifies the responsibilities
of the IT Service Provider and the Customer.

Operational Level
Agreement (OLA)

Internal agreement with another function of the same


organization which supports the IT service provider in
their delivery of services.

Underpinning
Contract (UPC)

Contract with an external supplier that supports the IT


organization in their delivery of services.

SLAM Chart

A Service Level Agreement Monitoring(SLAM) Chart is


used to help monitor and report achievements against
Service Level Targets.

82

Lesson 3.6: Service Level


Management: Key Terms Illustrated
Business
Process

Business
Process

Payroll

Network
Services

Email
Services

Storage
Services

Business Process
S
L
A
Storage
Services

OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
Service Desk
Hardware
Software
Applications
IT Infrastructure

U
P
C

External

U
P
C

Supplier

U
P
C

Storage

Lesson 3.7: Service Level Management: Designing


SLA Structures
83

Multi Level SLAs

Customer Based vs. Service Based SLAs


Customer A

Customer B

Customer C
Service Based

Service Y
(Coffee)

Corporate Level SLA


Customer A

Customer Based
Service X
(Tea)

Corporate

Service Z
(Juice)

Customer B

Customer Level SLA


Service X
(Tea)

Service Y
(Coffee)

Service Level SLA

Service Z
(Juice)

84

Lesson 3.8: Service Level Management:


SLA Content
Service Level Agreement
for Service XYZ

Introduction to the SLA.


Service description
Mutual Responsibilities
Scope of SLA
Applicable Service Hours
Service Availability
Reliability
Customer Support Agreements
Relationship and Escalation contacts
Service Performance Metrics
Security
Costs and Charging Mechanisms.

85

Lesson 3.9: Supplier Management:


Objectives

Objectives

To manage suppliers and the services they supply, to


provide seamless quality of IT service to the
business and ensure that value for money is
obtained.
Ensure that underpinning contracts and agreements
with suppliers are aligned to business needs.
Manage relationships with suppliers.
Negotiate and agree contracts with suppliers.
Manage supplier performance.
Maintain a supplier policy and a supporting
Supplier and Contract Database (SCD).

Key terms

Supplier and Contract Database (SCD)

86

Lesson 3.10: Supplier Management:


Supplier and Contract Database

Supplier
Strategy
& Policy

Supplier categorization and


Maintenance of the SCD

Supplier and
Contracts
Evaluation

Supplier
&
Contract
Database
(SCD)

Contract
Renewal And/or
termination

Establish new
suppliers and
Contracts

Supplier & Contract


Management &
performance

Lesson 3.11: Supplier Management: Relationship


with Service Level Management
87

Supplier Management

Service Level
Management

Supplier
Management

Service Level
Agreements (SLA)

Underpinning
Contracts (UCs)

To ensure the UCs are aligned with


SLRs and SLAs by managing
relationships with Supplier.

External
Suppliers

88

Lesson 3.12: Capacity Management:


Objectives

Objectives

To ensure that cost-justifiable IT capacity in all


areas of IT always exists and is matched to the
current and future agreed needs of the business, in
a timely manner.
Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Capacity Plan.
Provide advice and guidance to the business and IT
on all capacity and performance-related issues
Ensure that service performance achievements meet
or exceed all of their agreed performance targets.

Key terms

Capacity plan/ CMIS


Business capacity management
Service capacity management
Resource/Component capacity management

89

Lesson 3.13: Capacity Management: A


Balancing Act

Supply
Capacity

Resources
Components

Demand
Performance

Cost

90

Lesson 3.14: Capacity Management:


Process Activities

Review Current Capacity


and Performance
Capacity Management
Information System (CMIS)

Capacity
performance reports
& data

Improve Current service


and component capacity

Forecasts

Plan new Capacity


Capacity Plans

Assess, Agree &


Document new
Requirements & Capacity

91

Lesson 3.15: Capacity Management: Sub


Process

Business
Capacity
Management

Translates business needs and plans into


requirements for service and IT infrastructure,
ensuring that the future business requirements for IT
services are quantified, designed, planned and
implemented in a timely fashion.

Service Capacity
Management

Management, control and prediction of the end-toend performance and capacity of the live,
operational IT services usage and workloads.
Ensure that the performance of all services, as
detailed in service targets within SLAs and SLRs, is
monitored and measured, and that the collected
data is recorded, analyzed and reported.

Component
Capacity
Management

Management, control and prediction of the


performance, utilization and capacity of individual
IT technology components.

92

Lesson 3.16: Availability Management


Process: Objectives

Objectives

To ensure that the level of Service Availability


delivered in all services is matched to or exceeds
the current and future business requirements, in a
cost-effective manner.
To provide a point of focus and management for all
availability-related issues.
Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Availability Plan.
Ensure that proactive measures to improve the
availability of services are implemented wherever it
is cost-justifiable to do so.

Key terms

Availability, Reliability, Maintainability,


Serviceability
Vital business Functions (VBF)
Expanded Incident Lifecycle & MTRS, MTBF, MTBSI

93

Lesson 3.17: Availability Management:


Key Terms explained

Availability
Reliability

Maintainability

Serviceability

The percent time of agreed service hours the


component or service is available.
A measure of how long a component or IT
Service can perform its agreed operation
without interruption.
A measure of how quickly and effectively a
component or IT Service can be restored to
normal working after a Failure.
The ability of a Third-Party Supplier to meet the
terms of its Contract. This Contract will include
agreed levels of Reliability, Maintainability or
Availability for an IT service or component.

94

Lesson 3.18: Availability Management:


Key Terms explained..contd.

Vital business
Functions
(VBFs)

The business critical elements of the business


process supported by an IT Service.
Typically this will be where more effort and
investments will be spent to protect these vital
business functions.

Service
Availability

All aspects of service availability and


unavailability and the impact of component
availability, or the potential impact of
component unavailability on service
availability.

Component
Availability

All aspects of component availability and


unavailability.

Time to
detect

Time to
Record

Time to
Diagnose

Time to
Repair

Time to
Recover

Time to
Restore

Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS)


Mean Time to between system incidents (MTBSI)

Mean Time
Between
Failures
(MTBF)

Downtime

Incident 2

Uptime

Restored

Recovered

Repaired

Record

Detect

Incident 1

Uptime

95

Diagnose

Lesson 3.19: Availability Management:


Expanded Incident Lifecycle

96

Lesson 3.20: IT Service Continuity


Management: Objectives

Objectives

To support the overall Business Continuity


Management (BCM) process by ensuring that the
required IT technical and service facilities (including
computer systems, networks, applications, data
repositories, telecommunications, environment,
technical support and Service Desk) can be resumed
within required, and agreed, business timescales.
Maintain a set of IT Service Continuity Plans and IT
recovery plans that support the overall Business
Continuity Plans (BCPs) of the organization.

Key terms

Business Continuity Planning (BCP)


Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
Business Continuity Management (BCM)
Risk Analysis

97

Lesson 3.21: IT Service Continuity


Management: Key Terms Explained

Business
Continuity
Management
(BCM)

Strategies and actions to take place to continue


Business Processes in the case of a disaster.
It is essential that the ITSCM strategy is
integrated into and a subset of the BCM
strategy.

Business Impact
Analysis (BIA)

Quantifies the impact loss of IT service would


have on the business.
Identifies the most important services to the
organisation and is therefore critical input to
Strategy

Vital Business
Functions (VBFs)

The business critical elements of the business


process supported by an IT Service.
Typically this will be where more effort and
investments will be spent to protect these vital
business functions.

Lesson 3.22: IT Service Continuity Management:


Key Terms Explained..contd
98

Risk

Possibility of an event occurring that could cause


harm or loss, or affect the ability to achieve
Objectives.
A Risk is measured by the probability of a
Threat, the Vulnerability of the Asset to that
Threat, and the Impact it would have if it
occurred.

Risk
Assessment

Identification & Evaluation of Assets, Threats


and Vulnerabilities that exist to business
processes, IT services, IT infrastructure and other
assets.

Risk
Management

Identifying appropriate risk responses or costjustifiable countermeasures to combating


identified risks.

99

Lesson 3.23: IT Service Continuity


Management: Lifecycle Activities

Initiation

Invocation

Requirements
& Strategy

On Going
Operations

Business Continuity
Strategy

Implementation

Business Continuity
Plans

100

Lesson 3.24: Information Security


Management: Objectives

Objectives

To align IT security with business security and ensure


that information security is effectively managed in
all service and IT Service Management activities.
To protect the interests of those relying on
information, and the systems and communications
that deliver the information, from harm resulting
from failures of availability, confidentiality and
integrity.

Key terms

Availability, Confidentiality, Integrity


Information Security policy
Information Security Management System (ISMS)

101

Lesson 3.25: Information Security


Management: Key Terminology

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

Protecting information against unauthorized


access and use.
Examples: Passwords, swipe cards, firewalls
Accuracy, completeness and timeliness of services,
data information, systems and physical locations.
Examples: Rollback mechanisms, test procedures,
audits.
The information should be accessible at any
agreed time. This depends on the continuity
provided by the information processing systems.
Examples: UPS, resilient systems, Service desk
hours

102

Lesson 3.26: Information Security


Management: Security Framework

Information Security Framework

Information
Security
Strategy

Information Security Management System


Information
Security Policy

Information
Security
Organisation

Information
Security Controls

Information Security Processes


Management of Security Risks

> Communications Strategy


> Training & Awareness
Strategy

103

Lesson 3.27: Information Security


Management: Security Policy

Security Policy Contains.

Audience for
Security Policy
These policies
should be widely
available to all
customers and
users, and their
compliance should
be referred to in
all SLRs, SLAs,
contracts and
agreements.

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

An overall Information Security Policy


Use and misuse of IT assets policy
Access control policy
Password control policy
E-mail policy
internet policy
Anti-virus policy
Information classification policy
Document classification policy
Remote access policy
Policy for supplier access of IT service, information
and components
9 Asset disposal policy.

Lesson 3.28: Information Security Management:


Information Security Management System (ISMS)
104

Interested
Parties
(Customers,
Suppliers
etc.)

Service level
Agreements (SLAs)
Underpinning
Contracts (UCs)
Operational level
agreements (OLAs)
Policy Statements

Information
Security
Requirements &
Expectations

Learn
Improve
Plan
Implement

Plan

Implement

Awareness,
Classification
Personnel Security
Physical Security
Systems Security
Security Incident
Procedures

Control

Managed
Information
Security

Organize
Establish framework
Allocate responsibilities

Maintain

Evaluate

Interested
Parties
(Customers,
Suppliers
etc.)

Internal audit
External audit
Self assessments
Security Incidents

105

End of Module 3

106

Service Design :Quiz

Module 3 : Quiz
107

Question 1:
Which of the following is NOT one of the five individual aspects of
Service Design?
A. The design of the Service Portfolio, including the Service
Catalogue
B. The design of new or changed services
C. The design of Market Spaces
D. The design of the technology architecture and management
systems

Module 3 : Quiz
108

Question 2:
Which of the following is MOST concerned with the design of new
or changed services?
A. Change Management
B. Service Transition
C. Service Strategy
D. Service Design

Module 3 : Quiz
109

Question 3:
Implementation of ITIL Service Management requires preparing
and planning the effective and efficient use of:
A. People, Process, Partners, Suppliers
B. People, Process, Products, Technology
C. People, Process, Products, Partners
D. People, Products, Technology, Partners

Module 3 : Quiz
110

Question 4:
What is the MAIN goal of Availability Management?
A. To monitor and report availability of components
B. To ensure that all targets in the Service Level Agreements
(SLAs) are met
C. To guarantee availability levels for services and components
D. To ensure that service availability matches or exceeds the
agreed needs of the business

Module 3 : Quiz
111

Question 5 :
The Information Security Policy should be available to which
groups of people?
A. Senior business managers and all IT staff only
B. Senior business managers, IT executives and the Information
Security Manager only
C. All customers, users and IT staff
D. Information Security Management staff only

Module 3 : Quiz
112

Question 6 :
Which of the following are activities that would be carried out by
Supplier Management?
1: Management and review of Organisational Level Agreements (OLAs)
2: Evaluation and selection of suppliers
3: Ongoing management of suppliers
A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. All of the above

Module 4
113

Service
Transition

114

Lesson 1.0: Service Transition


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Service Transition
Explain What value Service Transition
provides to the Business

Lesson 1.1: Service Transition Goals


115

Assure proposed changes in the Service Design package are realized.


Plan for and Implement the Deployment of Releases for New or
Changed Services.
Test Releases so as to minimize the possibility of undesirable impact to
the Production environment.
Retire or Archive Services.

KEY ROLE: To move Services from Design to Operations, without impacting the ongoing
Services

Lesson 1.2: Service Transition Objectives


116

Plan and manage the resources to establish successfully a new or


changed service into production within the predicted cost, quality and
time estimates.
Ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on the production services,
operations and support organization.
Increase the customer, user and Service Management staff satisfaction
with the Service Transition practices including deployment of the new or
changed service, communications, release documentation, training and
knowledge transfer.
Increase proper use of the services and underlying applications and
technology solutions.

117

Lesson 1.3: Value to Business


The capacity of the business to respond quickly and adequately
to changes in the market improves.
Changes in the business as a result of takeovers, contracting,
etc. are well managed.
More successful changes and releases for the business.
Better compliance of business and governing rules.
Less deviation between planned budgets and the actual costs
Better insight into the possible risks during and after the input of
a service into production.
Higher productivity of customer staff

118

Lesson 2.0: Service Transition: Key


Principles and Models
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the V Model of Service Transition


Understand Configuration Item
Understand Configuration Management System

Lesson 2.1: Service V Model


Service Transition V Model

119

120

Lesson 2.2: Configuration Item (CI)


9Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service.
9CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System.
9CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration Management.
9All CIs are subject to Change Management control.

CIs typically include


IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal
documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs

Lesson 2.3: Configuration Management


System (CMS)
121

Information about all Configuration Items


CI may be entire service, or any component
Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs)
CMS stores attributes
Any information about the CI that might be needed
CMS stores relationships
Between CIs
With incident, problem, change records etc.
CMS has multiple layers
Data sources and tools, information integration, knowledge processing (scorecards,
dashboards etc.), presentation

122

Lesson 3.0: Service Transition


Processes

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to understand
Objectives and basic concepts of the four processes in
Service Transition:

Change Management

Service Asset and Configuration Management

Release and Deployment management, And

Knowledge Management

123

Lesson 3.1: Change Management


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Goals, Objectives and basic


concepts of Change Management

124

Lesson 3.2: Change Management : Goals


and Objectives
Goals and Objectives:
Respond to changing business requirements
Respond to Business and IT requests to align Services with business
needs.
Ensuring Changes are introduced in a controlled manner.
Optimize business risk
Implement changes successfully
Implement changes in times that meet business needs
Use standard processes
Record all changes

Lesson 3.3: Change Management : Scope


125

Scope
Addition, Modification or Removal of
Any Service or Configuration Item or associated
documentation
Including
Strategic, Tactical and Operational changes
Excluding
Business strategy and process
Anything documented as out of scope

126

Lesson 3.4: Change Management :


Change Types
Change Types

Normal changes
Types are specific to the organization
Type determines what assessment is required

Standard changes
Pre-authorized with an established procedure
Tasks are well known, documented and low risk (usually)
E.g replacement of faulty printer, upgrade PC etc.

Emergency changes
Business criticality means there is insufficient time for normal handling
Should use normal process but speeded up
Impact can be high, more prone to failure, Should be kept to minimum

Remediation planning
Backout Plans

127

Lesson 3.5: Change Management :


Change Flow

128

Lesson 3.6: Change Management : 7 Rs


of Change Management
7 Rs of Change Management

Who RAISED the change?

What is the REASON for the change?

What is the RETURN required from the change?

What are the RISKS involved in the change?

What RESOURCES are required to deliver the change?

Who is RESPONSIBLE for the build, test and implementation of the change?

What is the RELATIONSHIP between this change and other changes?

129

Lesson 3.7: Change Management : Roles


in Change Management

Change Manager
Process

owner
Ensures that process is followed
Usually authorizes minor changes
Coordinates and runs CAB meetings
Produces change schedule
Coordinates change/built/test/implementation
Reviews/Closes Changes

130

Lesson 3.8: Change Management :


Change Advisory Board (CAB)

Change Advisory Board (CAB)


Supports

the change manager

Consulted

on significant changes

Business,

users, application/technical support, operations,


service desk, capacity, service continuity, third parties

people

who have clear understanding of business needs

Technical

specialists / consultants

Emergency CAB (ECAB)


Subset

of the standard CAB

Membership

depends on the specific change

131

Lesson 3.9: Change Management :


Change Metrics
Change Metrics
Compliance
Reduction in unauthorized changes
Reduction in emergency changes
Effectiveness
Percentage of changes which met requirements
Reduction in disruptions, defects and re-work
Reduction in changes failed/backed out
Number of incidents attributable to changes
Efficiency
Benefits (value compared to cost)
Average time to implement (by urgency/priority/type)
Percentage accuracy in change estimates

132

Lesson 3.10: Change Management : Key


Challenges

9Business pressure to just do it


9Inaccurate and incomplete Configuration Management System
9Siloed Technical Function areas
9 Misunderstanding of Emergency changes
9Scalability across large organizations
9Vendor/Contract Compliance
9 Adhoc nature of people

133

Lesson 3.11: Service Asset and


Configuration Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Service Asset and Configuration Management

Lesson 3.12: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Goals and Objectives
134

The goal of SACM is to provide a logical model of the IT


infrastructure correlating IT services and different IT components
(physical, logical etc) needed to deliver these services
The objective of SACM is to define and control the components of
services and infrastructure and maintain accurate configuration
records. This enables an organization to comply with corporate
governance requirements, control its asset base, optimize its costs,
manage change and release effectively, and resolve incidents and
problems faster.

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Basic Concepts
135

Basic Concepts
What is a Configuration Item (CI) ?
9Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service
9CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System
9CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration Management
9All CIs are subject to Change Management control
CI Types :
CIs typically include
IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal documentation such as
Process documentation and SLAs

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Basic Concepts
136

Basic Concepts

Configuration baseline

Configuration details captured at a specific point in time.


This captures both the structure and details of a
configuration Item.
It is used as a reference point for future Builds, Releases
and Changes. (e.g. After major changes, disaster recovery
etc).
Typically managed through the Change Management
process.

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Basic Concepts: Contd..
137

Basic Concepts
What is a Configuration Management System (CMS) ?
Information about all Configuration Items
CI may be an entire service, or any component
Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs)
CMS stores attributes
Any information about the CI that might be needed
CMS stores relationships
Between CIs
With incident, problem, change records etc.
CMS has multiple layers
Data sources and tools, information integration, knowledge processing (scorecards,
dashboards etc.), presentation

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Basic Concepts: Contd..
138

Basic Concepts
What is a Definitive Media Library (DML) ?
9The only source for build and distribution
9Master copies of all software assets
In house, external software houses
Scripts as well as code
Management tools as well as applications
Including licenses
9Quality checked
Complete, correct, virus scanned ..

Lesson 3.14: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Basic Concepts: CMDB & DML
139

Basic Concepts
DML and CMDB

Lesson 3.15: Service Asset and Configuration


Management: Basic Concepts: Logical Model
140

Services
E - Banking
Application

User
Experience
Availability

E - Sales

SLA

Application

Business
Logic

Business
Logic

Application
Infrastructure
Messaging

Data
services

SLA Availability

Application
Infrastructure

Data Center
Network

Web
services

Web
services

Network
Topology

User
Experience

Name
service

Authentication

Data
services

Messaging

Lesson 3.16: Service Asset and Configuration Management:


Basic Concepts: Relationship between CMDB, CMS and SKMS
141

SKMS

CMS

CMDB

Informed Decision

142

Lesson 3.17: Release and Deployment


Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Release and Deployment Management

Lesson 3.18: Release and Deployment


Management: Goals
143

Release management is responsible for planning, scheduling,


and controlling the movement of new or changed services, in
the form of a release package, to both the testing and the live
production environments
Deployment management is responsible for the movement of
new or changed hardware, software, documentation, or other
configuration items into the live production environment.

Lesson 3.19: Release and Deployment


Management: Objectives

144

Planned Release and Deployment in line to the business needs


Build, Install, Test and Integrate releases
Efficiently, successfully and on schedule.
With minimal impact on production services, operations, and support teams
Enabling new or changed services to deliver agreed service requirements

Control and minimize the impact of releases to the ongoing


services

Transfer knowledge and skills to end users and support teams,


leading to an effective use and support

Lesson 3.21: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Policy
145

Release Policy: The overarching strategy for Releases and was derived
from the Service Design phase of the Service Lifecycle and typically
includes:
Release Description with the unique identification, numbering and naming
conventions.
The roles and responsibilities at each stage in process.
The expected frequency for each type of release
The approach for accepting and grouping changes into a release.
The mechanism to automate the build, installation and release distribution
processes to improve re-use, repeatability and efficiency
How the configuration baseline for the release is captured and verified against
the actual release contents, e.g. hardware, software, documentation and
knowledge
Exit and entry criteria and authority for acceptance of the release into each
Service Transition stage and into the controlled test, training, disaster recovery
and production environments
Criteria and authorization to exit early life support and handover to Service
Operations.

Lesson 3.20: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Unit
146

Release unit
- Cls that are normally released together
- Typically includes sufficient components to perform a useful function. For
example - Fully configured desktop PC, payroll applications

Release package
- Single release or many related releases
- Can include hardware, software, utility, warranty, documentation,
training

Lesson 3.21: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Types
147

Release Types
Major Release:
Containing large proportions of new functionalities. Also known as a
Major Upgrade, generally supersedes all preceding minor upgrades.

Minor Release:
Contains small enhancements and fixes. A Minor Upgrade or release
generally supersedes previous emergency fixes.

Emergency Release:
Normally linked to an Emergency change.

Lesson 3.22: Release and Deployment Management:


Basic Concepts: Release and Deployment Approaches
148

Release and Deployment Approaches


Big

bang versus phased approach

Phased approach can be users, locations, functionality ..


Push versus Pull deployment
Automated versus manual deployment

149

Lesson 3.23: Knowledge Management


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Knowledge Management

150

Lesson 3.24: Knowledge Management:


Goals

The goal of Knowledge Management is to Improve quality of


management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure
information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle
The objective of Knowledge Management is to ensure that the right
information is delivered to the appropriate place or person at the
right time to enable informed decisions.

151

Lesson 3.25: Knowledge Management:


Objectives

Knowledge Management is The process responsible for gathering,


analyzing, storing and sharing knowledge and information within an
organization.
The primary purpose of knowledge Management is to improve
efficiency and effectiveness by reducing the need to rediscover
knowledge.

152

Lesson 3.26: Knowledge Management:


Basic Concepts: DIKW

153

Lesson 3.27: Knowledge Management:


Service Knowledge Management System

154

Lesson 3.28: Knowledge Management:


SKMS

9A set of tools for managing knowledge and information.


9 SKMS includes CMS.
9 SKMS contains all the information needed to manage the lifecycle
of IT Services.

155

Module 4 : Summary
Goals and Objectives
Service Transition V Model
Service Transition processes:
Change Management
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Release and Deployment Management
Knowledge Management

156

Module 4 : Quiz

Module 4: Quiz
157

Question 1:
Which of the following statements about a standard change is
INCORECT ?
a) A Standard change is a low risk change
b) Standard changes are pre-authorized changes
c) Standard changes are authorized by E-CAB
d) Standard changes are only raised by Incident Management

Module 4: Quiz
158

Question 2:
Which statement is the CORRECT statement about the relationship
between CMS and SKMS ?
a) The SKMS is a part of the CMS
b) The CMS is a part of the SKMS
c) There is no relationship between the CMS and SKMS
d) The CMS and the SKMS are the same

Module 4: Quiz
159

Question 3:
Whish of the following is an activity of SACM ?
a) Account for all the Financial assets of an organization
b) Specify the relevant attributes of CI
c) Implement ITIL across the organization
d) Design Service models to justify ITIL implementations

Module 4: Quiz
160

Question 4:
Which of the following does Service Transition provide guidance on:
1. Moving New and Changed Services to production
2. Testing and Validation
3. Transfer of services to and from external service provider
a) All of the above
b) None of the above
c) Only 1 and 2
d) Only 1

Module 4: Quiz
161

Question 5:
Which of the following is an INCORRECT Release and
Deployment approach?
a) Propagate and Consolidate
b) Push and Pull
c) Big bang and Phased
d) Automated and Manual

Module 4: Quiz
162

Question 6:
Which of the following would be stored in the DML?
1. Copies of Purchased software
2. Copies of Internally developed software
3. Relevant License documentation
4. The Change schedule
a) All of the above
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 3 and 4 only
d) 1, 2 and 3 only

Module 5
163

Service
Operations

164

Lesson 1.0: Service Operations


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service


Operations
Briefly Explain What Value Service Operations provide
to business
Understand Key Concepts & definitions
Understand the Role of Communication in Service
Operations

Lesson 1.1: Service Operations:


Objectives
165

To coordinate and carry out the activities and processes


required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to
business users and customers.
Responsible for the ongoing management of the technology
that is used to deliver and support services.
Carrying out activities and Processes required to deliver and
manage Services at agreed levels.
KEY ROLE: How to achieve effectiveness & efficiency in Service Delivery
so as to ensure value to business and the service provider

Lesson 1.2: Value to Business


166

Service Operations is where the plans, designs and


optimizations from other ITIL lifecycle phases are executed
and measured.

Service value is modeled in Service Strategy


The cost of the service is designed, predicted and validated in
Service Design and Service Transition
Measures for optimization are identified in Continual Service
Improvement

From a customer viewpoint, Service Operation is where actual


value is seen.

Lesson 1.3: Role of Communication


167

Good communication is important across all phases of the service lifecycle


but particularly so in Service Operation
Good communication is needed between all IT Service Management staff
and with users/ customers / partners.
Issues can often be mitigated or avoided through good communication .
All communication should have:
- Intended purpose and/ or resultant action
- Clear audience, who should be involved in deciding the
need/format
Examples of Communications in Service Operations
Routine operational communication
Communication between shifts
Performance reporting
-Communication related to emergencies
Training on new or customized processes and service designs

Lesson 1.4: Events


168

An expected or unexpected change of state of a an IT component that could negatively


impact delivery of IT services.
Events are typically notifications created by an IT service, Configuration Item (CI) or a
monitoring tool.
Event Type

Description

Informational

An event that does not require any action, regular operation


Example: Notification that a scheduled workload has completed

Warning

An Event that is unusual but not an exception, requires closer


monitoring.
Example: A servers CPU utilization is approaching maximum
performance threshold.

Exception

An Event signifying a service or a device is operating abnormally


Example: A PC scan reveals the installation of unauthorized
software.

Lesson 1.5: Alerts & Incidents


169

Incident

Alert

A warning that a threshold has been


reached, something has changed, or
a Failure has occurred.
Alerts are often created and
managed by System Management
tools.
Alerts are managed by the Event
Management Process.
Objective is to notify the concerned
Stakeholders

An unplanned interruption to an IT
service.
A reduction in the quality of an IT
service.
Failure of an IT component that has
not yet affected service, but could
likely disrupt service if left
unchecked. This can be raised by IT
support teams.
Example: Failure of a server in a
clustered mode.

Relationship between Events, Alerts and Incident


All Alerts are Events, but not all Events trigger Alerts
All Incidents are Events, but all Events are not Incidents

Lesson 1.6: Service Request


170

Service Request

A generic description for many varying types of demands that are placed upon the
IT Department by the users.

Many of these requests are actually small changes low risk, frequently occurring,
low cost, etc.

Their scale and frequency, low-risk nature means that they are better handled by a
separate process, rather than being allowed to congest and obstruct the normal
Incident and Change Management processes.

Examples:
A request to change a password,
A request to install an additional software application onto a particular PC,
A request to relocate some items of desktop equipment

Lesson 1.7: Problem & Workaround


171

Problem

The cause of one or more incidents.

The cause is not usually known at the


time a Problem Record is created,
and the Problem Management
Process is responsible for further
investigation.

Prioritized in the same way and for


same reasons as Incidents.

Workaround

A temporary way to restore service


failures to a usable level. For example;
rebooting a server hang.

Used for reducing or eliminating the


Impact of an Incident or Problem for which
a full Resolution is not yet available.

Workarounds for Incidents that do not


have associated Problem Records are
documented in the Incident Record.

Workarounds for Problems are


documented in Known Error Records.

172

Lesson 1.8: Known Error (KE) and Known


Error Database (KEDB)
Known Error (KE)

Known Error Database (KEDB)

A storage of previous knowledge of


incidents and problems
exact details of the fault and the
symptoms that occurred
how they were overcome

Allows quicker diagnosis and resolution


if Incidents/Problems recur.

A Problem that has a documented Root


cause and a Workaround.
A known error might be raised for
a problem whose root cause is not
yet known but a workaround has
been identified.

Known Errors are created and


managed throughout their Lifecycle by
Problem Management.

Known Errors may also be identified by


Development or Suppliers. For
example; Application incompatibility
reports for Windows by Microsoft

Lesson 1.9: Impact, Urgency & Priority


173

Impact

A measure of the effect of an Incident, Problem or Change on


Business Processes.
Based on how Service levels will be affected.

Urgency

A measure of how long it will be until an Incident, Problem or


Change has a significant Impact on the Business.

Priority

The relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change.


Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify
required times for actions to be taken.
For example, the SLA may state that Priority 2 Incidents must
be resolved within 12 hours.

174

Lesson 2.0: Service Operations Process


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the objectives and basic concepts for Event


Management

Lesson 2.1: Event Management:


Objectives
175

Definition
The process responsible for monitoring Events throughout their
Lifecycle.
Objectives
To detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control
action.
Can be used as a basis for automating many routine Operations
Management activities,
For example
- executing scripts on remote devices, or
- submitting jobs for processing
It provides a way of comparing actual performance and behavior against
design standards and SLAs.
Provide the basis for Operational Monitoring and Control

176

Lesson 2.2: Event Management: Process


Activities
Process Activities
Event occurs
Event Detection , Filtering & Notification
Event Significance (Type of Event)
(Information, Warning or Exception)
Event correlation.
Event Response
Event Review & Closure

177

Lesson 2.3: Event Management: Event


Logging & Filtering

178

Lesson 2.4: Event Management:


Managing Exceptional Events

179

Lesson 2.5: Event Management:


Managing Information & Warning Events

Lesson 2.6: Incident Management: Objectives


180

Definition
The process for dealing with all incidents; this can include failures, questions or
queries reported by the users (usually via a telephone call to the Service Desk),
by technical staff, or automatically detected and reported by event monitoring
tools.

Objectives
To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the
adverse impact on business operations
To ensure that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are
maintained, i.e. restore service within SLAs

181

Lesson 2.7: Incident Management: Scope


and Value to Business
Scope

Value to Business

Managing any disruption or


potential disruption to live IT services

Lower downtime to the business,


which in turn means higher
availability of the service.

Incidents identified
Directly by users through the
service Desk
Through an interface from Event
Management to incident
Management tools

The capability to identify business


priorities and dynamically allocate
resources as necessary.

The ability to identify potential


improvements to services.

Reported and/or logged by


technical staff

182

Lesson 2.8: Incident Management: Basic


Concepts
Time Scales

Timescales must be agreed for all incident handling stages.


- Depending on Priority & SLAs
- Documented in OLAs & UCs
All support groups should be made fully aware of these
timescales.

Incident Models

An Incident model is predefined steps to handle a particular


Incident.
The incident model should include:

The steps that should be taken to handle the incident

The order in which these steps should be taken in.

Major Incident

Responsibilities; who should do what

An Incident Model to handle Incidents of Major Impacts and great


Urgency.

183

Lesson 2.9: Incident Management:


Process Flow & Activities

Lesson 2.10: Incident Management:


Process Interfaces

184

Performance
incidents
Incident
Workarounds

SLAs, OLAs, UCs


Event
Manage
ment

Capacity
Manage
ment
Incident
Management

Problem
Manage
ment

Service break/ degrading


Events

Potential problems

Availability
incidents
Change
Manage
ment

CI data
Maintain faulty CI
Status

RFC for resolving Incidents


Incidents from Failed
Changes

*SACM: Service Asset & Configuration Management

185

Lesson 2.11: Problem Management:


Objectives
Definition
The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems.
Problem Management seeks to identify and remove the root-cause of Incidents
in the IT Infrastructure.

Objectives
To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening and to
eliminate recurring incidents
To minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.

Lesson 2.12: Problem Management:


Scope and Value to Business
186

Scope

Value to Business

Together with Incident and Change


Management increases IT service
availability and quality.

Reduction in downtimes and


disruptions of Business critical
systems.

Reduced expenditure on
workarounds or fixes that do not
work

Reduction in cost of effort in firefighting or resolving repeat


incidents.

Activities required to diagnose the


root cause of incidents and to
determine the resolution to those
problems.
Responsible for ensuring that the
resolution is implemented through the
appropriate control procedures,
especially Change Management and
Release Management.
Maintain information about
problems and the appropriate
workarounds and resolutions

187

Lesson 2.13: Problem Management: Basic


Concepts
Reactive Problem
Management

Resolution of underlying cause (s)


The activities are similar to those of Incident
Management for the logging, categorization and
classification for Problems. The subsequent activities are
different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis
is performed and the Known Error corrected.
Covered in Service Operation

Proactive Problem
Management

Prevention of future problems by analyzing Incident


Records, and using data collected by other IT Service
Management processes and external sources to identify
trends or significant problems.
Generally undertaken as part of Continual Service
Improvement (CSI)

Lesson 2.14: Problem Management: Process


Flow: Reactive Problem Management
188

Problem
detection &
Logging

Problem
Categorization
& Prioritization

Problem
Investigation &
Diagnosis

Problem
Resolution &
Closure

Workarounds &
raising Known
Error Records

Major Problem
Reviews

Errors from
Development /
Suppliers

Known
Error
Database

Lesson 2.15: Problem Management: Process


Flow: Interfaces with Other Processes
189

Availability Management
Change Management

Is involved with determining how to


reduce downtime and increase uptime
through proactive problem
management techniques

ensures that all resolutions or


workarounds that require a change to
a CI are submitted through Change
Management through an RFC.

Capacity Management
Configuration Management
uses the CMS to identify faulty CIs and
also to determine the impact of
problems and resolutions.

Release & Deployment Management


assists in ensuring that the associated
known errors are transferred from the
development Known Error Database
into the live Known Error Database.

Service Level Management


contributes to improvements in service
levels, and its management information
is used as the basis of some of the SLA
review components.

Problem
Management

Capacity Management helps in


problem investigation and
resolution

IT Service Continuity Management


When a significant problem is not
resolved before it starts to have a major
impact on the business, it interfaces with
ITSCM

Financial Management
Problem Management provides
management information about the cost
of resolving and preventing problems

190

Lesson 2.16: Request Fulfillment


Process
Definition
The processes of dealing with Service Requests from the users.

Objectives
To provide pre-defined pre-approved standard services to users.
To provide users with information on available services and procedures for
obtaining them.
Deliver requested standard services.
Assist IT users with general information, comments and complaints

Basic Concepts
Request models Specific procedures for handling certain types of requests
For example; IMACS, Password resets, etc.

191

Lesson 2.17: Access Management:


Objectives
Definition
The process of granting authorized users the right to use a service, while
preventing access to non-authorized users.

Also referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management.


In practice, Access Management is the operational enforcement of the
policies defined by Information Security Management.

Objectives
To grant authorized users the right to use a Service and deny access to
unauthorized users
To Execute policies and actions defined in Security and Availability
Management

192

Lesson 2.18: Access Management: Basic


Concepts
Basic Concepts
Access

Access refers to the level and extent of a services functionality


or data that a user is entitled to use.

Identity

The information about the user that distinguishes them as an


individual, and which verifies their status within the
organization.
By definition, the identity of a user is unique to that user.

Rights

Also called privileges, refer to the actual settings whereby a


user is provided access to a service or group of services.
Typical rights or levels of access include read, write, execute,
change, delete.

Service/ Service
Groups

Granting users/User groups access to similar set of services

193

Lesson 3.0: Service Operations: Functions


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Explain the role, objectives and


organizational structures of Service desk

Lesson 3.1: Service Desk


194

Definition
A Service Desk is a functional unit made up of a dedicated number of staff
responsible for dealing with a variety of service events, often made via
telephone calls, web interface, or automatically reported infrastructure events.
Acts as daily Single point of contact for IT users

Objectives
To restore the normal service to the users as quickly as possible.
Operate as Level 1 for Incident Management and Request Fulfillment i.e.
Log calls, do initial diagnosis and investigation and if possible resolve and
close.
Manage Incidents throughout its lifecycle, which also includes user
communication and Technical & hierarchical escalations.
Conducting customer/user satisfaction survey.

Lesson 3.1: Purpose of Service Desk


195

Purpose of Service Desk


Improved customer service, perception of IT and satisfaction with IT services
Increase accessibility to IT services through a single point of contact,
communication and information.
Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user IT requests
Enhanced focus and a proactive approach to IT service provisioning.
More meaningful management information for decision support
Improved teamwork and communication amongst IT staff.
A reduced negative business impact.
Improved usage of IT Support resources and increased productivity of
business personnel.

Lesson 3.2: Organization Structures


196

Type

Description

1. Local

Located physically close to the user community it serves.

2. Centralized

Service desk is deployed at one central physical location.

3. Virtual

Impression of single, centralized Service desk, through the


use of technology and tools to create a virtual Service
desk.

4. Follow-The-Sun

Multiple Service desks across time zones to provide 24x7


service.

5. Specialized

specialist groups within the overall Service Desk structure,


so that incidents relating to a particular IT service can be
routed directly (normally via telephony selection or IVR or
a web-based interface) to the specialist group.

197

Lesson 3.3: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Local
Local

Aids communication and gives a


clearly visible presence

Can often be inefficient and


expensive to resource due to low call
volumes

Reasons for a Local service desk


Language and cultural or
political differences
Different time zones
Specialized groups of users
VIP/criticality status of users.

Local Users

Service Desk
(local)

Third Party
Support

Application
Support

Infrastructure
Support

198

Lesson 3.4: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Centralized
Centralized
Customer
Site 1

Customer
Site 2

Customer
Site 3

Service Desk
(centralized)

Local Service Desks merged into one


or few locations.

more efficient and cost-effective,


allowing fewer overall staff to deal
with a higher volume of calls.

local presence to handle physical


support requirements, but controlled
and deployed from the central desk.

Second-Line Support
Third party
Support

Application
Support

Infrastructure
Support

199

Lesson 3.5: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Virtual
Virtual

Single Visible Service Desk which


may actually be run by staff in
multiple locations.

Allows for homeworking, secondary


support group, off-shoring or
outsourcing or any combination
necessary to meet user demand.

Safeguards are needed to ensure


consistency and uniformity in service
quality and cultural terms

200

Lesson 3.6: Service Desk: Service Desk


Staffing
Service Desk Staffing
Correct number and qualification at any given time, considering
Customer expectations and business requirements
e.g. call response time (SLA) , Budget
Number of users to support, their language and skills
Coverage period, out-of-hours, time zones/locations, travel time
Processes and procedures in place, Infrastructure for short breaks

Minimum qualifications
Interpersonal skills, Business and underlying IT understanding
Skill sets
Customer and Technical emphasis, Expert
Typing skills

201

Lesson 3.7: Service Desk: Service Desk


Metrics
Service Desk Metrics
Periodic evaluations of health, maturity, efficiency, effectiveness and any
opportunity to improve
Realistic and carefully chosen total number of call is not itself good or
bad
Some examples:
First-line resolution rate
Average time to resolve and/or escalate an incident
Total costs for the period divided by total call duration minutes
The number of calls broken by time of day and day of week, combined with the
average call-time
Customer/User Satisfaction surveys

Lesson 3.8: Technical Management


202

Role of Technical Management Function


The groups, departments or teams that provide technical expertise and overall
management of the IT Infrastructure
Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT
Infrastructure.
Provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle.
- Ensures that resources are effectively trained and deployed to design,
build, transition, operate and improve the technology required to deliver and support IT
services.

Objectives
To help plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to
support the organizations business Processes
-Well designed and highly resilient, cost-effective infrastructure configuration
- Use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure and to
speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur.

Lesson 3.9: Application Management


203

Role of Application Management Function


Responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle.
Custodian of technical Knowledge and expertise related to managing
application, whether purchased or developed in-house.
It provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle
Providing guidance to IT Operations about how best to carry out the
ongoing operational management of applications.
The integration of the Application Management Lifecycle into the ITSM
Lifecycle

Objectives
To helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for
application software so as to support the organizations business Processes.
Assist in design and deployment of applications.
Assist in ongoing support/maintenance/improvement of applications.

204

Lesson 3.10: IT Operations Management


Function
Role of IT Operations Management Function
The function responsible for the ongoing management and maintenance of
an organization s IT Infrastructure to ensure delivery of the agreed level of
IT services to the business.
Operations Control - oversees the execution and monitoring of the
operational activities and events in the IT Infrastructure.
Includes Console Management, Job Scheduling, Backup & restore,
Print & output Management and Maintenance activities on behalf
of Technical or Application Management teams.
Facilities Management - The management of the physical IT
environment, typically a Data Centre or computer rooms and recovery
sites together with all the power and cooling equipment.

205

Lesson 3.11: IT Operations Management


Objectives
Objectives
Maintenance of the as- is infrastructure and procedures to achieve stability
of the organizations day-to-day processes and activities.
Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved service at reduced
costs, while maintaining stability.
Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT
operations failures that occur.

206

Module 5 : Quiz

Service Operations : Quiz


207

Question 1:
Major Incidents require:
A. Separate procedures
B. Less urgency
C. Longer timescales
D. Less documentation

Service Operations : Quiz


208

Question 2:
Which of the following should be done when closing an Incident?
1: Check the Incident categorization and correct it if necessary
2: Decide whether a Problem needs to be logged
A. 1 only
B. Both of the above
C. 2 only
D. None of the above

Service Operations : Quiz


209

Question 3:
Which of the following is NOT a valid objective of Request
Fulfillment?
A. To provide information to users about what services are
available and how to request them
B. To update the Service Catalogue with services that may be
requested through the Service Desk
C. To provide a channel for users to request and receive standard
services
D. To source and deliver the components of standard services that
have been requested

Service Operations : Quiz


210

Question 4:
Which Functions are included in IT Operations Management?
A. Network Management and Application Management
B. Technical Management and Application Management
C. IT Operations Control and Facilities Management
D. Facilities Management and Technical Management

Service Operations : Quiz


211

Question 5:
What is the BEST description of the purpose of Service
Operation?
A. To decide how IT will engage with suppliers during the Service
Management Lifecycle
B. To proactively prevent all outages to IT Services
C. To design and build processes that will meet business needs
D. To deliver and manage IT Services at agreed levels to
business users and customers

Service Operations : Quiz


212

Question 6:
Which of these activities would you expect to be performed by a
Service Desk?
1: Logging details of Incidents and service requests
2: Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis
3: Restoring service
4: Diagnosing the root-cause of problems
A. All of the above
B. 1, 2 and 3 only
C. 1, 2 and 4 only
D. 2, 3 and 4 only

213

End of Module 5

Module 6
214

Continual
Service
Improvement

215

Lesson 1.0: Continual Service


Improvement
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Continual Service Improvement

216

Lesson 1.1: Continual Service Improvement Goals


To continually align IT Services to the changing Business needs
by identifying and implementing improvements.
Continually be on the lookout for improvements related to
process effectiveness and efficiency.
To implement improvement plans in a cost-effective manner.

Lesson 1.2: Continual Service Improvement Objectives


217

Review analyze and recommend improvement opportunities in all the


life cycle phases
To make CSI activities, fact based, CSI Reviews and analyze Service
level achievement results
Identify and implement activities for improve service efficiency and
effectiveness to improve service quality
Improve cost effectiveness
Ensure appropriate quality management methods are used to
support CSI activities

Lesson 1.3: Continual Service Improvement Scope


218

Scope of CSI:

9Overall health of ITSM. It takes care of entire ITSM as well as all


dependent services.
9Alignment of the service portfolio with business needs
9After implementing and operating processes, CSI help Maturing the
processes.

Organization need to:


Review management information and trends of service delivery
Ensure outputs of enabling ITSM are achieving results
Conduct audits to access maturity of process, compliance of processes.
Conduct customer satisfaction surveys.

219

Lesson 2.0: CSI Key Principles and


Models
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Basic Concepts and Key Principles of


Continual Service Improvement
John Kotters eight steps for Organization
Transformation

Lesson 2.1: CSI and Organizational Change


220

9 Successful CSI requires organizational change


9 Organizational change presents challenges
9 Use formal approaches to address people-related issues:
John Kotters Eight steps to transforming your
organization
Project Management

Lesson 2.2: John Kotters 8 steps to


Organizational Transformation
221

Steps

Quotes

Creating Sense of
urgency

50% of transformations fail in this stage.


Without motivation, people wont help and efforts goes nowhere
76% of companys management should be convinced of the need

Forming a guiding
coalition

Understand difficulties and producing change.


Lack of effective, Strong leadership
Not a powerful coalition. Opposition eventually stops the change initiatives.

Creating a Vision

Without a sensible vision transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list
of confusing, incompatible projects.
An explanation of 5 minutes should obtain reaction of understanding and
Interest.

Communicating Vision

Without credible communication, and lot of it, the hearts and minds of the
troops are never captured.
Make use of all communication channels.

Reference: Crown copyright OGC.

Lesson 2.3: John Kotters 8 steps to


Organizational Transformationcontd
222

Steps

Quotes

Empowering others to
act on vision

Structures to underpin the vision.. And removal of barriers to change.


More people involved, the better the outcome.
Reward initiatives.

Planning for and


creating quick wins

Real transformation takes time. Without quick wins too many people give up
or join the ranks of those opposing change.
Actively look for performance improvements and establish clear goals.
Communicate success.

Consolidating
improvements and
producing more
change

Until changes sink deeply into the culture new approaches are fragile and
subject to regressions.
In many cases worker revert to old practices.
Use credibility of quick wins to tackle even bigger problems.

Institutionalize the
change

Show how new approaches, behavior and attitude have helped improve
performance. Ensure selection and promotion criteria underpin the new
approach.

Reference: Crown copyright OGC.

223

Lesson 2.4: Service Measurement


The ability to predict and report service performance against
targets of an end-to-end service is known as Service Measurement.
9Will require someone to take the individual measurements and
combine them to provide a view of the customer experience.
9This data can be analyzed over a period of time to produce a
trend.
9This data can be collected at multiple levels, (for example, CIs,
processes, services).

Lesson 2.5: Reasons to Monitor & Measure


224

225

Lesson 2.5: Types of Metrics

Technology

metrics: typically components and applications For

example
Performance
Availability
Process metrics: Critical Success Factors (CSFs), Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs), activity metrics for ITSM processes
Service metrics: end-to-end service metrics (often Service metrics
are a sum of process and technology metrics)

226

Lesson 2.6: Key Definitions

Improvement Favorable Outcome showing a measurable increase in


a desirable metric or a decrease in undesirable metric.
Benefit Gain achieved from Improvement. This is generally
associated with ROI or VOI.
Return on Investment (ROI) Quantifiable monetary benefit achieved
by expending a certain amount of money, usually expressed as a
percentage.
Value on Investment (VOI) Non monetary benefit, such as branding,
achieved by expending a certain amount of money.
Baseline Benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison.

Lesson 2.7: Seven Step Improvement Process- PDCA Cycle


227

7 Step Improvement Process PDCA cycle


CHECK
ANALYZE THE
DATA

DEFINE WHAT YOU


SHOULD MEASURE

PLAN
PRESENT AND USE
THE DATA

DEFINE WHAT YOU


CAN MEASURE

DO

PROCESS THE
DATA

IMPLEMENT
CORRECTIVE
ACTION
GATHER THE
DATA WHO,
HOW, WHEN

ACT

228

Lesson 2.8: Continual Service Improvement


Model

229

Module 6 : Quiz

Module 6: Quiz
230

Question 1:
Which of the following does CSI provide guidance on?
1. How to improve process efficiency and effectiveness
2. How to improve services
3. Improvement of all phases of service lifecycle
4. Measurement of processes and services
a) 1 and 2 only
b) All of the above
c) 2 only
d) 1, 3 and 4 only

Module 6: Quiz
231

Question 2:
Which is the first activity of the CSI model?
a) Carry out a baseline assessment to understand the current
situation
b) Understand the Business Vision and Objectives
c) Agree on priorities for Improvement
d) Create and verify a plan

Module 6: Quiz
232

Question 3:
Which of the following is NOT a metric described in CSI?
a) Process Metric
b) Personnel Metric
c) Service Metrics
d) Technology Metrics

Module 6: Quiz
233

Question 4:
Which of the following are objectives of CSI?
1. To improve process efficiency and effectiveness
2. To improve services
3. To improve all phases of service lifecycle except Strategy
4. To improve International standard such as ISO 20000
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 and 4 only
c) 1, 2 and 3 only
d) All of the above

Module 6: Quiz
234

Question 5:
Learning and Improvement is the PRIMARY concern of which of
the following phases of service lifecycle?
a) Continual Service Improvement
b) Service Strategy and Service Design
c) Service Strategy, Service Transition and Service Operation
d) Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition and
Service Operation

235

Module 6 : Summary
9 Goals and Objectives of CSI
9 John Kotters 8 steps of Organizational Transformation
9 Service Measurement and Metrics
9 7 Step Improvement process
9 CSI Improvement Model

236

Module 7: ITIL V3 Foundation Exam Tips

ITIL V3 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
237

Read the question CAREFULLY


At this level of exam the obvious answer is often the correct answer (if
you have read the question carefully!)
Beware of being misled by the preliminary text for the question
If you think there should be another choice that would be the right
answer, then you have to choose the most right
Use strategies such as What comes first? or What doesnt belong?
to help with the more difficult questions
Where there are questions that involve multiple statements (i.e. 1, 2, 3,
4), then try to eliminate combinations that are immediately incorrect
(based on something you can remember) so that the question is broken
into smaller, and more manageable pieces.

ITIL V3 Foundation Certification Exam :


Practical Tips
The question is asking What all
238

Using Elimination
Methodology, this
statement is ruled
out, as function
design
is notsee with an example
Lets
applicable to ALL
process
designs.
Sample
Question

statements given below are


applicable to all the processes ?
how to answer the questions.

Which of the following statements is CORRECT for ALL processes?


Again Using Elimination Methodology, this
a) They define functions as part of their statement
design is ruled out, as not all processes
are carried out by external service provider,
some might be carried out by internal teams
b) They should deliver value for stakeholders
as well.
c) They are carried out by an external service provider in support of a customer
d) They are units of organizations responsible for specific outcomes
After going through all the statements
listed, This seems to be the obvious
answer, But assuming this isn't an
obvious answer, lets evaluate other
options.

This statement is also ruled out, as processes


are not units of organizations, they are called
functions. This leaves the Statement B as the
best answer.

ITIL V3 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
239

Let us look at another example.


Sample Question

The question is asking what all


statements are applicable for DML

Which of the following statements about a Definitive Media Library (DML) are
CORRECT?
Statement 1 & 3 are correct
1. The DML can include a physical store
by the definition of DML
2. The DML holds definitive hardware spares
3. The DML includes master copies of controlled documentation
a) All of the above
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1 and 3 only

Based on the above three


statements, Choices A, B
2 is incorrect
andStatement
C are eliminated
as as DML stores only Media
related
documentation,
Hardware spares are
theyand
include
statement
2,
stored in DHS
only Choice D is correct

240

Module 6 : Summary
Thank You