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NAME:

CLASS:

A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the length, L,
of a coil of wire wound round a test tube and its number of turns, n. Vernier calipers are
used to measure the length, L, of the coil.
Diagram A shows the zero error, X, on the Vernier calipers.

Diagram A
Diagram B shows the reading, l, on the Vernier calipers when the number of turns, n = 5.

Diagram B

The procedure of measurement is repeated with the number of turns, n = 10, 15, 20 and
25.
The corresponding readings of the Vernier calipers are shown in Diagram C, D, E and F.

Diagram C

Diagram D

Diagram E

Diagram F

(a For the experiment described above, identify:


)
(i) The manipulated variable
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(ii) The responding variable
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(iii) The constant variable
_________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b (i) Based on Diagram A, determine the zero error, X.
)
X = .................................... cm
[1 mark]
(ii) Based on Diagrams B, C, D, E and F, determine the length of the coil, l. The actual
lengths of the coil, L, are determined using the formula:
L=lX
where X is the zero error on the Vernier calipers.
Tabulate your data for all values of n, l, and L in the space below.

[6 marks]
(c On the graph paper, draw a graph of L against n.
)

[5 marks]

(d Based on the graph in (c), state the relationship between L and n.


)
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

ANSWER

(a) (i) Number of turns


Bilanganlilitan
(ii) Length of the coil
Panjanggegelung
(iii) Diameter of wire/thickness of wire/crosssectional area of wire
diameterdawai/ketebalandawai/luaskeratanrentasdawai
(b) (i) X = 0.02 cm (ii)

(c)

(d) L is directly proportional to n.

1 (SPM 2008)
. A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the length, l,
of a simple pendulum and the period of oscillation, T.
The apparatus set-up for this experiment is shown in Diagram A.
Seorang murid menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji hubungan antara
panjang, l, bagi satu bandul ringkas dengan tempoh ayuan, T.
Susunana radas bagi eksperimen ini ditunjukkan pada Rajah A.

Diagram A
Rajah A
The student starts the experiment with a pendulum length of 30.0 cm.
The pendulum bob is displaced and then released so that it oscillates. The time taken, t,
for 10 complete oscillations is recorded.
The experiment is repeated with pendulum lengths of 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm, 60.0 cm and
70.0 cm.
The corresponding stopwatch readings for 10 complete oscillations are shown in
Diagrams B, C, D, E and F.
Murid itu memulakan eksperimen dengan panjang bandul 30.0 cm.
Ladung bandul itu disesarkan dan dilepaskan supaya berayun. Masa, t, yang diambil
untuk 10 ayunan lengkap dicatat.
Eksperimen diulangi dengan panjang bandul 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm, 60.0 cm dan 70.0 cm.
Bacaan jam randik yang sepadan untuk 10 ayunan lengkap ditunjukkan pada Rajah B,
C, D, E dan F.

Diagram B
Rajah B

Diagram C

Rajah C

Diagram D
Rajah D

Diagram E
Rajah E

Diagram F
Rajah F
(a For the experiment described above, identify:
) Bagi eksperimen yang diterangkan di atas, kenal pasti:
(i) The manipulated variable
Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan
__________________________________________________________________
________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii The responding variable
) Pembolehubah bergerak balas
__________________________________________________________________
________________

__________________________________________________________________
________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(iii The constant variable
) Pembolehubah dimalarkan
__________________________________________________________________
________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b For this part of the question, write your answers in the spaces provided in the
) corresponding diagrams. Your answers must be correct to two decimal places.
Untuk bahagian soalan ini, tulis jawapan anda dalam ruang yang disediakan dalam
rajah-rajah yang sepadan.
Jawapan anda hendaklah betul kepada dua tempat perpuluhan.
Based on Diagrams B, C, D, E and F :
Berdasarkan Rajah B, C, D, E dan F :
(i) Record the readings, t, of the stopwatch.
Catat bacaan, t, bagi jam randik.
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(ii) For each value of t in (b)(i), calculate the period of oscillation, T, of the pendulum
using the following equation:
Bagi setiap nilai t di (b)(i), hitung tempoh ayunan lengkap, T, bagi bandul itu
menggunakan persamaan berikut:

Record the value of T.


Cari nilai T.
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(iii Calculate T2 for each value of T in (b)(ii).
) Record the value of T2.
Hitung T2 untuk setiap nilai T di (b)(ii).
Catat nilai T2.

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(c Tabulate your results for all values of l, T and T2 in the space below.
) Jadualkan keputusan anda bagi semua nilai l, T dan T2 dalam ruang di bawah.

[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(d On the graph paper below, plot a graph of T2 against l.
) Pada kertas graf di bawah, lukis graf T2 melawan l.
[5 marks]
[5 markah]
(e Based on your graph in (d), state the relationship between T2 and l.
) Berdasarkan graf anda di (d), nyatakan hubungan antara T2 dengan l.
____________________________________________________________________
_________________
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
Graph of T2 against l
Graf T2 melawan l

ANSWER

(a) (i) Length of the pendulum/Panjangbandul(ii) Period of


oscillation/Tempohayunan
(iii) The gravitational acceleration/the mass of the bob/the number
of oscillations
Pecutangraviti/jisimladung/bilanganayunan
(b) (i) Diagram/RajahB: 42.4
Diagram/RajahC : 50.0
Diagram/RajahD : 56.2
Diagram/RajahE : 61.6
Diagram/RajahF : 66.4
(ii) Diagram/RajahB : 4.24
Diagram/RajahC : 5.00
Diagram/RajahD : 5.62
Diagram/RajahE: 6.16
Diagram/RajahF : 6.64
(iii) Diagram/RajahB : 17.98
Diagram/RajahC : 25.00
Diagram/RajahD : 31.58
Diagram/RajahE : 37.95
Diagram/RajahF : 44.09

(c)

D.

(e) T2 is directly proportional to l.