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invfitigations 1have been camed out to study the effect at Pb content in the range of 0.05 to 1.

0 %, withoul
aluminium and Wilh 0.1 % At on Ihe atmospheric corrosion response of the coating. The results showed that a
Pb content above 0.3 % in presence of 0.1 % AI has an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of a zinc
coating in natural atmosphere.

Alumirrium is nol a trace element in zinc ores and thus is not normally found in zinc metal. rather. it must be
added to the galvanizing bath. Continuous sheet galvanizers maintain an aluminium level greater than 0.15%
as a means of changing the structure of the coating. Aluminium at this high level in the bath for short immersion
times suppress the development of the zinciron aHoy compounds which results in a product with superior
formability characteristics but with a much lighter coating weight.
Small amounts ot aJuminium, generally less than 0.01 %. markedly increase the brightness of the galvanized
product. The small additions of aluminium also improve the drainage of zinc from the work as it exists from the
galvanizing bath. This improvement in-drainage is not related to a change in viscosity or in the surface tension
of the molten zinc. Rather, the improvement is associated .....ith a change in the character of the oxide that forms
on Ihe coated product as it exists from Ihe galvanizing bath. Without aluminium the zinc oxide is extremeJy
tenacious, preventing or restricting drainage. The aluminium additions modify the tenacity of the oxide coating.
as a result the molten zinc beneath the oxide film flows more freely. When dry gal....anizing a .... ery similar effect
on the surface at the galvanizing bath can be noted e....en if a small amount of aluminium is added. The character
and amount of oxide that forms on the surface of the bath also changes considerably. The amount of oxide
formed is considerably'ess than it would be without the aluminium additions.
Typically. a galvanizing bath analysis sho.....s Jess amount of aluminium than the actual amount added. The loss
of aluminium is primarily due to the reaction of the aluminium with the zinc ammonium chloride flux. The
aluminium dissoJved in the zinc readily reacts with chloride from the flux. resulting in the formation of aluminium
chloride (gas). The rate of aluminium loss for any gi....en galvanizing bath is determined by the concentration of
aluminium in the bath. the frequency of aluminium additions. and the availability otfluxfor the reaction.

~,t--Aluminium is probably the most influential alloying element added to hot-dip gal~aniZing baths. Because this
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element is incompatible with conventional fluxes, its use in batch processing is limited to Jow 1~~l:i. Continuous

i processing allows the use of a higher range of AI contents. In fact. levels as tllg-fi as 8"5-% Al ha-ve been proposed.
',gnd coating with ~~(Galfanland 55% Al IGalvaJums) has found commercial applications.

Additions of AI have important effects on coating properties. and different levels are required to achieve specific
improvementa in the coated product. The maximum solubility of Aluminium in solid zinc is about 1% according
to the Zn-AI equilibrium diegram.
~ is il~d to brightenJh~j!1illaLCQating surface: 0.005 to 0.007% Al is sufficient to achieve this effec!.
the phenomenon relates to the strong tendencyfor AI arnf1Jfto combine to form A1203. This results in the
the coating surface
formation of a thin. continuous Al203layer typically about 1 micron 10 5 rnlcr.on thick"
which inhibits turther oxidation by lIcling as a barrier 10 diRUSTOn at zinca;;d oxygen atoms. The same effect is
responsible for a reduced oxidation of the bath metal.
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AI is ad~ed to suppress the Qrowth ot-brittle Zn-Fe interm_eta~llifs'~t tile steel/coaling interface and to
modify the coating structure"-;l'JOrmally. additions of 0.1 to C.irD AI are sufficient to accomplish this. Resultant
coatings are thinnerand exhibit good adhesipn_and ductility. A thin intermetallic layer including AI forms on the
steel.This acts as a b-arrier to nudeation of the ZnFe phases. The layer breaks down at long dipping times.
3. AI is added to improve corrosion resistance: This effect generally requires the introduction of a twophase
microstruClure. The phase forms a corrosion product that is more passi....e and protective than the Znrich phass. A:J a result. the rate of overall corro'ion decreases. Aecent research activity has centred around 5%
Allthe eutectic composition of the Galfan) and 55% AI Ithe composition ofGal....alume). The presence or absence
of other at/a yin g elements has a major influence on performance in this regard.
The resistance to wet 'torage staining (white rust). which occurs in damp storage or in first exposure of a zjnc
coating to the weather, is almost unaffected with increa.sing aluminium content. Ho.....ever. post galvaniZing