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SYNOPSIS

The textile processing industries generate a substantial quantity of effluents, the quality of which in most of
the cases is unsuitable for further use and can cause environmental problems, if disposed without proper treatment.
At present, due to increasing resource constraints and the environmental requirements, these textile units need to
adopt a sustainable approach. The ways and means must be found to recover water and chemicals from these
waste resources.
At present scenario synthetic polypropylene roving in wound / cross wound manner is used in textile
industries for effluent treatment as a cartridge filter. These filters are not recyclable. The alternative way to change
the filter media by replacing non woven fibrous matt instead of commercial PP roving wound filter media.
In this work needle punched nonwoven fabric made from different variety of acrylic fibres with different
denier for application as filter in effluent filtration. Different samples of nonwoven fabric sheet with various
combinations of fibre denier and stitch density has been developed and used in the filtration. An individual filter set-up
was designed to conduct the real time trails. Turbidity and pressure drop were tested to determine the efficiency of
the cartridge filter media. Comparative analysis of the filtration performance of developed and commercial filter by
taking real time study in the textile processing effluent plant. This work seeks to give an overview of existing filter
cartridge performance and discuss about the development and characteristics of the textile based filter media for
effluent filtration.

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CONTENTS
CHAPTER

Page No.

Acknowledgement..

(i)

Synopsis...........

(ii)

List of Figures..

(vii)

List of Tables

(viii)

List of Symbols, Abbreviations or Nomenclature..

(ix)

1. INTRODUCTION..

1.1 FILTERATION

1.2 NONWOVEN FILTER MEDIA....

1.3 CATRIDGE FILTER ......................

1.3.1. Wound Polypropylene Micron Cartridge Filters.

1.3.2 Micron Rating.....

1.4 NONWOVEN USED IN CARTRIDGE FILTER MEDIA

2.

1.4.1. Melt blown Polypropylene Micron Catridge Filters...

1.4.2 Micron Rating..

1.5 PROPOSED NEEDLE PUNCHED NONWOVEN FOR FILTERATION

LITERATURE REVIEW ....

2.1 THE TEXTILE DYEING INDUSTRY...

2.1.1. Textile Printing and Dyeing Process

2.1.2. Production of Textile Industry Pollution..

2.1.3. Textile Dyeing Wastewater risk.......................................................

2.1.4. The Textile Industry Standards for water pollutants.

iii

2.2 POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY..........

10

2.2.1. Colour

10

2.2.2 Dissolved Solids..

10

2.2.3. Toxic Metals.

10

2.2.4. Residual Chlorine

10

2.2.5. Others

11

2.3 TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS...

13

2.3.1. Physiochemical Wastewater Treatment..

14

2.3.1.1. Equalization and homogenization....

14

2.3.1.2. Floatation.

14

2.3.1.3. Coagulation flocculation sedimentation...........

14

2.3.1.4. Chemical oxidation..

15

2.3.1.5. Adsorption..

15

2.3.1.6 Membrane separation process..

16

2.3.2. Biological Wastewater Treatment Method..

18

FILTER.

19

2.4.1. Introduction..

19

2.4.2. Filtration Technology.

20

2.4.3. Solid Liquid Separation.

20

2.4.3.1. Fabric design/selection considerations..

21

2.4.4. Mechanisms of Filtration..

25

2.4.5 Water Filtration Systems..

26

2.4.5.1. Media filtration.

27

2.4.5.2. Membrane filtration.

27

2.4.5.3. Filtration cartridges..

27

2.4

iv

2.4.6. Fibers Used for Filter Fabric Construction

28

2.4.6.1. Polypropylene..

28

2.4.6.2. Polytetrafluoroethylene..

28

2.4.6.3. Polyester..

28

2.4.6.4. Acrylic

29

2.4.6.5. PPS (Ryton)..

29

2.4.6.6. Glass fiber.

29

2.4.6.7. Polyamide.

29

2.4.6.8. PTFE..

29

2.4.7. Fabric Construction..

30

2.4.7.1. Woven fabrics

30

2.4.7.2. Needle felts

31

2.4.7.3. Knitted fabrics

32

2.4.7.4. Wet laid .

33

2.4.7.5. Melt blown.

33

2.4.7.6. Spun bonded.

34

2.4.7.7. Carded & other..

34

2.4.7.8. Required parameters for water filter fabric

34

2.5. CARTRIDGE FILTERS..

35

2.5.1. Melt Blown (Solid) Filter Cartridges..

35

2.5.2. String Wound Filter Cartridges..

36

2.6. RESIN BONDED SPECIALITY FILTERS..

38

2.7. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION..

40

2.7.1. Acrylic fiber....

40

2.7.2. Fiber Morphology....

43

2.8. MICRON RATING...

45

2.9. MELT BLOWN STRUCTURE...

45

2.10. PROBLEMS IN EXISTING METHOD..

51

2.11. NEED FOR STUDY.

51

3.

OBJECTIVES..

53

4.

MATERIALS AND METHODS..

54

4.1. EXPERIMENTAL PLAN FOR TRAIL

54

4.2. MATERIALS.

55

4.3. METHODS

55

4.3.1. Filter Medium Preparation..

55

4.3.2. Filter Housing...

55

4.4. TURBIDITY..

57

4.5. TURBIDITY MEASUREMENT METHOD

57

4.5.1. Turbidity Meter.

57

4.5.2. Turbidity Tube..

58

4.6. PRESSURE DROP..

59

4.7. LIFE CYCLE OF FILTER CARTRIDGES..

60

5.0. FUTURE WORK TO BE DONE .

61

6.0. BIBLIOGRAPHY..

62

vi

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.

Title

Page No.

2.1

Various steps involved in textile processing mill

2.2

Comparison of Membrane filtrations

18

2.3

SEM showing oxidation of damaged PET fibers

22

2.4

Surface filtration

22

2.5

Depth filtration

23

2.6

Cake filtration

23

2.7

Solid Liquid filtration mechanisms

24

2.8

Filtration mechanisms

25

2.9

SEM showing X-section of needle felt

31

2.10

SEM showing needle felt with fused fiber surface

33

2.11

Melt blown (solid) filter cartridge

36

2.12

String wound filter cartridge

37

2.13

Resin Bonded filter cartridge

38

2.14

Cross section of acrylic fibres

45

2.15

Filter Cartridge Micron & Surface

47

2.16

Melt blown cartridge structure

48

2.17

Melt blown cartridge structure cross section

49

2.18

Melt blown cartridge structure-Working principle

50

2.19

Cartridge filter in Pre-filteration

51

4.1

Experimental plan Methodology

54

4.2

String wound filter

56

4.3

Schematic diagram of ETP

56

4.4

Turbidity Meter

58

vii

LIST OF TABLES
Table No.

Title

Page No.

2.1

The varieties of common used Fiber

2.2

Specific pollutants from textile dyeing & printing operations

2.3

Textile industry standards for water pollutants

2.4

List of some waste materials generated at each level


of cotton textile processing

12

2.5

Composition of cotton textile mill waste

13

2.6

Possible treatments for cotton textile wastes and associated


advantages & disadvantages

2.7

Comparative particle collection efficiency for various media

2.8

Chemical and abrasion resistance of fibers

2.9

Comparison between polypropylene and Acrylic fibre

4.1

Turbidity tube measurement levels

viii

19
21
30
43
59

LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND


NOMENCLATURE
Mg/L

: Milligram per liter

COD

: Chemical Oxygen Demand

BOD

: Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand

: Percentage

SS

: Suspended Solids

: Carbon

Cl

: Chloride

TDS

: Total Dissolved Solids

TSS

: Total Suspended Solids

Na OH

: Sodium Hydroxide

H2O2

: Hydrogen Peroxide

DO

: Dissolved Oxygen

-COOH

: Carboxylic Group

-NH2

: Amine Group

-N=N-

: AZO Group

G/l

: Grams per liter

MLR

: Material Liquor ratio

MF

: Micro Filtration

UF

: Ultra Filtration

NF

: Nano Filtration

Mm

: Millimeter

RO

: Reverse Osmosis

PTFE

: Poly tetrafluroethylene

: Degree Centigrade

G/m2

: Grams per square meter

PET

: Polyester

PPS

: Polyphenylene Sulphide

PP

: Polypropylene

SD

: Stitch density

: Denier
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