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Diamond-like carbon(DLC)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a class of amorphous carbon material that displays some of the typical properties
of diamond. DLC is usually applied as coatings to other materials that could benefit from some of those properties. [1]
DLC exists in seven different forms.[2] All seven contain significant amounts of sp3 hybridized carbon atoms. The
reason that there are different types is that even diamond can be found in two crystalline polytypes. The usual one
has its carbon atoms arranged in a cubic lattice, while the very rare one (lonsdaleite) has a hexagonal lattice. By
mixing these polytypes in various ways at the nanoscale level of structure, DLC coatings can be made that at the
same time are amorphous, flexible, and yet purely sp 3 bonded "diamond". The hardest, strongest, and slickest is
such a mixture, known as tetrahedral amorphous carbon, or ta-C. For example, a coating of only 2 m thickness
of ta-C increases the resistance of common (i.e. type 304) stainless steel against abrasive wear; changing its
lifetime in such service from one week to 85 years. Such ta-C can be considered to be the "pure" form of DLC, since
it consists only of sp3 bonded carbon atoms. Fillers such as hydrogen, graphitic sp2 carbon, and metals are used in
the other 6 forms to reduce production expenses or to impart other desirable properties. [3][4]
The various forms of DLC can be applied to almost any material that is compatible with a vacuum environment. In
2006, the market for outsourced DLC coatings was estimated as about 30,000,000 in the European Union. In
October 2011, Science Daily reported that researchers at Stanford University have created a super-hard amorphous
diamond under conditions of ultrahigh pressure, which lacks thecrystalline structure of diamond but has the light
weight characteristic of carbon.[5][6]

A ta-C thin film on silicon (15 mm diameter) exhibiting regions of 40 nm and 80 nm thickness.

Distinction from natural and synthetic diamond

Naturally occurring diamond is almost always found in the crystalline form with a purely cubic orientation of sp3 bonded carbon
atoms. Sometimes there are lattice defects or inclusions of atoms of other elements that give color to the stone, but the lattice
arrangement of the carbons remains cubic and bonding is purely sp3. The internal energy of the cubic polytype is slightly lower than
that of the hexagonal form and growth rates from molten material in both natural and bulk synthetic diamond production methods
are slow enough that the lattice structure has time to grow in the lowest energy (cubic) form that is possible for sp 3 bonding of
carbon atoms. In contrast, DLC is typically produced by processes in which high energy precursive carbons (e.g. in plasmas, in
filtered cathodic arc deposition, in sputter deposition and in ion beam deposition) are rapidly cooled or quenched on relatively cold

surfaces. In those cases cubic and hexagonal lattices can be randomly intermixed, layer by atomic layer, because there is no time
available for one of the crystalline geometries to grow at the expense of the other before the atoms are "frozen" in place in the
material. Amorphous DLC coatings can result in materials that have no long-range crystalline order. Without long range order there
are no brittle fracture planes, so such coatings are flexible and conformal to the underlying shape being coated, while still being as
hard as diamond. In fact this property has been exploited to study atom-by-atom wear at the nanoscale in DLC

A Co-alloy valve part from a producing oil well (30 mm diameter), coated on the right side with ta-C, in order to test for added resistance to
chemical and abrasive degradation in the working environment.

Production
There are several methods of producing DLC, which rely on the lower density of sp 2 than sp3 carbon. So the application of pressure,
impact, catalysis, or some combination of these at the atomic scale can force sp2 bonded carbon atoms closer together into
sp3 bonds. This must be done vigorously enough that the atoms cannot simply spring back apart into separations characteristic of
sp2 bonds. Usually techniques either combine such a compression with a push of the new cluster of sp 3 bonded carbon deeper into
the coating so that there is no room for expansion back to separations needed for sp2 bonding; or the new cluster is buried by the
arrival of new carbon destined for the next cycle of impacts. It is reasonable to envisage the process as a "hail" of projectiles that
produce localized, faster, nanoscaleversions of the classic combinations of heat and pressure that produce natural and synthetic
diamond. Because they occur independently at many places across the surface of a growing film or coating, they tend to produce an
analog of a cobblestone street with the cobbles being nodules or clusters of sp3 bonded carbon. Depending upon the particular
"recipe" being used, there are cycles of deposition of carbon and impact or continuous proportions of new carbon arriving and
projectiles conveying the impacts needed to force the formation of the sp3 bonds. As a result, ta-C may have the structure of a
cobblestone street, or the nodules may "melt together" to make something more like a sponge or the cobbles may be so small as to
be nearly invisible to imaging. A classic "medium" morphology for a ta-C film is shown in the figure.

SEM image of a gold-coated replica of a ta-C "diamond-like" coating. Structural elements are not crystallites but are nodules of sp 3-bonded carbon
atoms. The grains are so small that the surface appears mirror smooth to the eye.

Properties
As implied by the name, diamond-like carbon (DLC), the value of such coatings accrues from their abilities to provide some of the
properties of diamond to surfaces of almost any material. The primary desirable qualities are hardness, wear resistance, and
slickness (DLC film friction coefficient against polished steel ranges from 0.05 to 0.20 [8]). DLC properties highly depends on plasma
treatment [9][10]deposition parameters, like effect of bias voltage,[11] DLC coating thickness,[12][13] interlayer thickness,[14] etc.
However, which properties are added to a surface and to what degree depends upon which of the 7 forms are applied, and further
upon the amounts and types of diluents added to reduce the cost of production. In 2006 the Association of German Engineers, VDI,
the largest engineering association in Western Europe issued an authoritative report VDI2840

[15]

in order to clarify the existing

multiplicity of confusing terms and trade names. It provides a unique classification and nomenclature for diamond-like-carbon (DLC)
and diamond films. It succeeded in reporting all information necessary to identify and to compare different DLC films which are
offered on the market. Quoting from that document:
These [sp3] bonds can occur not only with crystals - in other words, in solids with long-range order - but also in amorphous solids
where the atoms are in a random arrangement. In this case there will be bonding only between a few individual atoms and not in a
long-range order extending over a large number of atoms. The bond types have a considerable influence on the material properties
of amorphous carbon films. If the sp2 type is predominant the film will be softer, if the sp3 type is predominant the film will be harder.
A secondary determinant of quality was found to be the fractional content of hydrogen. Some of the production methods involve
hydrogen or methane as a catalyst and a considerable percentage of hydrogen can remain in the finished DLC material. When it is
recalled that the soft plastic, polyethylene is made from carbon that is bonded purely by the diamond-like sp3 bonds, but also
includes chemically bonded hydrogen, it is not surprising to learn that fractions of hydrogen remaining in DLC films degrade them
almost as much as do residues of sp2 bonded carbon. The VDI2840 report confirmed the utility of locating a particular DLC material
onto a 2-dimensional map on which the X-axis described the fraction of hydrogen in the material and the Y-axis described the
fraction of sp3 bonded carbon atoms. The highest quality of diamond-like properties was affirmed to be correlated with the proximity
of the map point plotting the (X,Y) coordinates of a particular material to the upper left corner at (0,1), namely 0% hydrogen and
100% sp3bonding. That "pure" DLC material is ta-C and others are approximations that are degraded by diluents such as hydrogen,
sp2 bonded carbon, and metals. Valuable properties of materials that are ta-C, or nearly ta-C follow.

Hardness
Within the "cobblestones", nodules, clusters, or "sponges" (the volumes in which local bonding is sp 3) bond angles may
be distorted from those found in either pure cubic or hexagonal lattices because of intermixing of the two. The result is
internal (compressive) stress that can appear to add to the hardness measured for a sample of DLC. Hardness is often
measured by nanoindentation methods in which a finely pointed stylus of natural diamond is forced into the surface of a
specimen. If the sample is so thin that there is only a single layer of nodules, then the stylus may enter the DLC layer
between the hard cobblestones and push them apart without sensing the hardness of the sp3 bonded volumes.
Measurements would be low. Conversely, if the probing stylus enters a film thick enough to have several layers of nodules
so it cannot be spread laterally, or if it enters on top of a cobblestone in a single layer, then it will measure not only the real
hardness of the diamond bonding, but an apparent hardness even greater because the internal compressive stress in
those nodules would provide further resistance to penetration of the material by the
stylus. Nanoindentation measurements have reported hardness as great as 50% more than values for natural crystalline
diamond. Since the stylus is blunted in such cases or even broken, actual numbers for hardness that exceed that of
natural diamond are meaningless. They only show that the hard parts of an optimal ta-C material will break natural
diamond rather than the inverse. Nevertheless, from a practical viewpoint it does not matter how the resistance of a DLC
material is developedharder than natural diamond in usage. One method of testing

Bonding of DLC coating


The same internal stress that benefits the hardness of DLC materials makes it difficult to bond such coatings to the
substrates to be protected. The internal stresses try to "pop" the DLC coatings off of the underlying samples. This
challenging downside of extreme hardness is answered in several ways, depending upon the particular "art" of the
production process. The most simple is to exploit the natural chemical bonding that happens in cases in which incident
carbon ions supply the material to be impacted into sp3 bonded carbon atoms and the impacting energies that are
compressing carbon volumes condensed earlier. In this case the first carbon ions will impact the surface of the item to be
coated. If that item is made of a carbide-forming substance such as Ti or Fe in steel a layer of carbide will be formed that is
later bonded to the DLC grown on top of it. Other methods of bonding include such strategies as depositing intermediate
layers that have atomic spacings that grade from those of the substrate to those characteristic of sp 3 bonded carbon. In
2006 there were as many successful recipes for bonding DLC coatings as there were sources of DLC.

TRIBOLOGY
DLC coatings are often used to prevent wear due to their excellent tribological properties. DLC is very resistant to abrasive and
adhesive wear making it suitable for use in applications that experience extreme contact pressure, both in rolling and sliding contact.
DLC is often used to prevent wear on razor blades and metal cutting tools, including lathe inserts and milling cutters. DLC is used
in bearings, cams, cam followers, and shafts in the automobile industry. The coatings reduce wear during the 'break-in' period,
where drive train components may be starved for lubrication.
DLCs may also be used in chameleon coatings that are designed to prevent wear during launch, orbit, and re-entry of land-launched
space vehicles. DLC provides lubricity at ambient atmosphere and at vacuum, unlike graphite which requires moisture to be
lubricious.
Despite the favorable tribological properties of DLC it must be used with caution on ferrous metals. If it is used at higher
temperatures, the substrate or counter face maycarburize, which could lead to loss of function due to a change in
hardness. This phenomenonprevents the use of DLC coated machine tool on steel.

Electrical
If a DLC material is close enough to ta-C on plots of bonding ratios and hydrogen content it can be an insulator with a high value of
resistivity. Perhaps more interesting is that if prepared in the "medium" cobblestone version such as shown in the above figure,
electricity is passed through it by a mechanism of hopping conductivity. In this type of conduction of electricity the electrons move
by quantum mechanical tunneling between pockets of conductive material isolated in an insulator. The result is that such a process
makes the material something like a semiconductor. Further research on electrical properties is needed to explicate such
conductivity in ta-C in order to determine its practical value. However, a different electrical property of emissivity has been shown to
occur at unique levels for ta-C. Such high values allow for electrons to be emitted from ta-C coated electrodes into vacuum or into
other solids with application of modest levels of applied voltage. This has supported important advances in medical technology.

Applications
Applications of DLC typically utilize the ability of the material to reduce abrasive wear. Tooling components, such as endmills, drill
bits, dies and molds often use DLC in this manner. DLC is also used in the engines of modern supersport motorcycles, Formula 1
racecars, NASCAR vehicles, and as a coating on hard-disk platters and hard-disk read heads to protect against head crashes.
Virtually all of the multi-bladed razors used for wet shaving have the edges coated with hydrogen-free DLC to reduce friction,
preventing abrasion of sensitive skin. It is also being used as a coating by some weapon manufacturers/custom gunsmiths. Some
forms have been certified in the EU for food service and find extensive uses in the high-speed actions involved in processing novelty
foods such as "chips" and in guiding material flows in packaging foodstuffs with plastic wraps. DLC coats the cutting edges of tools
for the high-speed, dry shaping of difficult exposed surfaces of wood and aluminium, for example on automobile dashboards.
Medical applications: The wear, friction, and electrical properties of DLC make it an appealing material for medical applications.
Fortunately, DLC has proved to have excellent bio-compatibility as well. This has enabled many medical procedures, such
as Percutaneous coronary intervention employing brachytherapy to benefit from the unique electrical properties of DLC. At low
voltages and low temperatures electrodes coated with DLC can emit enough electrons to be arranged into disposable, micro-X-ray
tubes as small as the radioactive seeds that are introduced into arteries or tumors in conventional brachytherapy. The same dose of
prescribed radiation can be applied from the inside, out with the additional possibility to switch on and off the radiation in the
prescribed pattern for the X-rays being used. DLC has proved to be an excellent coating to prolong the life of and reduce
complications with replacement hip joints and artificial knees. It also has been successfully applied to coronary artery stents,
reducing the incidence of thrombosis. The implantable human heart pump can be considered the ultimate biomedical application
where DLC coating is used on blood contacting surfaces of the key components of the device.
The Space Black stainless steel Apple Watch[16] is coated with diamond-like carbon.

Environmental benefits of durable products


The increase in lifetime of articles coated with DLC that wear out because of abrasion can be described by the formula f = (g),
where g is a number that characterizes the type of DLC, the type of abrasion, the substrate material and is the thickness of the
DLC coating in m.[17] For "low-impact" abrasion (pistons in cylinders, impellers in pumps for sandy liquids, etc.), g for pure ta-C on
304 stainless steel is 66. This means that one-m thickness (that is ~5% of the thickness of a human hair-end) would increase
service lifetime for the article it coated from a week to over a year and two-m thickness would increase it from a week to 85 years.
These are measured values; though in the case of the 2 m coating the lifetime was extrapolated from the last time the sample was
evaluated until the testing apparatus itself wore out.
There are environmental arguments that a sustainable economy ought to encourage articles not engineered to lower performance or
to fail prematurely. This in turn will reduce the need to support greater production of units and their frequent replacement, which
might provide an economic disincentive to manufacturers of such devices.
Currently there are about 100 outsource vendors of DLC coatings that are loaded with amounts of graphite and hydrogen and so
give much lower g-numbers than 66 on the same substrates.

Preperation of diamond films


Diamond, Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Diamond-like Nanocomposite (DLN) exist
in different form of amorphous carbon based thin films have generated a great

interest in the academia due to its fundamental and technological importance. The
carbon materials which arises from the strong dependence of their physical
properties of the ratio ofsp2 (graphite-like) to sp3 (diamond-like) bonds. The
amorphous carbon is a mixture of sp2, sp3 and sp1 sites with the presence of
nitrogen and hydrogen. The nitrogen free carbon films are shown in Fig. 1 on ternary
phase diagram. In this figure, the phase diagram defines the regions of pure carbon
(designated a-C), tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), and hydrogenerated
amorphous carbon (a-C:H) with the corresponding extent of hydrogenation [19-21].
To increase the degree of sp3 carbon bonding, better amorphous carbon (a-C) films
can be produced by any kind of deposition systems. If sp3 carbon bonding is very
high, then this a-C can be denoted as a tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) [22].
Fig. 1 shows amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) or diamond like films, but it is not
higher order due to large hydrogen content. To achieve less hydrogen content with
much more sp3 bond, plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD)
technique is ideal to generate tetrahedral amorphous carbon films [20]. The sp3
content influence the mechanical properties of the films. The mechanical and wear
resistance properties are more prominent with increase of hydrogen content into the
films. On the other hand, surface energy and coefficient of friction decreases with
greater hydrogen passivation into the films. Again, the sp2 content influences the
electronic properties of the films. Diamond, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) and
Diamond-Like Nanocomposite (DLN) thin films can be deposited by different
chemical vapor deposition technique like plasma enhanced CVD, plasma assisted
CVD, microwave plasma CVD or a hot filament [23-27], ion beam deposition, pulsed
laser ablations, filtered cathodic arc deposition, magnetron sputtering etc. The DC
plasma jet chemical vapor deposition can be used for Diamond like carbon films
deposition also [28]. Table 1 shows the different properties of diamond films [29-31,
6]. a-C:H (DLC) ta-C (DLC) UNCD Diamond DLN H (atomic %) 30 0 0 0.8 >0.9 ~1.0
0.5-0.8 Density (Kg/m-3) 2350 3260 3500 3515 --- E (GPa) 300 757 300 1050 90160 Hardness (GPa) 20 >45 45 9-17 Residual stress (GPa) 1-2 8-10 0 0 --- Table 1.
Different parameters of Diamond, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) and DiamondLike
Nanocomposite (DLN) thin films. In this section, we describe diamond-like carbon
deposition by plasma which consists of argon (99.998%), hydrogen (99.9%) and
CH4 (99.5%) is used as a carbon source and is mixed into the plasma jet. The
plasma jet is sprayed onto a substrate fixed on a water-cooled substrate holder. The
hydrocarbon species in the gas phase for the CH4-Ar-H2 gas system, temperatures
(500 0C to 6000 0C) and a total pressure of 0.25 atm (25 KPa) has been computed
using the thermodynamic computer program. The deposition was performed on
Si(111) surface with the growth rate 80 m/hr The CH4/H2 gas ratio and substrate
temperature influence the properties of diamond. Fig. 2 shows the Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM) morphology of DLC thin films [28]. Diamond-like Carbon
(DLC) and Diamond-like Nanocomposite (DLN) are is basically amorphous carbon
based films. In amorphous carbon structure, there is a possibility to form both
threefold coordinate (sp2 - site) as in graphite and fourfold coordinate (sp3 -site) as
in diamond [32]. Each of the four valance electron lies in the sp3 -site forms -

bonds with neighbors [33]. In sp2-site, only www.intechopen.com 462


Microelectromechanical Systems and Devices three electrons are used in -bonds
and the forth electron forms a -bond, which lies normal to the -bonding plane. In
sp2 -site, only the -bond is weakly bonded, and hence, it usually lies closest to the
Fermi level and controls the electronic properties of the films. On the other hand, in
sp3 -site, the -bond controls the mechanical properties of the films [34]. These
electrical and mechanical properties are very important parameters for every DLC
and DLN based materials.

Properties of diamond films


Structural properties
In this section we analyze the details about High Resolution Transmission Electron
Microcopy (HRTEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman
spectroscopy of DLN films. These DLN films are prepared by using liquid gas
precursor as hexamethyldisilane (HMDS), hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and
hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) with argon and nitrogen as a source gas by Plasma
Enahanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). The HRTEM image in Fig. 3 of DLN
films for HMDSN precursor on silicon substrate confirm the nucleation and growth of
Si3N4 nanoparticles in the amorphous matrix of sizes 630 nm. On the other hand,
SiC and SiOx nanoparticles having same sizes were found in the DLN films using
HMDS and HMDSO precursors, respectively. The FTIR analysis of DLN films shows
that the films predominantly consist of C-C, C-H, SiC and Si-H bonding. FTIR and
Raman spectroscopic results conform to a large extent with structural model [3536]. DLN films are consisting of mostly two interpenetrating networks of a-Si:O and
a-C:H. FTIR spectroscopy is a well known method for investigating the bonding
structure of atoms by using the IR absorption spectrum which is related to vibration
of atoms [37]. DLN films are deposited in same bias voltages. FTIR spectra of DLN
films are given in Fig. 4 The main absorption band is the Si-C stretching in 750-800
cm-1 due to Si-(CH3)3 vibration. Strong Si-O (Si-O-H) stretching in the range of 8501000 cm-1 is due to Si-(CH3)2 vibration. A very weak C=C stretching peak appears
in the range of 1560 cm-1, which indicates non graphite bonding of carbon [38]. The
Si-H absorbance band appears in the range 2200 cm-1 region. C-H stretching band
appears in 2850 cm-1 -3100 cm-1 region. This type of stretching is very important
for DLN films. In DLN films CO2 vibration appears due to atmospheric carbon
present during experiment, and N-H vibration in 3450 cm-1 region is due to
presence of nitrogen in the precursors. Here C-H stretching and Si-O stretching
mainly comprise of the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks.
The first order Raman spectra of DLN films as shown in Fig. 5, which is excited by
visible light, is usually decomposed into two bands, the D and G bands. Broad
asymmetric diamond-like peaks in the region 1000-1800 cm-1 are typical

characteristics of amorphous carbon films. Raman spectra were deconvoluted into


Gaussians D and G peaks by curve fitting. DLN films are example of amorphous
carbon phase, much like DLC films and probably dominated by sp3 bonding [39].
The shape of the spectra varies with substrate material composition. The position of
D and G peak widths can be correlated to the film properties such as hardness, wear
and electrical characteristics for conventional diamond like carbon films [40]. The
position of D and G peak can be shifted due to film structure, light source of Raman
spectroscopy, Gaussian fitting method and so on. Rosenblatt and Vairs have
suggested the existence of new structural type of diamond-like form of carbon in
which phonon frequency is around (154020) cm-1 depending on the distortion
from the graphite structure. The D band (which is around 1330 cm-1) corresponds to
breathing mode of sp2 atoms in hexagonal ring formed by graphite structure, which
means disorder of bond angle resulting due to disappearance of the long range
translation symmetry of polycrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon films, while
G peak (located around 1535 cm-1 ) is related to C-C bond stretching vibration of all
pair of sp2 atoms in both ring and chains of graphite layer for single crystalline
graphite structure [41-44]. Here D means disorder G means graphite.

Mechanical properties
The method of measuring hardness and elastic modulus of thin films by
nanoindentation test is explained by Oliver and Pharr [45-46]. This method is widely
adopted to characterize the mechanical behavior of low dimensional materials,
while the numerous refinements have been made to further improvement of its
accuracy. The curve for DLN samples of loading andunloading forces versus
displacement into the films, at maximum load up to 20 mN are shown in Fig. 6. This
figure shows a good reproducibility of the nanoindentation test [47]. The average
hardness of the DLN films is measured using three indents with 20 mN load which is
around 9-17 GPa. The average reduced elastic modulus of the DLN films is
measured under the 20 mN loading force with 300 nm displacement which is around
90-160 GPa.

Microfabrication, pattern transfer


and diamond film patterning
Microfabrication and pattern transfer
The standard process for microfabrication is to deposit of thin films into whole over
the wafer and then need to remove the unwanted part by etch or polishing of thin
films from the wafer. The microfabrication process can come in two ways, one is the
directional process and another is the diffusion process. Fig. 9 shows the directional

and diffuse process. The directional process which include electron or ion , photons,
beam of atom which impinges into the whole wafer (such as lithography, e-beam
evaporation, ion implantation etc.). The diffuse process which include the immersion
process where the whole wafer surrounded by vapor, liquid or gases (By CVD or
oxidation). To deposit the specific region in both process, need to use the mask in
which the unwanted portion will be cover by mask and the open portion of the mask
will be deposited metal or ions. The masking of the substrate can prevent the ions
or atoms to react with the substrate material. The another process is called the
localized process by where the beam energy can falls into specific region of the
substrate. The localized process can be divided in to focused beamprocessing and
microstructure assisted processing. By this process the reaction will occurred when
beam of microstructure will provide energy. Fig. 10 shows the localized processing of
focused beam supplies energy and microstructure provide energy. The
photolithography process is important for film patterning. By this process in the
beginning the surface preparation of the films is more important. This process start
from cleaning of the wafer for remove the moisture, baked the wafer, increase the
adhesion promotion of the wafer by apply hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS), (CH3)3-SiNH-Si-(CH3)3. The HMDS treatment can reduce the pressure to form the monolayer
onto the surface of the wafer, causes the more hydrophobic of the wafer which
prevents the moisture condensation. After that spin coating, soft bake, UV exposure
with mask alignment, development and hard bake technique is required for whole
process. After this lithographic process of the photoresist on to the wafer, the wet
etching or dry etching techniques is important to pattern the any type of substrate
materials. For this photolithographic pattern, the photoresist uses basically
polymeric resist. This resist can dissolve or it can insoluble in the developer solution
according to the positive or negative photoresist to react with UV light. The pattern
is form by this polymeric resist only use of mask in front of UV light. To pattern the
polymeric resist on to the substrate , different process can be applicable. This
process can be divided into additive or subtractive process. By which we can add
some material into the substrate or we can remove the material from the substrate
by using the photoresist with mask pattern. Fig. 11 shows the different additive and
subtractive process. Fig 11(a) shows the lift off process. By this process we pattern
the photoresist to fall the UV light on to the mask. Then deposit the metal on the
top of the wafer and finally we remove the photoresist from the wafer by
development process. Fig. 11(b) is the electroplating process by which, we can
deposit the metal on top of the pattern photoresist on to the wafer and finally
remove the photoresist. So required metalcan deposit on to the wafer and reaming
metal will be remove from the wafer. The electroplating technique can provide high
aspect ratio structure compared to lift off technique.

Diamond film patterning

To make the pattern of diamond or diamond films is not easy task for fabrication of
microstructure. The authors of this chapter are continuously trying to etch the DLN
films for MEMS structure. But till now we are unable to get the success for
patterning [48]. Hence, some of the diamond films (DLN) also applicable as coating
materials in MEMS devices. But the other diamond films are able to pattern for
MEMS device. Diamond films have very high chemical inertness. So wet chemical
etching is almost impossible for diamond etching. The dry etching is possible for
diamond films. The plasma based etching like Reactive Ion etching (RIE) is possible
for diamond pattern. RIE has higher anisotropy, better uniformity and control, better
selectivity compared to wet etching [49]. Generally RIE consists two electrode which
creates the electric field to accelerate the ions towards the surface of the samples.
Diamond pattern also possible by Inductive Couple Plasma (ICP). The plasma
density of ICP is two times higher in order of magnitude compare to RIE plasma. In
ICP, the RF power are capacitivly coupled and magnetic coil surrounded into the
chamber for active species generation. The AC field is induced by RF coil which
located in front of RF transducer helps to generate high density plasma due to
confinement of electrons. In ICP process the plasma densities is very high around
1011 ion/cm2 [50]. By this ICP process the diamond patterning is extremely fast
with good shape under low self-bias condition [51]. The oxygen based diamond
etching as shown in Fig. 12, where diamond pattern with 1.7 m thick films Another
diamond pattern technique is known as Focused Ion Beam (FIB). The FIB process
commercially very expensive but we can etch the material very preciously even in
nm level. etch by ICPBy this process focused beam of ions concentrate on a surface
in order to create very small structures. This technique are widely used in
microelectronics industry also. This Ion beam technique can cut the materials in
very precise way. By this process, the materials can be milling to accelerate the
concentrated gallium ions source on a specific site. The gallium ion source react
with the surface and metallic precursor gases to produce the precise cut of
conductive lines. In the FIB systems, where liquid metal ion sources are capable to
form very small probes with high current densities [53]. Fig. 13 shows the FIB based
diamond film pattern.