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The Language of Literature and Science

Aldous Huxley

Huxley says that the common language is inappropriate as a medium of both
– the literary expressions as well as the scientific expressions. Although both
need the purity of language and sense but their requirements are different.
The scientist wants to use a language that conveys a limited, intended sense
and if he finds the common language inadequate, he coins new jargons to
express the clear and pure meaning and meet his purpose. He prefers a
language and words that has got only one meaning and communicates the
message or idea directly. The scientist aims at only one thing at a time but
the literary artist prefers a language that caters the experiences of different
people. He conveys a message at a private as well as at a public level.
He scientist explains a rose in the language of bio – chemistry or
genetics. For him rose is the result of some chemical reactions. But for
a literary artist, it is an expression of some very soft expressions of
some private feelings. He generalizes its message and enjoys the
beauty of the nature.
MAN AND NATURE
J.BRONOWSKI
J. Bronowski starts the essay with a question, Is man a machine or an

individual being? He believes that man is a part of nature and makes this
belief the starting point of his investigations, although this view point seems
to be quite simple as all educated persons all over the world accept this
theory in the latter half of the twentieth centaury. People believed that man is
a part of nature as a stone, as a cactus as a camel is. A part of the three broad
categories animal, vegetables and minerals .But this view point has hurt the
self esteem of the western man who believed that the man is unique of its
kind. When he is started to be categorized as animal, the western man is hurt
but he can not oppose this truth .Giordano Bruno was burnt at stake because
he refused to give up his theory what the neither our earth nor the man is the
unique and the chosen one. There is a hidden desire in man to declare,
himself greater than life and nature. He wanted to be seen and regarded as
unique and immortal, larger than anything else

they differ also. The philosophy.THE AIMS OF SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES MOODY E. They maintain and point out their uniqueness. Science generalizes to make accurate predictions which may be useful in future course of system but humanistic works are concerned with individual experiences and are unique. First it criticizes the sciences. Second function. is of synthesis. J. Humanities deals with the human experiences and their meanings and observations. This matter has become very important now-a-days as people pay no attention to these differences. PRIOR There are some differences between the aims and methods of Science and those of Humanities. Gradually. secondly synthesizes the sciences and finally is the mother of the sciences. Initially no distinction was made between philosophy and science. Bahm Summary Philosophy functions as a comprehensive science in three ways. philosophy has had a long and interesting history. aims at knowing the whole and reaching to some general conclusions. It is the same with the other arts also. But here. Both Science and Humanities share the delight of creation and beauty. Each science makes presuppositions of other science. Philosophy. they invoke Afferent meanings and are seen through individual experiences. Scientific products are impersonal but no humanistic work can be separated from the impression of its creator. One of the major differences is that humanities deals with emotional matters and invoke the same response but this is not the case with the Science. Humanities concerns with the understanding and the evaluation of human goals. the scientific findings do not suggest any human uses to which they may be put and how they can be used for human happiness and self fulfillment.e. But. The Bermese story of a lion also tells us that in order to comprehend the total scheme. Any product of science can be defined without any reference. but with Humanities. it is not possible. Each science may appear to be in clash with the conclusion of other science. As the mother of the sciences. The Mother of the Sciences . thus. the particular sciences were born. performed by philosophy. Another difference is that the scientific generalization concepts and theories are neutral to their moral and social implications i. Among the first . the function of synthesis is necessary. The creation of art cannot be adjudged without a reference or context. Any particular incident may have a definite meaning in Science but in humanistic approach. known as a science of sciences or as a comprehensive science. aims at comparing assumptions and conclusions.A. They bring together different elements to form something pleasant and satisfying.

one cannot risk to adopt a trial and error method to create something new. is to encourage involvement. is always concerned with the uniqueness of human experience. But with the advancement of Science and Technology.90 and DDT which will be harmful for the future generation. Among the latest were psychology and sociology no wonder if in future more sciences will be born. Science and Survival . on the other hand. The creations of science are always • neutral or indifferent to their human meaning . mathematics and astronomy. Humanistic and Scientific Approaches to Human Activity -Moody E. The work of philosophy. The effect of the scientific ordering to a human activity is to produce detachment from the individual experience. A single explosion in a nuclear power plant might kill thousands of people.first to give birth. Though like science it has the capacity to formulate new concepts which give us a new outlook. In order to build atom bombs and kill mosquitoes. The new hazards are neither local nor brief such as the air pollution. secondly to set quarrels and finally to harmonize the particular sciences. Prior Summary The humanistic and scientific approaches differ from each other.lt will serve three main functions . the job of philosophy will be greater because then it will be more difficult to synthesize the incoherent sciences. Literature. on the contrary. Actually we have risked these hazards before knowing about the harms they might do. the mother of sciences. In that state.Barry Commoner Summary There is considerable scientific disagreement about the medical hazards caused by the new pollutants such as DDT. we have been led to the pollutants like strontium . Excess of carbon dioxide from fuel combustion might cause floods. dealing with the particular. synthetic chemicals and radioactive pollutants can cost a thousands of lives. But science and technology cannot make progress unless it takes some such risks. the effect of the humanistic ordering. will never be done. Science has ignored its major duty of controlling human intervention into nature. The incident of March 1951 illustrates it. The public response to this tragedy was lost where people were busy in counting the dead bodies on the highway and paying tribute to human genius for accurate measurement. a very heavy price to pay. The prediction of the National Safety Council of America that the one millionth traffic fatality •since the first recorded automobile death in 1899 would occur on December 22.were mechanics. 1951.

it is an open question. This scientific temper introduces men to the fact that Nature does what it does. They extend our sympathies. The tragedy of Antigone which occurred in classical Athens still touches us. sorrow. it is scientific technique which is the main cause of the changes that the world is undergoing. The Industrial Revolution contributed to the defeat of Napolean. From this scientific attitude. The scientific temper abandoned this point of view. Whether for good or ill. are ignorant of this development. Science Only can adopt the methodological product to reach to some scientific generalization. pleasure and so on. fear. in a tiny majority and now are the main. which alone the East wants to learn.whereas good works of literature involve us and rouse the feelings such as pity. The embodiments of the western culture in the west who were. But it is sure that it has changed the face of the world. cruel and rude. Whether the scientific technique. nor what we should fear. at first. is boon or a disaster.Bertrand Russell Summary The seventeenth century men who invented the modern scientific method are credited with inventing a new mathematical technique and also known for abandoning the view that nature conformed to human tastes and hopes and fears. The humanities and science do well in their respective field. we must be guided only by careful investigation of facts. the modern world has developed. The Effect of the Scientific Temper on Man . nor what we should wish. It is true that arts and science contribute in shaping the attitudes of those who remain in touch with them for a long period of time. The belief was that pestilence and earthquakes were sent to punish sin as rains to reward virtue. To find out how nature works. Likewise only humanities can provide us human means of attaining human goals. was hated in the country where it originated but later it spread to other western countries and to Russia and Asia which it is changing rapidly. . Their literary counterparts hated them and call them narrow.