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FOREWORD

This guide is provided to assist supervisory, operating and maintenance


personnel in understanding the operation of boiler room equipment, and to
provide guidance to achieve safe and efficient operation of the equipment.
Automatic features provided in the design of boiler room equipment relieves
the operator from mundane and repetitive tasks, but routine maintenance of
all of the equipment is never to be neglected by the operators or maintenance
personnel.
The information provided in this guide is for general guidance in proper
equipment operation and maintenance. The operation maintenance and
parts manual for a specific piece of equipment should be reviewed for details
and safety requirements. No attempt should be made to operate equipment
until the principles of operation and all of the components are thoroughly
understood. Failure to follow all applicable instructions and warnings may
result in personal injury or damage to the equipment.
Because of the multiplicity of national, state, local, or other applicable codes
pertaining to the design, manufacture, installation and operation of steam
and hot water boilers, no attempt will be made in this guide to set any
mandatory rules. The operation of this equipment by the owner and his/her
operating personnel must comply with all requirements or regulations of his/
her insurance company and/or any other authority having jurisdiction. These
requirements take precedence over anything contained herein.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
General Boiler Description
The Firetube Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1-1
THE WATERTUBE BOILER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
Pac kaged Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 1-2
FIELD ERECTABLE BOILERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3
THREE PASS FIRETUBE BOILERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
OTHER BOILER DESIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4
REGULATORY CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1-5
GENERAL ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
HEAT RECOVERY EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
ECONOMIZERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1-7
BLOWDOWN EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
FLASH TANK HEAT Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
BLOWDOWN SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
SAMPLE COOLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1-9
BOILER FEEDWATER EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
DEAERATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 1-9
FEED SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1-10
Surge Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1-10
Pre-Treatment Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Water Softener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 1-11
CHEMICAL FEEDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-12
FLAME SAFEGUARD EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13

Stac ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 1-14
O2 (OXYGEN) TRIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 1-14
Chapter 2
Inspections
New Boiler Insta llat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
Hydrostat ic Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2-2
Existing Boiler Insta llat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Water Side inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2-4
Fireside Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 2-5
External Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2-6
New or Existing Insta llat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Burner And Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Operating Limits & Interlocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Auxiliary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Economizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2-7
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 2-8
Blowdown Heat Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Sample Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-8
Deaerator/Surge Tank/Packaged Feed Systems . . . . . . . . 2-8
Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 2-9
Water Softener/Dealkalizer/Reverse Osmosis . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Chemical Feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
-9
Economizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2-9
Chapter 3
Original Start up
INITIAL STARTUP for A New Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Firetube Boiler Boilout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2
Washing Out Pressure Vessel (Steam) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Washing Out Pressure Vessel (Hot Water) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
WATERTUBE BOILOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 3-4
Steam And Hot Water Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
fIRING uP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 3-6
BOILER CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 3-7
Flame Safeguard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7
Gas Pilot Flame Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
High Limit Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-8
Operating Limit Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Modulating Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
-8
Atomizing Media Pressure Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Low Fire Hold Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Low Water Cutoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-9
Auxiliary Low Water Cutoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Low Gas Pressure Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
High Gas Pressure Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Combustion Air Proving Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Low Oil Temperature Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
High Oil Temperature Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Low Oil Pressure Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Bringing Boilers On Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
1
Chapter 4
Routine Operat ion
NORMAL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 4-1
Boiler Room Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
-1
Basic Record System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Daily Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
Weekly Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Monthly Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Semi-Annual Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Annual Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Boiler Room Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-8
Low Water Cutoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-9
Safety And Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
0
Burner And Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Feedwater Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Boiler Blowdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Deaerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 4-15
The Economizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
-16
Feedwater Pump(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Fuel Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-17
Chapter 5
SHUTTING DOWN
gENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 5-1
WET STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 5-3
DRY STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 5-4
Chapter 6
THEORY OF COMBUSTION
AND
THERMODYNAMICS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 6-1
THEORY OF COMBUSTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
-2
Effects of air properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-6
BASICS OF THERMODYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Law of