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CHM2204

Food Chemistry
Topic 1 Water

Content
1. Role of water
2. Structure
3. Physical function

Learning Outcome
Describe the interaction of water with food
components.
Evaluate water activity and its importance in
dehydrated food products.

Water Content
in Foods

Foods

% Water

apple
orange
grapes
strawberry
broccoli
cucumber
peppers
potato
beef, raw
chicken, raw
beef, cooked
chicken, cooked
salami, beef
bread, commercially prepared
dried fruit
jams/preserves
beef jerky
wheat flour
cookies/biscuits
peanut butter

84
87
81
92
91
96
92
79
73
69
62
62
60
36
31
30
23
11
6
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Role of water
Affects texture

Role of water

Crisp & Turgor

Perception of
tenderness

Role of water

Quality

Role of water

Quality & shelf life


Support growth of microorganisms

Role of water
Capable of
ionizing (H3O+,
OH-)

Solvent
Stabilizing
colloids

Role of water
Heating and
cooling
Cleaning agent

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Chemistry of water

0.096 nm

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a weak bond between polar


compounds where a hydrogen atom of one molecule
is attracted to an electronegative atom of another
molecule

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Association of water molecules


Hydrogen bonding of water molecules in a tetrahedral
configuration.

Hydrogen
bonds

Each water molecule is able to hydrogen-bond with


four others allowing the formation of an extensive 3D
structure

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Coordination number

Liquid water
Ice

Floating of ice
Coordination number is higher for water than for ice

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Coordination number and distance between


two water molecules
Coordination
number

O-H- - - -O

Ice (0 C)

0.276 nm

Water (1.5 C)

4.4

0.290 nm

Water (83 C)

4.9

0.305 nm

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Water Chemistry

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Specific heat and latent heat of water


The specific heat of water is the energy (in calories or in joules)
required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C, and is
the same whether heating water or ice.
The latent heat of fusion is the energy required to convert 1 g
of ice to water at 0 C and is 80 cal; that is, 1 g of ice at the
freezing point absorbs approximately 80 cal as it changes to the
liquid state.
The latent heat of vaporization is the energy required to
convert 1 g of water into vapor at 100 C and is 540 cal; that is,
1 g of water at the boiling point absorbs approximately 540 cal
as it becomes steam.
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Specific Heat Values of Selected Food and


Other Materials
Material

Phase

Cp in
J/(g C)

Material

Phase

Cp in
J/(g C)

Air

Gas

1.01

Gold

Solid

0.13

Aluminum

Solid

0.90

Graphite

Solid

0.71

Ammonia

Liquid

4.70

Ice

Solid

2.04

Apples
(ambient)

Solid

3.59

Lamb
(ambient)

Solid

2.80

Copper

Solid

0.38

Oxygen

Gas

0.92

Diamond

Solid

0.51

Potatoes
(ambient)

Solid

3.43

Ethanol

Liquid

2.44

Water vapor

Gas

2.08

Glass

Fluid

0.84

Water

Liquid

4.18

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Water as a solvent/dispersing medium

Solution

Colloidal
Dispersion

Suspension
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True Solution
Water-solute interactions.
< 1 millimicron (m).

Water binding and Hydration refers to general


tendency for water to associate with hydrophilic
substances.
Dissolving charged molecules e.g. NaCl
Dissolving polar molecules e.g. sugar
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Colloidal Dispersion
Molecules that are too big to form true solutions may be
dispersed in water.
0.001 1 millimicron.

Contains dispersed phase and continuous phase.


Colloidal dispersions are often unstable.

Salad dressing, milk, mayonnaise and egg white foam are


some examples of colloidal systems in foods.

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Coarse Suspension
Particles that are > 1 m are too large to form a
colloidal dispersion.
These form a suspension when mixed with water.
The particles in a suspension separate out over a
period, whereas no such separation is observed with
colloidal dispersions.
Examples of coarse suspension include cellulose,
cooked starch, pectic substances, gums, and
some food proteins in water.
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Type of water
Monolayer Water (~ 0.1-0.9% wet basis of moisture content in
food)
Bound water in food water that exists in the vicinity of
solutes.
Strongly acts with specific hydrophilic sites of nonaqueous
constituents.
Restricted in its movement due to charges, hydrogen bond,
physical entrapment.
Water-ion and water-dipole bonds.
Hard to remove from food.
Never be able to remove water completely.
Does not freeze at -40C or lower.
Unavailable as solvent for additional solutes.
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Type of water
Multilayer Water (Bulk water) - (~1-5% wet basis of moisture
content in food)
Additional layer of water around food particle (the hydrophilic
groups).
Water-water and water-solute hydrogen bonds.
Not as hard to remove as the monolayer.

Mobile or Free Water - (~ 5-96% wet basis of moisture content


in food)
Flow is unimpeded.
Properties close to dilute salt solutions.
Water-water bonds predominate
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How much is the amount of un-freezable


water?
Based on protein content it varies:
about 8-10% in animal tissues
0.4 g/g dry protein in egg and fish
<6% in fruits and vegetables
34% in whole grain corn

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Thank You...

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