CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY
Van de Graaf
1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.
A device that produces and store electric charges at high voltage on its dome
+ + + Metal dome
+ + dome
+ +
+
+
+
roller
rubber belt
roller
motor
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of
charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator?
When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the
rubber belt.
This causes the rubber belt to against the roller and hence becomes charged.
The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal dome where it is
collected.
A large amount of charge is built up on the dome
Positive charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator.
+ + +
+ +
3. What will happen if the charged dome of + +
the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth
via a micrometer? Explain.
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Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
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Electric Current
4. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second, then the current is one ampere.
5. 15 amperes means in each second, 15 coulomb of charge through a cross section of a
conductor.
6. In a metal wire, the charges are carried by electrons.
7. Each electron carries a charge of 1.6 x 1019 C.
8. 1 C of charge is 6.25 x 1018 electrons.
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Electric Field
a) An electric field is a region in which an electric charge experiences a force.
b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the magnitude and
direction of the field
c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :
(i) electric field lines always extend from a positivelycharged object to a
negativelycharged object to infinity, or from infinity to a negativelycharged object,
(ii) electric field lines never cross each other,
(iii)electric field lines are closer in a stronger electric field.
Demo 1 : To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field.
DEMO
A)
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Observation:
The polystyrene ball oscillated between the
two plates, touching one plate after
another.
Explanation:
When the polystyrene ball touches the
negatively charged plate, the ball
receives negative charges from the plate
1. Place the polystyrene ball between the and experiences a repulsive force.
two metal plates. The ball will then move to the positively
2. Switch on the E.H.T and displace the charged plate.
polystyrene ball slightly so that it When the ball touches the plate, the ball
touches one of the metal plates loses some of its negative charges to the
plate and becomes positively charged.
It then experiences a repulsive force.
This process continues.
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C) Observation:
The candle flame splits into two portions in
opposite direction. The portion that is
attracted to the negative plate is very much
larger than the portion of the flame that is
attracted to the positive plate.
Explanation:
1) Switch of the E.H.T and replace the
The heat of the flame ionizes the air
polystyrene ball with a lighted candle.
molecules to become positive and
2) Sketch the flame observed when the
negative charges.
E.H.T. is switched on.
The positive charges are attracted to the
negative plate while the negative
charges are attracted to the positive
plate.
The flame is dispersed in two opposite
directions but more to the negative
plate.
The positive charges are heavier than
the negative charges. This causes the
uneven dispersion of the flame.
Conclusion
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Exercise 7.1
1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?
Q = It
I = Q/t
= 5 / 10
= 0.5 A
2. A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric
current in the bulb?
Q = It
I = Q/t
= 300 / 120
= 2.5 A
3. The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes
through the lamp in 1 hour.
Q = It
= 0.2 (60 x 60)
= 720 C
4. If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one
minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 1019 C)
Q = It
= 0.8 (60) Convert: 1 minute = 60s
= 2880 C
An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the
(a) electric charge
(b) the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?
a) Q = It
= 200 x 103 (3)
= 0.6 C
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Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Y
P Q
Pressure at point P is greater than the pressure Gravitational potential energy at X is greater than
at point Q the gravitational potential energy at Y.
Water will flow from P to Q when the valve is The apple will fall from X to Y when the apple is
opened. released.
This due to the difference in the pressure of This due to the difference in the gravitational
water potential energy.
(c) Similarly,
Point A is connected to positive terminal
Point B is connected to negative terminal
Electric potential at A is greater than the electric potential at
B.
Bulb
Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in the A B
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Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
voltmeter V Switch
Constantan wire //
connecting wire eureka wire
bulb
resistance
rheostat
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1. Name the device used to measure electrical 1. Name the device used to measure
current. potential difference.
An ammeter A voltmeter
2. (a) What is the SI unit for current? 2. (a) What is the SI unit for potential
Amperes difference?
Volts
(b) What is the symbol for the unit of
current? (b) What is the symbol for the unit of
A potential difference?
V
3. How is an ammeter connected in an
electrical circuit? 3. How is an voltmeter connected in an
In series electrical circuit?
In parallel
4. The positive terminal of an ammeter is
connected to which terminal of the dry 4. The positive terminal of a voltmeter is
cell? connected to which terminal of the dry
Positive cell?
Positive
5. What will happen if the positive terminal of
the ammeter is connected to the negative
terminal of the dry cell?
The ammeter needle will deflect and show
reading below zero.
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(a) (b)
Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different
readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?
Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table:
(a) Inference The potential difference across the bulb is influenced by the current flowing through it.
The higher the current flows through a wire, the higher the potential difference across
(b) Hypothesis
it.
To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a
(c) Aim
constantan wire.
: current, I
(i) manipulated variable
: potential difference, V
(d) Variables (ii) responding variable
: length of the wire // cross sectional area //
(iii) fixed variable
temperature
Apparatus /
materials
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Method :
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.
2. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the
current, I= 0.2 A.
3. Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5 A, 0.6 A and 0.7 A.
Tabulation of :
data
Current,I/A Volt, V/V
0.2 1.0
0.3 1.5
0.4 2.0
0.5 2.5
0.6 3.0
0.7 3.5
Potential difference, V /V
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 
Current, I /A
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
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2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal to the
gradient of the VI graph. Determine the value of R.
3 .5
=5
o.7
Conclusion : The potential difference, V across a conductor increases when the current, I passing
through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature.
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Ohm’s Law
(a)
Ohm‟s law states
(e) The unit of resistance is volt per ampere (V A1) or ohm ()
(f) An ohmic conductor is one which obeys Ohm‟s law, while a conductor which does not
obey Ohm‟s law is known as a nonohmic conductor
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Resistance is inversely
proportional to the cross
sectional area of a conductor
different resistance
conductor
resistance
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Exercise 7.2
I t
2. i) Electric charge, Q = ( It / / )
t I
V Q
ii) Work done, W = (QV / / )
Q V
iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done, W in terms of I, V and t.
W = QV
= ItV
3. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted
into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.
W = QV
2.5 = 5.0 (V)
V = 0.5 V
4. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges
passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What
is the potential difference across the bulb?
W = QV
20 = 6 (V)
V = 3.33 V
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5. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is
done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?
W = QV
= 3 (10)
= 30 J
W = VIt
= 20 (3) (50)
= 3000 J
V = IR
= 0.5 (5)
= 2.5 V
V = IR
3.0 = 2.0 (R)
R = 1.5
V = IR
2.0 = 0.5 (R)
R = 4
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V = IR
3.0 = 6 (R)
R = 0.5
V = IR
= 0.5 (3)
R = 1.5
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Q = It
= 2.4 (30)
= 72 C
W = QV or W = VIt
= 72 (12) = 12(2.4)(30)
= 864 C = 864 C
V = IR
3.0 = 0.3(R)
I = 10
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Y
a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X.
From VI graph, resistance = gradient 2
8 0 I/A
=2 0 2
= 4
Rp > RQ >Rr
R
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l'
Conductor Q R’ = A' (notes: P and R have the same resistivity, ρ)
( 3l )
= 2A
3
= 2R
R = 2
Total resistance
2 + 2 = 4
V
Current, I = R
3
= 4
= 0.75 A
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
21. Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential
difference, V and current, I for a piece of constantan wire. The graph of V against I
from the experiment is as shown in the figure below.
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1 the current flows through each bulb/resistor is 1 the potential difference is the same across each
the same bulb/resistor
I = I1 = I 2 = I 3 V = V1 = V2 = V3
2 the potential difference across each bulb / 2 the current passing through each bulb / resistor is
resistor depends directly on its resistance. The inversely proportional to the resistance of the
potential difference supplied by the dry cells is resistor. The current in the circuit equals to the
shared by all the bulbs / resistors. sum of the currents passing through the bulbs /
resistors in its parallel branches.
V = V1 + V 2 + V 3 where V is the potential
difference across the I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 where I is the total current
battery from the battery
3 If Ohm‟s law is applied separately to each bulb / 3 If Ohm‟s law is applied separately to each bulb /
resistor, we get : resistor, we get :
V = V1 + V 2 + V 3 I = I1 + I 2 + I3
IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 V V V V
R = R1 + R2 + R3
If each term in the equation is divided by I, we If each term in the equation is divided by V, we
get the effective resistance get the effective resistance
R = R1 + R 2 + + R 3 1 1 1 1
R = R + R + R3
1 2
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0.5 3
3 5
2
2
1.5
5
6
1
2 2
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Effective resistance, R
(a)
R = 20 + 10 + 5= 35
(b)
1/R = ½ +1/5 + 1/10 = 4/5
Effective R = 1.25
(c)
1/R = 1/8 + 1/8= 1/8
R=4
(d)
1/R =1/16 + 1/8 + 1/8
Effective R = 20 + 10 + 4 = 34
=5/16
Effective R = 3.2
(e)
1/R = 1/4 + 1/2=3/4 (f)
R = 1.33 1/R = 1/4 + 1/12=1/3
Effective R = 1.33 + 1 = 2.33 R=3
Effective R = 3 + 2 = 5
(h)
(g) 1/R = 1/20 + 1/20=1/10
Effective R = 2+5+3+10 R = 10
= 20 Effective R = 10 + 10 + 5 =2 5
(i) (j)
1/R = 1/5 + 1/10=3/10 1/R = 1/10 + 1/10=2/10
R = 3.33 R=5
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V = IR
9 =I(18) V = IR
240 = 6(R)
= 0.5
I =40 A
V = IR
12 =I(5)
= 2.4 A
Exercise 7.3
(b) the main current, I in the circuit (c) the potential difference across each bulb.
V = IR 2: V = IR = (0.5)(2) = 1V
2.5 =I(5) 3 : V = IR = (0.5)(3) = 1.5 V
= 0.5 A
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
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4.
The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2
have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate
(c) the main current, I in the circuit (d) the current passing through each resistor
V = IR 5 : V = IR 20 : V = IR
3 =I(4) 3 =I(5) 3 = I(20)
= 0.75 A I = 0.6 A I = 0.15 A
Effective R = 6 Effective R = 4
V = IR V = IR
12 =I(6) 12 =I(4)
I=2A I=3A
V= IR
= (2)(8)
= 16 V
R =9
(b) I = 4.5/9
R = 12 = 0.5A
I = 6/12
= 0.5A A reading : 0.5/2= 0.25 A
V at 9 : V= IR Notes: Divide 2 because
= (0.5)(9) the resistors have similar
= 4.5 V resistance.
V reading : 6 – 4.5 = 1.5 V
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7.
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8.
The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and
parallel circuits. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and
parallel. Describe how the circuit works.
Suggested answer
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Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
E,r
R
Current flowing
No current flow
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= VR + Vr where VR = IR and Vr = Ir
= IR + Ir
= I (R + r)
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3.
a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the
battery?
Since E = V + Ir
Since V = IR
1.1 = 0.5 R
R = 2.2
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Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Voltmeter
V
Internal resistance
+
Dry cell

Ammeter
Switch
Rheostat
Method :
a) Set up the circuit as shown in the figure.
b) Turn on the switch, and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the
ammeter, I, 0.2 A.
c) Read and record the readings of ammeter and voltmeter respectively
d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings, I = 0.3 A, 0.4 A, 0.5
A and 0.6 A.
Tabulation of :
data Current,I/A Volt, V/V
0.2 2.6
0.3 2.5
0.4 2.4
0.5 2.2
0.6 2.0
0.7 1.9
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Draw a graph of
V against I
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 
Current, I /A
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Discussion : 1. From the graph plotted, state the relationship between the potential difference, V
across the cell and the current flow, I?
The potential difference, V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases.
2. A cell has an internal resistance, r. This is the resistance against the movement of
the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. With the help of the figure, explain the
result obtained in this experiment.
When the current flowing through the circuit increases, the quantity of charge
flowing per unit time increased. Hence, more energy was lost in moving a larger
amount of charge across the electrolyte. Because of this, there was a bigger drop
in potential difference measured by the voltmeter.
3. By using the equation E = V + Ir
(a) write down V in terms of E, I and r.
V = rI + E
(b) explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted
in this experiment.
E = the vertical intercept of the V – I graph
R = the gradient of the V – I graph
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Exercise 7.4
1 A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1.5 V.
The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is connected to the
battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of
the battery.
2. A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of 10.0
and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the internal
resistance, r.
E = 3.0 V, R = 10 , V = 2.5 V
Calculate current : V = IR
Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r)
r = 2.0
3 A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the switch is
closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A.
Calculate
(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit
The voltmeter reading = e.m.f. = 2 V
(b) the resistance, R (c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit
E = I(R + r) V = IR
2 = 0.4(R + 0.5) = 0.4 (4.5)
R = 4.5 = 1.8 V
V = IR
11.4 = 0.5 (R)
R = 22.8
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
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5
A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected to /V
1.5
a) Sketch a circuit diagram for the experiment
0.2
1/A
5
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Electrical Energy
1. Energy Conversion
2. When an electrical appliance is switched on, the current flows and the electrical energy
supplied by the source is transformed to other forms of energy.
3. Therefore, we can define electrical energy as : The energy carried by electrical charges
which can be transformed to other forms of energy by the operation of an electrical
appliance.
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P = VQ
E = VQ ; where Q = It
t
Hence,
E = VI t P = VI
2
Hence, 2
E = I Rt ; where V = IR P= I R
; where I = V
2 R
Hence, E= V t P = V2
R R
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
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1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by
Energy consumed = Power rating x Time
E = Pt where energy, E is in Joules
power, P is in watts
time, t is in seconds
2. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the
kilowatthour, kWh.
1 kWh = 1000 x 3600 J
= 3.6 x 106 J
= 1 unit
3. One kilowatthour is the electrical energy dissipated or transferred by a 1 kW device in
one hour
4. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually
marked with voltage, V and power rating, P.
5. The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the power rating and the
usage time, E = Pt
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Cost of energy
Energy
Appliance Quantity Power / W Power / kW Time Consumed
(kWh)
= 16.58 kWh
= RM 4.64
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
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Exercise 7.5
1. How much power dissipated in the bulb?
(a) R = 10
P = V2
R
= 52 / 10
5V = 2.5 W
(b) R = 10
P = V2
R
R = 10
= 52 / 10
= 2.5 W
5V
2.
V= 15V I
R1=2 R3=4
R2=4
Calculate
(a) the current, I in the circuit (b) the energy released in R 1 in 10 s.
Total resistance, R = (2 + 4 + 4) E = I2Rt
= 10 = (1.5)2 (2)(10)
= 45 J
V = IR
I = V/R
= 15 / 10
= 1.5 A
(b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in 10 s.
E = I2Rt
= (1.5)2 (10)(10)
= 225 J
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2. A lamp is marked “12 V, 24 W”. How many joules of electrical energy does it consume
in an hour?
E = Pt
= 24 (1 x 60 x 60)
= 86 400 J
4. An electric kettle is rated 240 V 2 kW. Calculate the resistance of its heating element and
the current at normal usage.
P = IV
I = P/V
= 2000 / 240
= 8.3 A
(b) How much energy will be transferred to the water in the kettle in 2 minutes?
E = QV
= 180 (240)
= 4.32 kJ
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P = IV
3000 = I (240)
I = 12.5 A
7. Table below shows the power rating and energy consumption of some electrical appliances
when connected to the 240 V mains supply.
Calculate
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(b) How much would it cost to operate the appliances for 1 month?
= RM 108.43
8. A vacuum cleaner consumes 1 kW of power but only delivers 400 J of useful work per
second. What is the efficiency of the vacuum cleaner?
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1. What is the unit of electric charge? 3. Which of the following graphs shows
A. Ampere, A the correct relationship between the
B. kelvin,K potential difference, V and current, I
C. Coulomb, C for an ohmic conductor?
D. Volt, V A.
A.
B.
B.
C.
C.
D.
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D.
5. The electric current supplied by a
battery in a digital watch is 3.0 x 105
A. What is the quantity of charge that
flows in 2 hours?
A. 2.5 x 107 C
B. 1.5 x 105 C
7. Why is the filament made in the
C. 6.0 x 105 C
shape of a coil?
D. 3.6 x 103 C
A. To increase the length and produce
E. 2.2 x 101 C
a higher resistance.
B. To increase the current and produce
6. Which of the following circuits can be
used to determine the resistance of the more energy.
bulb? C. To decrease the resistance and
A. produce higher current
D. To decrease the current and produce
a higher potential difference
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9. The potential difference between two 12. Which two resistor combinations have
points in a circuit is the same resistance between X and Y?
A. the rate of flow of the charge from
one point to another
B. the rate of energy dissipation in
moving one coulomb of charge
from one point to another
C. the work done in moving one
coulomb of charge from one point
to another
D. the work done per unit current
flowing from one point to another
A. P and Q
B. P and S
10. An electric kettle connected to the
C. Q and R
240 V main supply draws a current
D. R and S
of 10 A. What is the power of the
E.
kettle?
A. 200 W
B. 2000 W
C. 2400 W
D. 3600 W
E. 4800 W
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14. A 2 kW heater takes 20 minutes to 16. An electric motor lifts a load with a
heat a pail of water. How much potential difference 12 V and fixed
energy is supplied by the heater to current 2.5 A. If the efficiency of the
the water in this period of time? motor is 80%, how long does it take
A. 1.2 x 106 J to lift a load of 600 N through a
B. 1.8 x 106 J vertical height of 4 m
C. 2.4 x 106 J A. 20 s
D. 3.6 x 106 J B. 40 s
E. 4.8 x 106 J C. 60 s
D. 80 s
15. All bulbs in the circuits below are E. 100 s
identical. Which circuit has the
smallest effective resistance? 17. The kilowatthour (kWh) is a unit of
A. measurement of
A. Power
B. Electrical energy
C. Electromotive force
B.
C.
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Gradient
0.6 0.2
= 3.6 0
1
= 0.11 A V
The figure above shows a graph of electric current against potential difference for three
different conductors X, Y and Z.
(a) Among the three conductors, which conductor obeys Ohm‟s law?
Conductor Y
(b) State Ohm‟s law.
The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current that
flows through it, if the temperature and other physical quantities are kept constant.
(c) Resistance, R is given by the formula R = V/I. What is the resistance of X when the
current flowing through it is 0.4 A? Show clearly on the graph how is the answer
obtained.
From the graph I against V;
resistance, R = reciprocal of gradient, 1/gradient
1
= 0.11
= 9.09
(d) Among X, Y and Z, which is a bulb? Explain your answer.
X, because as I increases, the gradient decreases. Hence, the resistance X increases
as I increases which is a characteristic of a bulb.
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
2. The figure below shows an electric kettle connected to a 240 V power supply by a
flexible cable. The kettle is rated “240 V, 2500 W”.
The table below shows the maximum electric current that is able to flow through
wires of various diameters.
0.80 8
1.00 10
1.20 13
1.40 15
(a) What is the current flowing through the cable when the kettle is switched
on?
P = IV
I = P/V = 2500 / 240 = 10.4 A
(b) Referring to the table above,
i. What is the smallest diameter wire that can be safely used for this
kettle?
1.20 mm
ii. Explain why it is dangerous to use a wire thinner than the one selected
in b(i)
As resistance is inversely proportional to crosssectional area,
a thinner wire will have a higher resistance thus the wire will
become very hot. This could probably cause a fire to break
out.
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
(c) State one precautionary measure that should be taken to ensure safe usage of
the kettle.
Do not operate kettle with wet hands.
(d) Mention one fault that might happen in the cable that will cause the fuse in the
plug to melt.
Short circuit might occur if the insulating materials of the wires in the cable are
damaged.
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
The figure above shows a dry cell operated torchlight with metal casing
(i) What is the purpose of the spring in the torchlight?
(ii) Why it is safe to use the torchlight although the casing is made of metal?
(iii) What is the purpose of having a concave reflector in the torchlight?
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Suggested Answers
1. (a) The work done by a battery to move a unit charge around a complete circuit.
(c) Voltmeter
V
Internal resistance
+
Dry cell

Ammeter
Switch
Rheostat
emf
Currrent, I/A
0
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Maximum load
Resistivity / Density / Rate of
before breaking/
m kgm3 expansion
N
(c) Suggest how three similar bulbs are arranged effectively in a domestic circuit.
Draw a diagram to explain your answer. Give two reasons for the arrangement.
(d) An electric kettle is rated 2.0 kW.
(i) Calculate how long would it take to boil 1.5 kg of water from an initial
temperature of 280 C.
[specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg1 0C1]
(ii) What is the assumption made in the calculations above?
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Teacher’s Guide Chapter 7: Electricity
Suggested Answers
2.(a) Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current flowing in an ohmic conductor.
(b)
Characteristics Explanations
A low density Cable will not slag when it heated during transmission
Cable A is chosen because it has low resistivity, high max load before breaking, low
density and low expansion rate.
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