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The Dimensions of the Mystical Journey

by Bahram Jassemi

Reprinted from the Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi Society,

Volume XXXVIII, 2005. An earlier version of this article was
originally presented at a symposium of the Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi
Society in Oxford.

"You should know that man has been on the journey ever since God brought
him out of non-being into being"[1]

The Shaykh al-Akbar, Ibn 'Arabi, describes the state of being of the man on
the journey in his Rislat al-Anwr and points out that it is only possible for
man to cease journeying in the fifth abode (mawtin), namely in Paradise or
in hell. The six mawatin (abodes)[2] are ordered as follows:

(a) alastu-birrabbikum ["Am I not your Lord?"]

(b) the material world
(c) barzakh
(d) smirah [the Resurrection]
(e) Paradise or Hell
(f) kathb [the Sand Dune beyond the Garden]
This order summarises the phenomenology of the mystical journeys and
also their ontology. If man has been on the journey since the Day of Alast
and does not relinquish this state of travelling except in Paradise or in Hell,
then he is ontologically a traveller, an existence that moves from one world
to the other. This is the first fact that must be known by the slik (traveller).
It is also necessary for him to know that there is no security on the journey.
Thirdly, the traveller may only seek at each mawtin that which is required of
him by that mawtin; thus he should not aim for fan' (annihilation) if he is
not at the station of fan', and so on. Should he try to do so, the waqt that
is, the anchoring of his own being in his present state will be broken. This
is of the utmost importance for the Sufi, because he is said to be "the Son of

his Time" (as-sufi ibn al-waqt). From a metaphysical viewpoint, the

attainment of the reality of Union is through the conscious realisation of the
intended vision, in other words that he sees his own non-being in the light of
the One.[3]

The question now arises as to why a person, a Sufi, should choose

deliberately to embark on the mystical journey when he is ontologically on
that journey in any case. Such a question forms a paradox inasmuch as the
solution to the mystery appears when both sides of the paradox are
considered simultaneously,[4] a fact that at first sight appears confusing.
The Shaykh al-Akbar stressed, however, that man must first become fully
aware, in order that he may travel with his whole being. For the traveller to
find out where he stands, he must also incorporate a further journey within
the ontological journey. The Shaykh made it clear, furthermore, that the
mystery can be penetrated only by addressing the paradox, not merely by
thought, but rather with all of ones actions and interactions. The end of the
conscious and intentional journey is the degree of baq' (subsistence), and
this is attained after "re-emerging".[5]

In this article we will briefly examine the various forms of the mystical
journey. The forms of the journey may be divided into the following
fundamental types: tartb (the way of Levels) and was'it (by means of an
intermediary), which are both also known as tarq 'm (the general way),
and the form of the special aspects, tarq wujhi khs. There is a further
form, qb qausayn au adn' , which will be included together with the form
of the special aspects. It should be mentioned that the ways of tartb and
was'it are based in principle on the guidance of a shaykh, whereas that of
the special aspects may also be undertaken alone, such that the seeker is
plunged into a metaphysical space by means of sudden and immediate
contact with the a'yn-ath-thbitah (the fixed entities or archetypes). The
degree, intensity and depth of perception within that world determine the
seekers future station.

1. The mystical journey through Tartb (the way of the Levels/degrees)

This form of the journey moves through various martib (levels or degrees),
and the traveller must recognise and pass beyond certain veils of light and
darkness, one after another, until he comes to a degree appropriate to his
own excellence. The level that befits each person is to be found in the sr
(trumpet /horn), and the basis of this is stated in the Qur'an as follows:
"None of us there is but has a known station".[6] It should be remembered
that the levels are ontological, which is to say that being and non-being

form two poles, and it is between these that the Divine is mirrored (huwa l
huwa). The identification of each seeker with one of these levels is equally
his respective state of consciousness of the level or station where he
currently stands, if it is possible to speak of "standing" in this sense at all
given that the seeker cannot and must not stand still.[7] Seen from without,
the slik is at a particular maqm. From within he identifies himself with the
level of being that is completed by certain of the Divine Names. This level
then forms his consciousness, his identity, his being.

The Rislat al-Anwr describes a type of journey that is not identical with the
traditional way as described by Ab Nasr al-Sarrj Tsi or Qushairy, nor is it
based on the relationship of a shaykh and a student. Nonetheless, I consider
such a journey to be a way through the martib (levels). The seeker
progresses step by step; he examines each step, without obtaining a direct
and immediate relationship to his 'ayn ath-thbitah. Ibn 'Arab classifies this
journey under khalwa (retreat) and describes how the seeker first unveils
the world of the senses. The next degree is the unveiling of the imaginary
world (khayl), so that the world of meanings (ma'n) becomes visible. Later
he sees how life spreads through the bodies. In the following stages he
reaches a state from which he may be informed of his own martabah
(level/degree). After this he comes to see the forms of all mankind, then he
arrives before the Throne of the All-Compassionate (sarr). From this point on
he knows all things according to Reality and not as the ordinary person sees
them. Then he is himself unveiled; he is invisible to himself, his self is
nowhere to be found, there is no trace of being in him (fan'). The next
principal stage is his returning to himself and his remaining (baq') in that
which he is. He is brought back to the world of the senses.

When reading this text, one notices that it is a description of the way into
the sr (horn) whose form is a reversal of that of the emanation of all things
from the Divine. The wide part of the horn contains the am' (the Cloud) and
the narrow part the earth. The forms of all things are contained in the sr, as
the word suwar (forms, images) implies. It should be remembered that the
horn is called al-barzakh as-sr (the intermediate world of the forms).[8]
The fact that, after finding himself before the Throne of the AllCompassionate, the slik is given knowledge of all things and then becomes
hidden from himself, shows that his human consciousness has been lost at
this degree. He no longer finds and feels himself, since his own
consciousness was that of a person, an observer, whereas here there is no
longer any observing, no more considerations of duality. His
consciousness/existence is now, rather, identical to the forms that are
manifested in the sr. Consequently there remains "no trace of being in
him", and this clearly refers to worldly being in the sense that we normally
experience it. For how can a person re-emerge if there is no longer any trace
of being in him? This is in turn a paradox.

When the traveller reaches the Throne of the All-Compassionate he has

arrived at the first bodily form that encompasses the entire universe. He
witnesses here the full extent of the Divine Compassion in the form of
effusion, that is to say that "everything that you have seen up to now you
will see all the more in him".[9] And this is the recognition of the Holy One
who bestows His Compassion on the traveller.

After this begins his journey in the subtle world of the spirits, which cannot
be reached by men. For this he becomes veiled and annihilated. The Divine
Compassion returns him to his being by means of the Beautiful Name hayy,
since he no longer possesses any will or strength of his own. He has become
a "non-being" in the subtle world of the spirits. Only when he has attained
baq' (subsistence) is he able to experience the ordinary world again. He
can even re-experience all that has happened to him, but, as the Shaykh alAkbar stresses, in another form.

From a phenomenological perspective the experiences in the sr (horn)

differ from those of the phenomenal world. In the former, one is witness to
imaginal forms that constitute the basis of Being as a vast but imperceptible
system that can never be comprehended. Here one experiences processes
that are controlled by that system and with which one must align oneself,
having made this journey once only. He who returns is no longer the same
person that he once was. He does not even need to speak, because the
intensity of the experience of finding himself before the sarr has left him
nothing that can be spoken about. The Shaykh al-Akbar gives important
information on this phenomenon.[10] It follows that "silence" (samt) is not
an everyday act but rather a status that is reached by only a small number
of people, particularly in the case of attaining silence of the heart.

2. The mystical journey through was'it (by means of an intermediary)

There is a Man who is a being with two aspects or faces: al-insn al-kmil.
He is the most important connecting link that joins man with God across the
bridge of love. He is a mirror in which all the Names of God are reflected and
become apparent. He is the comprehensive separating Word (kalamafsilah-jmi-a)[11] and his station is ahadyyah.[12] He is able to intervene
in creation, since he stands on the dividing line between hazrat ilh and
hazrat kaun. Consequently he is also the shaykh or pir through whose aid
the slik may look upon the Divine. He serves as the mirror. Important here
is the fact that the Perfect Man has two aspects, the divine and the human,

and the theory of the wal is based on this fact. Wal is God the Great in the
general sense Who, as the Friend, stands close to every believer. In a
specific sense he is the perfect man who, as the friend of God, is also the
friend of any believer. This is the wal khs,[13] who can intervene in being
itself. The Pole or qutb is nothing other than the wal who oversees the
whole world and who himself closes at night the door of mankind left ajar,
while he opens the door of the Beloved.[14]

This forms the basis on which the relationship between shaykh and student
is founded. What the student learns from his shaykh is seeking or sulk. The
slik travels through various maqm, while remaining under the instruction
of the shaykh. Accounts vary considerably as to the number of the maqm,
but that given by Ab Nasr al-Sarrj Tsi is generally accepted. He names
the seven stations[15] of the journey through which a slik must pass under
the guidance of the shaykh. The shaykh is the master, the wal, the mirror
and the intermediary, and maintains a constant dialogue with the student.
Shaykh and student face each other like two mirrors, each reflecting the
light of the other. These reflections inspire and purify the heart of the
student until he is in a position to reach the maqm by his own efforts,
albeit with the guidance of the shaykh.

Mention should also be made at this point of the spiritual state (hl). Hl is a
gift from the Divine grace; it cannot be obtained by ones own will.
Depending on the situation of the traveller it is possible that hl may be
given to him in the form of wrid (inrush). Such states always arise in pairs,
in opposition and complementarily:[16] for example, first a state of qabz
(contraction) is reached, and then after a certain time the state of bast
(expansion) is given. It is of the greatest importance that these opposing
and complementary states arise in pairs, since one of them counteracts the
other. Both are aspects of a cosmic event that gives the traveller the
impulse necessary for his journey. If only one of them were to occur, the
traveller would remain forever in that state.

From this cosmic event the seeker receives the tajall (Divine manifestation),
which may take one of two forms: tajall jall (manifestation of Majesty) or
tajall jaml (manifestation of Beauty). All that comes from Beauty (jaml) is
from His Gentleness (lutfyyah); whatever comes from Majesty (jall) is from
His Severity (qahryyah). The origin of both of these are His Names jaml
(the Beautiful) and jall (the Majestic). The cosmic event described above is
an interplay between these two names: at one moment the world goes into
non-existence (ma'dm) through the Name jall, and at the next moment it
comes into existence (maujd) through the Name jaml. Since the Name
jaml is under the order of the Name az-zhir (the Manifest/Outward), which

in turn is under ar-rahmn (the All-Compassionate), man experiences the

qualities and actions of this form more often. The Name jall, on the other
hand, is under the Name al-btin (the Nonmanifest/Inward) and generally
remains in sitr, or concealed. Thus the Divine does not manifest as jall in
this world. In this case the seeker receives only the states resulting from the
characteristics and actions of this Name, such as qabz.[17]

Seen thus, the traveller does not remain in a single state; his heart
vacillates and moves between states within a matter of seconds. This
situation is known as taraddud (vacillation), and has four principal types:
jahl (ignorance, stopping), shakk (doubt), zann (surmise) and ilm
(knowledge). All that effuses from the Unseen arrives in the heart and gives
rise to further changes of state. 'Abd ar-Razzq Kshn gives a series of
definitions concerning the heart.[18] The Shaykh al-Akbar acknowledges the
heart as the place of knowledge, and in this regard it is larger even than arrahmn, the Divine Compassion. Only the ahl Allh (the people of God) are
aware of this fact and follow closely the khawtir (incoming thoughts) that
manifest in their hearts as tajall. Ibn 'Arab names the state of sajdat al qalb
(prostration of the heart before the Divine) as the highest state of bliss.[19]
The importance to the Sufi of the purity of the heart (tahrah) should be
noted here. The purification of the heart is a recognition of the realisation of
God, of the knowledge of tawhd (Unity), of the knowledge of the beautiful
Names of the Divine (asm' husn) and of the knowledge of all in this world
that is conjoined to the Divine.

Despite all that has been said here about the heart and its importance for
the mystical journey through martib, however, we should not forget that,
owing to the particular role it plays, the heart is a place of direct communion
with God. The address of the Divine is "cast" into the heart directly, without
any intermediary action by the shaykh. Furthermore, unveiling (kashf) is
nothing other than the moving aside of the layers or veils that come
between the heart and the light of the Unseen.

The metaphysics of Mullh Sadr Shrz can more accurately be called a

metaphysics of the heart.[20] The metaphysics of the heart contains a
psychological system in which the heart is seen as an intermediate station
that binds together the nafs (human nature/ego) and the rh (spirit). When
the nafs has reached perfection through re-education, it passes over to the
heart. When the level of the heart reaches perfection, the consciousness of
the heart is attained. This is the longing for Union. Only from the level of the
spirit does the movement forward then begin towards the mystery (sirr).

3. The mystical journey as the way of the special aspects (tarq wujhi khs)

One of Ibn 'Arabs commentators, Khrazm, describes this way as follows:

"This path leads by way of the relationship of the man to the Divine
Presence through his own 'ayn ath-thbitah (fixed entities)".[21] Such a
relationship occurs directly and without any intermediary, and its basis is set
out by the Qur'anic verse "yuhibbihum- wa-yuhibbnah"(Q. 5: 54, AlM'idah). This is to say that since God loved Man in pre-eternity, and since
the love of Man for God is also ultimately from God, there exists the
possibility of a direct relationship to God through the heart of Man. "The
slik (traveller) is not concerned with the stations and degrees here, except
when he returns from the Divine to the human".[22]

We know that the a'yn ath-thbitah are the forms in Reality of the Divine
Names, and Khajah Parsa, another of Ibn 'Arabs commentators, says that
when a man can see these, he has seen the Divine Itself.[23] The a'yn aththbitah are the degrees, the names and the qualities of God and are
engraved in the heart of every person. They are the foundation of the
relationship of the Divine to the human and vice versa. Each person may
come to recognise the Divine according to his own 'ayn ath-thbitah, and
the Divine also recognises each person according to these forms that are
carried within each.

The tajall (manifestation) is accordingly a wholly personal tajall, and

consequently there is no general tajall. This fact was pointed out by 'Ayn alQuzt Hamadn prior to his martyrdom in the year 1131: "The Names of
God the Great are countless. You should look into your own pocket if you
want to find out what you have been granted of them all He will manifest
Himself to you (tajall) from the degree of the Names in each heart He
keeps a different secret, and to each heart He tells a different secret."[24]
We know that the Sufi masters have called this way "the way of sirr (the

From a psychological perspective, the manifestations of God form an

entirely personal Divine form for the persons innermost consciousness.
Metaphysically, this relationship to the Divine occurs at the level of the
whidyyah (Oneness) and not at that of the ahadyyah (Uniqueness); the
manifestations witnessed by the slik are thus those of his own rabb and not
of Allh. Accordingly, such recognition of the Divine is limited to the rabb alkhs (the particular Lord). Each person knows Him according to the form
that he desires and loves, and to the extent of his istidd (preparedness)

and his ideals. This is what Ibn 'Arab means by khalaq al-haqq fil-itiqd
(God created in Belief).

It should be remembered here that from pre-eternity, since the Day of Alast,
the Divine Names have been impregnated with shauq (yearning) to be
manifested. All the Names of God that are not yet known remain in huzn
(sorrow, grief) of ardent desire prior to tajall; they seek a majl (place of
manifestation), and this place is the heart of a believer with istidd
(preparedness).[26] Viewed thus, such recognition is each persons
empirical experience of God.

Clearly, then, no person is capable of being the place of manifestation of all

the Divine Names. No person can allow multiple Divinities to enter him
simultaneously. It is, however, possible for different tajall to take place one
after the other. Each tajall arrives differently, reveals itself differently and
changes the person in a new way. The Shaykh al-Akbar thus said that there
is no repetition in the manifestation.[27] In no case can the dht (the Divine
Essence) be perceived, since this is at the level of ahadyyah and beyond
the realm of the human.

Another of Ibn 'Arabs commentators, Shaykh Heydar Amul, described this

form of sulk as sulki mahbb (journey as the beloved). He speaks of it
thus: " Sulki mahbb does not depend upon knowledge, practice, words
and actions "[28] He adds that attainment occurs even prior to the sulk.
He compares this to the other form, sulki muhibb (journey as the lover)
that only brings the seeker to his aim after long mujhadah (endeavour) and
khalwah (retreat) under the guidance of the shaykh.

Amul gives a wonderful description of mirj (spiritual ascent) that we also

know as qab qausayn au adn. This is a maqm of which only such chosen
ones as the Prophet are capable. It consists of a circle formed of two arcs.
One arc is the qaus bliqah (the arc of ascent); the other is qaus nzilah (the
arc of descent). The traveller undertakes his journey in this circular form,
continually moving from wujb (the necessary) to imkn (the possible) and
other like movements. Despite this, he is capable of discrimination. The
highest maqm that he can reach on this journey is the degree of au adn
(even closer), in which discrimination is also no longer possible. This is the
mirj of the prophets.[29] It is clear that this state cannot be reached
through mujhadah and martib; it is the status of the chosen ones, and
happens only by Divine favour. Within a short time the traveller experiences
countless unveilings (kashf) that would be too much for "ordinary" people to
withstand and would drive them to madness. In this sense a "chosen"

person is he or she who is capable of undergoing such experiences and

remaining healthy and collected. So seen, this mystical experience is the
highest level of initiation for seekers in Sufism.


The mystical journey is the form of practice of the Sufi way (tarqa). Every
person who feels awakened and has begun to marvel at Being (hayrah)
accordingly feels called to begin to follow the way of the transcendent. And
this is only the beginning. The Sufi learns first to know himself, since an
insight gained without knowledge of who he is cannot be a true witnessing
of the Divine. For this the adept seeks a shaykh (or is "called" by the
shaykh) who can help him to change his inner structure by means of reeducation, to conform to the Unseen and to develop the taste (zauq) he
requires for the long journey. From the first steps, Love begins, since if there
is not Love his steps are counted, and the adept will find no strength to
continue on the way. The deeper he swims in this ocean, the greater
becomes his yearning for realisation of the Holy. This in turn precipitates
more Love. Notwithstanding which of the ways he takes, whether by the
degrees (martib) or by direct and immediate inrush (wrid) of the Divine,
the eye of the heart ('ayn al-qalb) now sees the contours of that which was
sought, made possible by relationship with the Highest.

Ibn 'Arabs legacy to us is a detailed description of the Way that is like a

map of the inner journey through the Beautiful Names of God and their
manifestations (tajall) in existence. These are signs (ya) and milestones for
the seeker, by which he may step from one station (maqm) to the next.
When the seeker has reached the point at which he can enjoy the Divine
Gentleness (lutf) in its totality, he is worthy to appear before the Throne of
the All-Compassionate (sarr ar-rahmn), in obliteration (mahw) and veiled
from himself, such that no trace of existence remains in him. This is the
highest point that he can reach. Then the All-Compassionate endows him
with the Name the Living (hayy) and he is returned to existence. From this
moment he remains forever in this state of baq' (subsistence).

It hardly need be mentioned that prayer and dhikr are the constant
companions of the traveller; without these he cannot bring the Divine
Names into his awareness and internalise them. Only when these are
internalised can the internal upheaval come about that places the traveller
in a position to undergo the process of realisation of the Divine insight. The
other function of prayer and dhikr is to deepen the Divine Love, which is a
further important aspect of the mystical way. This Love lends the seeker a

deep feeling of security, closeness and certainty that may be called

tawakkul. Without this, the seeker finds himself lost in the labyrinth of the
ways. With tawakkul, however, the seeker may align himself to that Face
that does not become lost. For,

kullun shaii hlik ill wajhahu

Everything is annihilated except His Face.[30]

1. Ibn 'Arab, Rislat al-Anwr, ed. Najb Mayil Hiraw (Maula Publishers,
Tehran, 1996), p. 57.

2. Ibid., p. 156.

3. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Die Erkenntnis und das Heilige (Diederichs, 1990),
p. 414. For the phenomenological interpretation of this term see also
Bahram Jassemi, Der Weg der Liebe (Verlag Videel, Niebll, Germany, 2003),
p. 26.

4. The great anthropologist and cybernetics theorist Gregory Bateson has

suggested an interesting solution to this. In his book Mind and Nature
(Dutton, New York, 1979) he points out that the world "is a slowly healing
tautology". If the inner consistency of a tautology is torn, it is moved up to
the next level of abstraction. Thus also are the eternal realities (forms).

5. Rislat al-Anwr, p. 166. The traveller begins with the unveiling (kashf) of
the world of the senses, so that he may see through the walls. At the
penultimate degree he becomes obliterated (mahw) and no trace of worldly
existence remains in him. Then he re-emerges.

6. Wa m minn ill lah maqmun ma'lm. (Q. 37: 164, As-Sfft)

7. To stand still is tantamount to a relapse, a situation that Sufis strive to


8. Rislat al-Anwr, p. 166. For a detailed interpretation, see also William C.

Chittick, The Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-'Arabs Cosmology
(Albany, NY, 1998).

9. Rislat al-anwr, p. 166.

10. Ibn 'Arab, Hilyah al-abdl, ed. Najib Mayil Hirawi (Maula Publishers,
Tehran, 1996), p. 12: " And the hl (state) of samt (silence) is the station
of wahy (revelation), and silence is the consequence of Divine insight ".
Ibid., p. 11: "... to him, who is silent both in speech and in the heart, the
mystery (sirr) will be unveiled, and God manifests himself to him (tajall)."

11. 'Abd ar-Razzq Kshn, Sharhi-Fuss (Cairo, 1321H), p. 11.

12. Ibn 'Arab, 'Anq' mughrib (Cairo, 1975), p. 42.

13. Ibn 'Arab, Futht al-Makkyyah. Commentary by Mohsen Jahngr

(University of Tehran, 1996), p. 468.

14. From a well-known Rubai by Ab Said Abu al-Khayr.

15. Ab Nasr al-Sarrj Tsi, Kitb al-luma'fi tasawwf, ed. R.A. Nicholson
(Jahan Publishers, Tehran, 2003).

16. Bahram Jassemi, Der Weg der Liebe, pp. 247.

17. Ibn 'Arab, Futht al-Makkyyah. II, p. 542. Commentary by Mohsen

Jahangr: p. 357.

18. 'Abd ar-Razzq Kshn, Istilhat al Sufyyah, ed. Dr Jafar (Tehran, 1976),
p. 168.

19. Futht al-Makkyyah. III, pp. 3023.

20. Henry Corbin, Osman Yahya, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Histoire de la

Philosophie Islamique (Amir Kabir Publishers, Tehran, 1973). Dr Mishkat adDn, Philosophy of Sadr ad-Dn Shrz (Agah Publishers, Tehran, 1999). It
should be mentioned that sirr or khafi (the veiled) of the Sufis is equivalent
to the mystery. This is also the level of wahdnyyah (fayz ath-thn = The
Second Emanation).

21. Taj-iddin Hossein ibni-Hassan al-Khrazm, Sharhi Fuss al-Hikam, ed.

Najib Mayil Haraw (Maula Publishers, Tehran, 1996), p. 30.

22. Ibid.

23. Khjah-Muhammad-Prs, Sharhi Fuss al-Hikam, ed. Jalil Messgar Nejd

(Tehran, 1987).

24. Letters of 'Ayn al-Quzt Hamadn, ed. Dr Monzavi and Dr Osseiran

(Asatir Publishers, Tehran, 1998), book 1, pp. 26970.

25. Al-Khrazm, ibid., p. 30. He also mentions here that the Greatest
Shaykh calls this way the way of shattr. In Sufi psychology this degree is
equated with khafi (the basis of the soul), at which shuhd (the
contemplative witnessing of the Divine) is possible. See also Bahram
Jassemi, Die Psychologie der Liebe im Sufismus (unpublished).

26. Najmi-al-dn Rzi, Marmzti Asad dar Mazmrti Dawd, ed. Shafii
Kadkan (Tehran, 1973).

27. L-Takrr fil-Tajall: Ibn 'Arab cites this saying from Ab Tlib Makk see
Osman Yahya: Futht al-Makkyyah, Vol. IV, no. 248 (Cairo, 1975).

28. Shaykh Seyyed Heydar Amul: Kitbi Nass il Nuss, ed. Mohammed Resa
Jauzi (Rozaneh Publishers, Tehran, 1996), p. 115.

29. Ibid., p. 83. A poetic description of this journey may be found in AlIsr'il Maqm al-Asra'by Ibn 'Arab, ed. Dr. Ansari (Tahuri Publishers, Tehran,

30. The Qur'anic term wajhallh (the Face of God) is the externalisation of
the Divine Names and Qualities at all levels of being, and is thus the
structure of the universe. See Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Die Erkenntnis und das
Heilige, p. 438.