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Clipping MRE sobre a Cpula BRIC e IBAS abril 2010

15/04/2010 - Argentina Clarn: Lula fortalece su alianza con China, India y Rusia..........15
Desde la economia internacional hasta la crisis nuclear con Irn, la agenda del cuarteto presidencial del BRIC
que se rene a partir de hoy en la capital brasilea tendr un cariz netamente geopoltico. La cita incluye temas
tan dismiles como la falta de control del sistema financiero internacional, las reformas del Fondo Monetario y el
Banco Mundial, la reestructuracin de la ONU en especial de su Consejo de Seguridad y las sanciones
impulsadas por Estados Unidos contra el pas persa.......................................................................................... 15

Data: 16/04/2010 - Argentina - La Nacin Ttulo: Las potencias emergentes exigen un


"nuevo orden..............................................................................................................................16
BRASILIA.- Las principales potencias emergentes destacaron ayer la necesidad de construir un "nuevo orden
mundial" y acordaron fortalecer su asociacin estratgica, durante una cumbre del grupo BRIC, conformado por
Brasil, Rusia, la India y China.............................................................................................................................. 16
El presidente brasileo y anfitrin, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, afirm que las cumbres que se realizaron en
Brasilia entre los cuatro pases "revelan que ha nacido una nueva geografa econmica mundial"....................16

Data: 18/04/2010 Argentina - Pgina 12 - Ttulo: La apuesta de Lula por el eje Sur-Sur....17
La travesa internacional de Luiz Incio Lula da Silva lleva hacia el aislamiento de la comunidad internacional,
advierten con tono catastrfico segmentos de las elites econmica, militar y meditica brasileas. Esos grupos
censuran al gobierno por haberse aproximado a Irn y tachan de ideolgica su adhesin al BRIC, la coalicin
de potencias emergentes de la que tambin hacen parte China, Rusia e India, cuya segunda cumbre fue
celebrada el jueves en Brasilia. Desde diversas tribunas del espectro conservador se alega que esta poltica
externa, vertebrada en el eje Sur-Sur, carece de pragmatismo y no alcanza resultados concretos....................17

Data: 16/04/2010 - EUA - The New York Times Ttulo: 1 Brazil: 'Affinity' on Iran With China,
India.............................................................................................................................................19
Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim said President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva met with Chinese and Indian
leaders on the sidelines of a summit of the so-called BRIC nations, which also includes Russia........................19

Data: 14/04/2010 EUA - The Wall Street Journal Ttulo: Building a Future With Sturdy
BRICs...........................................................................................................................................20
Goldman Sachs's Jim O'Neil takes the credit for labeling the emerging-markets giants as the BRICs, and he
continues to espouse this cause. Amid the gloom enveloping so much analysis, he finds reasons for constant
optimism............................................................................................................................................................... 21

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Les Echos Ttulo: Le deuxime sommet des quatre grands
mergents court.....................................................................................................................22
Les chefs dEtat et de gouvernement du Brsil, de la Russie, de lInde et de la Chine (BRIC) se sont runis, hier
Brasilia, pour accorder leurs violons avant la tenue du sommet du G20 de Toronto, en juin. Un sommet
court deux heures de discussions. En raison dun sisme dans son pays, le prsident chinois a annul sa
tourne en Amrique latine.................................................................................................................................. 23

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Les Echos Ttulo: Les BRIC rclament un nouvel ordre mondial
plus juste.....................................................................................................................................24

http://www.cdes.gov.br/

Le brsilien Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, le chinois Hu Jintao, le russe Dmitri Medvedev et l'indien Manmohan
Singh ont particip un sommet des BRIC avanc de vendredi jeudi aprs la dcision de Hu d'courter sa
visite pour regagner la Chine frappe par un violent sisme...............................................................................24
A l'issue de leur runion de deux heures, le Premier ministre indien a dclar que le principal objectif du groupe
tait la cration "d'un nouvel ordre mondial plus dmocratique, juste et multipolaire".........................................24

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Le Figaro Ttulo: Les Bric peinent dfinir un front commun..24
COMMERCE La grand-messe naura finalement pas eu lieu. Le deuxime sommet des Bric, acronyme
dsignant le Brsil, la Russie, lInde et la Chine, qui devait se tenir aujourdhui Brasilia, a capot avec le
dpart prcipit, hier soir, du prsident chinois Hu Jintao, oblig de rentrer en raison du tremblement de terre au
Qinghai. Une priptie de plus pour un rendez-vous qui se veut dsormais rgulier mais qui tarde encore
trouver ses marques............................................................................................................................................ 24

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Le Monde Ttulo: Les grands pays mergents se retrouvent
Brasilia.........................................................................................................................................25
Troisime partenaire de l'Amrique latine, la Chine est accuse par le Brsil d'entretenir une attitude "
nocoloniale "....................................................................................................................................................... 25

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Flash Interview: BRIC.....................................27


L'ide de Bric, associant l'Inde, le Brsil, la Chine et la Russie, vous parat-elle pertinente?..............................27
Les Bric sont gomtrie variable : quand on se trouve Pkin ou Shanghai, on entend rarement parler de la
Russie. En revanche, l'Indonsie est clairement dans le radar des investisseurs chinois : plutt que de Bric, il
vaudrait mieux parler de Cibi!............................................................................................................................... 27

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Les pays mergents font affaire entre eux. .28
Les nouveaux gants conomiques sortent renforcs de la crise. Face l'atonie des marchs dvelopps, ils
comptent se renforcer, l'occasion du deuxime Forum des Bric qui s'ouvre Brasilia.....................................28

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Moscou tourne son attention vers l'Inde et la
Chine............................................................................................................................................29
Dmitri Medvedev a renouvel mardi son appel pour resserrer les rangs des pays Bric. La Russie veut
rquilibrer ses changes.................................................................................................................................... 29
Le Kremlin ne veut plus entendre les conomistes dire que la Russie est le canard boiteux du club des Bric
(Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine).............................................................................................................................. 29

Data: 14/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Les pays mergents se mobilisent contre les
attaques spculatives................................................................................................................30
La Russie plaide pour des mesures concertes avec le Brsil, l'Inde et la Chine en vue de grer les risques
spculatifs sur leurs marchs financiers.............................................................................................................. 30

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: 1 Early BRIC summit wraps up31
BRASILIA (AFP) Brazil, Russia, India and China wrapped up their second-ever BRIC summit here after
sharpening their call for reforms of international institutions and discussing a push to impose more UN sanctions
on Iran.................................................................................................................................................................. 31
Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: Brasil, Sudfrica, China, India y Rusia, el nuevo eje
de poder............................................................................................................................................................... 33

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: El Grupo IBAS puede ayudar al
proceso de paz en Medio Oriente (Amorim)............................................................................34
Brasil, Sudfrica e India, que forman el grupo IBAS, pueden auxiliar al Cuarteto para Medio Oriente (EEUU, UE,
ONU y Rusia) para hacer avanzar el proceso de paz entre israeles y palestinos, dijo este jueves el ministro
brasileo de Relaciones Exteriores, Celso Amorim.............................................................................................. 34

http://www.cdes.gov.br/

Data: 16/04/2010Frana - Agncia France Presse- Ttulo: Programa nuclear iran domina
dilogo de potencias emergentes en Brasil............................................................................35
BRASILIA (AFP) - Los lderes de las cinco grandes economas emergentes -China, Rusia, India, Brasil y
Sudfrica- iniciaron este jueves en Brasilia una serie de reuniones para discutir el nuevo escenario de
gobernanza global y analizar caminos en busca de una solucin a la controversia sobre el programa nuclear
iran...................................................................................................................................................................... 35

Data: 15/04/2010Frana - Agncia France Presse- Hu Jintao adelanta retorno a China y


Cumbre BRIC ser este jueves en Brasil.................................................................................36
BRASILIA (AFP) - El presidente chino Hu Jintao decidi adelantar su retorno a su pas y por ello la Cumbre de
Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno del grupo BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China), prevista para este viernes, ser
realizada la noche del jueves, inform la cancillera brasilea.............................................................................37

Data: 15/04/2010Frana - Agncia France Presse -Los grandes pases emergentes del
BRIC se renen buscando ampliar su influencia...................................................................37
BRASILIA - Los lderes de las naciones del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) se darn cita el viernes en
Brasilia, en la II Cumbre de este grupo aglutinado por el fenomenal crecimiento de sus gigantescas economas,
para tratar de consolidar su influencia mundial.................................................................................................... 37

Data: 16/04/2010Alemanha - Deutsche Welle- Bric conclui cpula pedindo nova ordem
mundial e condenando terrorismo...........................................................................................38
Braslia, 15 - Brasil, China, ndia e Rssia, membros do grupo Bric, pediram hoje uma nova ordem mundial,
mais "justa" e "democrtica", e condenaram de forma taxativa o terrorismo em todas as formas, na concluso
de sua segunda cpula, realizada em Braslia..................................................................................................... 38

Data: 16/04/2010Alemanha - Deutsche Welle- Ibas reconhece direito iraniano a plano


nuclear pacfico..........................................................................................................................39
Braslia.- Os Governos do Brasil, ndia e frica do Sul defenderam hoje, no Frum de Dilogo ndia-Brasil-frica
do Sul (Ibas), em Braslia, o direito do Ir a um desenvolvimento nuclear com fins pacficos e de acordo com as
normas internacionais de segurana................................................................................................................... 40

Data: 15/04/2010Rssia - ITAR-TASS- Business people, bankers meet ahead of BRIC


summit.........................................................................................................................................40
BRASILIA (Itar-Tass) - Business executives and bankers from Brazil, Russia, India and China met on Thursday
in the capital of Brazil ahead of a summit of the BRIC group of countries............................................................40

Data: 16/04/2010-Portugal - Dirio Econmico- Tragda chinesa acelera cimeira dos


BRIC.............................................................................................................................................41
A cimeira do grupo dos BRIC (Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China), que teve ontem lugar na capital brasileira, terminou
de maneira abrupta.............................................................................................................................................. 41

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Financial Times- Bric countries call for greater clout......41
BRASILIA, April 15 Leading emerging powers called on Thursday for swift reform of international financial
institutions to give developing countries a greater voice, saying their group was vital to achieving a new world
order..................................................................................................................................................................... 42

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Financial Times- Brics balance shared interests with
rivalries........................................................................................................................................43
http://www.cdes.gov.br/

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - The Economist- Editorial: The new masters of


management...............................................................................................................................44
Thirty years ago the bosses of America's car industry were shocked to learn that Japan had overtaken America
to become the world's leading car producer. They were even more shocked when they visited Japan to find out
what was going on. They found that the secret of Japan's success did not lie in cheap labour or government
subsidies (their preferred explanations) but in what was rapidly dubbed "lean manufacturing". While Detroit slept,
Japan had transformed itself from a low-wage economy into a hotbed of business innovation. Soon every factory
around the world was leanor a ruin................................................................................................................... 45

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - The Economist- The trillion-dollar club.............................46


In any global gathering, the American president is usually seen, at a minimum, as primus inter pares: the one
who can make or break the final bargain and select his favoured interlocutors. So in Copenhagen last
December, as negotiations for a new climate-change treaty were entering their final hours, a hastily convened
meeting between Barack Obama and China's prime minister, Wen Jiabao, looked as if it would be the critical
moment when a deal might be struck. But when the president turned up, he found not only Mr Wen but the
heads of government of Brazil, South Africa and India. This was unexpected. The Americans even thought the
Indians had already left the summit. What was conceived as a bilateral talk turned instead into a negotiation with
an emerging-market block. As an additional sign that things were changing in the world, the president got a
finger-wagging from one of Mr Wen's hangers-on. But at least Mr Obama was in the room; Europeans were shut
out while the emerging powers and America put the final touches to their deal...................................................46

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - BRICs querem reforma do FMI at


novembro....................................................................................................................................52
Os pases que formam o BRIC Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China deixaram claro nesta quinta-feira que vo
trabalhar por uma reforma do Fundo Monetrio Internacional (FMI) e do Banco Mundial ainda este ano...........52

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - BRICs so incapazes de promover


mudanas significativas, diz 'Economist'...............................................................................53
O grupo dos BRICs, formado por Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China, incapaz de promover mudanas significativas
no cenrio mundial, afirma uma reportagem publicada na edio desta sexta-feira da revista britnica The
Economist............................................................................................................................................................ 53

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - Para analistas, presso por reformas
ambio que une Brics..............................................................................................................54
Apesar de posies divergentes em vrios temas, os quatro pases que formam o grupo chamado Bric (Brasil,
Rssia, ndia e China) se renem pela segunda vez nesta quinta-feira, em Braslia, com um objetivo em
comum: a presso por reformas no sistema financeiro internacional..................................................................54

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - Brasil quer empenho de Brics por reforma
do sistema financeiro.................................................................................................................55
O governo brasileiro quer que os quatro maiores pases emergentes da atualidade Brasil, Rssia, ndia e
China atuem com mais empenho e unio em prol de uma reforma do sistema financeiro internacional.......55

Data: 17/04/2010-Espanha - El Pas-1 Editorial: Emergentes en Brasil................................58


Las cuatro potencias emergentes que componen el grupo de los BRIC -Brasil, Rusia, India y China- han
celebrado su segunda cumbre, en la que ha ejercido de anfitrin el presidente brasileo Lula da Silva. El
formato de la cita ha sido similar al de la que tuvo lugar el pasado ao en Ekaterimburgo: se trata de encuentros
informales al ms alto nivel en los que estos cuatros pases tratan de ir perfilando la agenda internacional que
ms conviene a sus intereses. En esta ocasin han reiterado la necesidad de una nueva arquitectura
multilateral que refleje mejor la realidad que representan los BRIC y tambin su voluntad de buscar una

http://www.cdes.gov.br/

alternativa al dlar como moneda de referencia. Pero un nuevo asunto ha tenido entrada en las discusiones: la
seguridad nuclear................................................................................................................................................. 58

Data: 18/04/2010-Espanha - El Pas- Opinin: Ladrillo a ladrillo...........................................58


Puede que la cumbre de los BRIC (iniciales de Brasil, Rusia, India y China) haya recortado gastos, pero su
importancia no ha disminuido. El presidente chino, Hu Jintao, tuvo que irse antes de tiempo por el terremoto en
su pas y dejar en Brasilia a sus homlogos. Reducir el programa de dos das a slo uno puede haber llevado a
pensar que los lderes de los nuevos mercados tenan pocas cosas importantes de que hablar. Pero el
extraordinario crecimiento interanual del 11,9% de China en el primer trimestre pone de relieve el podero
econmico y la creciente importancia mundial de las cuatro naciones. Esto hace necesario que el BRIC celebre
cumbres peridicas, dado que los miembros del grupo constituyen un posible contrapeso frente al rico
Occidente............................................................................................................................................................. 58

Data: 16/04/2010Espanha - El Pas- Las potencias emergentes piden un nuevo orden....59


La Segunda Cumbre de los BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, China e India) se celebr ayer en Brasilia, acogida por el
presidente Lula da Silva, uno de los impulsores de este grupo. La agenda se comprimi en un solo da, en
lugar de los dos previstos, ya que el terremoto que sacudi China oblig al presidente Hu Jintao a adelantar su
regreso................................................................................................................................................................. 59

Data: 16/04/2010-Espanha - El Pas- Un grupo que ha doblado su peso en 10 aos.........61


Jim O'Neill, economista de Goldman Sachs, acu el acrnimo BRIC en noviembre de 2001 en un estudio con
el que apost por Brasil, Rusia, India y China como principales motores del futuro crecimiento de la economa
mundial. Entonces, los cuatro pases representaban un 8% del PIB global. Menos de una dcada despus, los
BRIC ya superan el 15%. Pero hay ms: la mitad del crecimiento de la economa mundial depende de ellos, el
grupo adelantar al G-7 en 2032 y China a EE UU en 2027. Todo ello, muchos aos antes de lo inicialmente
previsto por Goldman Sachs................................................................................................................................ 61

Data: 16/04/2010-Equador - El Comercio- Brasilia. Potencias emergentes por ms


protagonismo..............................................................................................................................62
Los lderes de India, Brasil, Sudfrica, China y Rusia, grandes potencias emergentes, celebraron ayer dos
cumbres en Brasilia, en las que reclamaron ms protagonismo en organismos diplomticos y financieros
internacionales. La cumbre del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China), prevista para hoy, fue adelantada, porque el
presidente chino,Hu Jintao, tuvo que regresar ayer a su pas debido al sismo ocurrido all el mircoles. AFP. . .62

Data: 15/04/2010-Equador - El Comercio-4 pases emergentes buscan ser contrapeso de


los ricos.......................................................................................................................................63
Los lderes del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) se darn cita este viernes en Brasilia en la II Cumbre de este
grupo, aglutinado por el fenomenal crecimiento de sus gigantescas economas, para consolidar su influencia
mundial................................................................................................................................................................ 63

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai - El Observador- Liderazgo ladrillo a ladrillo..............................64


Brasil, Rusia, China e India se reunieron en una nueva cumbre del Grupo BRIC. Pidieron ms peso en las
decisiones de la economa y la poltica internacional........................................................................................... 64

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai - La Repblica-'Respuestas progresistas a la globalizacin


asimtrica'...................................................................................................................................66
El presidente brasileo, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, estim ayer jueves que las dos grandes cumbres de naciones
emergentes que su pas acoge muestran una nueva geografa poltica y econmica del mundo y la bsqueda
de "respuestas progresistas a la globalizacin asimtrica"..................................................................................66

Data: 16/04/2010-Bolvia - El Deber- Potencias emergentes piden en Brasil un orden


mundial ms justo......................................................................................................................66
http://www.cdes.gov.br/

Los lderes de cuatro potencias emergentes -China, Rusia, India, Brasil- a los que se sum Sudfrica, pidieron
ayer en Brasilia un nuevo orden mundial que reconozca su peso econmico e influencia, y abordaron opciones
para una solucin a la controversia sobre el programa nuclear iran...................................................................67

Data: 15/04/2010ndia - The Times of India- Prime Minister arrives in Brazil for IBSA, BRIC
summits.......................................................................................................................................67
BRASILIA: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh arrived here today on a two-day visit during which he will attend the
Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) and India-Brazil- South Africa (IBSA) Summits and hold bilateral meetings with
Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev..............................................................67

Data: 15/04/2010-Mxico Reforma- Recibe Brasil a lderes de emergentes......................69


Los pases BRIC buscarn definir una postura comn para aumentar su representatividad en los organismos
internacionales..................................................................................................................................................... 69

Data: 14/04/2010-Espanha - Agncia EFE- Empresrios do Bric discutem oportunidades


de negcios conjuntos pela 1 vez...........................................................................................70
Rio de Janeiro - Empresrios dos pases do Bric, sigla usada para se referir ao Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China, os
quatro grandes mercados emergentes do mundo, se reuniro amanh no Rio de Janeiro pela primeira vez para
discutir possibilidades de negcios de forma conjunta........................................................................................71

Data: 18/04/2010-Mxico - La Jornada-Solucin diplomtica "BRIC" y/o turco-brasilea


para Irn?....................................................................................................................................72
Sin contar la devastacin ambiental que provoc en sus mltiples guerras en los Balcanes e Irak, gracias a su
generosa diseminacin de uranio empobrecido tema que anmalamente no form parte de la Cumbre de
Seguridad (sic) Nuclear de Obama, Estados Unidos (EU), nico en la historia que ha lanzado dos bombas
nucleares sobre las poblaciones civiles de Hiroshima y Nagasaki, hoy principal vendedor de armas de todo tipo
en el mundo (reporte SIPRI 2010) y poseedor, con Rusia, de 95 por ciento de las armas nucleares del planeta,
ha creado inconmensurables problemas atmicos al gnero humano desde que "el genio nuclear" se sali de la
botella, como vaticin el fsico arrepentido Robert Oppenheimer, encargado del Proyecto Manhattan, hace 71
aos..................................................................................................................................................................... 72

Data: 17/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- BRICs take baby steps toward greater
global clout..................................................................................................................................74
BRASILIA, April 16 - The world's leading emerging powers found little new to agree on in their summit in Brazil,
but their assertive tone in demanding more clout in global financial institutions and setting of a deadline for the
reforms shows they are slowly becoming a more potent group............................................................................74

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- BRICs divided on global agenda, look to
mutual trade................................................................................................................................76
BRASILIA, April 14 - The leaders of the world's top four emerging markets will renew calls for a greater say in
the global economic order when they meet in Brazil's capital this week but they may struggle to come up with
clear proposals to advance a common agenda.................................................................................................... 76

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- Ttulo: BRICs should not pressure
China on yuan - O'Neill..............................................................................................................78
BRASILIA, April 14 - There is no advantage for Brazil, Russia and India in putting pressure on China to let its
currency strengthen since Beijing is already heading in that direction, Goldman Sachs chief economist Jim
O'Neill said on Wednesday................................................................................................................................... 78

http://www.cdes.gov.br/

Data: 14/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- Bric quer integrao maior para forar
reforma financeira global..........................................................................................................79
BRASLIA, 14 de abril - Os quatro pases que integram o Bric buscam por maior integrao e podem
incrementar sua coordenao interna como fator de presso nos fruns internacionais, avaliou nesta quartafeira o embaixador Antnio Patriota, o nmero 2 do Itamaraty.............................................................................79

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - The Economic Times- BRIC can recast world order: Manmohan 80
BRASILIA: The BRIC grouping of the worlds top emerging economies, accounting for 20 per cent of global
GDP, have a key role in recasting the global architecture of governance and in setting the pace of global
economic recovery, said Prime Minister Manmohan Singh..................................................................................80

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - The Economic Times- Include India, Brazil in UN security council:
BRIC nations...............................................................................................................................81
BRASILIA: Calling for reform of the UN and the global financial architecture, BRIC countries have underlined the
centrality of G20 as the premier economic forum and pitched for including India and Brazil in an expanded UN
Security Council................................................................................................................................................... 82

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia - The Economic Times- Singh in Brazil to attend BRIC and IBSA
Summits.......................................................................................................................................83
BRASILIA: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh arrived here today on a two-day visit during which he will attend the
Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) and India-Brazil- South Africa (IBSA) Summits and hold bilateral meetings with
Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev..............................................................83

Data: 16/04/2010-Rssia - Ria-Novosti- Lderes del BRIC destacan el papel clave de G-20
en la lucha contra la crisis mundial.........................................................................................85
Brasilia, 16 de abril, RIA Novosti. Los pases del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) destacan el papel central
del Grupo de los Veinte en la lucha contra las consecuencias negativas de la crisis mundial debido al alto grado
de eficacia de este foro internacional, dice una declaracin conjunta de los cuatro lderes................................85

Data: 16/04/2010-Rssia - Ria-Novosti- Rusia estudia proyecto para fabricar aviones de


Brasil en su territorio.................................................................................................................86
Brasilia, 16 de abril, RIA Novosti. El banco ruso Vnesheconombank (VEB) y el Banco Nacional de Desarrollo
Econmico y Social de Brasil (BNDES) analizan la viabilidad de un proyecto para la produccin de aviones
brasileos en el territorio de Rusia, inform hoy el presidente del VEB, Vladmir Dmitriev..................................86

Data: 15/04/2010-Rssia - Ria-Novosti- Opinion: BRIC: the world from different


perspective..................................................................................................................................86
By Fyodor Lukyanov, editor-in-chief of the Moscow-based magazine Russia in Global Affairs, for the Valdai
Discussion Club................................................................................................................................................... 86

Data: 15/04/2010ndia - The Hindustan Times- Chinese President arrives in Brazil for BRIC
summit.........................................................................................................................................87
Chinese President Hu Jintao arrived in Brazil late Wednesday to participate in bilateral meetings with the leaders
of other emerging economies and a BRIC summit on Friday...............................................................................87

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia - The Hindustan Times- Manmohan to cement India's global role at
IBSA, BRIC summits..................................................................................................................88
http://www.cdes.gov.br/

It is set to be a week of hectic multilateral diplomacy for Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who arrived in
Brasilia on Wednesday evening on a three-day visit to participate in two back-to-back summits of IBSA and
BRIC countries..................................................................................................................................................... 88

Data: 16/04/2010-EUA - Revista Business Week- Shortened BRIC Summit Pledges to


Boost Trade in Local Currency.................................................................................................89
By Andre Soliani and Robert Delaney April 16 (Bloomberg) -- Brazil, Russia, India and China pledged to study
ways to use their currencies, instead of the U.S. dollar, in local trade at a heads-of-state summit of the four
biggest emerging economies............................................................................................................................... 89

Data: 16/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- BRIC nations call for financial system
reform..........................................................................................................................................91
Chinese President Hu Jintao (2nd R), Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (2nd L), Russian President
Dmitry Medvedev (1st L) and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (1st R) shake hands during a group photo
session at the second summit meeting of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) leaders in Brasilia, capital of
Brazil, April 15, 2010. (Xinhua/Liu Weibing)......................................................................................................... 91

Data: 16/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online -BRIC summit in Brasilia "very fruitful":
Russian president......................................................................................................................92
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said on Thursday that the summit meeting of four major emerging
economies in Brasilia was "very fruitful" and "productive"....................................................................................92

Data: 16/04/2010China - People's Daily Online- President Hu dwells on China's peaceful


development at BRIC summit...................................................................................................93
Chinese President Hu Jintao attends a joint press conference held together with Brazilian President Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during the
second summit meeting of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) leaders in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, April 15,
2010. (Xinhua/Liu Weibing).................................................................................................................................. 93

Data: 16/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- President Hu's visit to U.S., Brazil boosts
co-op: FM.....................................................................................................................................94
Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to the United States and Brazil on April 12-15 was "quite successful," Foreign
Minister Yang Jiechi said on Thursday................................................................................................................. 94

Data: 15/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- Ttulo: BRIC countries need new
strategies for growth in post-crisis world: expert..................................................................96
The international financial crisis has provoked changes in the world's organization, so the BRIC countries need
to develop new strategies to continue growing in the post-crisis world, said Jos Gilberto Scandiucci, from the
Division of Financial Policy of Brazil's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on Wednesday................................................96

Data: 15/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- BRIC countries' think tanks to strengthen
cooperation.................................................................................................................................97
Major research institutions from the BRIC countries -- Brazil, Russia, India and China -- intend to tighten their
cooperation to achieve joint views on issues of common interest and help the work of the BRIC governments, it
was announced on Wednesday........................................................................................................................... 97

Data: 15/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- BRIC experts discuss disparities in trade
......................................................................................................................................................98
http://www.cdes.gov.br/

The representatives of Brazil, Russia, India and China, who gathered at the BRIC-Think Tank Summit in the
Brazilian capital Brasilia, discussed on Wednesday the different aspects of trade involving their countries........98

Data: 15/04/2010-EUA - Bloomberg.com- China Beats Brazil in Own Backyard as BRIC


Summit Seeks Unity...................................................................................................................98
When Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva hosts his Chinese counterpart today, he will welcome a
leader whose economy is growing faster than his own -- and whose exporters are outstripping Brazil in its own
backyard.............................................................................................................................................................. 99

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - Rediff News- BRIC aims to develop, provide clean energy........101
Leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) on Thursday said that they recognised that energy is an
essential resource for improving the standard of living of our peoples and that access to it is of paramount
importance to economic growth with equity and social inclusion........................................................................101

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia - Rediff News- What Prime Minister Singh will do in Brazil..........102
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh arrived in Brazil on Thursday on a two-day visit during which he will attend the
Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) and India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Summits and hold bilateral meetings with
Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev............................................................102

Data: 15/04/2010-Colmbia - La Republica- La cumbre de los Bric en Brasilia................104


Hoy se renen en Brasilia los presidentes de Rusia, China, Brasil y el primer ministro de India, para llevar a
cabo la segunda cumbre del Bric,...................................................................................................................... 104
un grupo conformado por los cuatro pases que tienen 42 por ciento de la poblacin mundial y que
contribuyeron con ms de 50 por ciento al crecimiento econmico global en los ltimos aos, todo con el
trasfondo de que ellos favorecern inexorablemente durante la "postcrisis".....................................................104

Data: 14/04/2010-Colmbia - La Republica- Las economas Bric se mueven en otra


direccin....................................................................................................................................105
Sao Paulo. Los operadores de opciones cambiarias estn demostrando que las economas emergentes se han
vuelto ms seguras en relacin con los pases desarrollados que en ningn otro momento en casi dos aos. 105

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - New Kerala- Reform UN to make it more representative, says


BRIC...........................................................................................................................................106
Brasilia, Apr 16 : Leaders of BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China, have signed a joint declaration,
calling for the need to reform the United Nations to make the institution more efficient and representative, in
order to better address global challenges.......................................................................................................... 106

Data: 17/04/2010-EUA - Associated Press- Emergentes en Brasil fortalecen postura ante


reforma financiera....................................................................................................................108
La recin concluida cumbre de Brasil, Rusia, India y China, integrante del grupo BRIC, permiti a estos grandes
pases emergentes afinar su postura frente a la reforma del sistema financiero internacional actualmente en
negociacin, dijo el viernes una autoridad brasilea..........................................................................................108

Data: 17/04/2010-EUA - Associated Press- Sistema financiero, en la mira del BRIC........109


Brasil, Rusia, India y China buscan que las organizaciones internacionales sean ms representativas; el grupo
considera que el poder de voto debe corresponder a la dimensin econmica del participante.......................109

Data: 16/04/2010-EUA - Associated Press -Pases emergentes piden fin de Ronda Doha
....................................................................................................................................................110

http://www.cdes.gov.br/

BRASILIA - Los gobernantes de Brasil, China, ndia, Rusia y Sudfrica instaron el jueves a la conclusin de la
Ronda Doha para la liberalizacin comercial y exhortaron a los pases a evitar toda forma de proteccionismo.
........................................................................................................................................................................... 110

Data: 16/04/2010Alemanha - Handelsblatt - Os Presidentes dos pases BRIC agora


pretendem transformar a sua fora econmica em poder poltico.....................................111
O Brasil, a Rssia, a ndia e a China em pouco tempo no apenas realizaram uma integrao econmica mais
estreita do que esperado tambm pretendem perseguir alvos polticos comuns. Os BRICs perceberam que
em conjunto podem exercer maior peso poltico no cenrio internacional disse Douglas Smith, economistachefe para a Amrica Latina no Standard Chartered Bank................................................................................112

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia Sify- A day in the life of summit-hopping Manmohan (Brasilia


Diary)..........................................................................................................................................113
Two summits and three bilateral meetings, all packed in one day. Trust Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
to manage a killing schedule of back-to-back meetings and still look fresh and energetic!................................113

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia Sify- We want India, Brazil in UN security council: BRIC nations
....................................................................................................................................................114
Challenging the existing global power structure, BRIC nations called for urgent reforms of the UN, wanted
international financial institutions to accommodate aspirations of rising powers and pitched for including India
and Brazil in an expanded UN Security Council................................................................................................. 114

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia Sify- Manmohan to cement India's global role at IBSA, BRIC
summits.....................................................................................................................................116
It is set to be a week of hectic multilateral diplomacy for Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who arrived
here Wednesday evening on a three-day visit to participate in two back-to-back summits of IBSA and BRIC
countries............................................................................................................................................................. 116

Data: 14/04/2010-EUA - Univision.com- Grandes pases emergentes del BRIC se renen


buscando ampliar su influencia..............................................................................................117
Los lderes de las grandes naciones del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) se darn cita el viernes en Brasilia
en la II Cumbre de este grupo, aglutinado por el fenomenal crecimiento de sus gigantescas economas, para
tratar de consolidar su influencia mundial.......................................................................................................... 117

Data: 16/04/2010-Hong Kong - Asia Times- The BRIC post-Washington consensus........119


The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) got together in the Brazilian capital, Brasilia, on Thursday
with a bang. After meeting Chinese President Hu Jintao, and once again condemning an "asymmetric,
dysfunctional globalization", Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was at his ebullient best: "A new global
economic geography has been born." Well, not quite. Not yet...........................................................................119

Data: 18/04/2010-Frana - Radio France International (RFI)- Sommet du BRIC Brasilia :


des mergents unis pour entrer dans la cour des grands..................................................121
Lors du second sommet du BRIC qui sest tenu Brasilia, jeudi 16 avril, les dirigeants des quatre grands pays
qui composent le BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ont revendiqu une meilleure reprsentativit dans les
instances internationales. Une demande au nom de leurs dynamiques conomies mergentes ................121

Data: 14/04/2010-Frana - Radio France International (RFI)- Moscou et Pkin raffirment


leur prsence en Amrique du Sud........................................................................................123
Dans une rgion longtemps considre comme l'arrire-cour des Etats-Unis, la Chine et la Russie reprennent
pied en Amrique latine. Les prsidents chinois et russe se rendent en Amrique latine cette semaine avec des

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10

tapes au Venezuela, au Chili, et au Brsil.Le Brsil, qui accueille le deuxime sommet des grands pays
mergents (Brsil, Russie, Inde, Chine - BRIC) les 15 et 16 avril......................................................................123

Data: 19/04/2010-Frana - Le Devoir- Perspectives - BRIC molle.......................................123


Les pays du BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ont tenu leur deuxime rencontre au sommet, la semaine
dernire, Braslia. Il reste encore voir s'ils russiront jamais constituer un groupe cohrent et agissant.
Mais leur influence, ne serait-ce qu'individuelle, ne peut que continuer grandir..............................................123

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - Express News- BRIC must create a new world order: Lula........125
Brasilia The BRIC group of the world's four biggest emerging powers has a fundamental role in creating a new
world order, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said on Thursday........................................................125

Data: 15/04/2010-Argentina - Rosario Net- Lula busca crear un nuevo eje de poder.......127
Cuando faltan slo ocho meses para el fin de su mandato, el presidente brasileo, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva,
redobla sus esfuerzos por crear un nuevo polo de poder mundial conformado por pases emergentes, que hoy y
maana se reunirn en Brasilia para exigir un mayor peso en las instituciones financieras internacionales y
discutir acciones de cooperacin para el desarrollo........................................................................................... 127

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - LExpansion- Les BRIC rclament un ordre mondial "plus


juste"..........................................................................................................................................129
Les dirigeants des quatre grands pays mergents du BRIC se sont runis jeudi soir Brasilia. Le Premier
ministre indien Manmohan Singh a dclar que leur principal objectif tait la cration "d'un nouvel ordre mondial
plus dmocratique, juste et multipolaire."........................................................................................................... 129

Data: 16/04/2010-Argentina - Agencia Telam- Medio oriente en el eje de la agenda de


paises emergentes...................................................................................................................130
Brasilia, 15 de abril - Los tres principales pases emergentes, Brasil, China e India, coincidieron en una solucin
negociada para Medio Oriente, tanto en el conflicto palestino-israel como en el problema nuclear con Irn,
durante dos cumbres realizadas entre ayer y hoy en Brasilia............................................................................130

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai - La Diria- Cuestin de orden....................................................131


Dos cumbres de las principales economas emergentes se estn llevando a cabo desde ayer en Brasilia, la del
Foro IBSA, que forman Brasil, India y Sudfrica, y la del grupo de pases BRIC -Brasil, Rusia, India y China-,
que se abri con la reunin entre el presidente anfitrin, Lula da Silva, y su par chino, Hu Jintao. Jintao ya
regres a su pas, antes de lo previsto, por el terremoto del mircoles, que, segn los datos oficiales
actualizados ayer, dej 617 vctimas fatales y 15.000 casas destruidas, con miles de personas que duermen a
la intemperie....................................................................................................................................................... 131

Data: 16/04/2010-EUA - Fox News- BRIC Leaders Call For Change In Global Pecking
Order..........................................................................................................................................131
BRASILIA -(Dow Jones)- The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China late Thursday called for deep reform of
the global financial system and multilateral institutions to better reflect the growing importance of emerging
nations............................................................................................................................................................... 131

Data: 14/04/2010- Mxico Notimex- Consecuencias de crisis y reforma global en la


agenda de los BRIC..................................................................................................................133
Mosc, 14 Abr (Notimex).- La segunda cumbre del grupo BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) buscar este
jueves y viernes revertir las consecuencias de la actual crisis y promover la reforma de las instituciones
globales, dijo hoy La Voz de Rusia.................................................................................................................... 133

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai Brecha- El dream team de los pases emergentes............134


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Si la primera sigla mostraba la voluntad de las potencias emergentes de coordinar su voz en el panorama
internacional, la segunda tiene un peso decisivo a la hora de formular un nuevo orden multilateral. Primero
Brasil impuls el Ibsa, que suma India ms Brasil ms Sudfrica, y ahora, desde 2009, se le aade el bric,
donde la principal potencia regional latinoamericana se las entiende con Rusia, India y China........................134

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - France24- Le Bric prconise une rforme rapide des


institutions financires internationales.................................................................................135
A l'issue du sommet de Brasilia, les dirigeants des pays du Bric (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ont lanc un
appel pour l'tablissement d'un nouvel ordre mondial et pour une rforme rapide des institutions financires
internationales.................................................................................................................................................... 135

Data: 18/04/2010-ndia - Calcutta News- BRIC, IBSA boost India's drive for UN seat.......136
The stalled drive for expansion of the UN Security Council has gathered momentum with the IBSA and BRIC
summits and South Africa backing the G4 initiative, say Indian officials who feel that it will be 'a matter of time
before it's taken to its logical conclusion'............................................................................................................ 136

Data: 16/04/2010-Rssia - Russia Today- BRIC countries have an interesting and


productive dialogue - Medvedev...........................................................................................137
The largest emerging economies - known as the BRIC - wrap up a series of meetings in Brasilia. Brazil, Russia,
India and China put their heads together to figure out how to withstand the aftermath of the global crisis........137

Data: 16/04/2010-Austrlia - Business Spectators- BRIC group urges swift financial


reform........................................................................................................................................139
BRASILIA - Leading emerging powers have urged swift reform of international financial institutions to give
developing countries a greater voice, saying their group was vital to achieving a new world order...................139

Data: 16/04/2010-Alemanha - Der Tagesspiegel- Superpotncias do futuro conversam


sobre a substituio do dlar.................................................................................................141
Uma nova moeda padro o assunto de destaque no encontro da China, da Rssia, da ndia e do Brasil.....141

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - Rue 89- Les "Bric" peuvent-ils changer la faon dont tourne le
monde ?.....................................................................................................................................142
Ils reprsentent 40% de la population du monde, 15% de son produit intrieur brut, mais surtout 50% de la
croissance conomique actuelle. Ce sont les Bric (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine), qui se sont runis jeudi en
sommet Brasilia et qui sont unis sur au moins un objectif : casser le monopole occidental sur la gestion des
affaires plantaires............................................................................................................................................. 142

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - Le Temps- Sommet au Brsil - Appel un ordre mondial "plus


juste"..........................................................................................................................................144
Brasilia Les dirigeants des quatre grands pays mergents du BRIC se sont runis jeudi soir Brasilia. Ce minisommet de deux heures s'est conclu par un appel crer un ordre mondial "plus juste"..................................144

Data: 15/04/2010-Malsia - Malaysian Mirror- Leaders of top emerging economies meet in


Brazil..........................................................................................................................................145
BRASILIA -The leaders of China, India and South Africa have flown into Brazil for two days of talks among the
world's top emerging economies........................................................................................................................ 145

Data: 17/04/2010-Cingapura - Asia One- Early BRIC summit wraps up..............................146


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12

BRASILIA - Brazil, Russia, India and China wrapped up their second-ever BRIC summit here after sharpening
their call for reforms of international institutions and discussing a push to impose more UN sanctions on Iran. 146

Data: 16/04/2010-Sua - Schweizerische Depeschenagentur- Schwellenlnder fordern


rasche Reform der Finanzinstitutionen.................................................................................147
Die vier grossen Schwellenlnder Brasilien, Russland, Indien und China dringen auf eine rasche Reform der
internationalen Finanzinstitutionen, um den unterentwickelten Staaten grsseres Gewicht zu verleihen..........147

Data: 15/04/2010-China - Beijing Information- Hu Jintao arrive Brasilia pour le sommet


du BRIC et une visite d'Etat.....................................................................................................148
Le prsident chinois Hu Jintao est arriv mercredi Brasilia, capitale du Brsil, pour participer un sommet des
pays du BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ainsi qu'une visite d'Etat au Brsil...............................................148

Data: 14/04/2010-Mxico - Rdio Frmula- Emprende presidente chino gira por


Latinoamrica para afianzar lazos..........................................................................................149
Pekn.- El presidente chino Hu Jintao inicia hoy en Brasil su gira por Amrica Latina, una regin clave para la
expansin china y con la cual Pekn ha trabajado los ltimos aos para afianzar estrechas alianzas polticas y
comerciales........................................................................................................................................................ 149

Data: 18/04/2010-Sua - Tages Anzeiger-1 Russland markiert Terrain in Lateinamerika 151


Prsident Medwedew hat jenseits des Atlantiks neue Beziehungen geknpft. Hhepunkt der Reise war der BricGipfel in Brasilia. Gemeinsam mit Brasilien, Indien und China fordert Russland eine neue, gerechtere
Weltordnung....................................................................................................................................................... 151

15/04/2010 - Argentina Clarn: Lula fortalece su alianza con China, India y Rusia............3
Desde la economia internacional hasta la crisis nuclear con Irn, la agenda del cuarteto presidencial del BRIC
que se rene a partir de hoy en la capital brasilea tendr un cariz netamente geopoltico. La cita incluye temas
tan dismiles como la falta de control del sistema financiero internacional, las reformas del Fondo Monetario y el
Banco Mundial, la reestructuracin de la ONU en especial de su Consejo de Seguridad y las sanciones
impulsadas por Estados Unidos contra el pas persa............................................................................................ 3

Data: 16/04/2010 - Argentina - La Nacin Ttulo: Las potencias emergentes exigen un


"nuevo orden................................................................................................................................4
BRASILIA.- Las principales potencias emergentes destacaron ayer la necesidad de construir un "nuevo orden
mundial" y acordaron fortalecer su asociacin estratgica, durante una cumbre del grupo BRIC, conformado por
Brasil, Rusia, la India y China................................................................................................................................ 4
El presidente brasileo y anfitrin, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, afirm que las cumbres que se realizaron en
Brasilia entre los cuatro pases "revelan que ha nacido una nueva geografa econmica mundial"......................4

Data: 18/04/2010 Argentina - Pgina 12 - Ttulo: La apuesta de Lula por el eje Sur-Sur......5
La travesa internacional de Luiz Incio Lula da Silva lleva hacia el aislamiento de la comunidad internacional,
advierten con tono catastrfico segmentos de las elites econmica, militar y meditica brasileas. Esos grupos
censuran al gobierno por haberse aproximado a Irn y tachan de ideolgica su adhesin al BRIC, la coalicin
de potencias emergentes de la que tambin hacen parte China, Rusia e India, cuya segunda cumbre fue
celebrada el jueves en Brasilia. Desde diversas tribunas del espectro conservador se alega que esta poltica
externa, vertebrada en el eje Sur-Sur, carece de pragmatismo y no alcanza resultados concretos......................5

Data: 16/04/2010 - EUA - The New York Times Ttulo: 1 Brazil: 'Affinity' on Iran With China,
India...............................................................................................................................................7
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13

Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim said President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva met with Chinese and Indian
leaders on the sidelines of a summit of the so-called BRIC nations, which also includes Russia..........................7

Data: 14/04/2010 EUA - The Wall Street Journal Ttulo: Building a Future With Sturdy
BRICs.............................................................................................................................................8
Goldman Sachs's Jim O'Neil takes the credit for labeling the emerging-markets giants as the BRICs, and he
continues to espouse this cause. Amid the gloom enveloping so much analysis, he finds reasons for constant
optimism................................................................................................................................................................. 8

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Les Echos Ttulo: Le deuxime sommet des quatre grands
mergents court.....................................................................................................................10
Les chefs dEtat et de gouvernement du Brsil, de la Russie, de lInde et de la Chine (BRIC) se sont runis, hier
Brasilia, pour accorder leurs violons avant la tenue du sommet du G20 de Toronto, en juin. Un sommet
court deux heures de discussions. En raison dun sisme dans son pays, le prsident chinois a annul sa
tourne en Amrique latine.................................................................................................................................. 10

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Les Echos Ttulo: Les BRIC rclament un nouvel ordre mondial
plus juste.....................................................................................................................................11
Le brsilien Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, le chinois Hu Jintao, le russe Dmitri Medvedev et l'indien Manmohan
Singh ont particip un sommet des BRIC avanc de vendredi jeudi aprs la dcision de Hu d'courter sa
visite pour regagner la Chine frappe par un violent sisme...............................................................................12
A l'issue de leur runion de deux heures, le Premier ministre indien a dclar que le principal objectif du groupe
tait la cration "d'un nouvel ordre mondial plus dmocratique, juste et multipolaire".........................................12

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Le Figaro Ttulo: Les Bric peinent dfinir un front commun..12
COMMERCE La grand-messe naura finalement pas eu lieu. Le deuxime sommet des Bric, acronyme
dsignant le Brsil, la Russie, lInde et la Chine, qui devait se tenir aujourdhui Brasilia, a capot avec le
dpart prcipit, hier soir, du prsident chinois Hu Jintao, oblig de rentrer en raison du tremblement de terre au
Qinghai. Une priptie de plus pour un rendez-vous qui se veut dsormais rgulier mais qui tarde encore
trouver ses marques............................................................................................................................................ 12

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Le Monde Ttulo: Les grands pays mergents se retrouvent
Brasilia.........................................................................................................................................13
Troisime partenaire de l'Amrique latine, la Chine est accuse par le Brsil d'entretenir une attitude "
nocoloniale "....................................................................................................................................................... 13

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Flash Interview: BRIC.....................................15


L'ide de Bric, associant l'Inde, le Brsil, la Chine et la Russie, vous parat-elle pertinente?..............................15
Les Bric sont gomtrie variable : quand on se trouve Pkin ou Shanghai, on entend rarement parler de la
Russie. En revanche, l'Indonsie est clairement dans le radar des investisseurs chinois : plutt que de Bric, il
vaudrait mieux parler de Cibi!............................................................................................................................... 15

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Les pays mergents font affaire entre eux. .16
Les nouveaux gants conomiques sortent renforcs de la crise. Face l'atonie des marchs dvelopps, ils
comptent se renforcer, l'occasion du deuxime Forum des Bric qui s'ouvre Brasilia.....................................16

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Moscou tourne son attention vers l'Inde et la
Chine............................................................................................................................................17
Dmitri Medvedev a renouvel mardi son appel pour resserrer les rangs des pays Bric. La Russie veut
rquilibrer ses changes.................................................................................................................................... 17

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14

Le Kremlin ne veut plus entendre les conomistes dire que la Russie est le canard boiteux du club des Bric
(Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine).............................................................................................................................. 17

Data: 14/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Les pays mergents se mobilisent contre les
attaques spculatives................................................................................................................18
La Russie plaide pour des mesures concertes avec le Brsil, l'Inde et la Chine en vue de grer les risques
spculatifs sur leurs marchs financiers.............................................................................................................. 18

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: 1 Early BRIC summit wraps up19
BRASILIA (AFP) Brazil, Russia, India and China wrapped up their second-ever BRIC summit here after
sharpening their call for reforms of international institutions and discussing a push to impose more UN sanctions
on Iran.................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: Brasil, Sudfrica, China, India y Rusia, el nuevo eje
de poder............................................................................................................................................................... 20

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: El Grupo IBAS puede ayudar al
proceso de paz en Medio Oriente (Amorim)............................................................................22
Brasil, Sudfrica e India, que forman el grupo IBAS, pueden auxiliar al Cuarteto para Medio Oriente (EEUU, UE,
ONU y Rusia) para hacer avanzar el proceso de paz entre israeles y palestinos, dijo este jueves el ministro
brasileo de Relaciones Exteriores, Celso Amorim.............................................................................................. 22

15/04/2010 - Argentina Clarn: Lula fortalece su alianza con China, India y Rusia
Por: Eleonora Gosman
Desde la economia internacional hasta la crisis nuclear con Irn, la agenda del cuarteto
presidencial del BRIC que se rene a partir de hoy en la capital brasilea tendr un cariz
netamente geopoltico. La cita incluye temas tan dismiles como la falta de control del
sistema financiero internacional, las reformas del Fondo Monetario y el Banco Mundial, la
reestructuracin de la ONU en especial de su Consejo de Seguridad y las sanciones
impulsadas por Estados Unidos contra el pas persa.
El presidente Lula da Silva, anfitrin de sus colegas de Rusia, India, China y Sudfrica, se las
ingeni para introducir un eje adicional: la discusin sobre el proceso de paz en Cercano
Oriente. Fue invitado con ese objetivo el ministro de Asuntos Exteriores de la Autoridad
Nacional Palestina, Radi Maliki. Este se encontrar con Lula, el premier indio Manmohan Singh
y el sudafricano Jacob Zuma. Tal como inform el diplomtico Roberto Jaguaribe, coordinador
de la cumbre denominada IBAS (India, Brasil y Sudfrica), este G3 "puede tener un papel
importante, con imparcialidad y equilibrio en la bsqueda de un entendimiento" entre Israel y
Palestina.
Pero si la postura frente a ese conflicto puede ser coincidente entre estos tres pases, es
menos probable que salga una posicin nica frente a la cuestin iran que ser objeto de
debate entre Rusia, India, China y Brasil. Los tres primeros pases tienen intereses especficos
en Asia Central e, histricamente, sus intereses fueron contradictorios. Sobran ejemplos de
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15

esos antagonismos, en el pasado no tan lejano como lo fueron los conflictos limtrofes entre
China e India, o las enemistades entre rusos y chinos. De cualquier manera la nueva cita del
BRIC ha provocado escozor en Occidente. Se teme que salga de ese foro una actitud contraria
a la impulsada por EE.UU. y las grandes potencias occidentales de redoblar las sanciones
contra Tehern.
China e India han defendido una posicin menos radical que la norteamericana y ms prxima
en ese sentido a la de Brasil, que propugna un nuevo esfuerzo de negociacin. Rusia es,
probablemente, el actor de mayor relieve en Asia Central si se tiene en cuenta sus viejas
pretensiones sobre Afganistn, que incluso chocaron en el pasado con la poltica iran para la
misma regin. Es por eso que los analistas de poltica internacional ponen signos de
interrogacin a los resultados que pueda tener en ese terreno la cumbre del BRIC.
Donde habr una mayor confluencia es en exigir a las potencias occidentales que sean
efectivas en el control del sistema financiero, una promesa que sali de las sucesivas
reuniones del G20 financiero, pero que hasta el momento tuvieron escaso resultado. En ese
contexto el cuarteto de potencias emergentes podr promover medidas para la reforma del FMI
y del Banco Mundial, que hasta ahora siguen en una nebulosa.

Data: 16/04/2010 - Argentina - La Nacin Ttulo: Las potencias emergentes exigen un


"nuevo orden
Los pases BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, la India y China) acordaron fortalecer su asociacin estratgica
BRASILIA.- Las principales potencias emergentes destacaron ayer la necesidad de construir un
"nuevo orden mundial" y acordaron fortalecer su asociacin estratgica, durante una
cumbre del grupo BRIC, conformado por Brasil, Rusia, la India y China.
El presidente brasileo y anfitrin, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, afirm que las cumbres que se
realizaron en Brasilia entre los cuatro pases "revelan que ha nacido una nueva geografa
econmica mundial".
Lula dijo que Brasil, la India, Rusia, China y Sudfrica "tienen vocacin universal" y pretenden
un orden internacional "ms justo, equitativo, equilibrado e inclusivo, en un renovado
multilateralismo", al tiempo que seal que el actual orden es "desigual", "injusto" e "incapaz de
resolver antiguos problemas, como la pobreza extrema y el hambre de millones de personas".
Adems, el mandatario brasileo enfatiz su demanda de reforma de las Naciones Unidas y de
ampliacin del Consejo de Seguridad, para reforzar la presencia de las naciones en desarrollo
en los principales centros de decisin de los problemas internacionales.
"Los pases en desarrollo no lograrn consolidar una voz ms activa sin que haya una reforma
de la ONU y la ampliacin del Consejo de Seguridad", expres.
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Con un nuevo gesto que revela su postura crtica con respecto a la Casa Blanca, Lula volvi a
rechazar la aplicacin de sanciones contra Irn por su programa nuclear.
El canciller brasileo, Celso Amorim, dijo que Lula encontr afinidades de posiciones en sus
conversaciones con el presidente chino, Hu Jintao, y el primer ministro indio, Manmohan Singh.
"La eficacia de las sanciones es muy discutible, ya que las sanciones afectan a las personas
ms vulnerables, no a los dirigentes, expres Amorim.
Lula mantuvo una reunin bilateral con su par chino, en la cual trazaron las lneas para un plan
de cooperacin entre los aos 2010 y 2014, que dotar a los proyectos conjuntos de una
"mayor armona y coordinacin".
El presidente chino decidi regresar anticipadamente a su pas para coordinar las tareas de
emergencia en la zona castigada por el terremoto de anteayer. Por eso, las reuniones del BRIC
y del IBSA (compuesto por la India, Brasil y Sudfrica) debieron realizarse todas ayer, cuando
el programa original prevea que finalizaran hoy.
"El gobierno chino est organizando una emergencia para enfrentar la calamidad. Por eso
decid anticipar mi regreso a China al finalizar el da [de ayer], explic Hu.
La nueva agenda incluy reuniones de presidentes y ministros de ambos bloques, y comenz
con el foro IBSA en la maana de ayer, y la cumbre de los BRIC en horas de la noche. Al cabo
de la reunin bilateral, Lula destac que China ha desplazado este ao a Estados Unidos
como el principal socio comercial de Brasil y que el intercambio entre los dos pases lleg en
2009 a 36.000 millones de dlares.
Lula se reuni tambin con el presidente sudafricano, Jacob Zuma, y vaticin, en broma, que
Brasil y Sudfrica estarn en la final del prximo Mundial. "Para quienes no saben, esta foto
retrata lo que ser la final de la Copa del Mundo", brome Lula, al posar junto a Zuma para
decenas de reporteros grficos.
Agencias AP, AFP, EFE y DPA

Data: 18/04/2010 Argentina - Pgina 12 - Ttulo: La apuesta de Lula por el eje Sur-Sur

La estada en Brasilia de Hu Jintao, Dmitri Medvedev y Manmohan Singh, lderes de tres


potencias nucleares, indica la voluntad poltica de afianzar un mbito, como es el grupo BRIC,
con potencialidad para plantarse ante Washington.

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La travesa internacional de Luiz Incio Lula da Silva lleva hacia el aislamiento de la


comunidad internacional, advierten con tono catastrfico segmentos de las elites
econmica, militar y meditica brasileas. Esos grupos censuran al gobierno por haberse
aproximado a Irn y tachan de ideolgica su adhesin al BRIC, la coalicin de potencias
emergentes de la que tambin hacen parte China, Rusia e India, cuya segunda cumbre
fue celebrada el jueves en Brasilia. Desde diversas tribunas del espectro conservador se
alega que esta poltica externa, vertebrada en el eje Sur-Sur, carece de pragmatismo y no
alcanza resultados concretos.
Si bien es un discurso pretendidamente realista, algunos de sus postulados no pasan de
proclamas ideolgicas, como el que considera que la comunidad internacional se reduce a las
potencias occidentales, las que en rigor son una pequea porcin del planeta en trminos
poblacionales y geogrficos, aunque sea relevante si se considera su porte econmico y
podero blico.
Aciertan, en cambio, los detractores de Lula cuando afirman que ste no logr el resultado
buscado en el encuentro con sus colegas de China, Rusia e India. En sus discursos Hu Jintao,
Dimitri Medvedev y Manmohan Singh esquivaron la crisis iran, lo cual priv a Brasilia de un
triunfo diplomtico robusto a pocas semanas del viaje de Lula a Tehern, donde defender una
salida negociada para la crisis y cuestionar el parecer de Barack Obama, para quien no hay
dudas de que los ayatolas van por la bomba.
Aun as, sera tosco concluir que esos silencios, especialmente el chino, equivalen a un
desacuerdo inequvoco con el alegato brasileo. Hu Jintao, dueo de una baraja preciosa,
como es el poder de veto en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU que le permitira abortar las
sanciones exigidas por la Casa Blanca, fue tan sigiloso en Brasilia como dos das antes lo
haba sido en Washington, donde convers con Obama.
El canciller brasileo Celso Amorim asegur que pese al mutismo de Hu Jintao en sus
contactos con la prensa, durante la cita con Lula mostr afinidades con la lnea dialoguista y
los riesgos de permitir que contencioso norteamericano-iran se agudice.
Es cierto tambin que la estancia en Brasilia de Hu Jintao, Medvedev y Singh, lderes de tres
potencias nucleares, indica la voluntad poltica de afianzar un mbito, como es el BRIC, con
potencialidad para plantarse ante Washington, sea sobre Irn, las reformas en el FMI o el
Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU.
El cnclave del jueves ense que Brasil logr un estatus global plausible pero avanza por un
desfiladero angosto, plagado de riesgos. La cercana de Brasilia y Tehern es coherente con el
perfil neo-tercermundista de Lula y su afn de expandir el radio de influencia de su pas, pero
no debe confundirse con afinidades ideolgicas con Mahmud Ahmadinejad y, menos an, con
los principios de la Repblica Islmica.
Lula tampoco se fa ciegamente de las promesas iranes de que el uranio enriquecido jams
ser utilizado con fines blicos, como se asegur ayer en la cumbre celebrada en Tehern,
convocada bajo el lema armas nucleares para nadie, energa nuclear para todos. As lo
reconoci el canciller Celso Amorim cuando dijo que nunca podremos saber a ciencia cierta el
destino dado al mineral enriquecido.
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Si algn da Irn fabrica la bomba, la credibilidad de Lula se desplomar, y se es un riesgo al


que Brasil se expone deliberadamente. Pero al contrario de lo que sostienen sus detractores el
lder brasileo no razona como un utpico radical que camina hacia el abismo. Para desmontar
la lgica de su poltica externa hay que observar las tesis formuladas en el Instituto de
Pesquisa Econmica Aplicada (IPEA), uno de los principales tanques de ideas del gobierno.
En un encuentro con intelectuales chinos, rusos e indios, el mircoles, Marcio Pochman, titular
del IPEA, afirm que la crisis del 2009 se asemeja a la que acab con la hegemona britnica
en la dcada de 1870, preanuncia el deterioro de la supremaca norteamericana y pavimenta el
camino para que las potencias hasta hoy perifricas, se agrupen y disputen palmo a palmo el
centro de la arena mundial.
A Pochman lo secund el vicecanciller Antonio Patriota, para quien los BRIC estarn entre las
mayores potencias del mundo en 2035, y no en 2050, como presagi el Jim ONeill, del Banco
Goldman Sachs, cuando cre ese grupo de naciones, como una tipologa slo economtrica,
en 2001.
En suma, no atribuyamos a Lula ser un estadista preclaro que a la manera de un gran timonel
gua los pasos de las potencias emergentes hacia un nuevo orden mundial.
Antes bien es un poltico pragmtico, defensor del multipolarismo, cuya formacin de izquierda
est trufada con el legado nacionalista de los ex mandatarios Getulio Vargas y Joo Goulart, el
mismo que poco antes de asumir el gobierno visit China, en 1961. Uno de los primeros actos
de la dictadura que derroc a Goulart en 1964 fue romper relaciones con Pekn.

Data: 16/04/2010 - EUA - The New York Times Ttulo: 1 Brazil: 'Affinity' on Iran With China,
India

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS


BRASILIA, Brazil (AP) -- There is an ''affinity'' between Brazil's opposition to new sanctions on
Iran and the positions of China and India, the Brazilian foreign minister said as leaders of those
nations met Thursday.
Brazil has increased its political and economic ties to Iran in the past year while frequently
criticizing efforts to impose sanctions over its nuclear program.

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19

Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim said President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva met with
Chinese and Indian leaders on the sidelines of a summit of the so-called BRIC nations,
which also includes Russia.
''We saw a great affinity of views from both,'' Amorim said. ''There was an exchange of ideas on
how to start the process, what is the best way to find a peaceful solution'' to international
concern about Iran's development of nuclear energy.
The U.S. and its allies accuse Iran of seeking to build a nuclear weapon, a claim Iran denies.
China and Russia, as part of the U.N. Security Council, have the most clout among BRIC
nations in shaping a global response to Iran.
On Thursday at the United Nations, leading powers met to discuss possible new sanctions
against Iran. Chinese diplomats said their position was to focus on diplomacy.
Chinese president Hu Jintao made no statements in Brasilia about Iran. But Amorim said after
Silva met with Hu and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh that the Brazil delegation was
optimistic.
''Our belief is that there is still the possibility'' for a negotiated agreement, he said, adding that
China and India seem to believe that ''the effectiveness of the sanctions is questionable and that
sanctions affect only the most vulnerable people and not the leaders.''
The summit was cut short because China's Hu said he would return home early due to
earthquakes that killed at least 600 people. That meant he was canceling visits to Venezuela
and Chile.
At the summit's close, leaders of the four nations announced they had signed an agreement to
deepen cooperation among their countries' development banks. They said China would host the
next BRIC summit next year.
The BRIC nations are looking to deepen their trade ties and are calling for a bigger role in major
global financial decisions, primarily within institutions such as the International Monetary Fund.
Following a bilateral meeting with Hu, Silva said that because of the economic advances of
Brazil and China, ''We have the means -- and obligation, really -- of fighting for a different
financial order.''
Also on Thursday, the fledgling political club known as IBSA, which comprises Brazil, India and
South Africa, convened its fourth annual meeting.
Leaders from the three nations met with Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad Malki and called for
the resumption of peace talks with Israel that would ''lead to a two-state solution'' with East
Jerusalem as the shared capital.
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20

Associated Press writers Marco Sibaja and Edith M. Lederer at the United Nations contributed
to this report.

Data: 14/04/2010 EUA - The Wall Street Journal Ttulo: Building a Future With Sturdy
BRICs
Goldman Sachs's Jim O'Neil takes the credit for labeling the emerging-markets giants as the
BRICs, and he continues to espouse this cause. Amid the gloom enveloping so much
analysis, he finds reasons for constant optimism.
His latest good cheer comes in the shape of China's March trade figures. The first monthly
deficit in six years may be an aberration, for the country hasn't put the brakes on exporting, but,
points out Mr. O'Neill, just look at the scale of the imports.
For that single month, imports, at $119.4 billion, were up $47.5 billion compared with a year
earlier. During the first quarter as a whole, imports at $301.7 billion had leapt by $118.4 billion
from the previous year.
While politicians get vexed about the strength of the yuan and try to goad China into letting its
currency appreciate, Mr. O'Neill prefers to concentrate on the good news: If Chinese imports
continue to grow at this rate for the entire year, the effect will be as significant as if another
Indonesia, Sweden or Turkey had burst onto the trading scene.
Optimists such as Mr. O'Neill see China and the other BRICs Brazil, Russia and Indiaas the
force that could help pull the West out of its doldrums. But, while that could be a welcome spin
off of the growing strength of that country, China's ambitions lack any element of altruism.
As if to underline that message, this week has seen China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. paying
$4.65 billion for a stake in the Syncrude Canada oil-sands project. A month earlier, Chinese oilexploration company Cnooc paid more than $3 billion for a stake in a major Argentinian oilexploration company. China is now amassing energy assets at a phenomenal rate, in Africa as
well as the Americas, where it no longer seems to be coming up against the protectionist
objections that prevented its planned takeover of Unocal Corp. back in 2005.
Despite the posturing over tariffs that continues between the U.S. and China, perhaps there is a
tacit acceptance in Washington of the importance of retaining China as a welcoming market for
U.S. imports.
This week, U.S. President Barack Obama has been welcoming BRIC leaders, along with more
than 40 others, to his nuclear summit. Russia's president, Dmitry Medvedev, took the
opportunity to call on the BRICs to work together, not merely to use their influence in security
matters but more widely, for instance, in financial matters.

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21

That will now be on the agenda for the BRIC summit to be held shortly in Brasilia. Tensions
between the four countries are many, but their growing strength represents a massive change in
the balance of power in the world.
The contrast between the BRICs and the PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain) is a
painful one for Europe to confront.
Yet given the recent happenings in Greece and the potential for similarif not so extreme
events in other European countries, there is no escaping the fact that the map of global
influence now looks very different.
Western politicians are understandably reluctant to confront this fact. It is one thing to point to
the economic challenge posed by the merging markets, and cite it as a reason why investment
in education and science has to be improved if the West is to compete. It is an entirely different
matter to admit to a shrinking presence in the world's power league.
It is certainly not something that is likely to be given much of an airing during the U.K.'s election
campaign.
In fact, any discussion of foreign policy during the run up to May 6 might well sound, to that
legendary Martian who just happened to drop in on the conversation, as if Britain was still
running an empire. And yet one of the most interesting exchanges that might take place would
be to draw out the three main parties in the coming weeks on how they see Britain's role on the
international stage.
Tomorrow sees the first of three televised debates between the leaders of the Conservative,
Labour and Liberal Democrat parties. This import from the U.S. is a novel feature of the 2010
general election, and no one knows how influential it will turn out to be in determining the
outcome.
The main thrust is likely to be on how to deal with the massive deficit in the national finances,
but the truth is nothing that has been heard from the three parties so far goes anywhere near
addressing the real scale of the pain that will have to be taken if a debt that is on course to
reach 1.4 trillion is to be brought under control.
The specter of Greece, now in what looks to be only a temporary respite from default, should be
enough to persuade responsible leaders that saving a few billion pounds here or there is simply
not enough. But to talk about drastic moves such as slashing the defence budget to something
commensurate with the status of a country that is no longer a world power may be judged a
recipe for vote losing.
Equally, talk of slashing public-sector pay and pensions, now a burden the country can simply
no longer afford, isn't going to persuade the swathes of electors who work in the public sector to
give their support.
And the five million people in Britain who subsist on benefits, virtually the same number that did
so when Labour came to power, aren't likely to vote for the party that promises to force them
into work, even though some two-thirds are estimated to be capable of earning.
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22

Once the election is over, though, such tough choices will have to be on the agenda whichever
party wins.

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Les Echos Ttulo: Le deuxime sommet des quatre grands
mergents court

Les chefs dEtat et de gouvernement du Brsil, de la Russie, de lInde et de la Chine (BRIC) se


sont runis, hier Brasilia, pour accorder leurs violons avant la tenue du sommet du G20
de Toronto, en juin. Un sommet court deux heures de discussions. En raison dun
sisme dans son pays, le prsident chinois a annul sa tourne en Amrique latine.
DE NOTRE CORRESPONDANT SO PAULO.
BRIC, acte II. Loin dapparatre comme un mouvement de mode lanc la faveur de la crise
mondiale, les BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde, Chine) veulent gagner de la consistance. Runis
Brasilia, le Brsilien Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, le Chinois Hu Jintao, le Russe Dimitri Medvedev
et le premier ministre indien Manmohan Singh devaient montrer que les dsquilibres de
lconomie mondiale ne peuvent tre corrigs sans leur participation active.
Reste que le sommet a t court deux heures de discussions. Le prsident chinois, Hu
Jintao, en raison du sisme qui a frapp son pays, devait repartir du Brsil hier. Sa tourne en
Amrique latine a t annule. Pour avancer sur la voie de la rforme de la gouvernance
mondiale, les membres du BRIC devaient accorder leurs violons avant le prochain sommet du
G20 Toronto, discuter de la dynamique commerciale Sud-Sud et des projets montaires en
coulisse.
Coopration financire
Les BRIC estiment quune seule monnaie nationale ne peut servir de rfrence internationale.
Dimitri Medvedev se montre particulirement intress par des accords de commerce
rciproques en monnaies locales , dans un article publi par le Kremlin. Mais, ct chinois, on
reste prudent. Nous ne croyons pas en des changements significatifs ds maintenant, affirme
Li Yang, vice-prsident de lAcadmie des sciences chinoise. On ne doit pas sattendre une
proposition rvolutionnaire dans le domaine montaire , a soulign Roberto Jaguaribe, soussecrtaire aux Affaires politiques du ministre brsilien des Relations extrieures.
La question de la valorisation du yuan ne fait pas partie de lordre du jour officiel, mais nest pas
pour autant exclue, a-t-il ajout.Dimitri Medvedev se montre particulirement intress par un
resserrement de la coopration financire. Ce rapprochement permettrait en outre un change
dinformations propos dventuelles attaques spculatives sur le march des changes et les
Bourses des BRIC . Selon le prsident russe, cela pourrait dboucher sur une plus ample
coopration dans les domaines du nuclaire, de laronautique, de larospatiale et des
nanotechnologies .
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23

En dfinitive, en dpit de tout ce qui spare encore les quatre membres des BRIC, le sommet
de Brasilia devait servir tracer de nouvelles voies pour la coopration entre grands pays en
dveloppement, souligne Rathin Roy, directeur du Centre international de politique du PNUD.
Avec un enjeu politique central, selon lui : Ces pays russiront-ils profiter de loccasion pour
consolider un nouveau paradigme de coopration pour un dveloppement plus inclusif, qui
garantisse que les fruits de la croissance parviennent tous?
Thierry Ogier

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Les Echos Ttulo: Les BRIC rclament un nouvel ordre mondial
plus juste

Les dirigeants des pays du BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ont rclam jeudi un nouvel
ordre mondial plus juste et plus dmocratique lors de leur IIe sommet Brasilia.
Le brsilien Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, le chinois Hu Jintao, le russe Dmitri Medvedev et l'indien
Manmohan Singh ont particip un sommet des BRIC avanc de vendredi jeudi aprs
la dcision de Hu d'courter sa visite pour regagner la Chine frappe par un violent
sisme.
A l'issue de leur runion de deux heures, le Premier ministre indien a dclar que le principal
objectif du groupe tait la cration "d'un nouvel ordre mondial plus dmocratique, juste et
multipolaire".
La question du programme nuclaire iranien a domin les rencontres bilatrales entres les
dirigeants.
En raison de leur agenda serr et des discussions dj menes dans les bilatrales, "les
prsidents ont dcid de ne pas aborder le thme en sance plnire et de se concentrer sur
les thmes relatifs la gouvernance mondiale", a dit le principal conseiller de Lula pour les
affaires internationales, Marco Aurelio Garcia.
Par ailleurs, dans une dclaration diffuse l'issue du sommet, les BRIC "pressent les Etats de
rsister toute forme de protectionnisme" et soulignent la ncessit de conclure le cycle de
Doha sur la libralisation du commerce mondial.
Sur la question controverse d'une monnaie alternative au dollar pour le commerce entre leurs
pays, ils se sont contents de recommander leurs ministres des finances et gouverneurs de
banque centrale "d'tudier la faisabilit d'une coopration montaire", y compris pour conclure
des accords afin de faire du commerce en monnaie locale.

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24

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Le Figaro Ttulo: Les Bric peinent dfinir un front commun

ARNAUD RODIER
Brsil, Russie, Inde, Chine, ces pays reprsentent eux seuls 16 % du PIB mondial.
COMMERCE La grand-messe naura finalement pas eu lieu. Le deuxime sommet des Bric,
acronyme dsignant le Brsil, la Russie, lInde et la Chine, qui devait se tenir aujourdhui
Brasilia, a capot avec le dpart prcipit, hier soir, du prsident chinois Hu Jintao, oblig
de rentrer en raison du tremblement de terre au Qinghai. Une priptie de plus pour un
rendez-vous qui se veut dsormais rgulier mais qui tarde encore trouver ses marques.
Ces quatre pays reprsentent plus de 40 % de la population mondiale et 16 % du PIB (produit
intrieur brut) de la plante. Avec une croissance value entre 3,6 % pour la Russie et 10 %
pour la Chine cette anne, ils sont les locomotives de la reprise. Cest pourquoi ils veulent tout
la fois renforcer leur coopration conomique et financire et mieux se faire entendre des
pays riches et des instances internationales telles que le FMI (Fonds montaire international) et
la Banque mondiale.
En juin dernier, lors de leur premire runion en Russie, ils avaient mis laccent sur les moyens
de moins dpendre du dollar. Aujourdhui ils se montrent beaucoup plus prudents sur
lventuelle adoption dune devise alternative au billet vert pour le commerce international. Et ils
se gardent bien de poser la question du yuan, sousvalu volontairement aux yeux des
Amricains. Personne na intrt, au sein des Bric, secouer le bateau trop fort , rsumait
rcemment un diplomate brsilien.
Cycle de Doha
Mais ni les changes commerciaux ni la monnaie ne suffisent faire deux un groupe
homogne. On le voit trs clairement lors des ngociations du cycle de Doha sur la libration
des changes internationaux. Exportations de matires premires pour le Brsil, focalisation de
la Russie sur le ptrole et sur le gaz, services et technologies de linformation pour lInde,
industrie lourde et finances pour la Chine, chaque pays a un modle totalement diffrent pour
aborder la mondialisation.
Ensemble, les Bric reprsentent par exemple un tiers des terres cultivables dans le monde. Ils
produisent 40 % du bl disponible sur terre. Mais ils se dchirent ds quil sagit de dfinir une
position commune en matire dexportations. Aujourdhui encore, ils sont plus runis par ce qui
les oppose que par ce qui les rassemble. Du coup, ils ne peuvent pas imposer leur opinion. Tout
au plus peuvent-ils suggrer des changements.

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25

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Le Monde Ttulo: Les grands pays mergents se retrouvent
Brasilia

Brasilia Envoy spcial


Troisime partenaire de l'Amrique latine, la Chine est accuse par le Brsil d'entretenir une
attitude " nocoloniale "
La Chine est devenue un acteur conomique majeur en Amrique latine. Troisime partenaire
commercial du sous-continent, elle pourrait, l'horizon 2014-2015, ravir la deuxime place
l'Union europenne, selon un rapport publi cette semaine par la Commission conomique pour
l'Amrique latine (Cepal). Fort de la monte en puissance de son pays dans le monde " latino ",
le prsident chinois, Hu Jintao, sera la vedette du 2e sommet des BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et
Chine), le groupe des quatre grands pays mergents, vendredi 16 avril, Brasilia.
Le prsident russe, Dmitri Medvedev, et le premier ministre indien, Manmohan Singh,
participeront ce rendez-vous, aux cts de leur hte brsilien, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. Hu
Jintao fera cette occasion une visite officielle au Brsil. Ce sera sa dixime rencontre avec le
prsident Lula, et sa deuxime au Brsil.
L'essor des changes entre le gant d'Asie et les pays de la rgion rsulte de la
complmentarit entre leurs conomies. D'un ct, une Chine avide de matires premires,
d'nergie et de denres agricoles ; de l'autre, une Amrique latine qui en est riche.
Cette relation commerciale florissante tmoigne pourtant d'une forte asymtrie : l'Amrique
latine fournit presque exclusivement la Chine des produits de base, alors que cette dernire
lui vend des biens manufacturs forte valeur ajoute. Le ptrole reprsente 94 % des ventes
de l'Equateur la Chine, le soja et ses produits drivs 80 % de celles de l'Argentine.
Leader conomique et politique rgional, le Brsil demande la Chine de corriger cette relation
de type " nocolonial " qu'il subit lui aussi. En 2009, la Chine est devenue son premier
partenaire commercial, dtrnant les Etats-Unis. Les exportations du Brsil vers la Chine ont,
en valeur, t multiplies par quinze depuis 2000. Mais en 2009, 73 % d'entre elles
correspondaient seulement trois produits : le minerai de fer, le ptrole et le soja.
Le Brsil subit, comme tout le monde, les effets de la sous-valuation de la monnaie chinoise,
le yuan, conjugue, dans son cas, une survaluation de sa propre monnaie, le real. Cette
affaire le proccupe, mais il ne veut pas en faire pour l'heure un cheval de bataille antichinois
car, souligne le prsident de la Banque centrale, Henrique Meirelles, " notre croissance reste
surtout tire par la demande intrieure ".
Le Brsil se soucie davantage des exportations que la Chine lui enlve dans son aire
commerciale naturelle, l'Amrique du Sud. " Cela se passe sous notre barbe ", pestait
rcemment le prsident Lula devant ses ministres. Le Brsil perd des parts de march en
Argentine au profit de la Chine, et vice-versa. Les deux voisins, qui entretiennent une relation
commerciale tumultueuse, le premier reprochant au second son " protectionnisme " tarifaire, ont
pourtant dcid, fin mars, de ragir ensemble en promouvant des missions conjointes en Chine.
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26

A cela s'ajoute depuis peu la " guerre du fer ", o la Chine et le Brsil s'affrontent par
entreprises interposes. Premier fabricant d'acier de la plante, la Chine accuse les trois grands
groupes miniers, les anglo-australiens Rio Tinto et BHP Billiton et le brsilien Vale, numro un
actuel avec 33 % de la production mondiale, de se comporter comme un " cartel " qui aurait
abus de sa " position dominante " en doublant quasiment le prix du minerai.
Le Brsil fait enfin grief la Chine de ne pas investir chez lui alors qu'il aura besoin de capital
tranger, notamment pour organiser la Coupe du monde de football (2014) et les Jeux
olympiques (2016). Lors de sa premire visite, en 2004, M. Hu avait promis de consacrer 70
milliards de dollars (51 milliards d'euros) l'Argentine et au Brsil. Il n'en a rien t. La Chine a
investi au Brsil, entre 2007 et 2009, 1 % de ce que les Pays-Bas ont eux-mmes investi.
Mais les choses commencent changer. Les dirigeants de 65 entreprises chinoises participent
cette semaine des sminaires Rio de Janeiro et Sao Paulo. Ils affirment vouloir investir et
produire au Brsil. La compagnie chinoise Sinopec va se lancer dans l'exploration ptrolire. M.
Hu visitera le port qui abritera le terminal d'exportation du fer vers la Chine. En change d'une
participation son financement, Pkin aura une garantie de livraison pendant vingt ans.
" Nous n'avons aucune illusion romantique sur nos relations avec la Chine ", disait il y a peu un
ancien ambassadeur brsilien Pkin. Le Brsil a bien pris conscience de l'agressivit
commerciale de la Chine et de ses atouts en matire de comptitivit. Exemple : la Chine
participera en bonne place l'appel d'offres pour la construction de la ligne TGV qui reliera SaoPaulo Rio.
" Il y a, bien sr, des contradictions, voire des conflits entre les BRIC, notamment avec la Chine,
dclare au Monde, l'ambassadeur Roberto Jaguaribe, le coordinateur du sommet de Brasilia.
Mais pour l'instant, l'mergence politique et conomique de la Chine est un vnement positif.
Nos quatre pays ne prtendent pas, cette semaine, prendre des dcisions. Nous voulons
surtout renforcer notre concertation pour promouvoir des ides communes, comme la rforme
de la gouvernance mondiale. "
La runion des BRIC tait prcde, jeudi, d'un sommet Brsil, Inde et Afrique du Sud,
reprsente par le prsident Jacob Zuma.
Jean-Pierre Langellier

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Flash Interview: BRIC

Marc Lamure

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27

L'ide de Bric, associant l'Inde, le Brsil, la Chine et la Russie, vous parat-elle pertinente?
Les Bric sont gomtrie variable : quand on se trouve Pkin ou Shanghai, on entend
rarement parler de la Russie. En revanche, l'Indonsie est clairement dans le radar des
investisseurs chinois : plutt que de Bric, il vaudrait mieux parler de Cibi!
Le sommet de Brasilia qui s'ouvre ce vendredi a pour objectif de favoriser la coopration entre
les conomies mergentes. Pour un patron europen ou amricain, est-ce que cela a un sens
de vouloir associer les deux mastodontes asiatiques, la Chine et l'Inde ?
Pour les entreprises, il ne s'agit pas d'opposer l'Inde et la Chine, car les problmatiques de
dveloppement entre ces deux pays n'ont pas grand-chose voir. Quand on compare le PIB
par tte, l'Inde, avec environ 1.000 dollars par an et par habitant, se situe encore dix ou quinze
ans derrire la Chine, o le revenu atteint 2.600 dollars par personne. Pour le moment, les
investisseurs trangers ont donc tout intrt profiter de la forte croissance chinoise, avant que
le march ne devienne trop concurrentiel, les acteurs chinois prenant naturellement le relais.
Les entreprises multinationales pourront alors compter sur l'Inde, qui commencera dcoller.
Prenez par exemple le dveloppement des rseaux lectriques : le cycle d'investissement
chinois dans ce secteur a dbut il y une dizaine d'annes et il devrait s'achever vers 2020.
ce moment-l, les besoins indiens dans le secteur seront trs importants. C'est une stratgie
double dtente!
Propos recueillis par ric Chol

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Les pays mergents font affaire entre eux

Les nouveaux gants conomiques sortent renforcs de la crise. Face l'atonie des marchs
dvelopps, ils comptent se renforcer, l'occasion du deuxime Forum des Bric qui
s'ouvre Brasilia.
L'ouverture partir de ce jeudi du deuxime sommet des Bric (Brsil-Russie-Inde-Chine) tombe
un moment propice. L'activit conomique des pays mergents retrouve ses meilleurs
niveaux , constate Stephen King, le chef conomiste de HSBC. La publication, prvue ce
jeudi, du PIB chinois au premier trimestre - on attend une progression de 11,9 % sur un an devrait conforter cet optimisme.
Avec des taux de croissance dynamiques attendus en 2010 - Chine (+ 9,7%), Inde (+ 7,7 %),
Brsil (+ 5%), Russie (+ 8,3 %), selon Renaissance Capital -, ces pays sont de plus en plus
tents d'tablir des relations privilgies et de s'manciper des conomies avances. Notre
objectif est d'tablir une coopration fonde sur nos expriences russies pour favoriser nos
croissances. J'espre que ce type d'vnement aura un impact important sur la coopration
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28

Sud-Sud , indique Rathin Roy, directeur d'un centre politique, IPC-IG, l'un des organisateurs
du sommet de Brasilia.
Cette nouvelle configuration rpond deux besoins. Le premier rpond la situation du monde
dvelopp. Des annes d'austrit attendent l'Amrique du Nord et l'Europe pour tenter
d'obtenir de nouveau le contrle de leur situation budgtaire fragilise , souligne Stephen King.
Autrement dit, les futurs gants du Sud doivent trouver de nouveaux dbouchs pour leurs
biens manufacturs, qui se trouvent tre d'autres mergents. Dj, les exportations de la Chine
destination de l'Amrique latine ont bondi de 27 % depuis 2000, selon la Commission
conomique pour l'Amrique latine des Nations unies (Cepal). l'inverse, les importations ont
augment de 26 %. Pour le continent sud-amricain, la Chine pourrait supplanter l'Union
europenne comme deuxime partenaire commercial ds 2014.
course la croissance
L'Asie et l'Amrique latine ont des intrts communs quasi naturels, qui sont loin d'tre
combls, comme l'atteste l'absence de ligne arienne directe entre les deux continents.
L'Extrme-Orient a un besoin vital de matires premires dont le sol sud-amricain recle. En
retour, cette manne des produits de base permet aux pays de l'Amrique latine de se
dvelopper. Le continent, avec ses 500 millions d'habitants, reprsente en effet un dbouch
prometteur pour les Asiatiques et une opportunit d'investissement. En tmoigne l'annonce faite
ce mercredi par le ptrolier chinois Sinopec d'une prochaine prise de participation dans deux
puits offshore brsiliens appartenant Petrobras.
Le deuxime besoin est celui de la course la croissance, indispensable pour lutter contre la
pauvret. C'est une ncessit et non un luxe , souligne le politologue Rathin Roy. Les forts
taux de croissance affichs par les Bric cachent mal en effet le maintien de disparits sociales,
susceptibles de remettre en cause leur modle de dveloppement.
par Robert Jules

Data: 15/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Moscou tourne son attention vers l'Inde et la
Chine

Dmitri Medvedev a renouvel mardi son appel pour resserrer les rangs des pays Bric. La
Russie veut rquilibrer ses changes.
Le Kremlin ne veut plus entendre les conomistes dire que la Russie est le canard boiteux du
club des Bric (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine).

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29

L'conomie russe s'est certes effondre de 8 % en 2009, mais elle reprend confiance alors que
la banque d'investissement Renaissance Capital prvoit une croissance de 8,3 % cette anne.
Moscou apparat rsolu mener de profondes rformes pour ne plus dpendre uniquement des
exportations de matires premires comme ce fut le cas ces quinze dernires annes.
l'heure actuelle, le premier partenaire conomique de la Russie est de trs loin l'Europe, et
cette dpendance crasante ne sied pas Moscou. L'Europe reprsente 80 % des exportations
de gaz russe et peu prs autant pour les exportations de ptrole.
Les autres ventes de produits russes, essentiellement des mtaux (nickel, aluminium, acier)
sont principalement orientes vers l'Europe.
Rsultat, l'Allemagne, l'Italie et les Pays-Bas se classent en tte des clients de Moscou, la
Chine n'arrivant qu'en 7e position. En revanche, la Chine s'est rapidement hisse au 2e rang
des fournisseurs de la Russie et talonne dj l'Allemagne.
Moscou ne mnage pas ses efforts pour modifier cette structure. La Russie construit un long et
coteux oloduc travers la Sibrie pour fournir 80 millions de tonnes de brut par an la
Chine. Deux gazoducs sont galement prvus mais les deux pays ne parviennent pas
s'entendre sur les tarifs du gaz. Groupes ptroliers russes et indiens explorent ensemble des
projets en Sibrie et Sakhaline.
Les groupes miniers (Evraz et Rusal) considrent la Chine comme leur principal objectif
stratgique. En dehors des matires premires, les changes s'intensifient rapidement. Moscou
exporte ses centrales en Inde et en Chine, deux pays qui sont galement ses principaux
acheteurs d'armes. Une chose est certaine, les changes de la Russie avec la Chine et l'Inde
croissent un rythme beaucoup plus soutenu qu'avec les pays europens.
Emmanuel Grynszpan, Moscou

Data: 14/04/2010 Frana - La Tribune Ttulo: Les pays mergents se mobilisent contre les
attaques spculatives

La Russie plaide pour des mesures concertes avec le Brsil, l'Inde et la Chine en vue de grer
les risques spculatifs sur leurs marchs financiers.
Les pays mergents veulent avoir voix au chapitre sur les questions montaires internationales.
L'ide n'est pas nouvelle. Elle devrait revenir sur le devant de la scne l'occasion du
deuxime sommet des Bric (l'acronyme de Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) qui s'ouvre demain
jeudi Brasilia. A ce sujet, le prsident russe a dj donn quelques pistes de rflexion. Selon
lui, le Brsil, la Russie, l'Inde et la Chine vont devoir s'attacher rformer le systme de
Bretton Woods .
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30

Et pour ce faire, ces pays devraient dj commencer par accrotre leurs relations
commerciales en faisant usage de leur devise respective . Une proposition qui ne fait que
conforter l'ide mise en avant par les Russes, savoir la ncessit de refonder l'architecture
financire mondiale, et de faire jouer aux devises mergentes les plus attrayantes, au rouble
notamment, le rle de monnaies de rserve internationale. Plus nouveau en revanche, le
prsident russe met l'accent sur la ncessit d'une gestion des risques plus concerte entre ces
pays.
taxe brsilienne
Il est important, insiste-t-il, que les pays mergents prennent des dcisions communes,
notamment qu'ils changent des informations sur les possibles attaques spculatives, dont
peuvent faire les frais leurs devises respectives, leurs marchs d'actions et de matires
premires, qui menacent leur stabilit conomique . Sur ce chaptre, la Russie sait de quoi elle
parle, puisqu'en 2008, elle a pay trs cher la sortie brutale de ses investisseurs non rsidents.
Toutefois, elle n'est pas la seule redouter les mouvements de capitaux excessifs susceptibles
de crer des bulles sur certains actifs. Le Brsil a d'ailleurs fait voter une taxe l'an dernier en
vue de stabiliser les flux de capitaux trangers qui dferlaient sur sa Bourse.
L'Indonsie a voqu la possibilit de le faire la semaine dernire. Ces pays prfrent user de
mesures plus - market friendly-, comme le renforcement des ratios prudentiels des banques ,
confirme Agns Belaisch, stratge chez Threadneedle. En outre, prcise-t-elle, l'exception de
la Chine, les flux de capitaux vers ces pays sont massifs (20 milliards de dollars depuis le dbut
d'anne) mais pas spculatifs. Ces capitaux ne parient pas sur une anomalie de march,
mais sur une rvaluation la baisse du risque des places mergentes avec des rendements
plus intressants que ceux du G7. Ceci est donc un critre structurel.
Marjorie Bertouille

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: 1 Early BRIC summit wraps up

by Marc Burleigh
BRASILIA (AFP) Brazil, Russia, India and China wrapped up their second-ever BRIC summit
here after sharpening their call for reforms of international institutions and discussing a
push to impose more UN sanctions on Iran.
The gathering of the world's top emerging economies Thursday was truncated and brought
forward one day to ensure the participation of Chinese President Hu Jintao, who announced he
had to race home to oversee the response to the quake.

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31

"Brazil, Russia, India and China have a fundamental role in the construction of a fairer
international order," the summit's host, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, told a
closing media conference.
Lula, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh all
extended their sympathies to Hu and the Chinese people after an earthquake struck
northwestern China Wednesday, killing 760 people.
The Chinese president, who flew back to Beijing after the summit to handle what he called "a
huge calamity," thanked the leaders for their "solidarity and sympathy."
Singh called the summit "very successful" and described the BRIC grouping as key to
"contributing to world economic growth and prosperity."
Medvedev said the meeting showed that the BRIC format is maturing "and allows us to not only
coordinate our efforts but to also make concrete decisions."
A joint statement emphasized the group's intent to see a "multipolar, equitable and democratic
world order" that would result from a shake-up of the United Nations and global financial
institutions like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank to better reflect the aspirations
of their emerging economies.
It also spoke of "the importance of maintaining relative stability of major reserve currencies and
sustainability of fiscal policies in order to achieve a strong, long-term balanced economic
growth."
That vague clause appeared to refer to China's reluctance to unlink its yuan from the US dollar
-- a policy that has boosted China's exports but raised cries of unfair currency manipulation by
countries including the United States.
Missing from the statement was any mention of Iran, even though a push by Western nations to
obtain more UN sanctions against the Islamic republic figured strongly in several meetings on
the sidelines of the BRIC meeting.
A trilateral summit between Brazil, India and South Africa held just before the BRIC summit
agreed that more diplomacy was required in the international standoff with Iran over its
controversial nuclear program.
Lula, Singh and South African President Jacob Zuma "recognized the right of Iran to develop
nuclear programs for peaceful purposes," and underlined "the need for a peaceful and
diplomatic solution of the issue."
That language, however, was noticeably missing from the BRIC statement.
The leaders decided to not discuss Iran in their plenary session "but rather concentrate on
issues relating to global governance," said Brazil's presidential adviser on international affairs,
Marco Aurelio Garcia.
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32

Russia and to a lesser extent China -- both veto-wielding permanent members of the UN
Security Council -- have reduced their resistance to the sanctions push in recent weeks.
But Brazil, a non-permanent member of the Security Council, has resolutely defended Iran.
"Our impression... is that the effectiveness of sanctions is debatable," Brazilian Foreign Minister
Celso Amorim told reporters, adding that Lula had set out that position in talks with the leaders
of China and India.
"President Lula gave an explanation, to provide better transparency, on what we've done in
relation with Iran. And we see great affinity with the points of view of each country," Amorim
said.
Lula also discussed the issue with Medvedev, Brazilian officials told AFP.
The United States, Britain, France and Germany have been urging the BRIC nations to support
sanctions against Iran.

Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: Brasil, Sudfrica, China, India y
Rusia, el nuevo eje de poder

Las 5 potencias emergentes estn reunidas en Brasilia. Las deliberaciones - por el sismo - se
adelantaron a pedido de Hu Jintao. Las presiones sobre Irn dominaron el dilogo.
Los lderes de las cinco grandes economas emergentes -China, Rusia, India, Brasil y
Sudfrica- iniciaron ayer en Brasilia una serie de reuniones para discutir el nuevo escenario de
gobernanza global y analizar caminos en busca de una solucin a la controversia sobre el
programa nuclear iran.
La IV reunin del Grupo IBSA (Brasil, India y Sudfrica por su sigla en ingls) abri los
encuentros para dar lugar seguidamente a la II Cumbre del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China),
que fue adelantada para permitir la partida en la noche del presidente chino, Hu Jintao, a causa
del terremoto que caus 760 muertos en su pas.
La creciente presin internacional por sanciones a Irn ante las dudas generadas por el real
alcance de su programa nuclear termin convirtindose en el asunto central de las
conversaciones, junto a la necesidad de ampliar la participacin de los emergentes en las
grandes decisiones globales.
El Grupo IBSA emiti una Declaracin en la que Brasil, India y Sudfrica "reiteraron la
necesidad de una solucin pacfica y diplomtica a la cuestin" de Irn.

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33

El tema fue dominante tambin en las reuniones bilaterales que el presidente de Brasil, Luiz
Incio Lula da Silva, mantuvo este jueves con el lder chino Hu Jintao, con el primer ministro de
India, Manmohan Singh, y con el mandatario sudafricano, Jacob Zuma.
De acuerdo con el canciller brasileo, Celso Amorim, en esas reuniones fueron identificadas
"grandes afinidades" en los puntos de vista, en particular en la necesidad de mantener las
negociaciones conducidas por la Agencia Internacional de Energa Atmica (AIEA).
"Nuestra impresin, en la que ambos coinciden, es que la eficacia de las sanciones es
discutible. Esto fue discutido en ms profundidad con el ministro Singh, pero pensamos que las
sanciones afectan ms a los dbiles y los vulnerables que al gobierno" de Irn, dijo Amorim.
Las sanciones, aadi el canciller brasileo, "pueden incluso ser contraproducentes para el
objetivo" que se busca.
A su vez, el diplomtico brasileo Piragibe Tarrag dijo a la prensa que "en la reunin que el
presidente Lula mantuvo con Jacob Zuma los dos mandatarios estuvieron de acuerdo en la
conveniencia de agotar las oportunidades de dilogo antes de analizar otras opciones".
China, un gigante con plaza permanente en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, ya expres su
apoyo a la continuidad de las negociaciones entre la AIEA e Irn, al tiempo que Brasil, un
miembro temporario de ese organismo, es abiertamente contrario a la adopcin de sanciones
contra Tehern.
Del BRIC, Rusia es la que parece ms decidida a sostener las presiones en favor de las
sanciones. Hace apenas una semana, Medvedev y el presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack
Obama, mantuvieron una histrica reunin en Praga para firmar un acuerdo de desarme
nuclear, y el lder ruso expres su frustracin ante la falta de "propuestas constructivas" por
parte de la Repblica Islmica.
"No puedo excluir que el Consejo de Seguridad tenga que atender ese asunto", agreg
Medvedev en esa oportunidad.
Amorim, sin embargo, matiz la posicin brasilea al aadir que en todas las reuniones
bilaterales Lula admiti que la continuidad de las negociaciones "requiere flexibilidad del
gobierno iran".
Las gigantes emergentes tambin se proponen discutir el escenario mundial posterior a la crisis
financiera internacional y analizar mecanismos para consolidar su influencia con una voz ms
activa en las decisiones globales.
Data: 16/04/2010 Frana - Agncia France Presse Ttulo: El Grupo IBAS puede ayudar al
proceso de paz en Medio Oriente (Amorim)

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34

Brasil, Sudfrica e India, que forman el grupo IBAS, pueden auxiliar al Cuarteto para Medio
Oriente (EEUU, UE, ONU y Rusia) para hacer avanzar el proceso de paz entre israeles y
palestinos, dijo este jueves el ministro brasileo de Relaciones Exteriores, Celso Amorim.
"Los pases del grupo IBAS pueden ayudar al Cuarteto a salir del crculo de tiza donde parece
estar encerrado", dijo Amorim a la prensa luego de una reunin con el canciller palestino, Riak
Malik, el ministro indio de Comercio, Anand Sharma, y la ministra sudafricana de Ciencia,
Naledi Pandor.
Los gobiernos de Brasil, Sudfrica e India invitaron a Malik a participar de una reunin (antes
de la Cumbre presidencial de IBAS que se realizar este jueves), "para ver cmo podemos
ayudar al proceso de paz", dijo Amorim.
Entre esos problemas, el canciller brasileo mencion la reciente decisin israel de ampliar
asentamientos judos en Jerusaln oriental, "y la reedicin de una orden militar israel que,
segn el ministro Malik, torna todava ms difcil la vida cotidiana de los palestinos".
Los tres pases del grupo IBAS, dijo Amorim, "mantienen buenas relaciones con Israel pero
defendemos la existencia de un Estado palestino viable, en un ambiente de paz y con las
fronteras definidas en 1967".
Por su parte, Malik dijo que inform a sus pares "sobre la situacin en los territorios palestinos,
el impasse en el proceso de paz y la negativa de Israel de congelar (la ampliacin de) los
asentamientos como una precondicin para continuar negociaciones".
Brasil busc en los ltimos meses proyectarse como un interlocutor nuevo en el dilogo de paz,
defendiendo la inclusin de Irn y de grupos como Hamas y hasta Hezbol en las
conversaciones. El presidente Luiz Incio Lula da Silva defendi esas ideas en un viaje a Israel
y los territorios palestinos a mediados de marzo.
El presidente de uno de los pases del Cuarteto, el ruso Dmitry Medvedev, llegar este jueves a
Brasilia para participar de la Cumbre de los BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China).

Data: 16/04/2010Frana - Agncia France Presse- Ttulo: Programa nuclear iran domina
dilogo de potencias emergentes en Brasil

BRASILIA (AFP) - Los lderes de las cinco grandes economas emergentes -China, Rusia,
India, Brasil y Sudfrica- iniciaron este jueves en Brasilia una serie de reuniones para
discutir el nuevo escenario de gobernanza global y analizar caminos en busca de una
solucin a la controversia sobre el programa nuclear iran.
La IV reunin del Grupo IBSA (Brasil, India y Sudfrica por su sigla en ingls) abri los
encuentros para dar lugar seguidamente a la II Cumbre del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China),
http://www.cdes.gov.br/

35

que fue adelantada para permitir la partida en la noche del presidente chino, Hu Jintao, a causa
del terremoto que caus 760 muertos en su pas.
La creciente presin internacional por sanciones a Irn ante las dudas generadas por el real
alcance de su programa nuclear termin convirtindose en el asunto central de las
conversaciones, junto a la necesidad de ampliar la participacin de los emergentes en las
grandes decisiones globales.
El Grupo IBSA emiti una Declaracin en la que Brasil, India y Sudfrica "reiteraron la
necesidad de una solucin pacfica y diplomtica a la cuestin" de Irn.
El tema fue dominante tambin en las reuniones bilaterales que el presidente de Brasil, Luiz
Incio Lula da Silva, mantuvo este juves con el lder chino Hu Jintao, con el primer ministro de
India, Manmohan Singh, y con el mandatario sudafricano, Jacob Zuma.
De acuerdo con el canciller brasileo, Celso Amorim, en esas reuniones fueron identificadas
"grandes afinidades" en los puntos de vista, en particular en la necesidad de mantener las
negociaciones conducidas por la Agencia Internacional de Energa Atmica (AIEA).
"Nuestra impresin, en la que ambos coinciden, es que la eficacia de las sanciones es
discutible. Esto fue discutido en ms profundidad con el ministro Singh, pero pensamos que las
sanciones afectan ms a los dbiles y los vulnerables que al gobierno" de Irn, dijo Amorim.
Las sanciones, aadi el canciller brasileo, "pueden incluso ser contraproducentes para el
objetivo" que se busca.
A su vez, el diplomtico brasileo Piragibe Tarrag dijo a la prensa que "en la reunin que el
presidente Lula mantuvo con Jacob Zuma los dos mandatarios estuvieron de acuerdo en la
conveniencia de agotar las oportunidades de dilogo antes de analizar otras opciones".
China, un gigante con plaza permanente en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, ya expres su
apoyo a la continuidad de las negociaciones entre la AIEA e Irn, al tiempo que Brasil, un
miembro temporario de ese organismo, es abiertamente contrario a la adopcin de sanciones
contra Tehern.
Del BRIC, Rusia es la que parece ms decidida a sostener las presiones en favor de las
sanciones.
Hace apenas una semana, Medvedev y el presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama,
mantuvieron una histrica reunin en Praga para firmar un acuerdo de desarme nuclear, y el
lder ruso expres su frustracin ante la falta de "propuestas constructivas" por parte de la
Repblica Islmica.
"No puedo excluir que el Consejo de Seguridad tenga que atender ese asunto", agreg
Medvedev en esa oportunidad.

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Amorim, sin embargo, matiz la posicin brasilea al aadir que en todas las reuniones
bilaterales Lula admiti que la continuidad de las negociaciones "requiere flexibilidad del
gobierno iran".
Las gigantes emergentes tambin se proponen discutir el escenario mundial posterior a la crisis
financiera internacional y analizar mecanismos para consolidar su influencia con una voz ms
activa en las decisiones globales.
Ya en la I Cumbre del BRIC, el ao pasado, los cuatro reclamaron "un sistema de divisas
estable, predecible y ms diversificado", abriendo la puerta a discusiones de alto nivel sobre la
posibilidad de encontrar alternativas al dlar estadounidense como moneda de referencia.

Data: 15/04/2010Frana - Agncia France Presse- Hu Jintao adelanta retorno a China y


Cumbre BRIC ser este jueves en Brasil

BRASILIA (AFP) - El presidente chino Hu Jintao decidi adelantar su retorno a su pas y por
ello la Cumbre de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno del grupo BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y
China), prevista para este viernes, ser realizada la noche del jueves, inform la
cancillera brasilea.
Hu tena previsto reuniones bilaterales para este jueves, encontrndose con el lder ruso Dmitry
Medvedev, el primer ministro indio Manmohan Singh y el presidente de Sudfrica, Jacob Zuma
y el viernes, adems de participar del BRIC, realizara una visita oficial a Brasil, pero la agenda
fue drsticamente modificada.
De acuerdo con el nuevo programa divulgado este viernes por la cancillera, Hu se encontrar
con el anfitrin Luiz Incio Lula da Silva la maana del jueves, y la Cumbre de BRIC ser esta
noche local. Poco antes de la medianoche local, Hu retornar a China, donde se registr un
fuerte terremoto.
Lula, Singh y Zuma realizarn este jueves una reunin Cumbre del Grupo IBAS (India, Brasil y
Sudfrica), y posteriormente lo har el grupo de BRIC, considerado como el de las ms
importantes economas emergentes del mundo.

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37

Data: 15/04/2010Frana - Agncia France Presse -Los grandes pases emergentes del
BRIC se renen buscando ampliar su influencia

BRASILIA - Los lderes de las naciones del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) se darn cita el
viernes en Brasilia, en la II Cumbre de este grupo aglutinado por el fenomenal crecimiento
de sus gigantescas economas, para tratar de consolidar su influencia mundial.
La reunin ocurre tras la cumbre sobre seguridad nuclear en Washington, en un momento de
fuertes presiones para la adopcin de sanciones contra Irn, a las que China fue reticente y
que son rechazadas por Brasil, miembro no permanente del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU.
El tema puede ser abordado en las reuniones "para conocer la posicin (actual) de cada uno",
explic el coordinador del evento, el alto funcionario del ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
brasileo Roberto Jaguaribe.
La cumbre de los BRIC reunir a los presidentes Hu Jintao (China), Dimitri Medvedev (Rusia),
Luiz Incio Lula da Silva (Brasil) y el primer ministro Manmohan Singh (India), que oficialmente
abordarn una agenda econmica destinada a arrancar de los pases ricos una reforma del
sistema financiero y ms peso en los organismos multilaterales (FMI y Banco Mundial).
"El gran factor que aglutina (el BRIC) es la necesidad de cambiar la gobernanza internacional"
tradicionalmente controlada por las naciones industrializadas, resumi Jaguaribe. "Dnde
estn la riqueza generada en el mundo y las reservas? Estn en los pases en desarrollo; por
tanto, no se puede contemplar ms la posibilidad de que un grupo de pases ricos diga cmo
se harn las cosas", enfatiz.
Un tema caliente del BRIC es su defensa de una moneda alternativa al dlar para el comercio
internacional, pero Brasil asegura que la cumbre no cerrar con ninguna propuesta que sacuda
el frgil equilibrio financiero postcrisis.
La sigla BRIC fue creada en 2001 por el banco estadounidense Goldman Sachs para referirse
a las economas de ms rpido crecimiento del planeta. Su materializacin en una cumbre
poltica ocurri por primera vez en 2009 en Rusia y coincide con la incorporacin de los
grandes pases en desarrollo a los ms importantes foros de discusin internacional.
Los cuatro miembros del BRIC representaron entre 2000 y 2008 cerca del 50% del crecimiento
econmico mundial y debe aumentar al 61% para 2014, segn el FMI. Juntos, suman ms del
40% de la poblacin y del 16% del PIB mundial. Con la salvedad de Rusia y destaque de
China, el BRIC sali bien de la crisis en 2009 y vuelve a ser motor del crecimiento mundial.
Pero el BRIC no es un grupo homogneo ni sus miembros defienden los mismos intereses,
afirm a la AFP Christian Lohbauer, del grupo de Conyuntura Internacional de la Universidad de
Sao Paulo (USP): "Lo que los aproxima es que son la frontera del capitalismo, pero es evidente
que no tienen una agenda comn, sus intereses son divergentes y muchas veces enfrentados".

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"Ms retrica que hechos" resumieron algunos medios y analistas cuando se celebr la primera
cumbre del BRIC.
Esta II Cumbre se iniciar con una reunin privada de los lderes el viernes por la maana y se
cerrar tras una plenaria hacia el medioda.
El primer ministro indio y el presidente chino aprovecharn para realizar una visita oficial a
Brasil, el jueves y el viernes, respectivamente. El jueves, adems, Brasilia acoger una cumbre
del foro emergente IBSA, formado por India, Brasil y Sudfrica. Los mandatarios del IBSA y del
BRIC cenarn juntos el jueves.

Data: 16/04/2010Alemanha - Deutsche Welle- Bric conclui cpula pedindo nova ordem
mundial e condenando terrorismo

Braslia, 15 - Brasil, China, ndia e Rssia, membros do grupo Bric, pediram hoje uma nova
ordem mundial, mais "justa" e "democrtica", e condenaram de forma taxativa o
terrorismo em todas as formas, na concluso de sua segunda cpula, realizada em
Braslia.
O presidente Luiz Incio Lula da Silva declarou que, na reunio realizada hoje, "foi dado um
passo fundamental para consolidar a sociedade" nascida entre as quatro economias
emergentes mais importantes do planeta.
"O Bric tem um papel fundamental na construo de uma nova ordem internacional mais justa,
democrtica e segura", afirmou Lula junto aos lderes da China, Hu Jintao; Rssia, Dmitri
Medvedev; e o primeiro-ministro da ndia, Manmohan Singh.
Segundo Hu Jintao, o Bric se props a "intensificar o comrcio" entre seus membros, que no
ano passado chegou a US$ 51,7 bilhes, e "promover uma firme retomada do crescimento da
economia mundial".
Singh considerou que o aumento da cooperao e o comrcio entre Brasil, ndia, China e
Rssia "foi e ser melhor para todo o mundo", pois permitir impulsionar a recuperao da
economia mundial aps a crise que explodiu em 2008.
"O Bric no nasceu de uma crise, mas as crises deram uma nova relevncia" ao grupo,
sustentou o primeiro-ministro da ndia, que lembrou que os quatro membros deste frum
tambm fazem parte do Grupo dos Vinte (G20) financeiro.
Os quatro pases do Bric representam 42% da populao mundial e 26% do territrio, e
somaram no ano passado 23,4% do Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) do planeta, segundo dados do
prprio grupo.
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Medvedev afirmou que durante a reunio realizada nesta quinta-feira em Braslia tambm foi
discutida a necessidade de abordar no Bric outros assuntos da agenda global, como "o
terrorismo, o crime organizado e o trfico de drogas".
Nesse sentido, Lula assegurou que Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China esto "irmanados" na
condenao ao terrorismo em todas suas formas, assim como no combate violncia poltica.
A cpula do grupo Bric, que coincidiu com a do Frum de Dilogo Ibas (Brasil, ndia e frica do
Sul), devia acontecer na sexta, mas foi adiantada, pois Hu Jintao decidiu antecipar seu retorno
China devido ao terremoto que atingiu a regio de Qinghai e causou mais de 600 mortes.
Os lderes dos pases do Bric expressaram sua solidariedade a Hu Jintao, que se referiu ao
terremoto como uma "grande calamidade que causou grandes perdas"

Data: 16/04/2010Alemanha - Deutsche Welle- Ibas reconhece direito iraniano a plano


nuclear pacfico

Braslia.- Os Governos do Brasil, ndia e frica do Sul defenderam hoje, no Frum de Dilogo
ndia-Brasil-frica do Sul (Ibas), em Braslia, o direito do Ir a um desenvolvimento
nuclear com fins pacficos e de acordo com as normas internacionais de segurana.
Os presidentes, no entanto, insistiram com o Governo de Teer para que coopere com a
Agncia Internacional de Energia Atmica (AIEA) e cumpra as resolues do Conselho de
Segurana das Naes Unidas, alm de reiterarem "a necessidade de alcanar uma soluo
pacfica e diplomtica" para a crise atual.
A meno ao Ir aparece no ponto 31 da Declarao de Braslia, que tem outros 45 e foi
assinada pelo presidente Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, por seu colega da frica do Sul, Jacob
Zuma, e pelo primeiro-ministro da ndia, Manmohan Singh.
Os pases-membros do Ibas tambm conversaram sobre o conflito no Oriente Mdio e
exigiram, por meio de seus ministros das Relaes Exteriores, que Israel congele os
assentamentos nos territrios palestinos ocupados.
"Preocupados pela contnua deteriorao da situao humana em Gaza, convocamos Israel a
aliviar as restries circulao de pessoas e bens, tanto em Gaza como na Cisjordnia",
sustentou um comunicado assinado pelos lderes do Brasil, ndia e frica do Sul, que hoje se
reuniram com seu colega da Autoridade Nacional Palestina (ANP), Riad Maliki.
Os trs representantes do Ibas tambm reivindicaram que sejam retomadas de forma "urgente"
as negociaes para a criao de um Estado palestino soberano, seguindo as fronteiras de
1967.

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Alm disso, se comprometeram a adotar um "papel mais ativo" em busca do dilogo e da paz e
entraram em acordo para prosseguirem com as conversas sobre este assunto nas prximas
reunies.
Aps o Frum de Dilogo, Lula e Singh se uniro aos presidentes da China, Hu Jintao, e
Rssia, Dmitri Medvedev, para a reunio anual do grupo Bric, formado por Brasil, Rssia, ndia
e China.

Data: 15/04/2010Rssia - ITAR-TASS- Business people, bankers meet ahead of BRIC


summit

BRASILIA (Itar-Tass) - Business executives and bankers from Brazil, Russia, India and China
met on Thursday in the capital of Brazil ahead of a summit of the BRIC group of countries.
This is a fundamentally new event in the practice of cooperation of four BRIC countries. About
400 representatives of business circles from four countries got together on Wednesday at
Copacabana Palace Hotel.
Brazilian Foreign Minister Selso Luiz Nunes Amorim addressed the forum, and said his country
intends to bring aggregate trade turnover with BRIC partners to 60 billion dollars already this
year.
We have established a lot of businesses contacts, and solved the task of presenting our
possibilities, the head of the Russian delegation, deputy chairman of the Vnesheconombank
(VEB) Sergei Vasilyev, told Tass by telephone.
Infrastructure projects are of big interest from the point of view of exchange of experience and
investments, as all BRIC states have vast territories and there is a lag in the development of
infrastructure, he said. Russian business people also see as important and promising the
development of ties in agriculture. Power engineering, telecommunications and high
technologies are traditionally priority issues on the business agenda of the BRIC states.
I am sure that the practice of such meetings within the BRIC framework will be continued,
Vasilyev said.

Data: 16/04/2010-Portugal - Dirio Econmico- Tragda chinesa acelera cimeira dos


BRIC

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A cimeira do grupo dos BRIC (Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China), que teve ontem lugar na capital
brasileira, terminou de maneira abrupta.
O encontro estava previsto para ter lugar entre ontem e hoje, mas o forte sismo que matou
mais de 600 pessoas na China levou o presidente chins Hu Jintao a acelerar a data de
regresso ao seu pas, deixando as autoridades brasileiras sem escolha a no ser o de
antecipar o encontro em 24 horas.
"O dia foi especialmente complicado. Devido ao terramoto na China, o presidente Hu Jintao
tomou a deciso muito generosa de vir ao Brasil de qualquer madeira, mas tem que partir ainda
hoje. Ento, comprimimos em apenas um o programa de dois dias", afirmou ontem o ministro
brasileiro dos Negcios Estrangeiros, Celso Amorim.
Devido a esta alterao, o encontro dos BRIC acabou por ter lugar na mesma altura da reunio
do IBAS, frum que rene os pases democrticos: ndia, o Brasil e a frica do Sul.

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Financial Times- Bric countries call for greater clout

BRASILIA, April 15 Leading emerging powers called on Thursday for swift reform of
international financial institutions to give developing countries a greater voice, saying their
group was vital to achieving a new world order.
The call from the increasingly influential Bric countries for more say in global financial
institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund came ahead of this
months G20 finance ministers and IMF meetings in Washington.
The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China said that voting share reforms at the World Bank
to give developing countries more clout should be approved at the IMF meetings.
Setting a specific deadline, the group also said those reforms should be completed by a G20
summit in November.
Brazil, Russia, India and China have a fundamental role in creating a new international order
that is more just, representative and safe, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said
after holding talks with his counterparts.
The group has been pushing for reforms since the global financial crisis of 2008, arguing the
current system is unfairly dominated by advanced economies such as the United States, Japan
and Europe.
The statement said the group would resist all trade protectionism and look into increasing
commerce with one another in local currencies, bypassing the US dollar.

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But the group, which has rowed back from talk last year of setting up a new reserve currency,
stressed the importance of maintaining the stability of major reserve currencies. As the largest
holder of US Treasury bonds, China is not keen to see the value of its investments diminish.
In spite of their economic clout and 40 per cent share of the worlds population, differences
among the four countries have become more evident since their first summit in Russia last year,
exposing the limitations of the groups ambitions.
We support a multipolar, equitable, democratic and just world order with the [United Nations]
playing a central role in tackling global challenges, said Indian Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh.
The Bric summit, held in Brasilia, was scaled back when Chinese President Hu Jintao decided
to go home early to deal with a major earthquake in a remote western region of China.
In one of their few concrete steps toward cooperation, the countries national development
banks signed an accord enabling them to fund projects in one anothers countries, the Brazilian
national development banks president said. Luciano Coutinho, the head of the BNDES, said the
agreement covered the infrastructure, energy, sustainability and technology sectors.
China and Brazil, the largest economies in Asia and Latin America, used the summit to bolster
growing ties with trade and investment agreements.
Mr Hu and Mr Lula signed a five-year action plan aimed at boosting trade and energy
cooperation. The two nations have grown closer in recent years amid a surge in commerce in
2009, China became Brazils top trade partner.
The projects agreed upon included a $5bn steel mill at the Acu port in Rio de Janeiro state that
would be Chinas biggest investment in Latin Americas largest country, home to some of the
worlds largest iron ore deposits.
Chinas Wuhan Iron and Steel and Brazilian logistics firm LLX Logistica, controlled by billionaire
Eike Batista, will build the plant.
Chinas Sinopec and the countrys development bank signed a strategic development
agreement with Brazils state-run oil giant Petrobras, said Su Shulin, Sinopec chairman, to
Reuters. Mr Su said the deal would cover the development of Brazilian oil resources and trade
with China.
Brazils recent discovery of vast offshore oil reserves has opened a new area of potential
cooperation with resource-hungry China, which agreed last year to lend $10bn to Petrobras in
return for guaranteed oil supply over the next decade.
A Brazilian government source said Mr Lula asked Mr Hu to maintain a dialogue with Iran over
its nuclear energy program before the Brazilian leaders planned visit to Tehran next month. Mr
Lula has opposed fresh UN sanctions over Irans nuclear program, arguing they will not work.

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China, a permanent member of the UN security council, has also been reluctant to join western
powers in authorizing new sanctions against Iran.
Mr Hu and Mr Lula did not discuss Chinas currency policy, two Brazilian government sources
said.
Brazil and the other Brics were not expected to risk fraying ties with China by pressuring it to
allow the yuan to strengthen, despite concerns about the effect of cheap Chinese exports on
their economies.

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Financial Times- Brics balance shared interests with
rivalries

By John Paul Rathbone, Latin America editor


When China's Hu Jintao, Russia's Dmitry Medvedev and India's Manmohan Singh meet in
Brazil with Luiz Incio Lula da Silva this week for the second "Bric summit", there will be three
things the visiting leaders recognise in their host's economy.
There is Brazil's size. There is inflation - rising in Brazil, China and India, and near double-digits
in Russia. And there are their strengthening currencies.
Last year, when the Bric leaders met in Yekaterinburg, there was talk of a need for "fairer global
economic order" and the group aired its frustrations at the US dollar's role as the world's reserve
currency.
Mr Medvedev has reprised such themes ahead of this summit. Yesterday, he said Bric countries
could share "information about possible speculative attacks" on their currencies.
But, one year on, the suggestion is ironic. Brazil, with arguably the best monetary policy of all
the Brics, last year enacted a tax on capital inflows to slow currency appreciation. Russia has
suggested it might introduce softer measures to slow rouble strengthening, although that has
also helped curb domestic inflation. China, meanwhile, is being pressed to allow the renminbi to
appreciate. Even India's trade-weighted exchange rate has appreciated over the past six
months. If anything, the Bric countries are suffering from speculative inflows rather than attacks.
That illustrates, again, the definitional problem of the Bric acronym. There is no Bric secretariat,
for example, unlike the selfcreated India-South Africa-Brazil group which also meets this week
in Brazil.
Bric members also more often compete than share common interests.
Indeed, bilateral meetings this week in the region may well prove more fruitful than the Bric
summit itself.
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India has the lowest Bric profile in Latin America. Trade flows remain modest, although Indian
companies have made some important investments in software, Brazilian pharmaceuticals and
natural resources.
Russia is a bigger actor, and not just in Venezuelan oil. Argentina, recalling Russia's support at
the United Nations for its claim over the Falkland Islands, is backing Russia's bid to join the
World Trade Organisation. Mr Medvedev and the Argentine president, Cristina Fernndez, will
hold talks.
Then there is China. The state-controlled oil company CNOOC has paid $3.1bn (2.3bn, 2bn)
for a 50 per cent stake in Argentina's Bridas Corp. After Brazil, Mr Hu goes to Venezuela to sign
an oil deal. Most important, Chinese trade has boomed, rising tenfold to $100bn in 2008 from
$10bn in 2000. That helped Latin America survive the global crisis - albeit with caveats.
Much of the trade was dependent on commodities. That can leave countries vulnerable - as
shown by China's recent import ban on Argentine soya oil and, last year when Chinese
steelmakers refused to buy iron ore contracted from Brazil's Vale.

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - The Economist- Editorial: The new masters of


management

Thirty years ago the bosses of America's car industry were shocked to learn that Japan had
overtaken America to become the world's leading car producer. They were even more
shocked when they visited Japan to find out what was going on. They found that the
secret of Japan's success did not lie in cheap labour or government subsidies (their
preferred explanations) but in what was rapidly dubbed "lean manufacturing". While
Detroit slept, Japan had transformed itself from a low-wage economy into a hotbed of
business innovation. Soon every factory around the world was leanor a ruin.
Management gurus are always glibly proclaiming revolutions. What happened in Japan
qualified, as did the advent of mass production in America a century ago. Now something
comparable is taking place in the developing world.
It is hardly news that the world's centre of economic gravity is shifting towards emerging
markets. Buy a mobile phone and it will almost certainly have been made in China. Use it to
phone a customer helpline and your call may well be answered by an Indian. Over the past five
years China's annual growth rate has been more than 10%, and India's more than 8%. Yet even
these figures understate the change that is taking place. Emerging countries are no longer
content to be sources of cheap hands and low-cost brains. Instead they too are becoming
hotbeds of innovation, producing breakthroughs in everything from telecoms to carmaking to
health care. They are redesigning products to reduce costs not just by 10%, but by up to 90%.
They are redesigning entire business processes to do things better and faster than their rivals in
the West. Forget about flatthe world of business is turning upside down.
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Competing for the future


As our special report argues, the rich world is losing its leadership in the sort of breakthrough
ideas that transform industries. This is partly because rich-world companies are doing more
research and development in emerging markets. Fortune 500 companies now have 98 R&D
facilities in China and 63 in India. IBM employs more people in developing countries than in
America. But it is also because emerging-market firms and consumers are both moving
upmarket. Huawei, a Chinese telecoms giant, applied for more international patents than any
other firm did in 2008. Chinese 20-somethings spend even more time on the internet than do
their American peers.
Even more striking is the emerging world's growing ability to make established products for
dramatically lower costs: no-frills $3,000 cars and $300 laptops may not seem as exciting as a
new iPad but they promise to change far more people's lives. This sort of advancedubbed
"frugal innovation" by someis not just a matter of exploiting cheap labour (though cheap
labour helps). It is a matter of redesigning products and processes to cut out unnecessary
costs. In India Tata created the world's cheapest car, the Nano, by combining dozens of costsaving tricks. Bharti Airtel has slashed the cost of providing mobile-phone services by radically
rethinking its relationship with its competitors and suppliers. It shares radio towers with rivals
and contracts out network construction, operations and support to specialists such as Ericsson
and IBM.
Just as Henry Ford and Toyota both helped change other industries, entrepreneurs in the
developing world are applying the classic principles of division of labour and economies of scale
to surprising areas such as heart operations and cataract surgery, reducing costs without
sacrificing quality. They are using new technologies such as mobile phones to bring
sophisticated services, in everything from health care to banking, to rural communities. And they
are combining technological and business-model innovation to produce entirely new categories
of services: Kenya leads the world in money-transfer by mobile phone, for example.
Hope versus fear
All this is obviously good news for the billions of people who live in the BRICS (see article) and
other developing countries. More consumers will have access to goods and services that were
once confined to the elite. More than 90% of Indians and Chinese tell pollsters that they are
optimistic about the future. Anand Mahindra, an Indian business leader, has described his
dreams about the future as "not just colourful, but steroidal".
What about the slow-growth rich world? Emerging firms are advancing on a greater number of
fronts than the Japanese did 30 years ago and also advancing much faster, gobbling up
Western rivals. Their charge will upset many established Western firms, which will face
increasingly savage price competition, and also overturn many assumptions about the rich
world's competitive advantage. Many of globalisation's most vocal supporters have justified the
loss of manufacturing jobs in the West on the ground that the rich world will maintain an edge in
innovation; the clever jobs will stay at home. Emerging economies are not merely challenging
that lead in innovation. They are unleashing a wave of low-cost, disruptive innovations that will,
as they spread to the rich world, shake many industries to their foundations. All sorts of chief
executives will scream for protection.
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Change will indeed be painful for incumbents, as disruptive innovation always is. But cheaper
goods and services will be a blessing for Western consumers, who are likely to face years of
slow income growth. It could also be good news for rich-world governments, which are plagued
with deficits even before the baby-boomers begin to retire. Frugal innovation may well prevent
America's health-care system (which already consumes 17% of its GDP) from swamping the
rest of the economy. Clever ways of applying economies of scale and scope in new ways could
boost public-sector productivity.
Moreover, it is in the nature of innovation to feed upon itself. Innovation in the emerging world
will encourage, rather than undermine, innovation in the rich world. Western carmakers learned
the techniques of lean production from their Japanese rivals, just as the Japanese had earlier
learned the techniques of mass production from the Americans. This great insurrection, like its
predecessors, will make us all richer.
Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - The Economist- The trillion-dollar club

In any global gathering, the American president is usually seen, at a minimum, as primus inter
pares: the one who can make or break the final bargain and select his favoured
interlocutors. So in Copenhagen last December, as negotiations for a new climate-change
treaty were entering their final hours, a hastily convened meeting between Barack Obama
and China's prime minister, Wen Jiabao, looked as if it would be the critical moment when
a deal might be struck. But when the president turned up, he found not only Mr Wen but
the heads of government of Brazil, South Africa and India. This was unexpected. The
Americans even thought the Indians had already left the summit. What was conceived as
a bilateral talk turned instead into a negotiation with an emerging-market block. As an
additional sign that things were changing in the world, the president got a finger-wagging
from one of Mr Wen's hangers-on. But at least Mr Obama was in the room; Europeans
were shut out while the emerging powers and America put the final touches to their deal.
This week the same developing countries are meeting again, in Braslia. On April 15th Brazil,
India and South Africarising powers that are also democraciesput their heads together. The
next day South Africa will drop out and Russia and China will join the party, to create a meeting
of the so-called BRICs.
For this group, it is a second summit; last June their leaders met in Yekaterinburg, in Russia.
That inaugural summit, which produced almost nothing concrete, appeared to be a one-off
event and could be ignored. But the foursome is starting to establish a record. BRIC foreign
ministers have met annually since 2006. Finance ministers and central bank heads meet
frequently. This week, in addition to the leaders' summit, there are gatherings in Brazil of BRIC
commercial banks, BRIC development banks, and even BRIC think-tanks.
The term itself was coined by Jim O'Neill of Goldman Sachs, a Wall Street bank, and is
sometimes written off as just a gimmick aimed at tempting punters. But is it now the case that
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life, in a serious way, is imitating investment analysis? Are the BRICs developing a momentum
of their own? If so, what difference might that make to the rest of the world?
Life imitates Goldman Sachs
The BRICs matter because of their economic weight. They are the four largest economies
outside the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the rich man's
club). They are the only developing economies with annual GDPs of over $1 trillion (Indonesia's
is only half that). With the exception of Russia, they sustained better growth than most during
the great recession and, but for them, world output would have fallen by even more than it did.
China also became, by a fraction, the world's largest exporter. Meanwhile, the BRICs are also
increasing their trade with one another: Chinese-Indian trade has soared and is likely to reach
$60 billion this year. China has also become the largest market for the fast-industrialising
countries of East Asia. Less happily, China has become the largest spewer-forth of carbon
dioxide, emitting 6.5 billion tonnes of CO2 in 2008, or 22% of the world's total. Russia is third
and India fourth on this particular roll of shame.
The most striking sign of the BRICs' significance to the world economy, though, is probably their
share of foreign-exchange reserves. All four are among the ten largest accumulators of
reserves, accounting for 40% of the world's total. China is easily the largest, with a staggering
$2.4 trillion, enough to buy two-thirds of all the NASDAQ-quoted companies. It is the world's
second-largest net creditor after Japan (the net credit position takes account of equities as well
as debt). Russia's foreign-exchange reserves were virtually zero when it began market reform in
1992; now they stand at $420 billion. If the BRICs were to set aside one-sixth of their reserves,
they could create a fund the size of the IMF.
Foreign assets provided cushions against the great recession and helped turn the BRICs into
financial powers as well as economic ones. Even as most Western countries struggle to rein in
record budget deficits and soaring debts, the BRICs' public-debt levels are mostly modest and
stable (India is a partial exception). Most investment banks offer BRIC funds. The world's top
two banks are Chinese.
This macro performance is being translated into different sorts of influence. Perhaps the most
important is an intangible one: that of reputation. In some respects, the BRICs share a
distinctive view of the world. They have large domestic markets with substantial numbers of
poor people, so growth and anti-poverty programmes are higher up their list of concerns than in
Western countries (this is even true in Russia, though to a lesser extent). They are trying to
diversify their economies. They are innovating (though Russia is much better at producing guns
than civilian goods) and challenging received notions about globalisation (see our special
report). All have become far more entwined with the world economy. But the BRICs have
opened up without the full market liberalisation championed by the "Washington consensus". In
the aftermath of the great recession, this mongrel position commands respect in other
developing countries, which want to know how the BRICs did it."The BRICs aren't exactly an
alternative to the Washington consensus," says Mathias Spektor of the Getlio Vargas
foundation in Brazil, "but they provide other models to emulate and are effective at expressing
something distinctive in economic affairs."
An acronym in search of a role
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Wealth may produce market power and even soft power. But it does not necessarily generate
geopolitical heft. Rich Japan and Germany deliberately adopted a "big Switzerland" policy of
hiding their light under a bushel for decades. Even now, they throw their weight about
reluctantly.
But there are several reasons for thinking that the BRICs might be different. Germany and
Japan had a golf-sized American security umbrella for shelter. But international institutions are
now in flux. Robert Hormats, America's under-secretary of state for economic affairs, compares
the 2010s to the late 1940s: "The post-war period was so different from the pre-war one that it
needed new institutions. The turn of the 21st century is similar, especially after the financial
crisis." He argues that "you can't go back to having the system run by a few rich economies.
Our big challenge is to work out how large emerging economies integral to the financial and
trading system take some responsibility for maintaining it."
One reason the BRICs matter is that the world's most important country thinks they do, and is
willing to rope them into decision-making. America's means of doing this is the G20. It pushed
for the group's expansion to include the BRICs and declared the club the chief forum for dealing
with international economic issues. The BRICs and the original group of seven rich countries
(G7) form natural blocks within the G20. So far, the clearest expression of a coherent BRIC
agendafor reform of the international financial system and more domestic stimulus
programmescame on the eve of a G20 meeting in 2008.
A second reason why the BRICs matter is that all four giants have reasons for creating a new
club of their own. China's leaders know their time has come. They want to enhance their own
influence and reduce America's. But at the same time their leaders hew to Deng Xiaoping's
dictum that "China should adopt a low profile and never take the lead."
The BRICs, which the Chinese calls jinzhuan siguo, or four golden brick nations, are a way to
square that circle. By teaming up with others (which are anyway attractive as raw-materials
suppliers), China can hide its national demands behind a multilateral faade. And a meeting of
the BRICs looks slightly more like a collection of equals than do most gatherings involving
China (though China's economy is still larger than those of the other three combined). China
sees climate-change diplomacy as a way of boosting its soft power, and as part of its bilateral
relationship with America (its stubborn behaviour in Copenhagen notwithstanding). But it does
not want to break with the rest of the developing world on climate issues. Co-ordination with
other "emerging" polluters helps it to succeed on all these fronts.
This balancing act applies to the other BRICs. All want to soften the impact of China's rise. The
BRIC forum is an alternative to what they all (perhaps even China itself) regard as a nightmare:
a G2 of America and China. They all also want, in the words of Brazil's foreign minister, "to
increase, if only at the margin, the degree of multipolarity in the world".
India has been profoundly disappointed by traditional multilateral diplomacy. Years of pushing
for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council have got it nowhere. The BRICs can hardly be
worse. President Luiz Incio Lula da Silva has been trying to expand Brazil's diplomatic
influence beyond Latin America. The BRICs help him fulfil these geopolitical ambitions.
(Whether Lula's successors will share his taste for the world stage is an open question: at the
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moment, both likely successors seem more concerned about domestic matters.) As for Russia,
association with some of the most dynamic economies in the world may perhaps divert some
attention away from its own decline. More important for Russia, as for all the others, the BRICs
are a way of telling America that the largest developing countries have their own options and
that not all roads lead to Washington.
Because of this, some members of America's Congress look on the BRICs with trepidation. The
main focus of their concern is China's currency. But there are other reasons why the BRICs
might damage the global economic system, rather than buttress it. They might, for example,
undermine the role of the IMF and World Bank, abandon attempts to expand free trade or even
just ride roughshod over aid conditions in poor countries. But Mr Hormats thinks they will not.
"They understand," he argues, "that the openness and smooth functioning of the system is vital
to them and so far there has been very little evidence that they want to change it dramatically."
When world output was plummeting last year, the BRICs' economic stimulus programmes did a
lot to stabilise it. And on the question of reforming the international financial institutions, America
and the BRICs find themselves on the same side.
Without straw
A more compelling reason for doubting the BRICs' chances of changing anything fundamental is
that they are not capable of it. They lack coherence. They compete as much among themselves
as they do with America or Europeand hence the BRICs as a club seem unlikely to match the
force of their individual ambitions.
Two are authoritarian; two are noisy democracies. Three are nuclear powers. Brazil is not,
though it had a nuclear-weapons programme which it abandoned in the 1980s; in 2009 the vicepresident said he personally thought Brazil should build its own bomb and the country plans a
nuclear-powered submarine to patrol offshore oilfields. Two have permanent seats on the UN
Security Council; two (to their immense frustration) do not.
When Mr O'Neill first coined his term, people wondered why Brazil was in the group but not
Mexico. Now Russia looks like the odd man out. Its population is falling. Its fertility rate is
catastrophically low, at around 1.35, compared with 1.8-2.8 for the others (the fertility rate
measures the number of children an average woman can expect to have during her lifetime).
The working-age populations of India, China and Brazil will all rise between now and 2030
(enormously in India and Brazil, marginally in China). Russia's working-age population will fall
by 17m. In general, uncertainty about who belongs in the group casts doubt on its coherence.
Should South Africa join? Mexico? Indonesia? If they did, what would happen to the group?
A more important obstacle to coherence is strategic rivalry. True, BRIC countries co-operate on
a bilateral basis. There have been joint military exercises between Russia and China, Russia
and India, and China and India in recent years. Russia and China also have a mutual-security
body, called the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation, which includes Central Asian countries.
The big problem, though, is India's rivalry with China.
China and India fought a war in 1962. China has taken control of a slice of Kashmir which India
says was ceded illegally by Pakistan. China also disputes India's title to the state of Arunachal
Pradesh. In 2009 it tried to stop the Asian Development Bank from lending money to India
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because the loans would have financed a flood-control project there. India has been trying to
limit the numbers of skilled Chinese workers. Some Indians fear that China wants to strangle
their country with a "string of pearls": the imagined necklace consists of Pakistan, India's
longtime rival; Nepal, where China backs the Maoist opposition; and Sri Lanka, where it is
financing the country's big post-civil-war reconstruction projects.
The BRICs have also stepped up competition between one another in third countries. Although
the flow of aid and investment from rich countries to poor has been faltering, China promised
$10 billion of cheap credit to Africa in 2009-12 and Brazil has invested $10 billion in the
continent since 2003. The BRICs have also dramatically increased their purchases of exports
from poor countries. Rather as America and the Soviet Union vied for influence through
economic and military aid, the BRICs do now (though their competition is less fierce than the
cold-war version).
Even where BRIC countries agree in general, they often disagree in detail. Climate change is a
good example. The emerging giants all argue that Western industrialised nations should take
the largest share of the burden of cutting greenhouse-gas emissions. They criticise absolute
emission caps for developing countries and argue for limits based on population or intensity of
use. They all want to keep questions of trade and climate change separate, opposing things like
carbon duties.
However, for the purposes of climate change, the BRICs are actually BASICs (Brazil, South
Africa, India, China): Russia is an industrialised country under the Kyoto accords, with
obligations the others do not have. Even on a specific matter such as forestry, their records
differ. Brazil is the world's biggest deforester, albeit one committed to slowing the pace; China is
the world's biggest afforester (now planting 4m hectares of forest a year)though some
complain that its trading partners' trees are being felled to stoke its economic growth.
Lastly, the BRICs differ economically. Obviously, their incomes range widely, from Russia's
$15,000 per head per year to India's $3,000 (these are IMF figures using purchasing-power
parities). Brazil and India define themselves as non-aligned developing economies. Russia does
not. China sometimes does, and sometimes thinks of itself as sui generis. China and Russia
have more open economies, with exports accounting for around a third of GDP. India and Brazil
are more closed, with exports less than a fifth of GDP. Perhaps most important, China and
Russia are both running huge current-account surpluses; Brazil and India, small current-account
deficits. That reflects fundamentally different approaches to economic management. China is
suppressing domestic demand and encouraging jobs in export industries. India and Brazil look
askance at this form of mercantilism and suffer from China's resulting currency undervaluation.
Marriages of inconvenience
The BRICs' divisions do not paralyse the group. The countries got together to propose
reforming the IMF, for instance. But they do limit the block's effectiveness. There is no sign of
military co-operation within the organisation, and nothing much on trade. As Mr Spektor puts it,
the BRICs merely have to be something, not do anything.
Paradoxically, this makes it easier for the group to flourish since co-operation within the BRICs
is in essence free: no one need sacrifice anything, so, however tiny the potential gains, they are
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worth pursuing. Emerging giants are able to criticise the management of the world economy
without having to do anything about it (for example, deploring the failure to complete the Doha
round of world trade talks without offering to break the logjam). As Agata Antkiewicz of the
Centre for International Governance Innovation puts it, "even though the BRICs group has
always been incoherent, the tag seems to have permeated the public domain and become
synonymous with change, emerging markets and growth." But this could end if ever BRIC
membership required trade-offs.
Meanwhile, the BRICs face rivals. East Asian countries are cobbling together something that
might one day become a coherent emerging-market group. In January a free-trade agreement
linking China and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) came into force. In
March ASEAN nations, China, Japan and South Korea set up a pool of foreign-exchange
reserves giving them a small element of monetary-policy co-ordination. Such a group leaves out
Brazil, Russia and India. But Fred Bergsten of the Peterson Institute for International
Economics, a think-tank in Washington, DC, reckons the West ought to be thinking about how to
respond to this regional group, rather than the global club of BRICs.
Eswar Prasad of Cornell University points out that as an organisation (as opposed to a clever
acronym), the BRICs are a product of the great recession. They are noticed because of the
recessionary debate about rebalancing the world economy. As that debate evolves, so will ideas
about the BRICs. But that is no reason for writing them off. There have also been endless
numbers of Gs: starting in the 1960s with a G10, then G5, G6, G7, G8and now G20.
The BRICs cannot claim legal, historical or geographical coherence, in the way the European
Union can. They are not facing a common security threat, as NATO originally did. But events in
Copenhagen, messy as they were, are surely proof that new and improbable combinations of
large, emerging countries can play a role on the world stage. The BRICs' begetter, Mr O'Neill,
does not regret his creation: his "overriding conclusion is that [they] are a good mechanism for
pressing rich countries to change their role in managing the global economy more radically."

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - BRICs querem reforma do FMI at


novembro

Fabrcia Peixoto
Os pases que formam o BRIC Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China deixaram claro nesta quintafeira que vo trabalhar por uma reforma do Fundo Monetrio Internacional (FMI) e do
Banco Mundial ainda este ano.
A declarao conjunta dos quatro pases, divulgada logo aps a 2 cpula do grupo, em
Braslia, sugere que um novo sistema de votao no Banco Mundial seja aprovado j na
reunio de primavera, na prxima semana, em Washington.
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J a reforma do FMI dever, na avaliao dos pases do BRIC, ser implementada at


novembro, ms da prxima reunio do G20 financeiro, no Canad.
Esperamos que a reforma do sistema de cotas do FMI seja concludo at novembro deste
ano, diz o documento.
Desde a criao do grupo, no ano passado, os BRICs vm defendendo um sistema financeiro
internacional mais igualitrio e que reflita o peso dos emergentes na economia mundial.
Na ltima reunio do G20, realizada em Londres em abril do ano passado, os BRICs
conseguiram um compromisso dos lderes mundiais para antecipar a reforma de cotas do FMI
de 2013 para janeiro de 2011.
Em janeiro deste ano, o Brasil entrou formalmente para o grupo de pases credores do FMI, ao
colocar disposio do fundo um montante de US$ 10 bilhes.
Financiamento
Lderes de Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China tambm assinaram nesta quinta-feira um acordo de
cooperao que dever facilitar o financiamento de obras e projetos entre essas naes. A
iniciativa deve priorizar as reas de energia e infraestrutura.
Os bancos de desenvolvimento dos quatro pases se comprometeram em analisar
conjuntamente formas de incentivar a concesso de crdito entre os BRICs.
Uma das possibilidades de que, no futuro, o Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econmico
e Social (BNDES) possa financiar projetos ao lado dos respectivos bancos de China, ndia e
Rssia.
Mais cedo, os pases que formam o Ibas (ndia, Brasil e frica do Sul) tambm divulgaram um
comunicado conjunto da 4 cpula do grupo, em Braslia.
Sem grandes novidades, o documento reitera uma srie de compromissos j firmados entre os
trs pases em encontros anteriores, como a cooperao pela reforma do Conselho de
Segurana das Naes Unidas.

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - BRICs so incapazes de promover


mudanas significativas, diz 'Economist'

O grupo dos BRICs, formado por Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China, incapaz de promover
mudanas significativas no cenrio mundial, afirma uma reportagem publicada na edio
desta sexta-feira da revista britnica The Economist.

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53

O texto, intitulado O Clube dos Trilhes de Dlares, em referncia ao Produto Interno Bruto
(PIB) dos pases, que ultrapassa os US$ 1 trilho, afirma que a falta de coerncia e a rivalidade
entre as naes que compem o bloco seriam um obstculo para a eficcia do grupo, reunido
em Braslia nesta semana.
A revista cita como exemplo dessa falta de coerncia o fato de dois pases do bloco serem
autoritrios e dois democrticos, e a ausncia de um programa nuclear no Brasil o nico pas
do grupo que no uma potncia nuclear.
Mas, acima dessas caractersticas, a Economist afirma que o maior obstculo para a coerncia
do BRIC seria a rivalidade estratgica. Segundo a revista, os pases cooperam apenas de
maneira bilateral e a rivalidade entre ndia e China prejudica a coeso do bloco.
O texto destaca ainda a competio entre os integrantes em mercados de terceiros pases e o
aumento da compra de produtos exportados de pases pobres, criando uma corrida que a
revista compara dos EUA e a Unio Sovitica na Guerra Fria.
De acordo com a reportagem, mesmo onde os BRICs concordam de maneira geral, os
integrantes frequentemente discordam nos detalhes.
Nesse sentido, estariam, por exemplo, a questo das mudanas climticas, j que a Rssia
faria parte das naes industrializadas pelo Protocolo de Kyoto, com obrigaes que os outros
membros no possuem.
Economia
Outra grande disparidade mencionada pela revista a natureza dos modelos econmicos dos
pases, sendo as de China e Rssia consideradas mais abertas e as de ndia e Brasil, mais
fechadas.
As divises dos BRICs no paralisam o grupo. Os pases se uniram para propor a reforma do
FMI, por exemplo. Mas elas limitam a eficcia do bloco, conclui a revista.
Apesar de destacar a importncia do bloco, especialmente econmica, e tambm o apoio dos
EUA ao grupo, a Economist afirma que os BRICs no podem reivindicar coerncia legal,
histrica ou geogrfica, da forma como a Unio Europeia pode.
Mas, o texto termina com a concluso do criador da sigla, o economista Jim ONeill, afirmando
que o bloco um bom mecanismo para pressionar os pases ricos a mudarem seu papel na
administrao da economia global mais radicalmente.

Data: 16/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - Para analistas, presso por reformas
ambio que une Brics

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54

Alessandra Corra
Apesar de posies divergentes em vrios temas, os quatro pases que formam o grupo
chamado Bric (Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China) se renem pela segunda vez nesta quintafeira, em Braslia, com um objetivo em comum: a presso por reformas no sistema
financeiro internacional.
Com posies por vezes conflitantes em temas como comrcio mundial ou aquecimento global,
os Brics vm unindo foras para obter mais voz em instituies como o Fundo Monetrio
Internacional (FMI) ou o Banco Mundial.
"Esses pases tm divergncias, mas compartilham um grande interesse, que o de ter um
papel mais relevante nas discusses sobre a economia global. Querem ser atores relevantes
nesse cenrio", diz Kenneth Lieberthal, especialista em China do Instituto Brookings, em
Washington.
O diretor do programa de estudos da Amrica Latina da Universidade Johns Hopkins, Riordan
Roett, faz uma avaliao semelhante.
"Os diferentes interesses nacionais dos pases do Bric no impedem que atuem com fora na
presso para que os pases industriais reconheam sua importncia", diz Roett, que acaba de
escrever um livro sobre como o Brasil se transformou em um dos Bric, com lanamento
previsto para agosto.
Crise
A presso dos Brics por um papel mais relevante no cenrio internacional ganhou fora com a
crise econmica mundial.
Os quatro pases sofreram bem menos do que as economias da Europa ou dos Estados
Unidos, e tambm se recuperaram mais rapidamente.
Calcula-se que os quatro pases do grupo sero responsveis por mais de 60% do crescimento
econmico mundial de 2008 a 2014.
"H um movimento iniciado na reunio do G20 em Washington, no fim de 2008, que prosseguiu
nas reunies posteriores. Os Brics deixaram claro que esperam que as antigas potncias
industriais aumentem as cotas desses pases no FMI e sua representao em outras
instituies internacionais", diz Roett.
Diviso de poder
A viso dos Brics a de que a diviso de poder em instituies como o FMI e o Banco Mundial
est ultrapassada e no reflete o cenrio atual nem a importncia dessas quatro economias.

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55

"Os Brics tm grande importncia no comrcio mundial, so economias em crescimento. As


antigas potncias industriais do G7 no tero outra alternativa seno aceitar essa nova
realidade", afirma Roett.
O analista da Universidade Johns Hopkins faz uma projeo otimista sobre as chances dos
Brics de conquistarem o desejado papel de maior relevncia no cenrio mundial.
"Vai acontecer. Acredito que o prximo diretor-geral do FMI no ser europeu, e o prximo
presidente do Banco Mundial no ser americano", diz.

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia BBC - Brasil quer empenho de Brics por reforma
do sistema financeiro

Fabrcia Peixoto
O governo brasileiro quer que os quatro maiores pases emergentes da atualidade Brasil,
Rssia, ndia e China atuem com mais empenho e unio em prol de uma reforma do
sistema financeiro internacional.
Segundo um representante do Itamaraty, esta deve ser a principal mensagem do Brasil durante
a 2 cpula de chefes de Estado dos Brics, nesta sexta-feira, em Braslia.
O pior da crise econmica j passou, mas no podemos perder o momento para avanar
nesse debate, diz a fonte.
A avaliao de que Brasil, ndia, Rssia e China tm peso econmico suficiente para forar
uma reforma em instituies como o Fundo Monetrio Internacional (FMI) e o Banco Mundial,
mas que, para isso, precisam de coordenao, de empenho.
O subsecretrio de Assuntos Polticos do Itamaraty, embaixador Roberto Jaguaribe, disse que
existe uma presso crescente na esfera internacional de que a reforma do sistema no seja
necessria.
Temos uma preocupao em levar adiante as reformas necessrias para evitar que a crise se
repita. Precisamos consolidar esse processo, porque alguns pases j esto achando que (as
reformas) no sejam importantes, disse o embaixador.
Citando estimativa do Fundo Monetrio Internacional, Jaguaribe disse que os Brics sero
responsvel por 61% do crescimento econmico mundial, no perodo de 2008 a 2014.
A sigla Bric foi criada em 2001 pelo banco de investimentos Goldman Sachs, em um artigo
sobre as potncias econmicas do futuro, e acabou sendo abraada pela diplomacia dos
quatro pases.
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Moeda
Sobre a discusso quanto a uma moeda que sirva de alternativa ao dlar, Jaguaribe disse que
o assunto continua sendo analisado pelos quatro pases, mas ainda em nvel tcnico.
O tema dominou a 1 cpula dos Brics, em junho passado, depois que o governo chins
apontou a primazia do dlar americano como um dos responsveis pela disseminao da
crise.
De acordo com Jaguaribe, os quatro emergentes tm fortssimo interesse na manuteno do
equilbrio na rea financeira, mas que a discusso sobre uma nova moeda ser feita sem
pressa.
Segundo o embaixador, os representantes dos Brics esto preocupados em promover uma
substituio do dlar que seja imperceptvel e sem especulao.
Inventar jogadas que vo gerar marolas no faz parte dos planos de nenhum dos pases
envolvidos, disse Jaguaribe. No estamos pensando em uma mudana rpida, acrescentou.
O assunto, segundo ele, no ser includo na pauta formal de debate dos chefes de Estado,
estando restrito a um seminrio, promovido pelo Banco Central do Brasil, com tcnicos das
instituies dos quatro pases.
Ponto forte
Segundo o Itamaraty, o ponto forte da coordenao entre os Brics tm sido as reas
financeiras e econmica, com conversas frequentes entre Bancos Centrais e Ministrios da
Fazenda dos quatro emergentes. E a expectativa de que o foco siga sendo esse, disse uma
fonte do Ministrio.
Por sugesto do Brasil, a reunio de chefes de Estado ser precedida por uma srie de
eventos paralelos. Alm de empresrios dos quatros pases, tambm vo se encontrar
representantes dos respectivos bancos de desenvolvimento e de bancos comerciais.
Uma fonte do Ministrio da Fazenda disse BBC Brasil diz que o governo brasileiro,
principalmente, sente-se incomodado com a ausncia de bandeiras de bancos brasileiros
em outros pases em desenvolvimento.
Estamos discutindo com nossos pares nos outros trs pases uma forma de estimular a
presena dessas instituies nesses pases, o que facilitaria em muito o comrcio, diz o
representante da rea econmica.
A avaliao do governo brasileiro de que as instituies brasileiras, apesar de fortes no
mercado nacional, no esto acompanhando a nova dinmica das relaes comerciais entre
os pases do Sul.
Poltica
Se no campo econmico a discurso do governo brasileiro de que os Brics j mostram
avanos, quando o assunto a atuao poltica, a avaliao de que o grupo deixa a desejar.
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Assuntos como a reforma do Conselho de Segurana das Naes Unidas, a poltica nuclear
internacional e as mudanas climticas ainda no so tratados com frequncia entre os quatro
emergentes.
Na avaliao de Jaguaribe, os Brics se destacam pelos trabalhos na rea econmicofinanceira, mas sem uma mudana equivalente no mbito poltico-estratgico.
Existe a um espao, onde ns batalhamos para que haja uma evoluo compatvel com as
demandas e a expanso dos atores relevantes do mundo, diz o embaixador.
Temas como o programa nuclear iraniano e um possvel acordo climtico sero discutidos em
encontros privados entre os chefes de Estado, ou seja, no fazem parte da pauta formal da
cpula.
IBAS
Nesta quinta-feira, o Brasil sedia uma outra cpula de chefes de Estado, no mbito do IBAS
grupo formado por ndia, Brasil e frica do Sul.
Esse o quarto encontro desde que o grupo foi criado, em 2003, com o objetivo de unir os
pases do Sul em contraposio aos pases ricos do Ocidente, representados principalmente
pelo G8.
Entre os destaques da cpula est um encontro com o chanceler palestino, Riad Malik, que
ser recebido em Braslia para discutir o processo de paz no Oriente Mdio.
Segundo Jaguaribe, o encontro foi pedido pelos prprios palestinos, que segundo o
embaixador, veem no IBAS uma instncia imparcial, capaz de contribuir nas conversas com
Israel.
Data: 17/04/2010-Espanha - El Pas-1 Editorial: Emergentes en Brasil

Las cuatro potencias emergentes que componen el grupo de los BRIC -Brasil, Rusia, India y
China- han celebrado su segunda cumbre, en la que ha ejercido de anfitrin el presidente
brasileo Lula da Silva. El formato de la cita ha sido similar al de la que tuvo lugar el
pasado ao en Ekaterimburgo: se trata de encuentros informales al ms alto nivel en los
que estos cuatros pases tratan de ir perfilando la agenda internacional que ms conviene
a sus intereses. En esta ocasin han reiterado la necesidad de una nueva arquitectura
multilateral que refleje mejor la realidad que representan los BRIC y tambin su voluntad
de buscar una alternativa al dlar como moneda de referencia. Pero un nuevo asunto ha
tenido entrada en las discusiones: la seguridad nuclear.
En las actuales circunstancias, este ltimo punto no puede disociarse de las discusiones sobre
el programa nuclear iran. Y aqu afloran divergencias que, previsiblemente, dificultarn la
adopcin de una posicin comn de los BRIC antes de que Naciones Unidas se enfrente a la
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58

adopcin de un paquete reforzado de sanciones. Rusia est demasiado comprometida con


Estados Unidos en el dossier iran como para dar marcha atrs sin perjudicar sus intereses. Y,
a juzgar por la cumbre celebrada en Washington, China no estara lejos de alcanzar un acuerdo
en el mismo sentido que Rusia. Brasil, por su parte, defiende prolongar el dilogo con Irn, ms
por abrir un espacio que acoja sus propias ambiciones de enriquecer uranio que por
condescendencia hacia el rgimen de Tehern.
Puede que la concertacin informal de los BRIC se encuentre en algn momento con un lmite
insalvable, debido a las diferencias de toda ndole entre los miembros de este grupo. De
momento, sin embargo, han encontrado la frmula para seguir avanzando en la concertacin
de sus intereses. Y el prximo ao volvern a encontrarse, esta vez en China.

Data: 18/04/2010-Espanha - El Pas- Opinin: Ladrillo a ladrillo

Pese a sus disparidades, las economas BRIC tienen cada vez mayor peso
MARTIN HUTCHINSON
Puede que la cumbre de los BRIC (iniciales de Brasil, Rusia, India y China) haya recortado
gastos, pero su importancia no ha disminuido. El presidente chino, Hu Jintao, tuvo que
irse antes de tiempo por el terremoto en su pas y dejar en Brasilia a sus homlogos.
Reducir el programa de dos das a slo uno puede haber llevado a pensar que los lderes
de los nuevos mercados tenan pocas cosas importantes de que hablar. Pero el
extraordinario crecimiento interanual del 11,9% de China en el primer trimestre pone de
relieve el podero econmico y la creciente importancia mundial de las cuatro naciones.
Esto hace necesario que el BRIC celebre cumbres peridicas, dado que los miembros del
grupo constituyen un posible contrapeso frente al rico Occidente.
El grupo surgi en 2001 de un acrnimo de Goldman Sachs y no tienen mucho en comn
econmicamente. Brasil y Rusia dependen principalmente de los recursos naturales y en la
ltima dcada se han beneficiado del alza de los precios. Por su parte, China e India tienen
poblaciones gigantescas que les dan relevancia mundial como productores de bienes y
consumidores de recursos, siempre y cuando sus economas sigan creciendo rpidamente. Los
cuatro pases son actualmente los ms importantes de los mercados emergentes, pero puede
que este dominio no dure para siempre. Es muy posible que un quinto pas, Indonesia, les
iguale en importancia en la prxima dcada.
Su asociacin artificial significa que a veces puede haber poco en comn. Pero la crisis de
2008 y la recesin pusieron de manifiesto que sus intereses como colectivo a veces difieren
considerablemente de los de los pases desarrollados occidentales que dominan actualmente
la produccin mundial. Las economas de los BRIC se vieron muy afectadas por la crisis
financiera cuando disminuyeron los crditos comerciales. Sin embargo, su recuperacin ha sido
ms slida que la de la mayora y ha causado un rpido aumento de los precios mundiales de
los productos bsicos y la energa. Por tanto, los lderes de los BRIC probablemente querrn
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59

seguir reunindose con regularidad. Puede que en las crisis les convenga ms tomar
decisiones juntos, por su bien y por el de los mercados emergentes en general, para proteger
sus intereses en lo que a menudo puede ser un mundo econmico sin ganadores ni
perdedores. Por poco convencional que fuera la forma en que surgi el bloque BRIC, los
pases occidentales tendrn que acostumbrase a su creciente poder e influencia.
Data: 16/04/2010Espanha - El Pas- Las potencias emergentes piden un nuevo orden

Brasil, Rusia, China e India buscan ms peso en las organizaciones mundiales


SOLEDAD GALLEGO-DAZ - Buenos Aires
La Segunda Cumbre de los BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, China e India) se celebr ayer en Brasilia,
acogida por el presidente Lula da Silva, uno de los impulsores de este grupo. La agenda
se comprimi en un solo da, en lugar de los dos previstos, ya que el terremoto que
sacudi China oblig al presidente Hu Jintao a adelantar su regreso.
La Segunda Cumbre de los BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, China e India) se celebr ayer en Brasilia,
acogida por el presidente Lula da Silva, uno de los impulsores de este grupo. La agenda se
comprimi en un solo da, en lugar de los dos previstos, ya que el terremoto que sacudi China
oblig al presidente Hu Jintao a adelantar su regreso. Estuvieron tambin presentes el ruso
Dimitri Medvedev, y el primer ministro indio, Manmohan Singh.
Las cumbres de los BRIC suelen ser acontecimientos peculiares en los que no se toman
decisiones. Y sin embargo, todo el mundo las observa con expectacin, porque suponen el
intercambio de ideas y anlisis entre los mximos dirigentes de las cuatro grandes potencias
emergentes (ms de la mitad de la poblacin mundial) y la existencia de un foro original, ajeno
a los mecanismos internacionales tradicionales. La primera reunin se celebr en 2009 en
Ekaterimburgo (Rusia) y la prxima tendr lugar en China.
Las diferencias entre los cuatro pases son poderosas y algunos se preguntan si no terminarn
por debilitar este foro, que no tiene secretariado permanente. Otros anuncian, por el contrario,
su pronta institucionalizacin. "Es cierto que son pases diferentes: dos (Brasil e India) son
democracias y otros, (Rusia y China), no. Tres tienen armamento nuclear y uno (Brasil), no.
Unos son ms audaces (Brasil y Rusia) y otros (India y China), ms cautelosos. Dos quieren
una mayor liberacin del comercio agrcola (Brasil y Rusia) y dos (China e India) quieren
proteger su agricultura familiar", dice, desde su ctedra en Harvard, Roberto Mangabeira, que
fue ministro de Lula y particip en la preparacin de la primera cumbre. "Pero sera errneo
ocultar la importancia que tienen a la hora de debatir la construccin de un nuevo orden
mundial".
"Rusia, India y China tienen ambiciones bien definidas para ocupar espacios crecientes en la
economa y en la poltica internacional. Son proyectos nacionales que no se subordinan a
fantasas tercermundistas", criticaba sin embargo, el influyente diario O Estado de So Paulo.
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60

"El proyecto chino incluye la conquista de los mercados de frica y Amrica Latina,
desplazando tambin a Brasil".
Segn un informe de la CEPAL (Comisin Econmica para Amrica Latina y Caribe), hecho
pblico el martes, China desplazar a la UE y pisar los talones a EE UU como mercado de
destino de las exportaciones latinoamericanas a mediados de la prxima dcada. La CEPAL
prev un comportamiento similar para las importaciones de la regin: en el 2020, China puede
superar a Estados Unidos y a la UE como proveedor de Amrica Latina.
El poder que est adquiriendo China en Amrica Latina qued de relieve esta semana en el
enfrentamiento protagonizado con Argentina. El Gobierno argentino, que haba decidido limitar
algunas importaciones de productos chinos, se encontr con la dursima reaccin de Pekn,
que bloque las importaciones de aceite de soja con un pretexto sanitario. Buenos Aires lleva
das intentado solucionar el problema.
Al margen de las diferencias y del recelo que provocan los BRIC (y muy especialmente el papel
de China), lo cierto es que el grupo ha seguido hablando de cuestiones fundamentales, como la
posicin del dlar como moneda internacional, la reforma de la ONU como sistema de
seguridad mundial y sobre nuevas maneras de enfocar el comercio mundial. En Brasilia parece
haberse incorporado un nuevo elemento de debate: el tema nuclear.
India, que apoy el primer paquete de sanciones contra Irn, concede gran importancia a la
posicin que adopten sus colegas del BRIC. Brasil, en particular, exige ms conversaciones
con el rgimen de Ahmadineyad. El segundo tema de importancia de la cumbre, segn fuentes
brasileas, ha seguido siendo el orden monetario internacional. Los cuatro pases han
superado bien la crisis internacional (Rusia ha sido quizs el ms afectado) y continan
defendiendo, a largo plazo, la sustitucin del dlar como moneda de referencia mundial. Nadie
espera decisiones relevantes, pero los cuatro pases estn discutiendo acuerdos bilaterales
para permitirse compensaciones comerciales sin pasar por el dlar.

Data: 16/04/2010-Espanha - El Pas- Un grupo que ha doblado su peso en 10 aos

ANDREA RIZZI - Madrid


Jim O'Neill, economista de Goldman Sachs, acu el acrnimo BRIC en noviembre de 2001 en
un estudio con el que apost por Brasil, Rusia, India y China como principales motores
del futuro crecimiento de la economa mundial. Entonces, los cuatro pases
representaban un 8% del PIB global. Menos de una dcada despus, los BRIC ya
superan el 15%. Pero hay ms: la mitad del crecimiento de la economa mundial depende
de ellos, el grupo adelantar al G-7 en 2032 y China a EE UU en 2027. Todo ello, muchos
aos antes de lo inicialmente previsto por Goldman Sachs.
El ascenso econmico de los BRIC es tan poderoso que parece inconcebible que no contine
as durante dcadas y que su peso poltico no crezca al mismo ritmo. Ms all de la
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61

incertidumbre sobre si pases con intereses tan diversos lograrn forjar alianzas polticas,
aunque sea puntuales, existen amenazas capaces de hacer descarrilar a alguno de ellos de la
senda de un crecimiento poderoso? El mismo O'Neill, director del Departamento de
Investigacin Econmica Global de Goldman Sachs, esboza en una conversacin telefnica su
visin sobre el futuro de los cuatro.
- China. El gigante asitico permanece naturalmente bajo constante observacin de Gobiernos
extranjeros y analistas por los riesgos de desestabilizacin, vinculados a la opresin que el
rgimen autoritario ejerce sobre la sociedad china. Impulsos separatistas o el simple deseo de
libertad y democracia podran sacudir violentamente el pas y hacer descarrilar el tren chino de
su va de expansin econmica.
Pero ms all de estos escenarios especulativos, hay una amenaza inevitable que se cie
sobre China: el enorme problema demogrfico que pronto estallar a causa de la estricta
poltica de control de la natalidad. Esta ha impedido que se desborde el crecimiento de la
poblacin, pero va a conducir a una pirmide poblacional hipercargada en la parte de arriba,
con una enorme cantidad de ancianos, y una reducida disponibilidad de personas en edad de
trabajo -las generaciones de hijos nicos, actualmente jvenes, tendrn que sustentar a las
mucho ms abultadas generaciones anteriores-.
"Es un problema grave, habr una contraccin de la fuerza de trabajo, y nosotros calculamos
que el crecimiento chino se ralentizar por ello", dice O'Neill. "Sin embargo, esto no ser ni
mucho menos suficiente para impedir que China se convierta pronto en la primera economa
mundial".
- India. El otro gigante asitico, una democracia consolidada sin problemas de envejecimiento,
se enfrenta a problemas de distinto orden. Uno de los ms graves es la deficiencia del sistema
educativo. "India tiene un problema enorme con la educacin, centenares de millones de
ciudadanos son analfabetos", seala O'Neill.
Otro serio peligro es la fragmentacin constante de la estructura administrativa del pas. En
1971, India estaba conformada por 16 Estados. Hoy son 28, y no faltan las reivindicaciones
para nuevas separaciones. La descentralizacin puede ser virtuosa, pero aqu se trata de una
pulverizacin que puede complicar la gestin del cuadro macroeconmico que, segn O'Neill,
es una de las debilidades del pas. "India es el pas menos creble de los cuatro en tema de
control del cuadro macroeconmico", advierte. Su deuda supera el 80% del PIB.
- Rusia. Es el pas que con ms frecuencia se seala como el eslabn dbil de la cadena. "Sin
duda es el que se enfrenta a los ms graves problemas, pero considero una locura sacarlo del
grupo. Pese a haber sufrido la crisis ms que los otros, Rusia haba crecido ms de lo previsto
en los aos anteriores", comenta O'Neill.
Sus principales problemas son claros: el declive demogrfico -un descenso de 149 a 142
millones de habitantes entre 1991 y 2010- y la falta de diversificacin de una economa
centrada en los recursos energticos. "En este apartado, hay que subrayar que despus de la
crisis, tanto Medvdev como Putin estn abogando con insistencia por una diversificacin
productiva. Parecen conscientes del problema, y esa es, aunque modesta, una seal de
esperanza", dice O'Neill. En todo caso, materias primas, fuerza militar, y un asiento permanente
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62

en el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU garantizan a Rusia un papel prominente en el mundo


del siglo XXI.
- Brasil. La consolidacin democrtica y el ascenso econmico brasileo han reforzado el
estatus global del pas latinoamericano. Su crecimiento econmico, sin embargo, ha sido
inferior al de los otros BRIC. O'Neill destaca "la dependencia de materias primas y productos
bsicos" y la "escasa presencia en el comercio global" como elementos problemticos para el
futuro de Brasil.

Data: 16/04/2010-Equador - El Comercio- Brasilia. Potencias emergentes por ms


protagonismo

Los lderes de India, Brasil, Sudfrica, China y Rusia, grandes potencias emergentes,
celebraron ayer dos cumbres en Brasilia, en las que reclamaron ms protagonismo en
organismos diplomticos y financieros internacionales. La cumbre del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia,
India y China), prevista para hoy, fue adelantada, porque el presidente chino,Hu Jintao,
tuvo que regresar ayer a su pas debido al sismo ocurrido all el mircoles. AFP
EE.UU. Michelle Obama apoya la reforma migratoria
Michelle Obama finaliz ayer su primer viaje sola al extranjero como primera dama de Estados
Unidos en Mxico. Mantuvo contacto con la juventud y declar que prefiere una visin integral
de la lucha antidrogas y que apoya una reforma migratoria. AFP
Espaa. Garzn niega haber recibido dinero
El juez espaol Baltasar Garzn neg ayer ante el Tribunal Supremo haber recibido cantidad
alguna del banco Santander para la organizacin de unos cursos en la Universidad de Nueva
York, donde estuvo como profesor investigador entre 2005 y 2006. AFP
Europa. Polonia prepara el funeral de Kaczynski
Polonia preparaba ayer los funerales del presidente Lech Kaczynski, fallecido en un accidente
areo el sbado pasado, que, segn las primeras investigaciones, se debi a un error de
pilotaje. Adems, el pas est sumido en una controversia sobre la decisin de sepultarlo en el
panten de los reyes y los hroes nacionales en Cracovia. AFP
Estados Unidos. Los beneficios para desempleados vuelven
El Congreso decidi ayer restaurar los beneficios a cientos de miles de desempleados, quienes
los haban perdido debido a una disputa partidista en el Senado. La Cmara de Diputados
aprob el proyecto y lo envi al presidente Barack Obama para que lo firme y lo convierta en
ley. El Senado aprob la medida anteriormente en el da. Reuters
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63

Data: 15/04/2010-Equador - El Comercio-4 pases emergentes buscan ser contrapeso de


los ricos

Brasilia. AFP, DPA


Los lderes del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) se darn cita este viernes en Brasilia en la II
Cumbre de este grupo, aglutinado por el fenomenal crecimiento de sus gigantescas
economas, para consolidar su influencia mundial.
La reunin tendr lugar das despus de que el presidente brasileo Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
escribiera en Washington, en el marco de la cumbre sobre seguridad nuclear, un nuevo captulo
de la creciente lista de fricciones con su par de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama. Lula insisti
en la necesidad de seguir negociando con Irn antes de dictar sanciones por su polmico
programa nuclear.
El tema puede ser abordado en las reuniones para conocer la posicin de cada uno, dijo el
coordinador del evento, Roberto Jaguaribe, alto funcionario de la Cancillera brasilea.
La cumbre de los BRIC reunir a los presidentes Hu Jintao (China), Dimitri Medvedev (Rusia),
Lula da Silva (Brasil) y el primer ministro Manmohan Singh (India). Ellos oficialmente abordarn
una agenda econmica destinada a arrancar de los pases ricos una reforma del sistema
financiero y ms peso en los organismos multilaterales (FMI y Banco Mundial).
El gran factor que aglutina (el BRIC) es la necesidad de cambiar la gobernabilidad
internacional tradicionalmente controlada por las naciones industrializadas, resumi Jaguaribe.
Dnde estn la riqueza generada en el mundo y las reservas? Estn en los pases en
desarrollo; por tanto, no se puede contemplar ms la posibilidad de que un grupo de pases
ricos diga cmo se harn las cosas, enfatiz.
Los cuatro miembros del BRIC representaron entre el 2000 y el 2008 el 50% del crecimiento
econmico mundial y debe aumentar a 61% para el 2014, segn el FMI. Juntos suman ms del
40% de la poblacin y 16% del PIB mundial. Con la salvedad de Rusia y destaque de China, el
BRIC sali bien de la crisis en el 2009 y vuelve a ser motor del crecimiento mundial.
Adems, Brasilia acoge hoy una cumbre del foro emergente IBSA (India, Brasil y Sudfrica).

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai - El Observador- Liderazgo ladrillo a ladrillo

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64

EN LA CUMBRE DE LOS EMERGENTES, BRASILIA Y PEKN DEFENDIERON LA POSICIN


DE NO SANCIONAR A IRN POR SU PROGRAMA NUCLEAR
Brasil, Rusia, China e India se reunieron en una nueva cumbre del Grupo BRIC. Pidieron ms
peso en las decisiones de la economa y la poltica internacional
Brick significa ladrillo en ingls. Y aunque ni Brasil, ni Rusia, ni China ni India tengan al idioma
de Shakespeare como su lengua oficial, aunque todos representen un cierto recelo hacia
Washington, han encontrado a esa palabra (sin la k) como la mejor para definirlos. La fuerza
del ladrillo es lo que simboliza la robustez de los cuatro pases que significaron el 50% del
crecimiento de la economa mundial entre 2000 y 2008, que son el 16% del PBI planetario y el
40% de la poblacin.
Brasil, ese jugador multifactico y que cada vez cubre una porcin mayor de la cancha de la
poltica mundial, es quien ayer recibi en Brasilia, durante la segunda cumbre del BRIC, a los
lderes de Rusia, Dimitri Medvedev, de China, Ju Hintao, y de India, Manmohan Singh, para
discutir una agenda tan abierta que incluye desde el escenario posterior a la crisis financiera
internacional, hasta los desafos planteados por el programa nuclear iran. Tambin la paz en
Medio Oriente, y los mecanismos para consolidar su influencia con una voz ms activa en las
decisiones globales. En definitiva, una agenda de estado propia de grandes potencias, que se
niegan a seguir la de Washington basados en su propio peso especfico.
La cumbre se llev a cabo en paralelo a la reunin del Grupo IBSA, que une a Brasil, India y
Sudfrica.
En la apertura, el presidente Luis Incio Lula Da Silva ratific el papel fuerte que quiere jugar el
grupo en el mundo. Dijo que la presencia de los lderes de Rusia, India, China y Sudfrica es
"extremamente reveladora de la nueva geografa poltica y econmica que el mundo est
viviendo en este inicio del siglo XXI". "Buscamos respuestas progresistas para esta
globalizacin asimtrica y disfuncional que vive la humanidad", insisti el presidente.
Comercio. La discusin entre Lula, Singh, Hu y Medvedev se centr en la reforma del sistema
financiero y la mayor participacin de las principales economas emergentes en el diseo del
nuevo escenario econmico, en particular en organismos como FMI y Banco Mundial.
Ya en la primera cumbre del BRIC, en 2009, los cuatro gigantes reclamaron "un sistema de
divisas estable, predecible y ms diversificado", abriendo la puerta a discusiones de alto nivel
sobre la posibilidad de encontrar alternativas al dlar estadounidense como moneda de
referencia. Sin embargo, antes de la cumbre Brasil asegur que la misma no llegara a ninguna
propuesta que sacuda el frgil equilibrio financiero poscrisis.
"El gran factor que aglutina el BRIC es la necesidad de cambiar la gobernanza internacional"
controlada por las naciones industrializadas, resumi el coordinador del evento, el alto
funcionario de la cancillera brasilea Roberto Jaguaribe. "Dnde estn la riqueza generada
en el mundo y las reservas? Estn en los pases en desarrollo; por tanto, no se puede
contemplar ms la posibilidad de que un grupo de pases ricos diga cmo se harn las cosas",
enfatiz.
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65

Nuclear. Todos vienen de Washington, donde el presidente de EEUU, Barack Obama, organiz
una cumbre con el objetivo de promover el desarme nuclear, a la vez que advertir sobre el
peligro de Irn y su programa atmico. Y precisamente algunas de las voces ms crticas de la
poltica de sanciones hacia Tehern vienen del BRIC. China posee una plaza permanente en el
Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, y Brasil es miembro temporario. Ambos se han mostrado en
contra de las sanciones, y defienden la negociacin. Rusia, por su parte, es el que ms ha
variado su posicin, y hoy apoya las sanciones.
Lula discuti con el lder chino y con el primer ministro indio la creciente presin internacional
para sancionar a Irn. "En esos encuentros, el presidente Lula dio una explicacin, para mayor
transparencia, de lo que hemos hecho con relacin a Irn. Y percibimos grandes afinidades con
uno y otro pas", dijo a la prensa el canciller Celso Amorim.
Para seguir acumulando temas de relevancia, la reunin del Grupo IBSA tuvo como uno de los
puntos fundamentales el tema Oriente Medio. Los ministros de Brasil, Sudfrica e India se
reunieron con el canciller de la Autoridad Nacional Palestina, Riak Maliki, para discutir la
contribucin del grupo a las negociaciones de paz en Medio Oriente. (El Observador y
agencias)
El bric en cifras
16% del PBI mundial representaron los pases del BRIC en 2009 (US$ 9,4 billones).
40% representan de la poblacin mundial (2.800 millones de personas).
8,7% fue el crecimiento en 2009 de China. El de india fue 5,6%.
-7,9% fue el cada de Rusia en el perodo, mientras que Brasil estuvo cercano al cero.
50% del crecimiento de la economa representaron en 2000-2008. Para 2014 se estima que
ser el 60%.

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai - La Repblica-'Respuestas progresistas a la globalizacin


asimtrica'

Brasil. Lula recibe a presidentes de potencias emergentes


El presidente brasileo critica las relaciones disfuncionales entre pases.
BRASILIA| AFP

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66

El presidente brasileo, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, estim ayer jueves que las dos grandes
cumbres de naciones emergentes que su pas acoge muestran una nueva geografa
poltica y econmica del mundo y la bsqueda de "respuestas progresistas a la
globalizacin asimtrica".
La presencia en Brasil de los lderes de Rusia, India, China y Sudfrica es "extremamente
reveladora de la nueva geografa poltica y econmica que el mundo est viviendo en este
inicio del siglo XXI", dijo Lula al lado del presidente chino, Hu Jintao, con el que acababa de
reunirse.
"En todas las organizaciones multilaterales, buscamos respuestas progresistas para esta
globalizacin asimtrica y disfuncional que vive la humanidad", insisti el presidente.
Lula es el anfitrin en Brasilia de dos grandes cumbres de lderes de naciones emergentes,
una especie de G7 del Sur: el IBSA, que rene a India, Brasil y Sudfrica, y el BRIC, que
juntar en la mesa a los presidentes brasileo, el ruso Dimitri Medvedev, el chino Hu Jintao y el
primer ministro indio, Manmohan Singh.

Data: 16/04/2010-Bolvia - El Deber- Potencias emergentes piden en Brasil un orden


mundial ms justo

AFP. Brasilia
Los lderes de cuatro potencias emergentes -China, Rusia, India, Brasil- a los que se sum
Sudfrica, pidieron ayer en Brasilia un nuevo orden mundial que reconozca su peso
econmico e influencia, y abordaron opciones para una solucin a la controversia sobre el
programa nuclear iran.
En una jornada que se vio transtornada por la decisin del presidente chino, Hu Jintao, de
adelantar en un da el retorno a su pas por causa de un terremoto que mat a 760 personas,
los jefes de Estado realizaron la IV Cumbre del Grupo IBSA (India, Brasil y Sudfrica por su
sigla en ingls) y la II Cumbre de BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China), adems de una maratn
de encuentros bilaterales.
Despus de dedicarse en reuniones bilaterales a discutir eventuales salidas a las crecientes
presiones internacionales por sanciones a Irn, los cuatro gigantes se concentraron en su
pedido de construir una nueva arquitectura poltica y financiera global.
Al fin de la II Cumbre de BRIC, el primer ministro de la India, Manmohan Singh, apunt que el
objetivo principal del grupo es contribuir a la construccin "de un nuevo orden mundial ms
democrtico, justo y multipolar".

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En su declaracin final apuntaron que "el mundo precisa de una arquitectura financiera
reformada y ms estable, que torne a la economa global ms resistente a futuras crisis".
El brasileo Lula, el chino Hu, el ruso Medvedev y el indio Singh se reunieron durante poco
ms de dos horas en la sede de la Cancillera.

Data: 15/04/2010ndia - The Times of India- Prime Minister arrives in Brazil for IBSA, BRIC
summits

BRASILIA: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh arrived here today on a two-day visit during which
he will attend the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) and India-Brazil- South Africa (IBSA)
Summits and hold bilateral meetings with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian
President Dmitry Medvedev.
Singh, accompanied by his wife Gursharan Kaur, was accorded a red-carpet welcome at the
Brazilian Air Force Base with the presentation of ceremonial Guard of Honour and 21-gun
salute.
He was received warmly by Brazilian Defence Minister Nelson Jobin as the military band played
national anthems of the host country and India, one by one.
The Prime Minister reached here from Washington on the second leg of his eight-nation tour.
The two Summits will discuss global economic crisis besides ways to enhance cooperation
among the member countries of the two groupings.
At the 2nd BRIC Summit, Iran's nuclear issue and the controversy surrounding it will also be
discussed under the grouping's format by Singh, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Chinese
President Hu Jintao and Brazilian President Lula da Silva. This will be the first time that Iran will
be part of focussed agenda of the grouping.
BRIC is a significant grouping comprising two of the world's leading energy producers - Russia
and China and top energy consumers - India and China, which officials say forms the basis for
natural synergy.
In the BRIC format, Foreign Ministers of the four countries have been meeting regularly on the
sidelines of international conferences, including the UN General Assembly.
The BRIC countries, representing 40 per cent of the global population, are among the largest
and fastest growing economies with rich human and material resources. They represent the
future of the global economic landscape.

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With a similarity of views on several issues like climate change and reform of global institutions,
including the UN, the four countries have been fine-tuning their collective approaches to these
issues.
In the IBSA format too, India, Brazil and South Africa, the three fastest growing economies of
three continents, have been evolving common and coordinated approaches to the challenges
like global economic crisis and climate change besides pushing efforts to enhance cooperation
among themselves.
After the IBSA Summit on Friday, India, Brazil and South Africa are expected to sign two
trilateral MoUs. These are in the areas of solar energy and science and technology.
An MoU in the field of sport is also likely to be inked. "These groupings reflect the growing role
of emerging economies in shaping the global economic order," the Prime Minister had said in a
statement before leaving on his two-nation tour.
He said the IBSA process has come of age as it today encompasses a wide range of activities
which supplement the excellent bilateral relations that India enjoys with each of these countries.
"Our coordination on important international issues has expanded, and our trilateral cooperation
is beginning to bear fruit in many sectors," the Prime Minister had said.
"We have a high stake in the revival of the global economy, an open trading system, energy
security, combating climate change and addressing non-traditional threats to international
security," he said.
Singh will hold bilateral meetings with the Chinese President and Russian President during his
stay here.
Ahead of his meeting with Hu, Singh said in Washington that India and China were working very
hard to find a "practical" and "pragmatic" solution to the boundary question and it would "take
time" to get resolved.
"Well we have the border problem and that problem has to be resolved. We are working very
hard to find to have a practical, pragmatic solution to that problem," he said at a press
conference when asked about relations between India and China.
Noting that both countries "recognise that it would take time", he said both the nations have
agreed that pending the resolution of the border issues, peace and tranquility should be
maintained along the Line of Actual Control and by and large that situation prevails on the
ground.
On the overall Sino-India relations, he said the economic content of the relationship has
increased significantly, with China today being India's largest trading partner.
There are large Chinese investments in our country and there are large Indian investments in
China. "On the economic front the relationship is moving in the right direction," he said.
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On multilateral issues, he said, there was a recognition in China that there was a similarity of
approach between the two countries and they can gain by working together.
In this context, he referred to the Copenhagen conference on climate change last December
during which India and China worked closely to block developed nations from imposing their
agenda.

Data: 15/04/2010-Mxico Reforma- Recibe Brasil a lderes de emergentes

Los pases BRIC buscarn definir una postura comn para aumentar su representatividad en
los organismos internacionales
Agencias
Brasilia, Brasil (14 abril 2010).- El Presidente de China, Hu Jintao, y el Primer Ministro de India,
Manmohan Singh, arribaron este mircoles a Brasil, donde participarn el viernes en una
cumbre de potencias emergentes.
El viernes se realizar la segunda cumbre del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China), en la que
tambin participarn los Presidentes brasileo, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, y el ruso, Dimitri
Medvedev, quien llegar el jueves al pas sudamericano.
Los pases BRIC buscarn definir una postura comn para aumentar su representatividad en
los organismos internacionales, como el Fondo Monetario Internacional y el Banco Mundial,
mientras impulsan la Ronda Doha para la liberalizacin del comercio mundial.
El diplomtico brasileo Roberto Jaguaribe dijo que la segunda cumbre de BRIC intentar
definir una reglamentacin del sistema financiero internacional para evitar que se repitan
situaciones como la quiebra de bancos estadounidenses que desataron la crisis global en
2008.
Los cuatro pases pretenden tener una posicin comn sobre ese tema de cara a la prxima
cumbre de G-20 en junio, en Canad.
Adems, el jueves ser la reunin del grupo India, Brasil, Sudfrica (Ibsa), un foro de
naturaleza poltica y diplomtica; en este caso las discusiones se centrarn en la cooperacin
para el desarrollo y la ayuda para regiones necesitadas del mundo, como Hait y los territorios
palestinos.
El presidente del Instituto de Pesquisas Econmicas Aplicadas de Brasil, Mauricio Pochman,
record que tanto India como Brasil y Sudfrica, han tenido xito en reducir la pobreza y la
promocin del bienestar de sus pobladores.
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Tras la cumbre de los BRIC, Hu realizar durante viernes una visita oficial a Brasil, en la que se
firmar un programa de accin conjunto, que coordina las reuniones de alto nivel entre ambos
pases.
El jueves, el Presidente chino mantendr encuentros bilaterales con sus pares de Rusia,
Sudfrica y el Premier indio, inform la Embajada china en Brasilia.
China se convirti en 2009 en el primer socio comercial de Brasil, sobrepasando a Estados
Unidos, con un comercio bilateral de 36 mil 102 millones de dlares. Las exportaciones
brasileas sumaron 20 mil 190 millones de dlares.
Tras Brasil, el Presidente chino proseguir su gira con una visita oficial a Venezuela, del 17 al
18 de abril y una visita de trabajo el 18 de abril a Chile. Al inicio de la semana Hu Jintao
particip de la Cumbre sobre Seguridad Nuclear en Washington.
Con informacin de AFP y AP

Data: 14/04/2010-Espanha - Agncia EFE- Empresrios do Bric discutem oportunidades


de negcios conjuntos pela 1 vez

Rio de Janeiro - Empresrios dos pases do Bric, sigla usada para se referir ao Brasil, Rssia,
ndia e China, os quatro grandes mercados emergentes do mundo, se reuniro amanh
no Rio de Janeiro pela primeira vez para discutir possibilidades de negcios de forma
conjunta.
A reunio tambm contar com a participao de empresrios da frica do Sul, convidado
especial na qualidade de pas membro do Frum do Dilogo ndia-Brasil-frica do Sul (IAS).
O chamado Frum Empresarial Bric-IAS ser um dos eventos paralelos Segunda Cpula de
Chefes de Estado e de Governo do Bric e Quarta Cpula de chefes de Estado e de Governo
do IAS realizadas nesta quinta e sexta-feira em Braslia.
" a primeira vez que os empresrios do Bric se renem para analisar possibilidades de
negcios", afirmou o diretor do Departamento de Promoo Comercial da Chancelaria
brasileira, Norton Rapesta.
Entre os empresrios confirmados esto 212 brasileiros, 70 chineses, 30 indianos, 25 sulafricanos e 20 russos.
Na reunio participaro o ministro das Relaes Exteriores do Celso Amorim, os ministros de
Indstria e Comrcio da ndia, Anand Sharma, e da frica do Sul, Rob Davies; e representantes
de importantes empresas estatais de cinco pases.
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O vice-presidente do Conselho de Promoo do Comrcio Internacional da China, John Zhang


Wei; o vice-presidente da Unio de Empresrios da frica do Sul, Mthunzi Mdwaba; o
presidente da Federao de Cmaras de Comrcio e Indstria de ndia, Rajan Bharti Mittal, e o
diretor do Departamento de Cooperao Internacional da Cmara de Indstria de Rssia,
Serguei Vasilyev tambm devem participar.
Rapesta destacou que os negcios entre os grandes emergentes tm grande potencial devido
a que, pelo menos os quatro membros do Bric, representam 40% da populao mundial e 15%
do Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) de todo o mundo.
Apesar dos quatro membros do Bric no integrarem um bloco poltico especfico nem uma
iniciativa de livre-comrcio e quase no terem se reunido formalmente ano passado, eles tm
alianas entre si e acordos comerciais para catapultar suas relaes.
"O objetivo da reunio no assinar acordos de negcios. Trata-se apenas de uma primeira
aproximao para permitir o conhecimento entre as comunidades empresariais dos cinco
pases e a identificao de possibilidades e nichos", afirmou Rapesta.
Os empresrios participaro de quatro painis diferentes para discutir oportunidades de
negcios em energia, tecnologia da informao, infraestrutura e agronegcios.
"Selecionamos setores em que existem sinergias potenciais entre os cinco pases tanto para
aumentar o comrcio como para promover investimentos", sustentou o diplomata.
As concluses do encontro sero resumidas em um relatrio que ser apresentado na quintafeira perante os chefes de Estado dos cinco pases em Braslia.
Rapesta esclareceu que, pelo menos Brasil, no se espera que o encontro de amanh d
origem a um frum de negcios ou a alguma outra iniciativa mais formal. Ao menos por
enquanto.

Data: 18/04/2010-Mxico - La Jornada-Solucin diplomtica "BRIC" y/o turco-brasilea


para Irn?

Sin contar la devastacin ambiental que provoc en sus mltiples guerras en los Balcanes e
Irak, gracias a su generosa diseminacin de uranio empobrecido tema que
anmalamente no form parte de la Cumbre de Seguridad (sic) Nuclear de Obama,
Estados Unidos (EU), nico en la historia que ha lanzado dos bombas nucleares sobre
las poblaciones civiles de Hiroshima y Nagasaki, hoy principal vendedor de armas de todo
tipo en el mundo (reporte SIPRI 2010) y poseedor, con Rusia, de 95 por ciento de las
armas nucleares del planeta, ha creado inconmensurables problemas atmicos al gnero
humano desde que "el genio nuclear" se sali de la botella, como vaticin el fsico
arrepentido Robert Oppenheimer, encargado del Proyecto Manhattan, hace 71 aos.
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72

Fue EU el que empez el programa nuclear de Irn en la nefaria etapa del sha para contener
entonces a la URSS en el Mar Caspio y, todava, en forma homicida, tiene alojadas pletricas
bombas nucleares en por lo menos otros siete pases en el mundo, entre los que destacan
Alemania y Japn, que han suplicado vanamente su inconfortable desalojo.
EU, el pas menos indicado para propinar lecciones de axiologa antiproliferativa, exige ahora
resolver en forma unilateral su lgubre legado nuclear, como es el caso de Irn, el que desea
aplicar sanciones asfixiantes en caso de no sucumbir a sus pretensiones asimtricas.
El semanario estadunidense Defense News (14/4/10) revel que Turqua y Brasil, "dos
miembros no permanentes del Consejo de Seguridad de la Organizacin de las Naciones
Unidas (ONU) que se oponen a nuevas sanciones contra Irn debido a su controvertido
programa nuclear, trabajan una solucin diplomtica que evitara las sanciones".
De Defensa (15/4/10), portal estratgico-militar europeo, coloca en relieve la reunin en Brasilia
del muy solvente canciller turco, Ahmet Davutoglu (padre del neo-otomanismo que reposicion
a su pas en el gran Medio Oriente), con el presidente Lula y su muy capaz canciller Celso
Amorim, "al margen" (sic) de la segunda cumbre del BRIC (acrnimo de Brasil, Rusia, India y
China), por cierto, escamoteada por los multimedia israel-anglosajones: "en forma simblica y
muy significativa desde el punto de vista poltico", la reunin turco-brasilea se escenific "al
margen (sic) de la cumbre BRIC, en la misma capital Brasilia".
El primer ministro turco, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, se haba reunido con Lula en Washington,
tambin "al margen" de la Cumbre de Seguridad Nuclear de 47 pases, convocada por Obama.
Habrn notificado Erdogan y Lula a Obama sobre la solucin diplomtica al contencioso iran
que debe pasar por la firma obligada y sin condiciones de Israel al TNP (Tratado de No
Proliferacin Nuclear), del que Irn es signatario?
De Defensa infiere que Lula es el "delegado del BRIC" para dialogar con el ministro turco.
Entonces, de quin es "delegado" el canciller Davutoglu? Del alto mando militar de EU con
quien Turqua mantiene todava ptimas relaciones?
Turqua es el nico pas islmico miembro de la Organizacion del Tratado del Atlntico Norte
(OTAN), pero en fechas recientes se ha alejado dramticamente de Israel, su anterior socio
militar estratgico, debido al infanticidio palestino en Gaza, mientras se ha acercado
asombrosamente a Rusia, Irn y Siria.
Del BRIC, en general, y de Brasil, en particular, nos hemos explayado suficientemente, pero no
as de Turqua, al que habamos ya detectado como una nueva fuerza emergente en el "gran
Medio Oriente".
Baste sintetizar que Turqua forma parte, sin mucho ruido, del G-20, el nuevo andamiaje de
"gobernacin global" que sustituy al G-7/G-8 que controlaba la unipolaridad estadunidense.
Pittsburg Post-Gazette (19/9/09) expone que Turqua es un "poder mediano" en ms de un
sentido: "puente geogrfico, econmico y cultural entre Europa y Asia, y pas islmico (sunnita)
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73

de orientacin laica (sic) y occidental", al que "el G-20 reconoce como un jugador (sic) de
significado global con su papel lder en la seguridad energtica y la paz en Medio-Oriente".
A juicio de De Defensa, Lula parece haber sido ungido del "apoyo implcito del BRIC y, sin
duda alguna, de Rusia y China", que han exhibido fuertes reticencias contra las "sanciones
asfixiantes" que exige el belicoso primer ministro israel Bibi Netanyahu.
El portal europeo conjetura sobre el acercamiento de Turqua al BRIC, agrupacin de la que
"debiera formar parte en algn momento"por cierto, como debiera ser el caso del mismo Irn y
de Argentina, adonde acudi en forma espectacular el presidente Medvedev, en vsperas de la
cumbre de Brasilia, lo cual pone en jaque a EU en su "otrora patio trasero" entre la Antrtida y
las Malvinas y, adems, para que James Monroe se revuelque ms en su tumba con todo y su
unilateral tratado de excluyente enajenacin (en el sentido catastral y siquitrico).
Honor a quien honor merece: De Defensa exalta a Lula, quien "se afirm en fechas recientes
con la mayor firmeza como adversario de las sanciones y presiones agresivas contra Irn".
Horror a quien horror merece: el premier turco Erdogan fustig al gobierno del primer ministro
Netanyahu de ser "la principal amenaza a la paz en Medio Oriente" (MENAFN, 8/4/10) debido a
su dotacin clandestina, que va desde 200 hasta 600 ojivas nucleares.
Lo peor: Netanyahu a quien la misma ex canciller israel Tzipi Livni acus de haber convertido
a Israel en un "Estado paria" todava en forma hipcrita se da el lujo de pontificar al mundo
entero cuando Israel ni siquiera es signatario del TNP, lo cual pone en la picota la loable (en
teora) desnuclearizacin de Obama, que peca (en la prctica) de dos pesas y mil medidas.
De Defensa juzga que "Turqua no ha cesado de afirmar y profundizar una postura de
acomodamiento con Irn", ms que nunca necesaria "a la luz del grotesco desequilibrio" en el
que EU y sus aliados europeos se han convertido en los voceros de la "poltica pregonada por
el pas ms agresivo de la regin, Israel, adems, sobrecargado ilegalmente de bombas
nucleares".
La solucin diplomtica turco-brasilea, a juicio de De Defensa, "es de considerable peso
especfico" y, de paso, desmonta la asimetra de desnuclearizacin de Obama en la cumbre de
Washington donde "evoc en forma tmida la posibilidad implcita de que Israel pueda firmar el
TNP".
El portal europeo ironiza que sea probable que "el presidente de EU est efectivamente
informado de que Israel dispone de alrededor de 200 bombas nuclea- res". En flagrante
contraste, Obama "evoc sin timidez el peligro iran", cuando no existe evidencia alguna de que
posea una sola bomba nuclear.
La prueba de fuego del incipiente nuevo orden multipolar, que tanto reclam la segunda
cumbre del BRIC, pasa por la fractura tectnica de la geopoltica del siglo XXI: Irn.
Podr evitar la laudable solucin diplomtica turco-brasilea la ensima guerra de Israel en la
regin, esta vez, contra Irn?
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Podr Obama detener y serenar a Netanyahu?

Data: 17/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- BRICs take baby steps toward greater
global clout

By Stuart Grudgings
BRASILIA, April 16 - The world's leading emerging powers found little new to agree on in their
summit in Brazil, but their assertive tone in demanding more clout in global financial
institutions and setting of a deadline for the reforms shows they are slowly becoming a
more potent group.
In a joint statement at the end of their second summit, the so-called BRIC nations of Brazil,
Russia, India and China called for swift reforms of the World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund to give a greater say to developing nations.
The call itself was not new from a group that was born out of the global financial crisis with a
shared goal of shifting the balance of decision making from advanced economies.
But the timing of the united front before this month's G20 finance ministers and IMF meetings in
Washington and a November deadline for the reforms to be completed showed a growing
confidence and cohesiveness, analysts and diplomats said.
"Naming times and dates are a way to put on greater pressure and also a possible way for the
BRICs to declare a victory by saying that because of this pressure we were able to get things
done," said Michael Glosny, a China scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who
follows the BRICs.
Huge differences in national goals and tensions in security and economic policy have prevented
the BRICs, which account for about 20 percent of global economic output, from agreeing
concrete cooperation in most areas.
They have rowed back from talk last year of setting up a new reserve currency to rival the U.S.
dollar and have made no headway on forming joint institutions.
Vague statements from leaders on the group's goals have reinforced a view that the BRICS,
dominated by China in terms of its economic size and influence, have little in common beyond
being large and developing.
REFORM PRESSURE
Yet the group does have shared interests in dealing with economic inequality, food and energy
security.

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On their central goal of gaining more say in how the global economy is run, they have achieved
a more united front that is putting pressure on advanced countries to concede more voting
power, more quickly in the IMF and World Bank.
"I think the feeling is that this is a much more aggressive statement of what has come before,"
said a Western diplomat in Brasilia, who spoke on condition of anonymity.
Brazil, which had appeared to be satisfied with a 5 percent voting shift to developing countries,
now looks poised to hold out with the other BRICs for a bigger change.
"We're not satisfied with the pace of reforms," Brazil's Foreign Minister Celso Amorim told
Reuters.
The G20 group of major advanced and developing economies has agreed to support a quota
shift of at least 5 percent toward developing countries, but other emerging economy groups are
pushing for 7 percent.
"The IMF and the World Bank urgently need to address their legitimacy deficits," said the
BRICs' joint statement, calling for quota reforms to be completed by the November G20 summit
in South Korea.
The lack of bold new agreements in other areas does not necessarily mean the young group is
not making progress in strengthening ties and building mutual confidence behind the scenes,
said Anthony Spanakos, a Brazil scholar at New Jersey's Montclair State University.
"Much of what is happening is consultation and norm-building, but the symbolism of joint action
and leadership that is independent of the U.S. and Europe is important as well," he said.
The BRICs called on the G20 to be more active in coming up with a strategy for the post-crisis
world and said it wanted to play a role in the process.
Beyond that, however, there was little detail given on the BRICs' vision for the new global
financial order.
"Playing a larger role and having greater influence is more than just increasing representation
and voting shares," said Glosny.
"From the statement ... it's not clear what they want that role to be or how they would want to
wield that influence."

Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- BRICs divided on global agenda, look to
mutual trade

By Raymond Colitt
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76

BRASILIA, April 14 - The leaders of the world's top four emerging markets will renew calls for a
greater say in the global economic order when they meet in Brazil's capital this week but
they may struggle to come up with clear proposals to advance a common agenda.
At their first summit last year in the Russian city of Yekaterinburg, the so-called BRIC countries
of Brazil, Russia, India and China were at the forefront of a push to overhaul global financial
regulations and move toward a new international reserve currency.
But with the worst of the global economic crisis now over, differences between the four countries
have become more evident, exposing the limitations of the group's ambitions.
"Don't expect the BRICs to make bombastic or revolutionary proposals because it's not going to
happen," said Roberto Jaguaribe, undersecretary of political affairs at Brazil's foreign ministry.
Finding alternatives to the U.S. dollar as a global reserve currency and using local currencies
for trade are not on the official agenda of the leaders' two-day meeting in Brasilia that begins on
Thursday, although they will be discussed.
The BRICs, a term coined by Goldman Sachs economist Jim O'Neill in 2001 to describe the
growing influence of big emerging economies, represent 40 percent of the world population and
around 20 percent of global economic output.
BRICs and other developing countries be given more say in global financial institutions such as
the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
While the BRICs share concerns on global governance issues, they have little in common
besides being large, fast-growing economies with massive domestic markets.
China's relations with Russia and India are complicated by security tensions, and Beijing and
Moscow are not enthusiastic about Brazil and India's push to broaden the United Nations
Security Council. Differences abound on climate, trade and currency issues.
"On trade and climate, it's difficult to see more than a generic statement to advance global
talks," said Andre Nassar of the Institute for International Trade Negotiations, a research group
based in Sao Paulo.
As a major food exporter, Brazil wants to cut trade barriers on agriculture, something that India
has been reluctant to do. Russia, a major oil producer, is unlikely to embrace any ambitious
emissions reductions.
China's undervalued currency, the yuan, is also a point of tension since it erodes the
competitiveness of domestic manufacturers in other BRIC countries. Last week, Brazilian
Finance Minister Guido Mantega backed calls for China to revalue the yuan, saying it would be
good for the global economy.
Still, few expect the BRICs as a group to pressure Beijing on the issue.

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77

"I think they'll leave that one to the United States to deal with," said Roberto Abdenur, a former
Brazilian ambassador to China and the United States.
MUTUAL TRADE
In the absence of a far-reaching external agenda, the BRICs will focus on strengthening trade
and investment ties with delegations of business leaders, bankers, cooperatives, and state
development banks exploring business opportunities.
"Greater intra-BRIC cooperation would help members, as this could in itself emerge as a strong
counterweight to established powerhouses in economic and political terms," said a senior
official at India's finance ministry, who requested anonymity.
China and Brazil will use the summit to sign a five-year strategic plan to further expand their
fast-growing trade relationship. And Chinese companies are expected to unveil some
investments in Brazil, one of China's main suppliers of commodities such as iron ore and
soybeans.
For Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the BRIC summit is one of the last big events
he will host before leaving office at the end of the year. He is expected to use the occasion to
reiterate Brazil's push for a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council.
Beijing sees the BRICs as a forum allowing it to bolster links with other major emerging
economies, strengthening the perception that it is helping other developing countries as it is
often urged to do.
But China is keen for the BRICs not to been seen as a challenge to Washington.
"We come together seeking mutual benefit ... rather than confrontation with other third parties,"
said China's vice foreign minister, Cui Tiankai.
Still, there are concerns that China's economic and diplomatic might may end up undermining
the BRIC as a coherent group, since it doesn't need others to effectively push its agenda. The
sheer size of its economy also means that policy coordination with its BRIC peers will be
difficult.
"China's power will likely provide a challenge to BRIC cooperation and the BRICs as a
grouping," said Michael Glosny, China expert at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Data: 15/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- Ttulo: BRICs should not pressure
China on yuan - O'Neill

By Ana Nicolaci da Costa

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78

BRASILIA, April 14 - There is no advantage for Brazil, Russia and India in putting pressure on
China to let its currency strengthen since Beijing is already heading in that direction,
Goldman Sachs chief economist Jim O'Neill said on Wednesday.
O'Neill, who in 2001 coined the term BRIC to describe the world's four biggest emerging
economies, made the remarks on the eve of the second presidential summit of the four-country
group in Brasilia, Brazil's capital.
China has been under pressure from the United States and other countries to let its currency
strengthen. Brazil joined the chorus last week when Finance Minister Guido Mantega said a
flexible currency policy in China "would be very good" for the global economy. A weak yuan
makes Chinese exports more competitive against their global counterparts.
"The Chinese don't tell the Brazilians what they should do, and so why should the Brazilians tell
the Chinese what they should do," O'Neill told Reuters in a telephone interview from London.
He agreed with Mantega that a flexible yuan would be better for the global economy but said
this was already on its way. Speculation Beijing might soon unveil a long-awaited shift in its
exchange-rate regime has intensified recently, helping to push the yuan higher.
"One of the ironies of this situation is the Chinese have already basically decided to do that. I
think that's what Washington has realized," O'Neill added.
President Barack Obama was less sanguine on Tuesday, saying China had yet to set a
timetable for reforming the yuan despite "frank" conversations with President Hu Jintao.
The undervalued yuan is a point of tension in the BRIC group since it erodes the
competitiveness of domestic manufacturers.
The issue could be discussed on the sidelines of the Group of 20 finance ministers meeting in
Washington later this month, a Brazilian government source told Reuters on Friday, although it
is unlikely feature formally on the agenda.
LOCAL CURRENCY TRADE
A flexible yuan would be necessary for the BRIC countries to make progress in plans for local
currency trade, O'Neill said.
Last year, the Chinese and Brazilian central banks said their countries were working on an
arrangement to allow exporters and importers to settle deals in local currency, bypassing the
U.S. dollar.
"They have made some steps in that direction already with swap agreements but obviously to
apply it to all trade between the countries they have got to allow more use of each of their
currencies," O'Neill said.
"The only way that becomes material is if China loosens the controls on the use of the
renminbi."
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The issue could be discussed at this week's summit, although the countries are playing down
any push to move toward a new global reserve currency.
The BRICs represent 40 percent of the world population and around 20 percent of the global
economy.
Their summit ahead of the G20 meeting in Washington is a way to pressure developed
countries about the need to change international organizations to better reflect the importance
of the emerging giants in the world economy, O'Neill said.
Brazil and other developing countries have been pushing rich nations to accept a shift in voting
power at the International Monetary Fund that would benefit emerging nations.
"I think the fact the BRIC countries are meeting ahead of the G20 is very beneficial. It's kind of
ridiculous that the IMF has more voting rights for the likes of Belgium than the BRIC countries,"
he added.

Data: 14/04/2010-Reino Unido - Agncia Reuters- Bric quer integrao maior para forar
reforma financeira global

BRASLIA, 14 de abril - Os quatro pases que integram o Bric buscam por maior integrao e
podem incrementar sua coordenao interna como fator de presso nos fruns
internacionais, avaliou nesta quarta-feira o embaixador Antnio Patriota, o nmero 2 do
Itamaraty.
Segundo o diplomata, secretrio-executivo do Ministrio das Relaes Exteriores, tudo indica
que Brasil, Rssia, ndia e China intensificaro suas relaes em 2011, j que devem ocupar,
simultaneamente, assentos no Conselho de Segurana da Organizao das Naes Unidas.
"Os quatro pases podero se coordenar e desenvolver um dilogo mais intenso", afirmou ele
ao abrir um evento do Instituto de Pesquisa Econmica Aplicada (Ipea) com entidades similares
das outras trs naes emergentes.
Afetados em menor escala, em geral, na recente crise global, os lderes dessas economias
evocaro na cpula de sexta-feira --a segunda entre os chefes de Estado-- por uma reforma no
sistema financeiro internacional e maior voz na ONU, Fundo Monetrio Internacional (FMI) e
Banco Mundial.
"Apesar da relevncia dos Bric,...ainda existe uma insuficiente participao nos organismos de
governana (internacional)", defendeu Patriota. "Est claro que precisamos ter maior
participao nesses organismos."

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Li Yang, vice-presidente da Academina Chinesa de Cincias Sociais, reforou que a China est
preocupada com os poucos avanos no sentido de uma reforma sistema financeiro
internacional e defendeu trocas comerciais em moeda local.
"Devemos defender o uso de nossas prprias moedas entre os pases do Bric", disse. "Temos
discutido com Brasil, ndia e Rssia a possibilidade de desenvolver acordos comerciais que
utilizem nossas prprias moedas."
Para Vladimir Davydov, diretor do Instituto Latino-Americano, Academia Russa de Cincias, h
poucas chances dessas discusses vingarem no mdio prazo.
"No existe viabilidade poltica e condies tcnicas de se avanar em uma mudana brusca."
Cerca de 42 por cento da populao mundial vive nos pases do Bric. Segundo dados do
Itamaraty, as quatro naes correspondiam em 2008 a 15 por cento do PIB mundial, contra 9
por cento em 2003.

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - The Economic Times- BRIC can recast world order: Manmohan

BRASILIA: The BRIC grouping of the worlds top emerging economies, accounting for 20 per
cent of global GDP, have a key role in recasting the global architecture of governance and
in setting the pace of global economic recovery, said Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
Manmohan Singh made a vigorous case for a "multipolar, equitable, democratic and just world
order" at the daylong BRIC summit, which was advanced to Thursday night as Chinese
President Hu Jintao had to cut short his trip due a massive earthquake in China.
"BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries are uniquely placed to contribute to reforming
the architecture of global governance," Manmohan Singh said at the plenary session of the
BRIC summit, attended by Hu, Brazilian President Lula da Silva and Russian President Dmitry
Medvedev.
"A genuine reform of the Security Council by expansion in its permanent membership as well as
non-permanent membership and improvement in its working methods is essential to make the
UN reflective of contemporary realities," said Manmohan Singh.
Putting his pet concerns on top of the BRIC agenda, Manmohan Singh, an economist by
training, espoused inclusive growth and called for sharing experiences among the four countries
in promoting sustainable development and in areas of food and energy security.
"The people of our countries expect us to work together so as to bring the benefits of inclusive
social and economic development to them," he said while lauding Lula for his experiments in
social inclusion in this country.
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Ahead of the G8 and G20 summits later this year, Manmohan Singh underlined that BRIC
countries have "an important role to play in shaping the pace, direction and sustainability of
global economic growth".
"Sustainable recovery will also depend on several factors such as enhanced investment for
infrastructure development, stable capital flows to the developing markets, appropriate
macroeconomic adjustments, and avoiding complacency in the area of financial sector reforms,"
he said.
Calling for adoption of clean technologies, Manmohan Singh underlined the critical role of BRIC
countries in setting the discourse on climate change negotiations.
"Our approach to the Cancun Conference (in November) should be anchored within the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol and the Bali Roadmap,"
he said.
"If we pool our best scientific and technological resources, BRIC nations can set a fine example
in promoting collaborative development, deployment and dissemination of clean energy and
renewable technologies," Manmohan Singh said.

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - The Economic Times- Include India, Brazil in UN security council:
BRIC nations

BRASILIA: Calling for reform of the UN and the global financial architecture, BRIC countries
have underlined the centrality of G20 as the premier economic forum and pitched for
including India and Brazil in an expanded UN Security Council.
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Brazilian President Lula da Silva, Chinese President
Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev held wide-ranging talks as they pledged to
work together for a multi-polar world, an assertion that is set to worry the US as it views
groupings like BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) with suspicion.
"We welcome the fact that the G-20 was confirmed as the premier forum for international
economic coordination and cooperation of all its member states," said a joint declaration at the
end of the second BRIC summit.
"Compared to previous arrangements, the G-20 is broader, more inclusive, diverse,
representative and effective," the BRIC leaders said.
"We advocate the need for the G-20 to be proactive and formulate a coherent strategy for the
post-crisis period," the BRIC leaders added, while seeking reform of the Bretton Woods
institutions, the IMF and the World Bank.
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Putting the collective weight of the three trillion dollar economies behind the BRIC initiative, the
leaders made a vigorous pitch for the long-overdue reform of the UN and backed a "greater
role" for India and Brazil for seat in the UN Security Council.
"In this respect, we reaffirm the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, with a view to
making it more effective, efficient and representative, so that it can deal with today's global
challenges more effectively," said the joint declaration.
Russia hosted the first BRIC summit in Yekaterinburg in June last year.
Referring to the recent resumption of economic growth in emerging markets, the four leaders
said that "the foundation of world economic recovery is not yet solid, with uncertainties
remaining".
"We call upon all states to strengthen macroeconomic cooperation, jointly secure world
economic recovery and achieve a strong, sustainable and balanced growth."
They also decided to scale up economic cooperation and underlined the importance of
maintaining relative stability of major reserve currencies and sustainability of fiscal policies in
order to achieve a strong, long-term balanced economic growth.
The four leaders of top emerging economies, projected by Goldman Sachs to be the worlds
largest economies by 2050, also pushed hard for an early conclusion of an international
convention to combat terrorism and cooperate closely on issues relating to the global financial
crisis.
The BRIC countries account for 20 per cent of global GDP and includes two of the largest
energy producers and two of the largest consumers in the world.
"BRIC countries have an important role to play in the shaping the pace, direction and
sustainability of global economic growth," said the four leaders at the end of the day-long BRIC
summit. China will host the next edition of BRIC summit.
Putting developmental aspirations of common people at the heart of BRIC engagement, the
leaders of worlds top performing democracies also wanted scaling up of cooperation in areas
ranging from science and technology, trade and investment, pharmaceuticals and infrastructure.

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia - The Economic Times- Singh in Brazil to attend BRIC and IBSA
Summits

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BRASILIA: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh arrived here today on a two-day visit during which
he will attend the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) and India-Brazil- South Africa (IBSA)
Summits and hold bilateral meetings with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian
President Dmitry Medvedev.
Singh, accompanied by his wife Gursharan Kaur, was accorded a red-carpet welcome at the
Brazilian Air Force Base with the presentation of ceremonial Guard of Honour and 21-gun
salute.
He was received warmly by Brazilian Defence Minister Nelson Jobin as the military band played
national anthems of the host country and India, one by one.
The Prime Minister reached here from Washington on the second leg of his eight-nation tour.
The two Summits will discuss global economic crisis besides ways to enhance cooperation
among the member countries of the two groupings.
At the 2nd BRIC Summit, Iran's nuclear issue and the controversy surrounding it will also be
discussed under the grouping's format by Singh, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Chinese
President Hu Jintao and Brazilian President Lula da Silva. This will be the first time that Iran will
be part of focussed agenda of the grouping.
BRIC is a significant grouping comprising two of the world's leading energy producers -- Russia
and China and top energy consumers -- India and China, which officials say forms the basis for
natural synergy.
In the BRIC format, Foreign Ministers of the four countries have been meeting regularly on the
sidelines of international conferences, including the UN General Assembly.
The BRIC countries, representing 40 per cent of the global population, are among the largest
and fastest growing economies with rich human and material resources. They represent the
future of the global economic landscape.
With a similarity of views on several issues like climate change and reform of global institutions,
including the UN, the four countries have been fine-tuning their collective approaches to these
issues.
In the IBSA format too, India, Brazil and South Africa, the three fastest growing economies of
three continents, have been evolving common and coordinated approaches to the challenges
like global economic crisis and climate change besides pushing efforts to enhance cooperation
among themselves.
After the IBSA Summit on Friday, India, Brazil and South Africa are expected to sign two
trilateral MoUs. These are in the areas of solar energy and science and technology.
An MoU in the field of sport is also likely to be inked. "These groupings reflect the growing role
of emerging economies in shaping the global economic order," the Prime Minister had said in a
statement before leaving on his two-nation tour.
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He said the IBSA process has come of age as it today encompasses a wide range of activities
which supplement the excellent bilateral relations that India enjoys with each of these countries.
"Our coordination on important international issues has expanded, and our trilateral cooperation
is beginning to bear fruit in many sectors," the Prime Minister had said.
"We have a high stake in the revival of the global economy, an open trading system, energy
security, combating climate change and addressing non-traditional threats to international
security," he said.
Singh will hold bilateral meetings with the Chinese President and Russian President during his
stay here.
Ahead of his meeting with Hu, Singh said in Washington that India and China were working very
hard to find a "practical" and "pragmatic" solution to the boundary question and it would "take
time" to get resolved.
"Well we have the border problem and that problem has to be resolved. We are working very
hard to find to have a practical, pragmatic solution to that problem," he said at a press
conference when asked about relations between India and China.
Noting that both countries "recognise that it would take time", he said both the nations have
agreed that pending the resolution of the border issues, peace and tranquility should be
maintained along the Line of Actual Control and by and large that situation prevails on the
ground.
On the overall Sino-India relations, he said the economic content of the relationship has
increased significantly, with China today being India's largest trading partner.
There are large Chinese investments in our country and there are large Indian investments in
China. "On the economic front the relationship is moving in the right direction," he said.
On multilateral issues, he said, there was a recognition in China that there was a similarity of
approach between the two countries and they can gain by working together.
In this context, he referred to the Copenhagen conference on climate change last December
during which India and China worked closely to block developed nations from imposing their
agenda.

Data: 16/04/2010-Rssia - Ria-Novosti- Lderes del BRIC destacan el papel clave de G-20
en la lucha contra la crisis mundial

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Brasilia, 16 de abril, RIA Novosti. Los pases del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) destacan el
papel central del Grupo de los Veinte en la lucha contra las consecuencias negativas de
la crisis mundial debido al alto grado de eficacia de este foro internacional, dice una
declaracin conjunta de los cuatro lderes.
"En comparacin con los foros anteriores, el G-20 es un grupo ms amplio, universal, variado,
representativo y eficaz", dice el documento final suscrito por los lderes de la II Cumbre del
BRIC que se celebr ayer en Brasil.
Asimismo, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva (Brasil), Dmitri Medvdev (Rusia), Hu Jintao (China) y el
primer ministro indio, Manmohan Singh exhortaron a los pases miembros del G-20 a
"emprender las acciones necesarias para plasmar en hechos conjuntamente las decisiones
aprobadas en las tres cumbres del Grupo de los Veinte".
En la declaracin final de la reunin, Brasil, Rusia, India y China acordaron estrechar la
cooperacin en el mbito financiero.
"Para optimizar el comercio y las inversiones, se estudiarn las posibilidades de impulsar la
cooperacin en asuntos de poltica monetaria, incluido el uso de las divisas locales en las
operaciones comerciales", precisa la declaracin.
Adems, el documento destaca la importancia de la Organizacin Mundial del Comercio en el
desarrollo del comercio global y expresa el firme apoyo a los planes de Rusia para ingresar en
ese organismo.
La declaracin conjunta de los lderes del BRIC abarca tambin temas relacionados con la
energa, el cambio climtico y la lucha contra el terrorismo.
Los pases acordaron a celebrar una nueva Cumbre del BRIC en China, en 2011.

Data: 16/04/2010-Rssia - Ria-Novosti- Rusia estudia proyecto para fabricar aviones de


Brasil en su territorio

Brasilia, 16 de abril, RIA Novosti. El banco ruso Vnesheconombank (VEB) y el Banco Nacional
de Desarrollo Econmico y Social de Brasil (BNDES) analizan la viabilidad de un proyecto
para la produccin de aviones brasileos en el territorio de Rusia, inform hoy el
presidente del VEB, Vladmir Dmitriev.
"Estudiamos la posibilidad de comenzar la fabricacin de aviones (brasileos) de 50 plazas en
el territorio de Rusia", dijo Dmitriev a la prensa.
Segn el jefe del banco ruso, ese proyecto puede convertirse en uno de los primeros en el
marco del convenio sobre la cooperacin de instituciones estatales financieras y de exportacin
de los pases del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India, China), suscrito ayer en Brasil.
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"Ese convenio es un documento de intenciones, que establece la base institucional para la


cooperacin. Pero en el marco del convenio, nosotros emprenderemos pasos concretos",
afirm el presidente de Vnesheconombank.
En cuanto a las inversiones en el proyecto, la cifra puede ascender a "cientos de millones de
dlares", asegur el ejecutivo.
Al mismo tiempo, Dmitriev subray que BRIC por el momento no mantiene negociaciones al
respecto con el fabricante brasileo de aviones Embraer.
El jefe del VEB concluy que el Gobierno de la repblica rusa de Tatarstn mostr su inters en
el proyecto, para el que ofrece las instalaciones de la fbrica de aviones Gorbunov.

Data: 15/04/2010-Rssia - Ria-Novosti- Opinion: BRIC: the world from different


perspective

By Fyodor Lukyanov, editor-in-chief of the Moscow-based magazine Russia in Global Affairs, for
the Valdai Discussion Club
The notion of BRIC, an acronym introduced in political usage a few years ago to refer to the
related economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, has evolved significantly over the time. It
was first used by an economist with U.S. investment company Goldman Sachs in a 2003 review
which described the four fast growing economies as potential 21st century economic leaders.
The global economy has gone through a boom which showed that the four BRIC economies
had more differences than similarities and that their prospects also differed dramatically, at least
for the midterm.
Nevertheless, the U.S. bankers concept survived and evolved as the four countries
unexpectedly brought together in this context, began political interaction. Initially a purely
economic notion, the BRIC group has grown into evidence of the modern worlds multi-polarity.
This structure is forming naturally, and it is therefore not surprising that the four nations were so
eager to grab at this similarly artificial idea of unity.
The paradox is that the four entities joined in the BRIC acronym have virtually nothing in
common. This is exactly the global world in miniature, because firstly, there is representation of
the largest cultural and religious groups two branches of Christianity, Buddhism, Islam (as
India has the worlds second largest Muslim community) and Confucianism. Secondly, the group
includes a range of political models from various kinds of democracy to a totalitarian system.
Thirdly, their economies are different, as there are commodity, products and services exporters
as well as importers. Finally, each of the countries faces at least one, and in some cases all, of
the current challenges, such as terrorism, separatism, religious extremism, climate change,
drugs and others.
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In other words, no other supranational group or association has such a representative format or
could serve as a platform to develop truly global approaches to international problems.
The four BRIC countries are united by a shared ambition to be a strong and independent center
in the changing world order, in which globalization begins at regional levels. This does not mean
they are likely to find common ground easily or are keen to formalize or institutionalize their
contacts.
Moreover, the countries included in this informal group have enough tensions and sticking
points, such as between China and India or between Russia and China. Common interests in
global issues do not compensate for regional conflicts, but could ease the tensions or at least
add some positive trends to a generally negative agenda of relations.
Countries should use creative approaches to choosing institutions and formats of coordinating
interests in a world where conventional international institutions are in crisis and failing to adjust
to the changes. BRIC is an interesting attempt at crossing conventional borders and looking at
global development from a different perspective, which is more in line with the 21st century
realities.

Data: 15/04/2010ndia - The Hindustan Times- Chinese President arrives in Brazil for BRIC
summit

Agence France-Presse
Chinese President Hu Jintao arrived in Brazil late Wednesday to participate in bilateral
meetings with the leaders of other emerging economies and a BRIC summit on Friday.
He was to attend the two days of meetings in Brasilia as China struggles with the aftermath of
an earthquake in its northwest that killed nearly 600 people earlier Wednesday.
Hu flew in from Washington, where he had taken part in a summit on international nuclear
security. A Brazilian airport official confirmed his arrival.
The Chinese leader was to hold bilateral meetings with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh,
South African President Jacob Zuma and Russian President Dmitri Medvedev on Thursday,
according to the Chinese embassy.
On Friday, Jintao, Medvedev, Singh and Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva were to
hold the second-ever summit of the BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China.
After the summit, Hu was to hold a brief official visit to Brazil, with which China has trade ties
worth $36 billion.
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On Saturday, he was to fly on to Venezuela for a meeting with President Hugo Chavez, and on
Sunday he visits China.

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia - The Hindustan Times- Manmohan to cement India's global role at
IBSA, BRIC summits
Indo-Asian News Service
It is set to be a week of hectic multilateral diplomacy for Indian Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh, who arrived in Brasilia on Wednesday evening on a three-day visit to participate in
two back-to-back summits of IBSA and BRIC countries.
The IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa) and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) summits,
which are held in different formats, aim at securing a bigger say for top emerging economies in
world affairs.
Besides multilateral diplomacy, Manmohan Singh, who arrived here from the US, will also hold
bilateral talks with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. Three
multilateral summits in a week underline India's growing global stature, said a senior official.
Manmohan Singh, accompanied by his wife Gursharan Kaur, arrived on the second leg of his
eight-day overseas tour from Washington where he participated in the 47-nation Nuclear
Security Summit.
He was accorded a red-carpet welcome at the Brazilian Air Force Base with the presentation of
ceremonial Guard of Honour and 21-gun salute.
Manmohan Singh was received warmly by Brazilian Defence Minister Nelson Jobim with the
military band playing national anthems of the host country and India.
Manmohan Singh will hold wide-ranging talks with Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva,
the host of the twin summits, and South African President Jacob Zuma in the trilateral format of
IBSA.
The fourth IBSA summit, comprising three top economic powerhouses straddling three
continents, will culminate on Thursday evening with a joint communique reflecting their shared
positions on a host of global issues, including the international financial crisis and reform of
global decision-making bodies.
All three IBSA countries are aspiring for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
The three countries are expected to sign two trilateral MoUs in areas of solar energy and
science and technology.

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The second BRIC summit, projected by Goldman Sachs to be the world?s largest economies by
2050, Friday will also push for the democratisation of international bodies.
The leaders of four countries will also hold intensive discussions on several issues, including
the US drive to impose fresh sanctions against Iran for its suspect nuclear programme, the
international financial crisis, climate change and counter-terror cooperation.
Iran will be part of "focused agenda" of the BRIC summit for the first time, said Parbati Sen
Vyas, secretary (economic relations) in the ministry of external affairs.
The issue will also be discussed in the IBSA format by Manmohan Singh, Brazil president and
the South African president, said Vivek Katju, secretary (West) in the external affairs ministry,
who is in the Brazilian capital for the summit.
Data: 16/04/2010-EUA - Revista Business Week- Shortened BRIC Summit Pledges to
Boost Trade in Local Currency

By Andre Soliani and Robert Delaney April 16 (Bloomberg) -- Brazil, Russia, India and China
pledged to study ways to use their currencies, instead of the U.S. dollar, in local trade at a
heads-of-state summit of the four biggest emerging economies.
The so-called BRIC summit taking place in Brasilia ended a day earlier than scheduled after
Chinese President Hu Jintao decided to return home early because of an earthquake in the
western province of Qinghai that killed at least 760 people and displaced another 100,000.
The leaders, who oversee economies estimated to fuel 60 percent of worldwide growth through
2014, said in a statement yesterday they would make efforts to sustain their domestic expansion
to aid a global recovery thats not yet solid.
Even while vowing to promote cross-border trade and investment, the leaders made no mention
of Chinas controlled exchange rate, which economists say is a barrier to closer commercial ties.
The yuan was not discussed during the meetings, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Ma
Zhaoxu told reporters.
It doesnt surprise me they didnt touch the yuan, and its disappointing, John Williamson,
senior fellow at the Washington-based Peterson Institute for International Economics, said in a
phone interview. Part of the problem is that this is regarded as a bilateral affair between China
and the U.S., and it really isnt.
International pressure has been building on China to scrap the currency peg that has valued the
yuan at about 6.83 to the dollar since July 2008. Last month 130 U.S. lawmakers sent a letter to
Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner demanding the administration take actions including
higher tariffs on Chinese- made imports.
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Yuan Forwards
Yuan forwards, after rising two straight days on speculation Chinese policy makers will allow
appreciation to resume soon, declined in trading today.
Twelve-month non-deliverable forwards fell 0.1 percent to 6.6225 per dollar as of 11:16 a.m. in
Hong Kong, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. The rate reflected bets the currency will
strengthen 3 percent from the spot rate of 6.8263.
A government report yesterday showed Chinas economy expanded 11.9 percent in the first
quarter from a year earlier, the fastest pace in almost three years.
Instead of confrontation, China and Brazil agreed to cooperate in oil exploration and to build
infrastructure needed to ship Brazilian iron, coal and other minerals to China, Hu and host
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said in a statement.
IMF Reform
Brazilian billionaire Eike Batista, controlling shareholder of EBX Investimento Ltda., reaffirmed a
$5 billion steel project between EBX and Wuhan Iron & Steel Group Co. in Rio de Janeiro state
will go forward.
As during their first summit almost a year ago in the Ural Mountains city of Yekaterinburg,
Russia, the four leaders called for a bigger voice for emerging economies in management of the
International Monetary Fund and World Bank. They also pledged to resist all forms of
protectionism and help conclude the Doha round of global trade talks.
The world needs today a reformed and more stable financial architecture that will make the
global economy less prone and more resilient to future crises, the statement said. There is a
greater need for a more stable, predictable and diversified international monetary system.
The leaders of the economies, who Goldman Sachs Group Inc. says will collectively match the
size of the U.S. by 2020, will meet again next year in China.
Jim ONeill, the Goldman Sachs chief global economist who coined the BRIC term in 2001, said
April 14 that until China abandons its controlled exchange rate commercial integration among
the countries wont work.
Brazils real has gained 34 percent against the dollar since China last revalued its currency by
2.1 percent in July 2005, more than any major currency tracked by Bloomberg.
--With assistance by Lyubov Pronina, Robert Delaney, Iuri Dantas, Maria Luiza Rabello and
Arnaldo Galvao in Brasilia. Editors: Joshua Goodman, Michael Dwyer
To contact the reporters on this story: Andre Soliani in Brasilia at asoliani@bloomberg.net;
Robert Delaney in Brasilia at robdelaney@bloomberg.net

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To contact the editors responsible for this story: Joshua Goodman at


jgoodman19@bloomberg.net

Data: 16/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- BRIC nations call for financial system
reform

Chinese President Hu Jintao (2nd R), Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (2nd L),
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev (1st L) and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
(1st R) shake hands during a group photo session at the second summit meeting of BRIC
(Brazil, Russia, India and China) leaders in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, April 15, 2010.
(Xinhua/Liu Weibing)
Leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China concluded a summit here Thursday with calls for an
urgent reform of the world financial system, including a quick readjustment of the voting power
in the World Bank.
"We call for the voting power reform of the World Bank to be fulfilled in the upcoming spring
meetings," leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, collectively known as "BRIC," said in a
communique released at the end of the day-long summit.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank urgently need to "address their
legitimacy deficits," the communique said.
Reforming these institutions' governance structures requires a substantial shift in voting power
in favor of emerging market economies and developing countries -- a shift to adjust their
participation in decision making to their relative weight in the world economy, it added.
BRIC countries expect the quota reform of the IMF to be concluded by the G20 Summit in
November this year.
The four countries also stressed the need for an open and merit-based selection method,
irrespective of nationality, for top positions in the IMF and the World Bank.
Emerging market economies and developing countries have the potential to play an even larger
and active role as engines of economic growth and prosperity, while at the same time commit to
work together with other countries towards reducing imbalances in global economic
development and fostering social inclusion, the leaders said.
Source:Xinhua

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Data: 16/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online -BRIC summit in Brasilia "very fruitful":
Russian president

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said on Thursday that the summit meeting of four major
emerging economies in Brasilia was "very fruitful" and "productive".
In a brief speech made at the end of the day-long summit, Medvedev stressed the role of the
participating countries -- Brazil, Russia, India and China -- in the development of emerging
economies, despite the effects of the international financial crisis.
"We reflected on several problems whose solutions are more complete with BRIC (acronym for
the four nations)," he said.
Medvedev said that the BRICs are developing their relations in several directions, and
reaffirmed that the leaders of the four countries are commited to strenghtening those relations
even more. According to him, the BRICs intend to intensify the dialogue not only among heads
of state, but among ministers as well.
He stressed the importance of continuing cooperation to overcome the effects of the
international financial crisis and build more equal financial institutions.
He added that the BRICs will also work to develop mechanisms to fight terrorism, drug traffic
and organized crime.
Also attending the summit were Chinese President Hu Jintao, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
Top on the agenda were the international financial crisis and its causes, the reform of the
international financial organizations, climate change and other issues of common concern.
At the start of the meeting, Lula hailed the Brasilia gathering as a major step in deepening
relations among the four participating countries.
Source:Xinhua

Data: 16/04/2010China - People's Daily Online- President Hu dwells on China's peaceful


development at BRIC summit

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Chinese President Hu Jintao attends a joint press conference held together with Brazilian
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Indian
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during the second summit meeting of BRIC (Brazil,
Russia, India and China) leaders in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, April 15, 2010. (Xinhua/Liu
Weibing)
China's development is a strenuous, peaceful, inclusive, commonly beneficial and responsible
process, Chinese President Hu Jintao said here Thursday at a summit of the BRIC nations -Brazil, Russia, India and China.
China is the world's largest developing country, and its development is a long and arduous task,
Hu said.
"Our per capita GDP has just exceeded 3,000 U.S. dollars, trailing behind more than 100
countries ... It is truly a heavy task to grow the economy and improve people's livelihood in
China," the president said.
"The scale and complexity of the challenges that we face in the course of development are
unmatched anywhere else in the world and have been rarely seen in human history," Hu said.
"We must make persistent efforts for a long time to come."
Hu stressed that peaceful development is China's only and logical choice, saying it is Chinese
people's long-cherished tradition to foster harmony and build amicable ties with neighbors.
"The Chinese people suffered so much in modern history, and we therefore value peace,
stability, harmony and freedom more than anything else," he said.
"A prosperous and growing China dedicated to peace and cooperation is willing and able to
make new and even greater contribution to mankind's pursuit of peace and development," he
added.
Source:Xinhua

Data: 16/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- President Hu's visit to U.S., Brazil boosts
co-op: FM

Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to the United States and Brazil on April 12-15 was "quite
successful," Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi said on Thursday.
Yang said Hu's visit fulfilled the goal of broadening consensus, strengthening cooperation and
friendship, and seeking common development.

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During his four-day visit, President Hu attended the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington and
a summit of the BRIC nations -- Brazil, Russia, India and China, in Brasilia, Brazil's capital.
The visit boosted international cooperation on nuclear security, strengthened dialogue and
cooperation among the world's emerging markets, and consolidated the friendly ties between
China and Latin American countries, said the foreign minister.
President Hu on Tuesday delivered a speech at the Nuclear Security Summit, calling for
concerted actions by all countries to enhance nuclear security while stressing the need to
properly address the challenge.
He put forward five proposals on ways to strengthen nuclear security in the world, urging all
countries to honor their commitments and take due responsibilities by adopting effective
measures to secure nuclear materials and facilities, Yang said.
The Chinese top leader called on countries worldwide to consolidate the existing international
legal framework on nuclear security, strengthen international cooperation by sharing experience,
exchanging information and cooperating on law enforcement, and properly handle the
relationship between nuclear security and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, said the minister.
He also stressed the need to help developing countries enhance their capacity to safeguard
nuclear security, the minister added.
Yang said that during the BRIC summit, leaders of the four countries exchanged views on major
global issues, such as the world economic and financial situation, the reform of the international
financial system, climate change and cooperation among the four countries.
During the summit, the Chinese leader urged all parties to address imbalances in the global
economic governance structure, continue to promote trade liberalization and facilitation,
properly handle trade disputes and reject protectionism, Yang said.
He also called on them to improve the international financial supervisory and regulatory regime,
and work for balanced global development.
Yang said that in recent years, mutual political trust between China and Latin America has been
growing steadily, and mutually beneficial cooperation and cultural exchanges between the two
sides have also expanded.
The two sides have maintained close communication and coordination on international affairs.
The China-Latin America relations have shown a sound momentum for growth, said the
minister.
During Hu's visit to Brazil, the Chinese president and his Brazilian counterpart Luiz Inacio Lula
da Silva reached broad consensus on further promoting the China-Brazil strategic partnership,
Yang said.

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Hu put forward a three-point proposal on advancing the bilateral ties in a sound and rapid
manner, including enhancing political mutual trust, promoting the construction of the cooperation
mechanism and upgrading strategic cooperation on international affairs.
The two sides also signed the 2010-2014 Joint Action Plan and a number of cooperation
documents.
During his four-day visit, President Hu engaged in many bilateral meetings, said the Chinese
minister.
Hu and his U.S. counterpart Barack Obama met Monday on the sidelines of the Nuclear
Security Summit.
During the meeting, Hu put forward a five-point proposal on improving China-U.S. relations,
saying the two sides should persistently make sure bilateral ties develop in the right direction,
respect each other's core interests and major concerns, maintain exchanges at different levels,
deepen practical cooperation and strengthen communication and coordination on major
international and regional issues.
Obama reiterated Washington's willingness to stick to the one-China policy, respect China's
sovereignty and territorial integrity and its core interests, and address sensitive issues with due
care.
The United States also wished to strengthen cooperation with China to seek solutions to global
issues such as climate change, counter-terrorism and nuclear non-proliferation, Obama said.
Both sides believe a good China-U.S. relationship serves the common interests of the two
countries and contributes to world peace, stability and prosperity, Yang said.
President Hu also met with Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, Ukrainian President
Viktor Yanukovych and German Chancellor Angela Merkel on the sidelines of the Nuclear
Security Summit.
He met with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, South African President Jacob Zuma,and
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on the sidelines of the BRIC summit.
Hu cut short his Latin American trip due to a devastating earthquake that hit northwest China's
Qinghai Province, killing at least 760 people.
He also postponed visits to Venezuela and Chile after his state visit to Brazil, Yang said.
Hu said the Chinese government is emergently mobilizing quake relief efforts. "At this difficult
time, I need to return home as soon as possible to be together with my people and participate in
the relief work," he said.
The leaders of Venezuela and Chile said they fully undersood and supported Hu's decision to
return home earlier, and expressed condolences and sympathy for the heavy casualties China
suffered in the quake, Yang said.
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Source: Xinhua

Data: 15/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- Ttulo: BRIC countries need new
strategies for growth in post-crisis world: expert

The international financial crisis has provoked changes in the world's organization, so the BRIC
countries need to develop new strategies to continue growing in the post-crisis world, said
Jos Gilberto Scandiucci, from the Division of Financial Policy of Brazil's Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, on Wednesday.
Scandiucci and other researchers from Russia, India and China are gathering in Brasilia for a
two-day Think Tank Summit to discuss "The Role of the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India
and China) in the Post-Crisis Global Transformation."
The crisis represented a suspension of the BRICs' ascension, which is regaining force now. But
the return to this trajectory happens in a new world, and rich countries above all have changed,
said Scandiucci. As Brazil's Foreign Ministry representative, he noted that BRIC countries
should focus on developing mechanisms to reinforce relations between them.
"Since this new world is a world in which rich countries will face difficulties in coming years, we
(the BRIC countries) cannot depend on exports to them," he exemplified.
Scandiucci emphasized the importance of this kind of meeting to promote the approach of BRIC
countries and expects that they keep on being held from now on.
Vladimir Davydov, from the Russian Academy of Sciences; Li Xiangyang, from the Chinese
Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies; Ritwik Banerjee, from Indian Council for Research on
International Economic Relations (ICRIER) and Marcos Cintra, from Brazil's Institute of Applied
Economic Research (Ipea) have also participated in this discussion.
Source:Xinhua

Data: 15/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- BRIC countries' think tanks to strengthen
cooperation

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Major research institutions from the BRIC countries -- Brazil, Russia, India and China -- intend
to tighten their cooperation to achieve joint views on issues of common interest and help
the work of the BRIC governments, it was announced on Wednesday.
A two-day seminar gathering think tanks of the BRIC countries to examine the global economic
situation and the role of those countries in the post-crisis global transformation, was opened in
Brasilia on Wednesday morning, preceding the second BRICs summit scheduled for Friday in
the Brazilian capital.
The most important aspects of the current relations between the four countries was presented in
a press conference by Marcio Pochmann, from Brazil's Institute of Applied Economic Research (
IPEA), Li Yang, vice-president of China Academy of Social Sciences, Indian Rathin Roy, from
the United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP), and Vladimir Davydov, from the Russian
Academy of Sciences.
The objective of the seminar is to establish a working agenda between BRIC research
institutions, and even play the role of being a supplement to the second summit, to define
common tasks beyond the immediate interest of the heads of state, Pochmann said.
He stressed that these institutions could provide joint responses to errors in assessment, which
happens frequently in international institutions, for example on the evolution of poverty rate in
developing countries, because there is "no dialogue with researchers from the countries
(themselves)."
Li Yang noted that China's intellectuals are a very important source for the government, which
should be extended to the relationship between countries. "I think that an active and dynamic
interaction between us would promote the formation of consensus among the heads of state. It
is very important for us to have made contact with several research institutes in Brazil," he said.
Roy said that there is a long tradition of exchange between institutions of the four countries,
while Davydov stressed the importance that policy is linked to the academic world to better
adapt to the new historical realities.
Pochmann anticipated that the BRIC research institutions will organize this year a seminar on
water resource management and environmental quality.
Source:Xinhua

Data: 15/04/2010-China - People's Daily Online- BRIC experts discuss disparities in trade

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The representatives of Brazil, Russia, India and China, who gathered at the BRIC-Think Tank
Summit in the Brazilian capital Brasilia, discussed on Wednesday the different aspects of
trade involving their countries.
In the second session of the summit, following a first one focused on the BRIC's role amid the
international financial crisis, the representatives analyzed the weight of the BRIC countries in
global trade, as well as trade between the members of the group.
According to Renato Baumann with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean, the participation of the BRIC countries in the global trade increased considerably in
the past few years, so did the trade between the four countries. Brazil's trade with China, for
example, has increased significantly since the beginning of this decade.
Zhang Yuyang with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences said that the BRIC countries
should discuss their current trade situation so as to find better ways to boost trade.
Vladimir Davydov, an expert with the Russian Academy of Sciences' Latin American Institute,
said that the BRIC countries must engage in joint projects in order to boost trade and promote
development. Those projects, he said, could be in such fields as space technology and
alternative energy.
The experts agreed that although progress has been made, there are still many challenges
ahead for the four countries in terms of trade.
The BRIC-Think Tank Summit will last until Thursday, and the participants will also discuss
topics like foreign direct investment and technological innovation.
Source:Xinhua

Data: 15/04/2010-EUA - Bloomberg.com- China Beats Brazil in Own Backyard as BRIC


Summit Seeks Unity

By Andre Soliani and Joshua Goodman


When Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva hosts his Chinese counterpart today, he will
welcome a leader whose economy is growing faster than his own -- and whose exporters
are outstripping Brazil in its own backyard.
Chinese President Hu Jintao, 67, arrived last night to Brasilia to attend the second heads-ofstate summit of the largest emerging economies, or so-called BRIC nations, along with the
leaders of Russia and India.
China boosted exports to Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, members of the Brazil-led
Mercosur trade bloc, by 7.3 percent to $4.8 billion in the first eight months of 2009 from two
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years earlier, while Brazilian sales to its neighbors fell 18 percent to $9.6 billion during the same
period. Chinese-made products such as tires and stereo speakers are the target of 26 Brazilian
anti-dumping measures, more than any other country and nearly half of all 68 in place,
according to Brazils Trade Ministry.
Were sleeping with the enemy, said Christian Lohbauer, a trade specialist and head of Sao
Paulo-based Orange Juice Exporters Association. How can you call it a strategic alliance if we
cant export value added products?
Chinas global hunt for raw materials and markets to sell manufacturing goods has allowed it to
make inroads across the region. Exports to Latin America and the Caribbean jumped 26 percent
since 2005, more than with any other region and double the average pace of growth with the
rest of the world, according to an April 13 report by the United Nations.
Thats made it harder for Lula, 64, to reach his goal of transforming Brazil into a global supplier
of airplanes, software and oil platforms -- beginning in Latin America, where its $1.6 trillion
economy is the biggest. Since 2003, foreign investment by Brazilian companies has surged to
over $20 billion a year from $2.5 billion, the bulk in the region, according to the UN.
Biggest Threat
China is Brazils main competitor and the biggest threat to its industrial expansion strategy
because the two produce similar goods, said Mauricio Mesquita Moreira, the Inter- American
Development Banks top trade economist.
The four-day state visit to Brazil is Hus second to the country. On April 17 he travels to
Venezuela followed by a visit to Chile, one of three Latin American countries with whom China
has a free-trade agreement. Peru and Costa Rica are the others.
We have problems to solve including exchange rate distortions, Welber Barral, Brazils trade
secretary, said in an interview. The increase in trade and investments may help us overcome
these hurdles.
Chinas policy of pegging the yuan to the dollar, lower wages than those paid in Brazil and
subsidies to manufacturers have allowed the country to gain market share in the region, said
Moreira.
Chinas Commerce Ministry didnt immediately respond to a phone call and fax requesting
comment.
Surpassing the U.S.
While China surpassed the U.S. as the biggest buyer of Brazils exports last year, after the
global recession reduced sales to the U.S. by 43 percent to $15.6 billion, most of its purchases
are raw materials. Soy and iron ore accounted for 66 percent of $20 billion in Brazilian sales to
China last year.

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This is the same pattern of trade Brazil had in the 17th and 18th century, Moreira said in a
phone interview from Washington.
Exports to Venezuela from China surpassed those from Brazil in 2008, according to the staterun, Caracas-based export bank known as Bancoex. While Brazilian sales to Mexico, Latin
Americas second biggest economy, increased three-fold since 1998, those from China surged
20 times to $32.5 billion last year, according to Mexicos Economy Ministry.
Chinas push into Latin America also is helping Brazil as investments in industries from energy
to metals production creates jobs and improves infrastructure.
Chinese Investments
Wuhan Iron & Steel Group, Chinas third-largest steelmaker, paid $400 million in November for
almost 22 percent of Rio de Janeiro-based MMX Mineracao e Metalicos SA, an iron-ore
company belonging to billionaire Eike Batista. The companies said they may jointly build a $5billion steel mill at his LLX Logistica SAs port project, Porto Acu, in northern Rio de Janeiro
state.
In the first two months of the year, Chinas direct investment in Brazil surged to $354 million,
more than four times the $83 million it invested all of last year.
Natural Symbiosis
The world is Chinas backyard and Brazilians shouldnt be so hyped up about it, Jim ONeill,
London-based chief global economist for Goldman Sachs Group Inc, said in an interview.
Theres a natural symbiosis in trade between the two countries despite Brazils legitimate
desire to be a manufacturing powerhouse.
ONeill coined the term BRIC in 2001 to describe the four nations that he estimates will
collectively equal the U.S. in economic size by 2020.
At their first summit in the Ural Mountains city of Yekaterinburg, Russia last June, the BRIC
heads of state called for emerging economies to have a greater voice in international financial
institutions and for a more diversified global monetary system.
That agenda will be joined in Brasilia by a discussion of ways to deepen trade in local
currencies.
Hu told President Barack Obama in Washington April 13 that China wont bow to pressure after
the U.S. leader urged the Asian country to adopt a more market-oriented exchange rate.
Twelve-month non-deliverable yuan forwards rose 0.02 percent to 6.6178 per dollar yesterday,
according to Bloomberg data, reflecting bets the currency will strengthen 3 percent from the
current peg of about 6.83 against the dollar.
Brazils real has gained 34 percent against the dollar since China last revalued its currency by
2.1 percent in July 2005, more than any major currency tracked by Bloomberg.
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Russia Favored
ONeill said Russias Micex Index, which has jumped 11.4 percent this year, is poised to be the
best-performing among the BRIC equity markets this year because of stronger oil prices. The
Shanghai Composite Index lost 3.5 percent this year while Indian stocks have gained 2 percent.
Brazilian equities are up 3.6 percent.
Brazils Central Bank President Henrique Meirelles said in an interview that Brazil faces fewer
problems than other countries from an undervalued Chinese currency.
Brazilian companies are strong, Meirelles, 64, said when asked whether he expects China
step up acquisitions in the country. The Chinese are looking at some opportunities, but I dont
see that as a large scale move or something extremely relevant.

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - Rediff News- BRIC aims to develop, provide clean energy

Leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) on Thursday said that they recognised that
energy is an essential resource for improving the standard of living of our peoples and that
access to it is of paramount importance to economic growth with equity and social
inclusion.
In this regard, they said: "We will aim to develop cleaner, more affordable and sustainable
energy systems, to promote access to energy and energy efficient technologies and practices in
all sectors."
"We will aim to diversify our energy mix by increasing, where appropriate, the contribution of
renewable energy sources, and will encourage the cleaner, more efficient use of fossil fuels and
other fuels. In this regard, we reiterate our support to the international cooperation in the field of
energy efficiency," they added after deliberating on various issues at the BRIC Summit in Brazil.
"We recognize the potential of new, emerging, and environmentally friendly technologies for
diversifying energy mix and the creation of jobs. In this regard we will encourage, as
appropriate, the sustainable development, production and use of biofuels," they said in a joint
statement.
"In accordance with national priorities, we will work together to facilitate the use of renewable
energy, through international cooperation and the sharing of experiences on renewable energy,
including biofuels technologies and policies. We believe that BRIC member countries can
cooperate in training, R&D, Consultancy services and technology transfer, in the energy sector,"
they concluded.

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Data: 15/04/2010-ndia - Rediff News- What Prime Minister Singh will do in Brazil

Ajay Kaul in Brasilia


Prime Minister Manmohan Singh arrived in Brazil on Thursday on a two-day visit during which
he will attend the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) and India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA)
Summits and hold bilateral meetings with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian
President Dmitry Medvedev.
Singh, accompanied by his wife Gursharan Kaur, was accorded a red-carpet welcome at the
Brazilian Air Force Base with the presentation of ceremonial Guard of Honour and 21-gun
salute.
He was received warmly by Brazilian Defence Minister Nelson Jobin as the military band played
national anthems of the host country and India, one by one.
The prime minister reached Brasilia from Washington on the second leg of his eight-nation tour.
The two summits will discuss global economic crisis besides ways to enhance cooperation
among the member countries of the two groupings.
At the 2nd BRIC Summit, Iran's nuclear issue and the controversy surrounding it will also be
discussed under the grouping's format by Singh, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Chinese
President Hu Jintao and Brazilian President Lula da Silva. This will be the first time that Iran will
be part of focussed agenda of the grouping.
BRIC is a significant grouping comprising two of the world's leading energy producers -- Russia
and China and top energy consumers -- India and China, which officials say forms the basis for
natural synergy.
In the BRIC format, foreign ministers of the four countries have been meeting regularly on the
sidelines of international conferences, including the UN General Assembly.
The BRIC countries, representing 40 per cent of the global population, are among the largest
and fastest growing economies with rich human and material resources. They represent the
future of the global economic landscape.
With a similarity of views on several issues like climate change and reform of global institutions,
including the UN, the four countries have been fine-tuning their collective approaches to these
issues.
In the IBSA format too, India, Brazil and South Africa, the three fastest growing economies of
three continents, have been evolving common and coordinated approaches to the challenges
like global economic crisis and climate change besides pushing efforts to enhance cooperation
among themselves.
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After the IBSA Summit on Friday, India, Brazil and South Africa are expected to sign two
trilateral MoUs. These are in the areas of solar energy and science and technology.
An MoU in the field of sport is also likely to be inked. "These groupings reflect the growing role
of emerging economies in shaping the global economic order," the prime minister had said in a
statement before leaving on his two-nation tour.
He said the IBSA process has come of age as it today encompasses a wide range of activities
which supplement the excellent bilateral relations that India enjoys with each of these countries.
"Our coordination on important international issues has expanded, and our trilateral cooperation
is beginning to bear fruit in many sectors," the prime minister had said.
"We have a high stake in the revival of the global economy, an open trading system, energy
security, combating climate change and addressing non-traditional threats to international
security," he said.
Singh will hold bilateral meetings with the Chinese president and the Russian president during
his stay in Brasilia.
Ahead of his meeting with Hu, Singh said in Washington that India and China were working very
hard to find a 'practical' and 'pragmatic' solution to the boundary question and it would 'take
time' to get resolved.
"Well we have the border problem and that problem has to be resolved. We are working very
hard to find to have a practical, pragmatic solution to that problem," he said at a press
conference when asked about relations between India and China.
Noting that both countries "recognise that it would take time", he said both the nations have
agreed that pending the resolution of the border issues, peace and tranquility should be
maintained along the Line of Actual Control and by and large that situation prevails on the
ground.
On the overall Sino-India relations, he said the economic content of the relationship has
increased significantly, with China today being India's largest trading partner.
There are large Chinese investments in our country and there are large Indian investments in
China. "On the economic front the relationship is moving in the right direction," he said.
On multilateral issues, he said, there was a recognition in China that there was a similarity of
approach between the two countries and they can gain by working together.
In this context, he referred to the Copenhagen conference on climate change last December
during which India and China worked closely to block developed nations from imposing their
agenda.

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Data: 15/04/2010-Colmbia - La Republica- La cumbre de los Bric en Brasilia

Hoy se renen en Brasilia los presidentes de Rusia, China, Brasil y el primer ministro de India,
para llevar a cabo la segunda cumbre del Bric,
un grupo conformado por los cuatro pases que tienen 42 por ciento de la poblacin mundial y
que contribuyeron con ms de 50 por ciento al crecimiento econmico global en los
ltimos aos, todo con el trasfondo de que ellos favorecern inexorablemente durante la
"postcrisis".
La cumbre es de gran importancia para el mundo econmico, pues quien predijo la crisis
financiera de los dos ltimos aos, Nouriel Roubini, ya vaticin que Brasil, India, China y otros
mercados emergentes cosecharn los beneficios de un cambio histrico del poder econmico
mundial si "lo hacen todo correctamente, el tamao de los mercados emergentes va a ser ms
y ms grande y va a ser mayor que el PIB de los Estados Unidos".
Es la segunda vez en la historia que estos pases se renen en torno a su papel en la
economa mundial, la primera se haba realizado en Yekaterinburgo, Rusia. Ahora la cita es en
Brasilia en donde los presidentes de Rusia, Dmitri Medvedev; de China, Hu Jintao, y el primer
ministro indio, Mahmohan Singh, adems del anfitrin y mandatario brasileo, Luiz Incio Lula
da Silva, revisarn sus posturas internacionales.
Segn el Fondo Monetario Internacional, los Bric generaron en 2007 46,3 por ciento del PIB
mundial. Y se espera que para el periodo 2008 - 2014 sean los pases responsables de 61,3
por ciento del PIB global.
Entre los temas de la agenda -que se llevar a cabo desde hoy y hasta maana- se destacan
su papel como estados poderosos en la crisis econmica mundial, la normalizacin del sistema
financiero con reglas ms transparentes, los cambios en las instituciones financieras
internacionales, la reforma del sistema mundial de divisas y otras cuestiones polticas de
implicaciones claras en las economas emergentes.
Pero el principal objetivo de la Cumbre, y el ms concreto de cara al mundo, es revertir las
consecuencias de la actual crisis econmica y promover la reforma de las instituciones
globales. Se espera que salgan puntos concretos sobre la produccin de energa en sus pases
y una posicin unificada sobre el espinoso tema del calentamiento global.
A la reunin hay que seguirle la pista, no slo porque durante el primer decenio del siglo XXI, el
Producto Interno Bruto de los Bric creci ms que el de otras economas mundiales -aunque
siguen debajo del nivel de las economas desarrolladas- sino porque todas esas naciones
estn estrechando lazos comerciales y polticos con Colombia. Brasil, Rusia, India y China
tienen objetivos con nuestra economa y es un deber estratgico estar atentos, desde la
sombra, sobre lo que acontece en Brasilia.

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Data: 14/04/2010-Colmbia - La Republica- Las economas Bric se mueven en otra


direccin

Sao Paulo. Los operadores de opciones cambiarias estn demostrando que las economas
emergentes se han vuelto ms seguras en relacin con los pases desarrollados que en
ningn otro momento en casi dos aos.
La volatilidad implcita de las monedas de los siete mayores pases en desarrollo baj a 10 por
ciento en marzo en comparacin con 11,4 por ciento la de los pases industrializados, segn
ndices de JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Hace treinta aos, las monedas de los mercados emergentes eran las que ms fluctuaban por
las crisis de deuda y la hiperinflacin. Ahora, la volatilidad est bajando en los mercados en
desarrollo al tiempo que pases como China y Brasil encabezan la recuperacin mundial.
Los pases emergentes estn movindose en otra direccin. El dficit de presupuesto de los
pases en vas de desarrollo bajar a 2,8 por ciento de sus economas este ao, en
comparacin con el 4 por ciento en 2009, segn un informe del FMI.
El presidente ruso Dmitry Medvedev dijo que Brasil, Rusia, India y China deberan completar
las reformas necesarias desde hace tiempo del sistema de Breton Woods.
Los cuatro pases, que tienen el 42 por ciento de la poblacin mundial y contribuyeron con ms
del 50 por ciento al crecimiento econmico global en los aos recientes, tambin podran hacer
una contribucin conjunta hacia un programa "postcrisis" del G-20, seal.
El presidente ruso, Dmitry Medvedev indic que es "importante" tomar medidas comunes,
como intercambiar informacin sobre posibles "ataques especulativos" contra la moneda y
mercados de deuda y materias primas de cada uno para garantizar la seguridad econmica.
El economista que predijo la crisis financiera, Nouriel Roubini, seal que India, China y otros
mercados emergentes cosecharn los beneficios de un cambio histrico del poder econmico
mundial si "lo hacen todo correctamente". "El tamao de los mercados emergentes va a ser
ms y ms grande, y va a ser mayor que el PIB de los Estados Unidos", indic Roubini.
Los Bric consideran que su tamao, las perspectivas de crecimiento econmico y la
importancia geopoltica que tienen les da derecho a una mayor voz en la gobernabilidad global.
La especulacin en torno a la posibilidad de que China revale pronto su moneda y decida un
esperado cambio en su rgimen de tipo de cambio se ha intensificado en los ltimos das,
ayudando a elevar el precio del yuan frente al dlar.
El ministro de Hacienda brasileo, Guido Mantega, dijo que na poltica cambiaria flexible en
China "sera muy buena" para la economa global.
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106

Por su parte, el presidente del banco central de Brasil, Henrique Meirelles. dijo que China
podra permitir que el yuan avance "un poco ms" en el trmino de 12 meses conforme la
tercera economa del mundo se aparta de una poltica monetaria que crea distorsiones.
La cumbre de los pases del grupo Bric que comenzar maana jueves, juntar al presidente
chino, Hu Jintao, su par brasileo, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, y los lderes de Rusia e India.
Entre los temas de la agenda se destacan la crisis econmica mundial, la normalizacin del
sistema financiero con reglas ms transparentes y cambios en las instituciones financieras
internacionales y el combate al calentamiento global y otras cuestiones polticas.
Desempeo en el ndice Msci
Las acciones en los pases Bric (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) deberan subir hasta 25 por ciento
en 2010, ampliando sus ganancias de 80 por ciento de este ao y superando a los ttulos de
otras economas emergentes. El ndice Msci para acciones Bric subi 87 por ciento en 2009,
con un mejor desempeo en los ndices Msci de Rusia y Brasil, con ganancias por sobre el 100
por ciento, mientras que los indicadores para India y China han avanzado 85 y 60 por ciento,
respectivamente. Las acciones rusas avanzarn 22 por ciento y la bolsa de valores china Hang
Seng trepar 24 por ciento.

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - New Kerala- Reform UN to make it more representative, says


BRIC

Brasilia, Apr 16 : Leaders of BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China, have signed a
joint declaration, calling for the need to reform the United Nations to make the institution
more efficient and representative, in order to better address global challenges.
The leaders--Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Brazil President Lula da Silva, Russian
President Dmitry Medvedev and Chinese President Hu Jintao in the agreement, stressed the
need for joint economic efforts and adoption of sustainable fiscal policies to ensure a full
recovery from the global financial crisis and long-term economic growth.
After a joint statement, the leaders singed the joint agreement at the end of the second annual
BRIC summit, which drew to a close late last night.
During the event, Brazilian National Development Bank President Luciano Coutinho signed a
memorandum of cooperation with his BRIC counterparts that seeks to establish mechanisms to
enhance trade and economic relations between the BRIC countries.
This agreement includes the possibility of co-financing projects of common interest in areas
such as infrastructure, energy, industry, high technology and export.

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107

Dr Singh reaffirmed the need for continued cooperation, reiterating that the four countries can
make considerable contributions to global prosperity. ''The global financial crisis has given new
relevance to the BRIC countries,'' he added.
''We are confident that the unity we achieved here will contribute to the construction of a space
for dialogue and consultation. Brazil, Russia, India and China have a key role to play in the
establishment of a new international order that is more representative, fairer and safer,'' the
Brazilian President said.
The Chinese President said the meeting was fruitful.
The debate not only reflected the collective interests of the group, but of all countries in the
world.
China will host the third BRIC summit at a date yet to be fixed.
Russia intends to deepen the dialogue on tackling global challenges such as terrorism and
organised crime. ''The BRIC format allows us complete action,'' said Mr Medvedev.
In the period from 2003 to 2007, the BRIC countries accounted for 65 per cent of the world's
GDP growth. In 2009, the BRIC countries GDP (by purchasing power parity) reached 16.3
trillion dollars, corresponding to 23.4 per cent of the global economy.
In the period 2003-2008, there was an increase of 382 per cent in the volume of trade between
Brazil and the other BRIC countries from 10.7 billion dollars in 2003 to 51.7 billion dollars in
2008.
The summit was originally scheduled for Friday, April 16, but was advanced by one day in order
to accommodate the Chinese President's decision to shorten his trip following the earthquake
that hit China this week.
--UNI

Data: 17/04/2010-EUA - Associated Press- Emergentes en Brasil fortalecen postura ante


reforma financiera

Marco Sibaja
La recin concluida cumbre de Brasil, Rusia, India y China, integrante del grupo BRIC, permiti
a estos grandes pases emergentes afinar su postura frente a la reforma del sistema
financiero internacional actualmente en negociacin, dijo el viernes una autoridad
brasilea.

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108

Los gobernantes de esas cuatro naciones, responsables por casi 50% del crecimiento mundial,
se reunieron el jueves en Brasilia en su segunda cumbre, donde insistieron en la necesidad de
transformar las organizaciones financieras internacionales para hacerlas ms representativas.
El ministro brasileo de Asuntos Estratgicos, Samuel Pinheiro Guimaraes, destac que los
cuatro integrantes del BRIC tambin conforman el G-20, en el que participan las 20 grandes
economas del mundo, que est negociando las reglas de una nueva arquitectura financiera
mundial.
"Est en juego la administracin de los organismos financieros", dijo Guimaraes a periodistas.
"El Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) siempre es gobernado por un europeo, el Banco
Mundial siempre es dirigido por un estadounidense, y los BRIC quieren que esos cargos se
definan por competencia tcnica, no por nacionalidad", agreg.
El bloque tambin defiende que el poder de voto dentro de esas entidades debe ser modificado
porque en la actualidad no corresponde a la dimensin econmica de los pases participantes.
Record que la actual arquitectura fue diseada posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial y no
refleja el mundo actual, donde pases emergentes como los BRIC han ganado mayor peso en
la economa global.
La declaracin final de la cumbre de los cuatro pases destac que "el mundo necesita una
arquitectura financiera reformada y ms estable que haga que la economa global sea menos
vulnerable y ms resistente a futuras crisis".
Los gobernantes sealaron que "el FMI y el Banco Mundial deben enfrentar con urgencia sus
carencias de legitimidad. Reformar las estructuras de mando de estas instituciones requiere
prioritariamente un cambio sustancial en el poder de voto en favor de los mercados emergentes
y pases en desarrollo".
La postura de los BRIC ser discutida en la prxima cumbre del G-20, programada para
noviembre en Canad.
En la cita de Brasilia participaron los gobernantes de Brasil, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva; Rusia,
Dimitri Medvedev; India, Manmohan Singh, y China, Hu Jintao.
El encuentro estaba programado para el viernes pero se adelant al jueves por un pedido del
presidente chino Hu, quien deba volver a su pas para coordinar los trabajos de emergencia
por el violento terremoto del mircoles en la provincia tibetana de Qinghai.
La primera cumbre de los BRIC se celebr el ao pasado en la ciudad rusa de Ecaterimburgo y
la siguiente est programada para 2011 en China.

Data: 17/04/2010-EUA - Associated Press- Sistema financiero, en la mira del BRIC

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Brasil, Rusia, India y China buscan que las organizaciones internacionales sean ms
representativas; el grupo considera que el poder de voto debe corresponder a la
dimensin econmica del participante.
BRASILIA (AP) La recin concluida cumbre de Brasil, Rusia, India y China, integrante del
grupo BRIC, permiti a estos grandes pases emergentes afinar su postura frente a la reforma
del sistema financiero internacional actualmente en negociacin, dijo este viernes una
autoridad brasilea.
Los gobernantes de esas cuatro naciones, responsables por casi 50% del crecimiento mundial,
se reunieron el jueves en Brasilia en su segunda cumbre, donde insistieron en la necesidad de
transformar las organizaciones financieras internacionales para hacerlas ms representativas.
El ministro brasileo de Asuntos Estratgicos, Samuel Pinheiro Guimaraes, destac que los
cuatro integrantes del BRIC tambin conforman el G20, en el que participan las 20 grandes
economas del mundo, que est negociando las reglas de una nueva arquitectura financiera
mundial.
"Est en juego la administracin de los organismos financieros", dijo Guimaraes a periodistas.
"El Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) siempre es gobernado por un europeo, el Banco
Mundial siempre es dirigido por un estadounidense, y los BRIC quieren que esos cargos se
definan por competencia tcnica, no por nacionalidad", agreg.
El bloque tambin defiende que el poder de voto dentro de esas entidades debe ser modificado
porque en la actualidad no corresponde a la dimensin econmica de los pases participantes.
Record que la actual arquitectura fue diseada posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial y no
refleja el mundo actual, donde pases emergentes como los BRIC han ganado mayor peso en
la economa global.
La declaracin final de la cumbre de los cuatro pases destac que "el mundo necesita una
arquitectura financiera reformada y ms estable que haga que la economa global sea menos
vulnerable y ms resistente a futuras crisis".
Los gobernantes sealaron que "el FMI y el Banco Mundial deben enfrentar con urgencia sus
carencias de legitimidad. Reformar las estructuras de mando de estas instituciones requiere
prioritariamente un cambio sustancial en el poder de voto en favor de los mercados emergentes
y pases en desarrollo".
La postura de los BRIC ser discutida en la prxima cumbre del G20, programada para
noviembre en Canad.
En la cita de Brasilia participaron los gobernantes de Brasil, Luiz Incio Lula da Silva; Rusia,
Dimitri Medvedev; India, Manmohan Singh, y China, Hu Jintao.

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110

El encuentro estaba programado para el viernes pero se adelant al jueves por un pedido del
presidente chino Hu, quien deba volver a su pas para coordinar los trabajos de emergencia
por el violento terremoto del mircoles en la provincia tibetana de Qinghai.
La primera cumbre de los BRIC se celebr el ao pasado en la ciudad rusa de Ecaterimburgo y
la siguiente est programada para 2011 en China.

Data: 16/04/2010-EUA - Associated Press -Pases emergentes piden fin de Ronda Doha

por MARCO SIBAJA - 04/16/2010


The Associated Press
BRASILIA - Los gobernantes de Brasil, China, ndia, Rusia y Sudfrica instaron el jueves a la
conclusin de la Ronda Doha para la liberalizacin comercial y exhortaron a los pases a
evitar toda forma de proteccionismo.
El tema fue planteado al cierre de dos foros de pases emergentes celebrados en Brasilia: el
grupo IBSA (India, Brasil y Sudfrica) y el BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China).
"Concordamos en que la conclusin de la Ronda Doha es una tarea inaplazable, pues nos
ayudar a corregir las anomalas que an afectan el comercio internacional", declar el anfitrin
de las citas, el presidente brasileo Luiz Incio Lula da Silva.
Al cerrar su cuarta cumbre, el primer ministro Manmohan Singh de India y los presidentes Lula
y Jacob Zuma de Sudfrica, integrantes del foro IBSA, anunciaron el desarrollo de dos
satlites, uno de ellos para estudios climticos y otro para la observacin de la tierra.
Horas despus concluy el encuentro del grupo BRIC, conformado por los presidentes de
Brasil, Rusia (Dimitri Medvedev), China (Hu Jintao) y el primer ministro indio.
El gobernante chino indic que los lderes del BRIC respaldaron la reforma de Naciones Unidas
y del sistema financiero internacional para hacerlos ms representativos, al tiempo que
apoyaron las pretensiones de Brasil e India de ocupar un asiento permanente en el Consejo de
Seguridad de la ONU.
Hu dijo que recibi el respaldo de los otros tres pases para que China organice el prximo ao
la tercera cumbre del BRIC. La primera se realiz en 2009 en Ecaterimburgo, Rusia.
En su comunicado final, los BRIC se comprometieron ellos mismos y convocaron "a todos los
estados a resistir todas las formas de proteccionismo comercial y a combatir restricciones al
intercambio".
Segn la agenda original, el foro IBSA se iba a reunir jueves mientras los BRIC lo haran
viernes, pero el programa se abrevi para realizar ambos encuentros el mismo da debido a
que el lder chino Hu Jintao pidi regresar anticipadamente a su pas a causa del terremoto que
el mircoles devast la provincia tibetana de Qinghai.
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La Ronda Doha, que se negocia desde 2001, se estanc por discrepancias entre pases
industrializados y en desarrollo, en las que Brasil e India tuvieron un papel central."Los
gobernantes (de IBSA) afirmaron que un desenlace positivo de la Ronda Doha ser crucial
para la recuperacin econmica, especialmente en materia de creacin de empleos, en
momentos que el comercio mundial sufre su peor declive en muchas dcadas", sealaron los
lderes en su declaracin final.
Entre tanto, cuatro activistas de la organizacin ambientalista Greenpeace realizaron una
protesta frente al ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, sede del encuentro, para pedir a los
lderes del BRIC adoptar una postura firme contra el cambio climtico. Fueron detenidos por la
polica al llegar, uno de ellos disfrazado de barril de petrleo y dos de ellos vestidos de rbol.
Joao Talocchi, coordinador de la campaa de Greenpeace sobre clima, dijo a periodistas que el
BRIC, que representa un cuarto de la economa mundial, puede hacer buena inversin en
fuentes alternativas de energa, como la solar, elica y biomasa, que mitigaran el cambio
climtico y generaran hasta ocho millones de empleos.
En el inicio de las actividades, ministros del grupo IBSA se reunieron con el ministro palestino
de Relaciones Exteriores, Riad al-Maliki, quien les inform del estancamiento en el proceso de
paz en Oriente Medio y pidi ayuda para presionar a Israel.
Acus a Israel de negarse a congelar los asentamientos en Cisjordania y de expulsar a los
palestinos en la parte rabe de Jerusaln para sustituirlos por colonos, adems de reeditar una
orden militar que dificulta la vida de los rabes en Cisjordania.
"Israel anunci una nueva orden militar que califica a todos los palestinos en Cisjordania como
infiltrados a menos que lleven un permiso emitido por un comandante militar, que nadie tiene",
dijo Maliki. "Todos los 2,5 millones de palestinos en Cisjordania son susceptibles de ser
expulsados y sustituidos por colonos".
El canciller brasileo, Celso Amorim, dijo que los pases del grupo IBSA pretenden involucrarse
en el proceso de paz con iniciativas para impulsar las estancadas negociaciones entre israeles
y palestinos.

Data: 16/04/2010Alemanha - Handelsblatt - Os Presidentes dos pases BRIC agora


pretendem transformar a sua fora econmica em poder poltico.

Por Alexander Busch em So Paulo


O Brasil, a Rssia, a ndia e a China em pouco tempo no apenas realizaram uma integrao
econmica mais estreita do que esperado tambm pretendem perseguir alvos polticos
comuns. Os BRICs perceberam que em conjunto podem exercer maior peso poltico no
cenrio internacional disse Douglas Smith, economista-chefe para a Amrica Latina no
Standard Chartered Bank.
J a segunda vez que os quatro Presidentes se renem para uma cpula poltica em Braslia.
Principalmente a China, o maior dos pases BRIC, que antigamente demonstrou certa reserva,
hoje defende uma cooperao mais estreita. Junto com os trs parceiros, a China consegue
impor melhor os seus interesses no G-20 diz Jiang Shixue da Academia Chinesa de Cincias
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112

Sociais, que considera a cpula de Braslia como preparativo para o encontro do G-20 em
junho no Canad.
Fortalecidos pela crise global.
Com a exceo da Rssia, os Brics saram quase ilesos da crise e aumentaram ainda mais o
seu peso na economia global. Para a China, o frum dos Brics tambm representa uma chance
para desviar das exigncias dos Estados Unidos de assumir maior responsabilidade na poltica
e economia internacionais. Apesar do nosso crescimento econmico forte, continuamos sendo
um pas em desenvolvimento e isto se expressa inclusive na nossa poltica exterior disse Qui
Xiaoqi, Embaixador da China na Rssia.
O fato de que os quatro estados se encontrarem demonstra que no FMI, no Banco Mundial e
nas Naes Unidos ainda no temos uma Governana Global tima, diz Jim O`Neill. O
economista chefe do Banco de Investimentos Goldmann Sachs em 2003 resumiu na sigla
BRIC os futuros plos de crescimentos mais fortes da economia global. Mesmo que o seu
potencial poltico seja limitado em funo de interesses divergentes, hoje so to importantes
ou at mais importantes do que o G-7.
Do encontro em Braslia, analistas esperam que os Chefes de Estado e de Governo dos pases
Bric exijam mais direitos de participao nas grandes instituies financeiras internacionais
como o FMI. Para no isolar os pases Bric de outros grandes emergentes, o Presidente do
Brasil Luis Incio Lula da Silva organizou ontem, antes do encontro, uma cpula especial com
os colegas Jacob Zuma (frica do Sul) e Manmohan Singh (ndia).
No entanto, os Presidentes dos Brics no vo conseguir chegar a um acordo sobre outras
exigncias como a participao do Brasil e da ndia do Conselho de Segurana das Naes
Unidas. A Rssia e a China no tm interesse em uma ampliao do Conselho de Segurana.
As bases da crescente influncia poltica do grupo so o sucesso econmico e a crescente
integrao dos Estados. Em apenas 10 anos conseguiram duplicar a sua participao no
comrcio mundial para 25% hoje. Respondem por mais de 40% da populao mundial e 14%
do PIB do mundo. Nos ltimos anos, foram responsveis por mais da metade do crescimento
do PIB mundial.
A novidade a crescente integrao dos Estados entre si. Conforme um recente estudo da
ONU, a China, j em um prazo de 4 anos, vai substituir a Europa como segundo maior parceiro
comercial da Amrica Latina depois dos EUA. O Ministrio das Relaes Exteriores do Brasil
espera, para ano corrente, um crescimento do comrcio s com os estados Bric de 20%.
Atualmente a China j domina as relaes econmicas exteriores. A China cada vez mais
assegura fontes de matrias primas e energia do continente para o seu desenvolvimento
econmico. Somente no Brasil, companhias chinesas investiram, desde o incio do ano, dois
bilhes de dlares em empresas siderrgicas e petrolferas. Companhias indianas at agora
investem em primeira linha na indstria sul-americana (ao e automveis) e informtica. A
Rssia amplia, apesar de investimentos em petrleo e gs natural, principalmente a sua
indstria de defesa. Estatais russas pretendem produzir veculos militares no Brasil.

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Data: 16/04/2010-ndia Sify- A day in the life of summit-hopping Manmohan (Brasilia


Diary)

Two summits and three bilateral meetings, all packed in one day. Trust Indian Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh to manage a killing schedule of back-to-back meetings and still look
fresh and energetic!
The prime minister started his day one in Brasilia with a meeting with Chinese President Hu
Jintao and followed it with another round of bilateral talks with Brazilian President Lula da Silva.
He then headed to Itamaraty Place for India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) summit where he made
a vigorous pitch for reform of the UN and international decision-making bodies. He topped up a
hectic day with Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) summit where he again exhorted the world
powers to wake up to the 21st century realities and accommodate surging aspirations of
developing countries in the UN and other global bodies. He heads to India Friday morning for a
long flight home after wrapping up an eight-day visit to the US and Brazil. Total score: three
multilateral summits and nine bilateral meetings.
Lula's big moment
It is clearly the big moment for maverick Brazilian President Lula da Silva, known for his
flamboyant gestures and stirring speeches. After all, it's not every day Brazil, Latin America's
power economy, gets to host twin summits. Lula looked hugely gratified at a joint press
conference, first with the leaders of India and Russia after IBSA summit and then at BRIC
summit where he was joined by Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry
Medvedev. If IBSA has taken off, it has much to do with the 'pioneering zeal' of Lula, as
Manmohan Singh complimented him at the summit. The two summits have given a big boost to
the Brazilian economy with nearly 28,000 hotel rooms boasting full occupancy. Lula is a happy
man, what with elections scheduled for October!
Do not molest
Brazil is a fanatically monolingual country. If you don't know Portuguese, you are virtually lost.
Better take a pretty translator along if you are out shopping or otherwise. Officials and
journalists accompanying the prime minister were intrigued when they checked into their hotel
rooms. The 'Do not disturb' card read 'Do not molest'. Didn't know there are so many molesters
around in Brazil, quipped a sleep-starved hack.
Brasilia turns 50
Leafy and spacious Brasilia, once a dream in the eyes of the young Oscar Niemeyer, a Brazilian
architect, is bracing for the golden jubilee celebrations with a lot of flair and razzmatazz. The big
founding day party is April 21, but Brazilians are already rocking in anticipation. Samba dances
will consort with Disney World characters at the anniversary party. Brazilian President Lula da
Silva announced the 50th anniversary celebrations of Brasilia with a lot of panache and
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114

presented a commemorative seal to India's Manmohan Singh and South Africa's Jacob Zuma.
The big star of the show will be Oscar Niemeyer, who is still alive and kicking at age 102.
Democracies club, no dictators please
He did't mean it in that sense, but Manmohan Singh got the message across. When asked
whether there was any plan to merge IBSA and BRIC, the prime minister replied casually: 'IBSA
is about three major democracies of the world.' The message was not lost on discerning
journalists who had gathered around him for a casual chat after the IBSA summit. And no prize
for guessing who were the others - Russia and China - the prime minister was referring to.

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia Sify- We want India, Brazil in UN security council: BRIC nations

Challenging the existing global power structure, BRIC nations called for urgent reforms of the
UN, wanted international financial institutions to accommodate aspirations of rising powers
and pitched for including India and Brazil in an expanded UN Security Council.
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Brazilian President Lula da Silva, Chinese President
Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev held wide-ranging talks at Itamaraty Palace
in the Brazilian capital soon after the IBSA summit of India, Brazil and South Africa.
The BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) summit, scheduled to be held Friday, was advanced
by a day as Hu had to cut short his trip due a massive earthquake in China.
A joint statement at the end of the day-long summit stressed the group's intent to see a
'multipolar, equitable and democratic world order', a formulation that is set to worry the US as it
views groupings like BRIC with suspicion.
Putting their collective economic weight behind the BRIC initiative, the four leaders made a
vigorous pitch for the long-overdue reform of the UN and backed a greater role for India and
Brazil in having a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
China and Russia are already permanent members of the Security Council along with the
United State, France and Britain.
'In this respect, we reaffirm the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, with a view to
making it more effective, efficient and representative, so that it can deal with today's global
challenges more effectively,' said the joint declaration at the end of the summit Thursday night.
'We reiterate the importance we attach to the status of India and Brazil in international affairs,
and understand and support their aspirations to play a greater role in the United Nations.'
Russia hosted the first BRIC summit in Yekaterinburg in June last year.
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The leaders of BRIC countries, which account for 20 percent of global GDP, focused a large part
of their discussions on setting the pace and direction of global economic recovery.
Manmohan Singh, on his part, cautioned the world against complacency and pitched for closer
collaboration in interests of long-term recovery. India's position was reflected in the joint
declaration.
'We welcome the fact that the G-20 was confirmed as the premier forum for international
economic coordination and cooperation of all its member states,' said the joint declaration.
'Compared to previous arrangements, the G-20 is broader, more inclusive, diverse,
representative and effective,' they said.
'We advocate the need for the G-20 to be proactive and formulate a coherent strategy for the
post-crisis period,' the BRIC leaders said, while underlining the need for reform of the Bretton
Woods institutions, the IMF and the World Bank.
Referring to the recent resumption of economic growth in emerging markets, the four leaders
said that 'the foundation of world economic recovery is not yet solid, with uncertainties
remaining'.
'We call upon all states to strengthen macroeconomic cooperation, jointly secure world
economic recovery and achieve a strong, sustainable and balanced growth,' said the joint BRIC
declaration.
The focus of the summit was on recasting the international political and economic order by the
four countries whose economies are going to be the world's biggest by 2050.
'BRIC countries have a fundamental role in the construction of a fairer international order,' the
summit's host, Lula da Silva, said at a press conference.
Manmohan Singh called the summit 'very successful' and stressed that the BRIC grouping was
uniquely placed to recast global order and to contribute to world economic growth and
prosperity.
Medvedev added that the meeting showed 'the BRIC format is becoming full-fledged and allows
us to not only coordinate our efforts but to also make concrete decisions'.
They also decided to scale up economic cooperation and underlined the importance of
maintaining relative stability of major reserve currencies and sustainability of fiscal policies in
order to achieve a strong, long-term balanced economic growth.
The four leaders of top emerging economies also pushed hard for an early conclusion for an
international convention to combat terrorism and wrapping up of the Doha round of international
trade negotiations.

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The BRIC countries include two of the largest energy producers and two of the largest
consumers in the world.
'BRIC countries have an important role to play in the shaping the pace, direction and
sustainability of global economic growth,' said the four leaders at the end of the day-long
summit.
China will host the next edition of the BRIC summit.
Putting developmental aspirations of common people at the heart of the BRIC engagement, the
four leaders of world's top performing democracies also decided to scale up cooperation in
areas ranging from science and technology, trade and investment, pharmaceuticals and
infrastructure.

Data: 15/04/2010-ndia Sify- Manmohan to cement India's global role at IBSA, BRIC
summits

It is set to be a week of hectic multilateral diplomacy for Indian Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh, who arrived here Wednesday evening on a three-day visit to participate in two
back-to-back summits of IBSA and BRIC countries.
The IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa) and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) summits,
which are held in different formats, aim at securing a bigger say for top emerging economies in
world affairs.
Besides multilateral diplomacy, Manmohan Singh, who arrived here from the US, will also hold
bilateral talks with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. Three
multilateral summits in a week underline Indias growing global stature, said a senior official.
Manmohan Singh, accompanied by his wife Gursharan Kaur, arrived here Wednesday evening
(2.30 a.m., Thursday IST) on the second leg of his eight-day overseas tour from Washington
where he participated in the 47-nation Nuclear Security Summit.
He was accorded a red-carpet welcome at the Brazilian Air Force Base with the presentation of
ceremonial Guard of Honour and 21-gun salute.
Manmohan Singh was received warmly by Brazilian Defence Minister Nelson Jobim with the
military band playing national anthems of the host country and India.
Manmohan Singh will hold wide-ranging talks with Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva,
the host of the twin summits, and South African President Jacob Zuma in the trilateral format of
IBSA.

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The fourth IBSA summit, comprising three top economic powerhouses straddling three
continents, will culminate Thursday evening with a joint communique reflecting their shared
positions on a host of global issues, including the international financial crisis and reform of
global decision-making bodies.
All three IBSA countries are aspiring for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
The three countries are expected to sign two trilateral MoUs in areas of solar energy and
science and technology.
The second BRIC summit, projected by Goldman Sachs to be the worlds largest economies by
2050, Friday will also push for the democratisation of international bodies.
The leaders of four countries will also hold intensive discussions on several issues, including
the US drive to impose fresh sanctions against Iran for its suspect nuclear programme, the
international financial crisis, climate change and counter-terror cooperation.
Iran will be part of 'focused agenda' of the BRIC summit for the first time, said Parbati Sen Vyas,
secretary (economic relations) in the ministry of external affairs.
The issue will also be discussed in the IBSA format by Manmohan Singh, Brazil president and
the South African president, said Vivek Katju, secretary (West) in the external affairs ministry,
who is in the Brazilian capital for the summit.

Data: 14/04/2010-EUA - Univision.com- Grandes pases emergentes del BRIC se renen


buscando ampliar su influencia

Los lderes de las grandes naciones del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China) se darn cita el
viernes en Brasilia en la II Cumbre de este grupo, aglutinado por el fenomenal crecimiento
de sus gigantescas economas, para tratar de consolidar su influencia mundial.
Los presidentes Hu Jintao (China), Dimitri Medvedev (Rusia), Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (Brasil)
y el primer ministro Mamohan Singh (India) abordarn una agenda destinada a arrancar de los
pases ricos una reforma del sistema financiero internacional y lograr ms peso en los
organismos multilaterales (FMI y Banco Mundial), explic el coordinador del evento, Roberto
Jaguaribe.
"El gran factor de aglutinacin (del BRIC) es la necesidad de cambio en la gobernanza
internacional" tradicionalmente controlada por las naciones industrializadas, resumi el alto
funcionario de la cancillera brasilea.

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"Dnde estn la riqueza generada en el mundo y las reservas? Estn en los pases en
desarrollo; por tanto, no se puede contemplar ms la posibilidad de que un grupo de pases
ricos diga cmo se harn las cosas", enfatiz.
Un tema caliente del BRIC es su defensa de una moneda alternativa al dlar para el comercio
internacional, pero Brasil asegura que la cumbre no cerrar con ninguna propuesta que sacuda
el frgil equilibrio financiero poscrisis.
En el mbito poltico, se prev que los dirigentes aborden un polmico tema internacional: la
cuestin nuclear iran, ya que Brasil ocupa un puesto no permanente en el Consejo de
Seguridad de la ONU y se opone a las sanciones a Irn, favoreciendo el camino del dilogo
con los iranes.
El grupo BRIC represent entre 2000 y 2008 casi el 50% del crecimiento econmico mundial y
deben aumentar a 61% hasta 2014, segn el FMI. Juntos, suman ms del 40% de la poblacin
y 16% del PIB mundial. Con la salvedad de Rusia y destaque de China, el BRIC sali bien de la
crisis en 2009 y vuelve a ser motor del crecimiento mundial.
La sigla BRIC fue creada en 2001 por el banco estadounidense Goldman Sachs para referirse
a las economas de ms rpido crecimiento del planeta. Su materializacin en una cumbre
poltica ocurri en 2009 en Rusia y coincide con la incorporacin de los grandes pases en
desarrollo en los grandes foros de discusin internacional.
A pesar de haber creado estos foros de discusin, el BRIC no es un grupo homogneo, afirma
a la AFP Christian Lohbauer, del grupo de Conyuntura Internacional de la Universidad de Sao
Paulo (USP): "Lo que los aproxima es que son la frontera del capitalismo, pero es evidente que
no tienen una agenda comn y sus intereses son divergentes y muchas veces enfrentados",
seal.
"Ms retrica que hechos" resumieron algunos medios y analistas cuando se celebr la primera
cumbre del BRIC.
Esta II Cumbre se iniciar con una reunin privada de los lderes el viernes en la maana y se
cerrar tras una plenaria hacia el medioda local en Brasilia.
Aspectos ms prcticos de la relacin econmica entre el BRIC, como la facilitacin del
comercio y las inversiones entre los emergentes reduciendo la dependencia de las estructuras
de los pases desarrollados, sern abordados en reuniones paralelas de bancos privados,
empresarios, bancos pblicos de fomento y tcnicos de sus bancos centrales.
Brasilia acoger el jueves a los lderes de otro foro emergente, el IBSA: India, Brasil y
Sudfrica.

Data: 16/04/2010-Hong Kong - Asia Times- The BRIC post-Washington consensus

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By Pepe Escobar
The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) got together in the Brazilian capital,
Brasilia, on Thursday with a bang. After meeting Chinese President Hu Jintao, and once
again condemning an "asymmetric, dysfunctional globalization", Brazilian President Luiz
Inacio Lula da Silva was at his ebullient best: "A new global economic geography has
been born." Well, not quite. Not yet.
Anyone across the world fed up with Somali pirates in Zegna suits disrupting global trade is
interested in what the BRICs are (potentially) up to. The world's largest developing countries,
bound to be the engine of the global economy for the next four decades, are essentially up to
what then Russian president Vladimir Putin outlined in his famous speech in Munich in 2007;
forming a new global consensus. Call it the rise of the periphery (the "Second" and "Third"
worlds). Call it the dawn of the post-Washington consensus.
It's nothing short of ironic that major players in the current global financial architecture are being
forced to acknowledge that the global "economic and political tectonic plates are shifting". No,
that was not Lula, but the George W Bush-appointed head of the World Bank, Robert Zoellick.
Zoellick even felt compelled to deliver the coup de grace to the patronizing concept of "Third
World".
Is the World Bank finally waking up to the real world(s)? The BRICs met in Brazil roughly one
week before the World Bank and International Monetary Fund annual love fest in Washington.
The old order may resent it, but the BRIC voice is and will continue to be ever more insistent.
No wonder; they are shelling more funds to the IMF, thus they should have more say on where
the money is going. They want an antithesis of Wall Street: transparency. The 2008 financial
crisis - which by no means is over - was unleashed by a Wall Street-biased financial casino.
Strategic and transparent
The BRICs officially met for the first time in Yekaterinburg, Russia, in June 2009. At the time
they delved deep into discussing the global financial crisis and advanced the possibility of
dumping the US dollar as the world's reserve currency.
Now their common strategy is much more subtle. The leaders in these four countries know it's
still too early to think about a common currency; first they need a potent unifying ideal. The
inevitable outcome will be a common market, and then a common currency. The euro took 50
years to be born.
So no wonder, at the moment, as China's Foreign Ministry would put it, the mood is still kind of
mellow, with plenty of rhetoric about "South-South cooperation", "strategic partnerships",
"common development" and "common understanding". But the call for "more transparency" is
very substantial; it will be hammered over and over again at the Americans and Europeans
during the next Group of 20 (G-20) meeting in Canada in June.

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Unlike the US, the BRICs' health is sound; no lingering financial crisis, decent growth rates. All
of these countries are regional leaders. Unlike the US - and the rest of the world has noticed it they have all preserved a very privileged role for public investment in their development model.
The BRICs may represent 42% of the world's population, roughly 15% of the world's gross
domestic product, and almost 30% of world trade. But they're not even constituted as a
commercial bloc such as the European Union or Mercosur trade blocs. At least not yet.
So the road will be long. BRICs are starting by getting their commercial act together - like
setting up closer cooperation between development banks in Brazil, India and China for an
array of partnership projects.
In Brasilia, experts for example discussed the Brazil-Argentina experience of trading in local
currencies, the real and the peso - and not in US dollars. The next stage, as Russian President
Dmitry Medvedev has enthusiastically pointed out, includes multiple cooperation deals on
agricultural technology, nuclear energy, aircraft engineering, space exploration and
nanotechnology.
The new world order
BRIC is rife in internal contradictions. China and India are on a collision course in terms of Asian
preeminence. China is not exactly fond of India trying to get a seat at the UN Security Council.
China and India fiercely compete to get as much oil and gas from Central Asia as possible.
Russia is acutely aware of Chinese expansion in Siberia. India is not exactly fond of Brazil - one
of the world's top food exporters - wanting to slash tariffs on agricultural products. Brazilian
Finance Minister Guido Mantega sounds like a US Treasury official when he calls for the yuan to
be revalued; cheap imports are killing Brazilian manufacturers as much as it killed America's.
But these internal contradictions pale compared to the BRICs' common agenda of being very
careful not to antagonize Washington. As much as they know that the new multipolar world
cannot have a center - which at the moment is in a Washington that, with the exception of
military hegemony, is largely impotent - China, for instance, has built an economy battling with
Japan to become the world's second-largest economy by profiting from the current US-centered
system.
The BRICs may complement each other in many aspects (Brazil and China are the best
example; China has toppled the US as Brazil's largest trading partner). But a key problem is that
they cannot speak for the rest of the developing and undeveloped world - as much as China will
keep successfully exporting its "model" of soft power, belief in multi-polarity, non-political
interference, integrated development and technology transfer.
The world anyway will never become "flat" - this is a silly neo-liberal, simplistic fantasy. A new
global political consensus would have to be formulated by the United Nations - but not a UN
dominated by the US; ideally this should be under a reformed UN, with an expanded and fully
representative UN Security Council. One thing is certain; entrenched elites in both the US and
Europe (which for all practical purposes is now a midget in the global arena) will fight the
dilution of their power tooth and nail.

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BRICs anyway will keep insisting on remaking the global financial architecture - and that starts
with profound reforms at the Bretton Woods institutions. They will be increasingly more powerful
inside the G-20 - and that has already reduced the Group of Eight to irrelevancy. It's very
enlightening to see how they have evolved their common position on burning issues such as the
Iranian nuclear dossier: once again they have stressed in Brasilia they want dialogue, not
confrontation, sanctions and threats.
So the BRIC name of the game may be evolution - not revolution. But the game itself is clear;
full speed ahead towards the post-Washington consensus.
Pepe Escobar is the author of Globalistan: How the Globalized World is Dissolving into Liquid
War (Nimble Books, 2007) and Red Zone Blues: a snapshot of Baghdad during the surge. His
new book, just out, is Obama does Globalistan (Nimble Books, 2009).

Data: 18/04/2010-Frana - Radio France International (RFI)- Sommet du BRIC Brasilia :


des mergents unis pour entrer dans la cour des grands

Par Annie Gasnier


Lors du second sommet du BRIC qui sest tenu Brasilia, jeudi 16 avril, les dirigeants des
quatre grands pays qui composent le BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ont revendiqu
une meilleure reprsentativit dans les instances internationales. Une demande au nom
de leurs dynamiques conomies mergentes .
Le premier sommet des nations regroupes sous le sigle BRIC, organis en juin 2009 en
Russie, avait suscit peu de rsultat concret, et peu dintrt. Mais la runion de Brasilia entre
Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine tait plus ambitieuse. Le BRIC nest plus de la rhtorique, il
existe une concertation permanente dans les principaux forums internationaux , a affirm un
diplomate brsilien.
Les dclarations entendues Brasilia attirent lattention, et gnrent des interrogations : que
peuvent apporter ces quatre pays ? Peuvent-ils gner les plus riches, et provoquer une
dynamique mondiale diffrente ?
En dpit de disparits historiques, culturelles et politiques, le gigantisme gographique des
BRIC sur leur continent respectif les a naturellement propulss vers le groupe des principales
puissances. Ils reprsentent 42% de la population de la plante, et 15% du PIB global. Et leur
dynamisme conomique les rend aujourdhui indispensables la croissance mondiale.
Ils ont peine senti la crise financire de septembre 2008, devenant les moteurs du capitalisme
du XXIe sicle. Entre 2008 et 2011, ils engendreront 61,3% des richesses mondiales, selon le
Fonds montaire international (FMI), grce leur force commerciale.
Le dfi lanc aux Etats-Unis est public
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Leurs rserves internationales accumules dans les banques centrales, 3 350 milliards de
dollars, leur ont permis dviter la crise et denvisager moyen terme des changes dans leur
monnaie locale, en vitant le dollar. Le march dcidera, mais le dfi lanc aux Etats-Unis est
public.
Parmi les accords de coopration signs : une union des banques de dveloppement des BRIC
est en projet pour dvelopper les infrastructures, sans dpendre des organismes
traditionnellement sollicits.
Le BRIC est domin par le tandem Brsil-Chine. Brasilia et Pkin viennent de renforcer leurs
liens par le pacte daction conjointe, alors que les Chinois sont devenus les principaux
partenaires commerciaux des Brsiliens, premiers acqureurs des exportations, surtout de
minerai de fer, ptrole et soja. Les changes bilatraux ont augment de 780% depuis 2003,
pour atteindre lan dernier 36 milliards de dollars.
Pour que les promesses dun change Sud-Sud soient une ralit, le Brsil doit ajouter de la
valeur ajoute ses produits , a rclam le prsident brsilien Lula. Un norme contrat a
ponctu ses dires : le plus gros investissement chinois ltranger, cinq milliards de dollars
pour la construction en trois ans dune mga-usine sidrurgique , dans le futur port priv d
Au, au nord de Rio de Janeiro. Contrat qui unit la socit LLX, du milliardaire brsilien Eike
Batista, et lentreprise nationale chinoise Wisco. Mais rien ne semble avoir t dit sur la
faiblesse du yuan, la monnaie chinoise, qui gne pourtant certains partenaires comme le Brsil.
Une rorganisation de la gouvernance mondiale
Forts de leur poids conomique, les membres du BRIC ont profit du sommet de Brasilia pour
revendiquer, une fois encore, une rorganisation de la gouvernance globale. Ils osent mme,
dans leur dclaration finale, fixer des termes ces revendications : la prochaine runion pour la
Banque mondiale, novembre 2010 pour le FMI, lors du G-20. Ils voquent aussi, plus
rapidement, la rforme des Nations unies, o Brsil et Inde rclament un sige au Conseil de
scurit.
Aprs la crise, il est ncessaire de renforcer le systme financier international , a rappel le
prsident russe Medvedev, en songeant au prochain G-20.
Faisant fi de leurs divergences dintrts, les quatre pays se sont aussi penchs sur la politique
trangre, comme la question de lIran. Selon les diplomates brsiliens, il existerait une
grande affinit de vue. Le BRIC dclarant sa prfrence pour la poursuite de pourparlers et
ses doutes sur lefficacit de sanctions dcides lONU, sans rvler toutefois la teneur dun
dialogue avec les Iraniens.

Data: 14/04/2010-Frana - Radio France International (RFI)- Moscou et Pkin raffirment


leur prsence en Amrique du Sud

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Dans une rgion longtemps considre comme l'arrire-cour des Etats-Unis, la Chine et la
Russie reprennent pied en Amrique latine. Les prsidents chinois et russe se rendent en
Amrique latine cette semaine avec des tapes au Venezuela, au Chili, et au Brsil.Le
Brsil, qui accueille le deuxime sommet des grands pays mergents (Brsil, Russie,
Inde, Chine - BRIC) les 15 et 16 avril.

Hu Jintao est un habitu de la rgion. Depuis 2004, le prsident chinois se rend tous les ans en
Amrique du Sud o Pkin s'installe par le biais des changes conomiques. Premier
importateur de produits brsiliens et chiliens, aujourd'hui, la Chine est le deuxime partenaire
commercial de l'Amrique du Sud. Comme pour lAfrique, la rgion a t prospecte avec
mthode et efficacit par Pkin.
Les Russes de leur ct mettent profit les tensions entre les Etats-Unis et les pays, les plus
gauche du continent, pour placer leurs pions. Moscou veut pour sa part raffirmer son statut de
puissance mondiale : principal fournisseur d'armes du Venezuela par exemple. Aprs la visite
de Vladimir Poutine Caracas, il y a quelques jours, Dmitri Medvedev sest rendu en Argentine
et au Brsil.
Chacun sa manire, Russes et Chinois parient sur le continent latino-amricain. Rien voir
avec le Mouvement des non-aligns d'hier. Les liens conomiques sont forts. Ils
saccompagnent de convergence de vues sur le plan politique et parfois militaire.
Moscou et Pkin partagent aussi une volont diplomatique : celle de faire bouger les lignes aux
Nations unies ou encore devant l'Organisation mondiale du commerce. Sur le dossier iranien
par exemple, le Brsil et la Chine sont d'accord pour privilgier le dialogue; un bton de plerin
que les Amricains et les Europens n'ont pas pris depuis longtemps.

Data: 19/04/2010-Frana - Le Devoir- Perspectives - BRIC molle

Les pays du BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ont tenu leur deuxime rencontre au sommet,
la semaine dernire, Braslia. Il reste encore voir s'ils russiront jamais constituer un
groupe cohrent et agissant. Mais leur influence, ne serait-ce qu'individuelle, ne peut que
continuer grandir.
Les dirigeants des quatre conomies mergentes ont tenu leur runion au pas de course, jeudi
soir, afin de permettre au prsident chinois, Hu Jintao, de retourner au plus vite au chevet de
son pays frapp par un terrible sisme plus tt dans la semaine. Rien n'tant jamais laiss au
hasard dans ce genre d'vnement, une belle dclaration commune en 11 points tait dj
prte et a quand mme t signe.
De l'eau a coul sous les ponts depuis que l'conomiste de Goldman Sachs Jim O'Neil a
employ pour la premire fois l'acronyme BRIC en 2001 pour dsigner les conomies
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mergentes qui, selon lui, allaient s'imposer dans les annes venir. Certains s'taient
demand l'poque pourquoi il avait choisi ces quatre-l. Comment pouvait-il y avoir le Brsil,
et pas le Mexique? Et pourquoi pas aussi l'Afrique du Sud?
On doit admettre aujourd'hui que l'conomiste amricain ne s'tait pas beaucoup tromp, part
peut-tre sur la Russie, dont le parcours a t plus cahoteux. Les pays du BRIC sont
aujourd'hui les quatre plus grandes conomies en dehors de l'OCDE. Ils comptent pour presque
15 % de l'conomie mondiale et pour plus de 50 % de sa croissance actuelle. On y trouve par
exemple le quart de la surface de la plante, le tiers des terres agricoles, 40 % de la population
et 40 % des rserves de devises. en croire le FMI, la Chine aura cette anne une croissance
d'au moins 10 % en Chine, l'Inde de 7,7 %, le Brsil de 4,7 % et la Russie de 3,1 %.
Mais c'est une chose d'tre quatre grandes conomies en croissance rapide, et c'en est une
autre de former un groupe cohrent. Le PIB chinois (5300 milliards) dpasse amplement celui
des trois autres pris ensemble (4200 milliards). Les conomies chinoise et russe reposent
lourdement sur le commerce alors que les deux autres sont largement autocentres. La Chine
dpend principalement de ses industries manufacturires, l'Inde du secteur des services et de
l'informatique, le Brsil de l'industrie agroalimentaire et des ressources naturelles, et la Russie
de l'exportation de ptrole et de gaz. La Chine et l'Inde ont plus d'un milliard d'habitants alors
que le Brsil et la Russie ne passent pas le cap des 200 millions. L'Inde et le Brsil sont des
dmocraties alors que la Russie fait dans le rgime autoritaire et que la Chine est carrment
une dictature.
Pas tonnant que ces pays aient au moins autant de sujets de discorde que d'entente. Le
contentieux entre la Chine et l'Inde est suffisamment lourd et connu pour que l'on n'ait pas
besoin d'y revenir, sinon pour noter qu'il a aussi pris depuis quelques annes la forme d'une
guerre d'influence conomique auprs des autres pays asiatiques. La Russie n'a de cesse de
se plaindre du protectionnisme chinois. Le Brsil a dnonc plus d'une fois la concurrence
dloyale que lui livre la Chine avec sa monnaie artificiellement dvalue et a qualifi leur
relation commerciale de nocoloniale parce qu'elle repose presque uniquement sur l'achat
massif de ses ressources en minerai de fer, en ptrole et en soja. Le Brsil en a aussi contre
l'Inde pour son opposition la libralisation du commerce des produits agricoles, mais l'Inde le
lui rend bien parce qu'elle ne digre pas, elle non plus, l'enttement du Brsil faire obstacle au
commerce des services.
Unis par leurs dissensions
Ce qui les unit, c'est qu'ils sont la frontire du capitalisme, disait la semaine dernire du
BRIC un expert brsilien cit par la BBC. Leur coopration est facilite par le fait qu'elle ne leur
cote rien, estimait pour sa part The Economist. Ces nouveaux gants se permettent de
critiquer la gestion de l'conomie mondiale sans faire le moindre effort pour l'amliorer, disait la
revue britannique.
Il y a, bien sr, des contradictions, voire des conflits entre les BRIC, admettait dans le
quotidien franais Le Monde le coordonnateur du sommet de Braslia, Roberto Jaguaribe. Nos
quatre pays ne prtendent pas, cette semaine, prendre des dcisions. Nous voulons surtout
renforcer notre concertation pour promouvoir des ides communes.
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Leur dclaration, en fin de runion, refltait bien la fois ces ambitions et ces contradictions.
On y revenait avec cette ide rclame par plusieurs d'largir les forums dcisionnels
internationaux du FMI, de la Banque mondiale et du Conseil de scurit de l'ONU pour y faire
une meilleure place aux conomies mergentes et autres pays en voie de dveloppement. On
saluait d'ailleurs la dcision des pays riches de remplacer leur G7 par un G20.
On y parlait aussi d'un nouvel ordre mondial multipolaire, de resserrer les liens politiques et
commerciaux entre les pays du Sud et d'encourager l'utilisation d'autres devises que seulement
le dollar amricain.
Mais il y avait aussi des phrases qui sonnaient faux, comme ces promesses de promouvoir la
dmocratie et d'adopter des politiques montaires responsables. On n'avait, en revanche, rien
dire sur la lutte contre les changements climatiques et le prochain sommet qui se tiendra sur la
question Cancn, ce qui n'a rien de rassurant lorsque l'on sait que la Chine est dsormais le
premier pays metteur de gaz effet de serre au monde, la Russie le troisime et l'Inde le
quatrime.
Mais bon! Le BRIC ne serait pas le premier forum international avoir ses contradictions, ses
promesses creuses et ses graves oublis.

Data: 16/04/2010-ndia - Express News- BRIC must create a new world order: Lula

Brasilia The BRIC group of the world's four biggest emerging powers has a fundamental role in
creating a new world order, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said on Thursday.
Lula was speaking at the end of a summit in Brasilia with the leaders of China, India and
Russia. The countries reiterated their call for developing nations to have a bigger role in global
economic and financial decision-making.
PM pitches for close cooperation among BRIC nations
Noting that India, Russia, China and Brazil are resource-rich, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
on Friday pitched for close cooperation among them in the fields of energy and food security
besides tapping potential in other sectors like trade and investment, science and technology
and infrastructure.
Addressing the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRIC) Summit here, he said the four countries can
benefit by sharing their experiences in the field of inclusive growth.
"We are four large countries with abundant resources, large populations and diverse societies...
We aspire for rapid growth for ourselves and for an external environment that is conducive to
our development goals," Singh told the second Summit of the four-nation grouping here in the
Brazilian capital.
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Contending that the people of the four countries "expect us to work together so as to bring the
benefits of inclusive social and economic development to them", he identified energy and food
security as two specific areas where they can work together.
"Our grouping includes two of the largest energy producers and two of the largest consumers in
the world. We can cooperate in both upstream and downstream areas, and in the development
of new fuels and clean energy technologies," he said.
Similarly, BRIC countries are both large producers and consumers of agricultural products, he
said, proposing that the four nations should consider putting in place an architecture of food
security that focusses on increasing agricultural productivity, better land use, sustainable
farming practices and agro-processing.
Besides this, there is vast potential for cooperation in areas such as science and technology,
trade and investment, pharmaceuticals and infrastructure, Singh said. "Investments in human
capital will create new sources of growth."
The Prime Minister said BRIC countries have an important role to play in the shaping the pace,
direction and sustainability of global economic growth. Recalling that the four countries had at
the last Summit decided to commission a BRIC Study on which way the world economy will
move in the period ahead, Singh said India has circulated the draft terms of reference for the
study and "we would be happy to carry this idea forward."
On the global economic and financial crisis, he said while it appears that that it is "behind us, it
is still early to say that we are on the path of long term recovery." Singh said a lot would depend
on how the developed economies fare.
"Sustainable recovery will also depend on several factors such as enhanced investment for
infrastructure development, stable capital flows to the developing markets, appropriate
macroeconomic adjustments, and avoiding complacency in the area of financial sector reforms,"
Singh said, adding financial inclusion will be a major determinant of success.
Singh asked the leaders of other three BRIC countries that the grouping should prepare for the
forthcoming G-20 Summits in Toronto and Seoul.
"Their outcomes need to be supportive of the post crisis-phase of the recovery process. This
requires the avoidance of protectionism in all its forms, commitment to a fair and rule-based
trading system, reform of international financial institutions and better regulation and
supervision," he said.
Singh said capital adequacy of international institutions should be ensured to fund development
needs and for this, Finance Ministers of the four countries should be in regular touch with each
other.
Noting that BRIC nations represent an important voice in the global climate discourse, Singh
said, "despite its shortcomings", the Copenhagen Conference did generate a broad
understanding on several contentious issues.
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Referring to the next summit on climate change in Mexico in 2011, he said the BRIC approach
to the Cancun Conference should be anchored within the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol and the Bali Roadmap.
"Technology will be a key element in our strategy to meet the challenge of climate change. Each
of us has our own strengths in climate-friendly technologies. If we pool our best scientific and
technological resources, BRIC nations can set a fine example in promoting collaborative
development, deployment and dissemination of clean energy and renewable technologies,"
Singh said.
He said BRIC countries are also uniquely placed to contribute to reforming the architecture of
global governance. "A genuine reform of the Security Council by expansion in its permanent
membership as well as non-permanent membership and improvement in its working methods is
essential to make the United Nations reflective of contemporary realities," Singh emphasised.
On terrorism, he said it poses a "special challenge to our development efforts" and all the four
countries should unite in efforts to combat this scourge.
The BRIC countries should also step up cooperation in addressing other non-traditional threats
to security, the Prime Minister said.

Data: 15/04/2010-Argentina - Rosario Net- Lula busca crear un nuevo eje de poder

Cuando faltan slo ocho meses para el fin de su mandato, el presidente brasileo, Luiz Inacio
Lula da Silva, redobla sus esfuerzos por crear un nuevo polo de poder mundial
conformado por pases emergentes, que hoy y maana se reunirn en Brasilia para exigir
un mayor peso en las instituciones financieras internacionales y discutir acciones de
cooperacin para el desarrollo.
Lula ser el anfitrin hoy de una cumbre de jefes de gobierno y de Estado del grupo IBSA
(compuesto por Brasil, la India y Sudfrica) y maana de una del BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, la India y
China), en la que ms all de los temas de cooperacin dentro de cada bloque, habr tambin
una intensa agenda poltica centrada en Medio Oriente y el controvertido programa nuclear de
Irn, entre otros puntos.
Segn evalan los analistas diplomticos, el objetivo de la poltica exterior impulsada por Lula
desde 2003 es el de "marcar diferencias" con Washington y convertir a Brasil en un interlocutor
importante en el escenario internacional, con derecho a un asiento permanente en el Consejo
de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, en caso de que sea ampliado.
En la reunin del grupo IBSA -de la que participarn Lula; el premier indio, Manmohan Singh, y
el presidente sudafricano, Jacob Zuma- se debatirn asuntos de cooperacin en ciencia y
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128

teconologa, as como el envo de ayuda para la reconstruccin de Hait. El gobierno brasileo


inform que en esta cumbre ser abordado tambin el conflicto entre palestinos e israeles,
para lo cual ha sido invitado el canciller de la Autoridad Nacional Palestina (ANP), Riad Malki.
Maana, los miembros del grupo BRIC tratarn una agenda an ms amplia, centrada en la
reforma de las instituciones financieras multilaterales y el G-20. La cumbre de los BRIC reunir
a Lula, a Singh y a los presidentes Hu Jintao (China) y Dimitri Medvedev (Rusia), que llegar
procedente de la Argentina (ver Pg. 9).
En sintona con sus ltimos reclamos, los pases BRIC buscarn fortalecer su postura para
exigir mayor representatividad en los organismos internacionales, como el Fondo Monetario
Internacional y el Banco Mundial, y retomarn las discusiones para la creacin de una nueva
arquitectura financiera en el marco del Grupo de los 20 (G-20 ).
Un tema caliente del BRIC es su defensa de una moneda alternativa al dlar para el comercio
internacional. Brasil propondr adoptar dentro del grupo un mecanismo similar al que
implement con la Argentina hace dos aos, para sustituir al dlar por monedas locales.
"El gran factor que convoca es la necesidad de cambiar el gobierno internacional
[tradicionalmente controlado por las naciones industrializadas]", explic el coordinador del
evento, el alto funcionario de la cancillera Roberto Jaguaribe.
"Dnde estn la riqueza generada en el mundo y las reservas? Estn en los pases en
desarrollo. Por lo tanto, ya no se puede contemplar la posibilidad de que un grupo de pases
ricos diga cmo se harn las cosas", enfatiz. Los pases del BRIC representan el 42 por ciento
de la poblacin mundial -ms de 1400 millones de personas-, cubren el 26 por ciento del
territorio del planeta, y sumaron el ao pasado el 23,4 por ciento del Producto Bruto Interno
(PBI) global, segn el gobierno brasileo.
El intercambio comercial en ambos grupos crece sin pausa y, en el caso del IBSA, subi de
2600 millones de dlares en 2003, cuando fue creado el foro, a casi 12.000 millones en 2009.
En relacin al BRIC, que celebr su primera cumbre en 2009, el comercio dentro del grupo
pas de 10.700 millones de dlares en 2003 a 51.700 millones de dlares el ao pasado.
Para los propsitos brasileos de ampliar su influencia mundial, la crisis global de fines de 2008
signific un renovado inters internacional por las economas emergentes. En ese sentido, el
embajador indio en Brasil, B.S. Prakash, afirm ayer: "Nuestros pases salieron relativamente
bien de la crisis" y deben exigir un papel ms protagnico en las discusiones globales.
En el marco de encuentros previos a las dos cumbres, 200 empresarios brasileos, 70 chinos,
35 indios, 35 sudafricanos y 30 rusos se reunieron ayer y anteayer en Ro de Janeiro.

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - LExpansion- Les BRIC rclament un ordre mondial "plus


juste"

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Les dirigeants des quatre grands pays mergents du BRIC se sont runis jeudi soir Brasilia.
Le Premier ministre indien Manmohan Singh a dclar que leur principal objectif tait la
cration "d'un nouvel ordre mondial plus dmocratique, juste et multipolaire."
Les dirigeants des quatre grands pays mergents du BRIC se sont runis jeudi soir Brasilia
pour un mini-sommet de deux heures conclu par un appel crer un ordre mondial "plus juste".
Ce sommet, qui runit le Brsil, la Russie, l'Inde et la Chine, a t domin par la rforme de la
gouvernance mondiale et, dans des discussions informelles, par la question nuclaire
iranienne.
Il a t court par le dpart prcipit du prsident chinois Hu Jintao pour son pays frapp par
un puissant sisme. Qualifiant le tremblement de terre de mercredi d'"norme dsastre", Hu a
confirm qu'il rentrait en Chine ds la fin du sommet, coupant court une tourne en Amrique
latine qui devait le conduire, aprs le Brsil, au Venezuela et au Chili. Un sisme de magnitude
6,9 a frapp une province recule du nord-ouest de la Chine, faisant 760 morts et 100.000
sans-abri.
Autour de leur hte Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (Brsil), les prsidents Hu Jintao et Dmitri
Medvedev (Russie) ainsi que le Premier ministre indien Manmohan Singh se sont retrouvs
pour une sance plnire suivie d'un dner au ministre des Affaires trangres, un btiment
futuriste dessin il y a cinquante ans par l'architecte Oscar Niemeyer. Ensemble, les BRIC
reprsentent plus de 40% de la population mondiale et 16% du PIB de la plante et sont la
locomotive de la croissance mondiale.
Rformer le FMI
A l'issue de ce deuxime sommet - le premier a eu lieu en juin 2009 en Russie -, Manmohan
Singh a dclar que le principal objectif du groupe tait la cration "d'un nouvel ordre mondial
plus dmocratique, juste et multipolaire". Dans leur dclaration finale, les dirigeants du BRIC
soulignent la ncessit de rformer le Fonds montaire international et la Banque mondiale,
ainsi que le Conseil de scurit de l'ONU afin que ces institutions internationales refltent mieux
le poids grandissant des pays mergents.
Ils ont aussi raffirm "l'importance de maintenir une relative stabilit des principales monnaies
de rserve" pour une croissance quilibre long-terme, dans ce qui apparait comme une
allusion la sous-valuation du yuan chinois par rapport au dollar.
En revanche, les dirigeants du BRIC ne soufflent mot dans leur dclaration de l'Iran, un sujet
qu'ils ont largement abord dans des rencontres bilatrales au moment o les Occidentaux
accentuent leurs pressions pour renforcer les sanctions contre Thran qu'ils accusent de
chercher acqurir la bombe atomique sous couvert d'un programme civil. Le prsident
brsilien, hostile aux sanctions et qui prne le dialogue, a indiqu avoir peru de "grandes
affinits" avec les dirigeants chinois et indien sur l'inefficacit des sanctions. "Notre impression,
sur laquelle tous deux sont d'accord, est que l'efficacit des sanctions est trs discutable", a
soulign le ministre brsilien des Affaires trangres Celso Amorim. Lula, qui a reu le
prsident iranien Mahmud Ahmadinejab en novembre 2009, doit se rendre en Iran en mai
prochain.
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Avant ce sommet, Lula et Manmohan Singh avaient accueilli le prsident sud-africain Jacob
Zuma, dans le cadre d'un forum tripartite cr en 2003 et destin faire avancer la coopration
sud-sud. Le prochain sommet des BRIC aura lieu l'an prochain en Chine.

Data: 16/04/2010-Argentina - Agencia Telam- Medio oriente en el eje de la agenda de


paises emergentes

Brasilia, 15 de abril - Los tres principales pases emergentes, Brasil, China e India, coincidieron
en una solucin negociada para Medio Oriente, tanto en el conflicto palestino-israel como
en el problema nuclear con Irn, durante dos cumbres realizadas entre ayer y hoy en
Brasilia.
Durante el encuentro, adems, se trataron la coyuntura economica mundial, la reforma de las
instituciones financieras internacionales, la cooperacin y el gobierno global.
El programa nuclear de Irn fue uno de los temas discutidos hoy por el presidente brasileo,
Luiz Lula da Silva con su colega chino, Hu Jintao, y con el primer ministro indio, Manmohan
Singh.
Ambos mandatarios se reunieron por separado con el presidente brasileo, como parte de los
encuentros previos a la cumbre del grupo BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India, China), que los tres
celebrarn esta noche junto al dignatario ruso, Dimitri Medvedev.
Segn el relato del canciller brasileo, Celso Amorim, que particip en los encuentros, Lula
expuso la posicin de su gobierno de buscar una solucin pacfica y negociada para la cuestin
nuclear iran y cuestion la eficacia de las sanciones contra Irn que pretende imponer Estados
Unidos.
De acuerdo con Amorim, citado por la agencia estatal de noticias Brasil, la impresin es que
tanto Hu Jintao como Manmohan Singh, comparten la visin brasilea.
"En estos encuentros, el presidente Lula dio luna explicacin sobre lo que hemos hecho en el
caso de Irn, y en los comentarios percibimos una gran afinidad de puntos de vista, tanto con
uno como con otro", precis el canciller.
Amorim indic que el presidente brasileo reiter la relevancia de que el gobierno iran tenga
flexibilidad en la negociacin porque "Irn tiene derecho a su programa nuclear para fines
pacficos, pero es importante tambin que la comunidad internacional se sienta cmoda de que
ese programa no est siendo usado para fines militares", explic.
La situacin de Medio Oriente tambin fue tratada por los tres pases del IBAS (India, Brasil y
Africa del Sur) en otra cumbre previa a la del BRIC, pero esta vez con el acento puesto en el
conflicto palestino-israel.
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Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai - La Diria- Cuestin de orden

Dos cumbres de las principales economas emergentes se estn llevando a cabo desde ayer
en Brasilia, la del Foro IBSA, que forman Brasil, India y Sudfrica, y la del grupo de
pases BRIC -Brasil, Rusia, India y China-, que se abri con la reunin entre el presidente
anfitrin, Lula da Silva, y su par chino, Hu Jintao. Jintao ya regres a su pas, antes de lo
previsto, por el terremoto del mircoles, que, segn los datos oficiales actualizados ayer,
dej 617 vctimas fatales y 15.000 casas destruidas, con miles de personas que duermen
a la intemperie.
Luego de la reunin con Jintao, Lula afirm que la cumbre de los pases BRIC revela una
"nueva geografa econmica mundial" y asegur que el grupo "tiene vocacin universal",
adems de valores y preocupaciones comunes.
El mandatario asegur que los pases presentes buscan "respuestas progresistas para esta
globalizacin asimtrica y disfuncional que vive la humanidad" para lograr un necesario "nuevo
orden mundial".

Data: 16/04/2010-EUA - Fox News- BRIC Leaders Call For Change In Global Pecking
Order

By Alastair Stewart
Dow Jones Newswires
BRASILIA -(Dow Jones)- The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China late Thursday called for
deep reform of the global financial system and multilateral institutions to better reflect the
growing importance of emerging nations.
In a joint communique following a meeting of the BRIC group of emerging market giants, the
heads of state said the Group of 20 nations would be central to the new economic order and
that they would strive for 'an ambitious conclusion' to the 'long overdue' reform of Bretton Wood
institutions.
"The BRICs have a vital contribution to make to the creation of a new fairer, multi-polar world
order," said Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva during a joint press conference
.
While the communique was heavy on demands, it contained few concrete proposals for reform.
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The summit was brought forward from Friday at the last minute, after Chinese President Hu
Jintao decided to rush back to China following a massive earthquake in Qinghai province early
Wednesday.
As expected, the leaders did not discuss the creation of a multinational currency that could
replace the dollar in international transactions or complaints about the strength of the Chinese
Yuan.
However, they did propose that their respective Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors
look at creating 'monetary arrangements' between the countries.
In a six-page statement, the countries called for World Bank voting power reform at the
upcoming Spring Meetings and said it expects IMF quota reform later this year.
The BRICs also requested an overhaul of the United Nations, but the leaders did not back
Brazil's quest for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council, on which China and Russia
already sit.
The term BRIC was created by Goldman Sachs economist Jim O'Neill in 2001 to describe this
group of populous emerging markets, which promised to become more important economically
in coming years.
The heads of state of these countries met for the first time in Russia last year, and Chinese
President Hu Jintao confirmed that he would host the next meeting in 2011.
While the BRIC summit yielded nebulous agreements on future goals, there was also business
closed in Brasilia Thursday.
A number of Brazilian and Chinese companies signed agreements for oil, telecommunications
and steel projects.
Brazil's government-run oil company, Petroleo Brasileiro SA (PBR: 43.44, 0, 0%), signed
agreements with China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. (SNP: 86.25, 0, 0%), or Sinopec, and the
China Development Bank.
Brazilian telephone company Telemar Norte Leste (TMAR5.BR), also known as Oi, signed a
supply deal with China's Huawei Technologies Co., while rival operator Vivo Participacoes (VIV,
VIVO4.BR) inked a deal with ZTE Corp. (0763.HK).
Brazilian billionaire Eike Batista and China's Wuhan Iron & Steel Co. (600005.SH) signed an
agreement to build a steel mill at the Acu port complex. The deal continues EBX Investimento
Ltda.'s strengthening ties with China, after Batista sought investors for his growing portfolio of
projects in logistics and iron-ore mining.
Batista's EBX will hold a 30% stake in the steel mill, while Wisco, as the Chinese steelmaker
also is known, will retain a 70% share. The plant is expected to have installed annual production
capacity of 5 million metric tons of steel products.
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Construction of the plant is subject to conclusion of a feasibility study.


(Liu Li contributed to this article.)
Data: 14/04/2010- Mxico Notimex- Consecuencias de crisis y reforma global en la
agenda de los BRIC

Mosc, 14 Abr (Notimex).- La segunda cumbre del grupo BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China)
buscar este jueves y viernes revertir las consecuencias de la actual crisis y promover la
reforma de las instituciones globales, dijo hoy La Voz de Rusia.
En particular se espera que empuje la reforma del sistema mundial de divisas y de la
produccin de energa, seal el comentario puesto en el sitio electrnico de la ms antigua
radiodifusora rusa.
La cita, en Brasilia, ciudad rusa de los Urales, en junio de 2009.
En la capital brasilea coincidirn los presidentes de Rusia, Dmitri Medvedev, de China, Hu
Jintao y el primer ministro indio Mahmohan Singh, adems del anfitrin y mandatario brasileo
Luiz Incio Lula da Silva.
El asesor presidencial ruso Arcady Dvorkovich record que en el primer decenio del siglo XXI,
el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) de los BRIC creci ms que el de otras economas mundiales,
aunque debajo del nivel de las economas desarrolladas.
Lo anterior significa que Brasil, Rusia, India y China tienen objetivos y prioridades similares,
como el desarrollo econmico, la actualizacin tecnolgica y el desarrollo de sus sistemas
sociales.
Sus prioridades semejantes es lo que determina su potencial de interaccin, ya que a travs de
la cooperacin se puede lograr ms y en menor tiempo que en forma individual, agreg.
Este martes el coordinador de la cumbre, el embajador brasileo Roberto Jaguaribe, record
que segn datos del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) los BRIC generaron en 2007 el 46.3
por ciento del PIB mundial.
Adems, para el periodo 2008-2014 se espera que sean responsables del 61.3 por ciento del
PIB global.
En tanto, este mircoles The Times of India publica una colaboracin del presidente ruso en la
cual subray que la cooperacin de las cuatro naciones contribuye a ensanchar la seguridad
internacional.
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134

Medvedev agreg que los BRIC comparten la perspectiva de que la comunidad internacional
debe de resolver sus conflictos a travs de medios legales, diplomticos y polticos ms que
por el uso de la fuerza.
Desde nuestra perspectiva, subray, esa visin es necesaria para ensanchar los principios de
las relaciones internacionales y establecer un orden mundial justo y democrtico.

Data: 16/04/2010-Uruguai Brecha- El dream team de los pases emergentes

Si la primera sigla mostraba la voluntad de las potencias emergentes de coordinar su voz en el


panorama internacional, la segunda tiene un peso decisivo a la hora de formular un nuevo
orden multilateral. Primero Brasil impuls el Ibsa, que suma India ms Brasil ms
Sudfrica, y ahora, desde 2009, se le aade el bric, donde la principal potencia regional
latinoamericana se las entiende con Rusia, India y China.
Ambos grupos de pases iniciaron sus reuniones cumbre en Brasilia este jueves 15,
respondiendo a la voluntad expresa de buscar respuestas progresistas para esta globalizacin
asimtrica y disfuncional que vive la humanidad, segn dijo el presidente Lula a la prensa. El
mandatario ruso Dimitri Medvedev lleg a la reunin del bric con una intencin similar: la
cumbre permitir a los lderes acordar las vas para intensificar los vnculos en el mbito
internacional, enfocados a fomentar bases comunes en poltica mundial; reafirmar la posicin
de Rusia, Brasil, India y China en los dilogos multilaterales sobre la reforma de los institutos
de la administracin global al formar un sistema internacional justo y democrtico, anunci a la
agencia Ria Novosti el asesor de Medvedev, Serguei Prijodko.
En un anlisis sobre la incidencia global del grupo, Ria Novosti record que a los cuatro pases
que lo integran les corresponde el 26 por ciento del territorio mundial, el 42 por ciento de la
poblacin y el 14,6 por ciento del pbi del mundo. Los ltimos aos el aporte del bric al
crecimiento de la economa mundial super el 50 por ciento.
Del lado brasileo, el canciller Celso Amorim dijo a la Agencia Brasil que esas nuevas
organizaciones, tanto el bric como el Ibsa, estn ayudando a transformar el mundo, pero no de
un modo en que ellas se tornen una nueva aristocracia. No queremos ser una elite de los
pases emergentes ni queremos cambiar la vieja aristocracia del G 8 por otra nueva. Lo que
queremos es contribuir a crear un mundo ms democrtico, un mundo en el que la voz de
todos sea escuchada. Ese es el gran papel que el bric y el Ibsa pueden realizar.
No son palabras en abstracto. Adems de las prcticas conjuntas, Brasil ha ido afinando
acciones bilaterales con cada uno de los socios. Con China, por ejemplo, hoy viernes 16 Lula y
el jefe de gobierno asitico Hu Jintao firmarn en Brasilia un acuerdo con mecanismos
permanentes de consulta y coordinacin para el prximo quinquenio.

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Para el sinlogo Xulio Ros, colaborador habitual de Brecha, el potencial internacional del bric,
tanto en el campo econmico-comercial o financiero como en el poltico y estratgico, alienta
un claro reposicionamento del panorama global, militando a favor de un nuevo orden poltico y
econmico mundial, menos dependiente, a todos los niveles, de Estados Unidos.
Los pases en vas de desarrollo se muestran dispuestos, en primer lugar, a no pagar los platos
rotos por la falta de supervisin y control de los capitales financieros, un hecho que pone en
serio peligro su proceso de emergencia. La coordinacin de estos pases les permitir un
considerable impulso poltico, elevando sus objetivos a una escala mayor para lograr la reforma
de la estructura econmica global, sin duda la primera de sus aspiraciones.

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - France24- Le Bric prconise une rforme rapide des


institutions financires internationales

A l'issue du sommet de Brasilia, les dirigeants des pays du Bric (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine)
ont lanc un appel pour l'tablissement d'un nouvel ordre mondial et pour une rforme
rapide des institutions financires internationales.
REUTERS - Les dirigeants des quatre grands pays mergents regroups au sein du groupe
Bric (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine), runis au sommet Brasilia, ont prconis jeudi une
rforme rapide des institutions financires internationales afin de donner aux pays en
dveloppement davantage voix au chapitre.
"Malgr des signes positifs prometteurs, il reste beaucoup faire. Nous estimons que le monde
a besoin aujourd'hui d'une architecture financire rforme et plus stable, qui rendra l'conomie
mondiale moins sujettes de futures crises et lui permettra de mieux rebondir."
"Nous pensons qu'il y a grand besoin d'avoir un systme montaire international plus stable,
plus prvisible et diversifi", lit-on dans le communiqu finale du sommet.
Selon ce communiqu, les dirigeants demandent au G20 - qui regroupe les pays industrialiss
et les grands pays mergents - de jouer un rle de premier plan dans les prises de dcision au
niveau mondial.
Les dirigeants du groupe Bric ont tenu leur sommet jeudi soir, un peu plus tt que prvu car le
numro un chinois, Hu Jintao, a prvu de rentrer prmaturment dans son pays, touch
mercredi par un violent sisme sur le plateau tibtain, qui a fait 760 morts et 10.000 blesss.
Hu a eu un entretien avec son homologue brsilien Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva et les deux
hommes ont sign un "plan d'action" sur cinq ans visant renforcer la coopration nergtique
et commerciale entre Pkin et Brasilia.
A l'issue du sommet du Bric, Lula a dclar que les puissances mergentes avaient un "rle
fondamental" jouer pour crer un nouvel ordre mondial.
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Data: 18/04/2010-ndia - Calcutta News- BRIC, IBSA boost India's drive for UN seat

The stalled drive for expansion of the UN Security Council has gathered momentum with the
IBSA and BRIC summits and South Africa backing the G4 initiative, say Indian officials
who feel that it will be 'a matter of time before it's taken to its logical conclusion'.
'The initiative to expand the Security Council in both permanent and non-permanent categories
has gathered momentum. It's a matter of time before it's taken to its logical conclusion,' said
senior officials at the end of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) and Brazil-Russia-India-China
(BRIC) summits held in Brasilia Thursday.
Officials cited the endorsement of South Africa for a non-permanent seat for 2011-2012 in the
UN Security Council by the 53-nation African Union at its February summit in Addis Ababa as a
major step forward in the evolution of the AU consensus on UN reforms.
They also cited South Africa's support to a letter to the UN chair for inter-governmental
negotiations for expanding the Security Council, backed by 140 nations, as an indication that
the long-stalled drive for the UN reforms is finally moving.
There is no conflict between the AU and G4 nations - of India, Brazil, Germany and Japan - on
UN reforms, Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma told journalists aboard the prime
minister's special aircraft Saturday while returning from Brasilia.
The G4 has now been joined by South Africa, albeit not formally as a group, said Sharma.
According to India's Permanent Representative to the United Nations Hardeep Singh Puri,
'there is clear and discernible momentum but it has to be progressed.'
'Things are likely to come to fruition in 2011-2012,' he said.
Five years ago, the G4 drive for the expansion of the council petered out after the AU failed to
evolve a consensus on nominating its candidates for the UN seat from Africa. There were also
some differences over the quantum of new additions to the UN Security Council in both
permanent and non-permanent categories. 'That's why South Africa's backing is so significant,'
an official said.
Putting their collective economic weight behind the BRIC initiative, Chinese President Hu Jintao
and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev joined in at the BRIC summit to back a greater role for
India and Brazil in having a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
'We reiterate the importance we attach to the status of India and Brazil in international affairs,
and understand and support their aspirations to play a greater role in the United Nations,' said
the joint statement.
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137

Similarly, the IBSA summit held on the same day in Brasilia backed Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh's call for democratization of international decision-making bodies, including the UN.
'There is an urgent need for reform of the UN, including the Security Council, by making it more
democratic and representative,' Manmohan Singh had told Brazilian President Lula da Silva
and South African President Jacob Zuma.
During bilateral talks with Manmohan Singh, President Lula reiterated the support of Brazil to
India's candidature for a non-permanent seat of the UNSC for 2011-12.
Manmohan Singh underlined this new mood of optimism about expansion of the Security
Council and India's place in a restructured world order when he told journalists at the end of his
eight-day trip to the US and Brazil that 'the world has taken a benign view of India and wants it
to succeed.

Data: 16/04/2010-Rssia - Russia Today- BRIC countries have an interesting and


productive dialogue - Medvedev

The largest emerging economies - known as the BRIC - wrap up a series of meetings in
Brasilia. Brazil, Russia, India and China put their heads together to figure out how to
withstand the aftermath of the global crisis.
Other topics on the agenda of the discussions included global challenges like creation of a more
fair and democratic world system, as well as fighting terrorism, organized crime and drug
trafficking.
Our main goal today was bolstering our cooperation in tackling the aftermath of the economic
crisis, supporting the international financial institutions and creating a more democratic and fair
international system in general, Medvedev told his BRIC counterparts.
Summing up the meeting, Medvedev described it as very interesting and productive.
The summit, initially planned for Friday, was moved forward due to a strong earthquake that hit
China and killed at least 700 people and left about 100,000 homeless. As a result, the countrys
president, Hu Jintao, had to return to Beijing, while the other three leaders expressed their
condolences.
In spite of Jintaos unfortunate departure, the heads of the worlds top four emerging markets
had managed to do quite a lot during their one-day meeting, including bilateral talks that were
held on the sidelines of the summit. Overall, the meeting has been deemed a success.
Following the second BRIC summit the leaders issued a communiqu. Among other things, they
stressed the central role played by the G20 in combating the crisis through unprecedented
levels of coordinated action, the document published by Reuters reads.
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138

Also, they expressed strong commitment to multilateral diplomacy with the United Nations
playing the central role in dealing with global challenges and threats. The leaders have once
again called for a reform of the organization in order to make it more effective, efficient and
representative.
In addition, the leaders reiterated the position voiced on a number of occasions earlier saying
that India and Brazil as important players on the international arena should play a greater
role in the UN.
The leaders also urged the necessity for a reformed and more stable financial architecture that
will make the global economy less prone and more resilient to future crises.
According to the leaders, deepened and broadened dialogue and cooperation of the BRIC
countries is conducive not only to serving the common interests of emerging market economies
and developing countries, but also to building a harmonious world of lasting peace and common
prosperity.
The four leaders have also agreed that China will host the third BRIC summit.
Meanwhile, on the sidelines of the summit, Russias Vnesheconombank, the China
Development Bank, Brazils National Bank of Social and Economic Development, and the
Export-Import Bank of India signed a memorandum that envisages the creation of a common
Interbank System.
Its main aim will be financing high-tech, innovation and energy-saving projects.
Business consultant Philip de Leon says that, first and foremost, it is economic interests that
bring the four BRIC nations together.
They are just getting together to do business and if you look at what they have achieved today
its not any political declaration or anything; they have just signed contracts. The Chinese
signed a major contract with Brazil to build a steel plant. It will be the biggest Chinese
investment in Latin America. They also signed an oil partnership agreement. And then
everybody else is coming, and since they are around, they are doing business, he said. Its
definitely a shift in bilateral relation with a greater focus and diversification, like President
Medvedev was in Argentina for the first time ever as a head of state of Russia.

Data: 16/04/2010-Austrlia - Business Spectators- BRIC group urges swift financial


reform

Reuters

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139

BRASILIA - Leading emerging powers have urged swift reform of international financial
institutions to give developing countries a greater voice, saying their group was vital to
achieving a new world order.
The call from the increasingly influential BRIC countries for more say in global financial
institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) came ahead of
this month's G20 finance ministers' and IMF meetings in Washington.
The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China said that voting share reforms at the World Bank
to give developing countries more clout should be approved at the IMF meetings.
Setting a specific deadline, the group also said those reforms should be completed by a G20
summit in November.
"Brazil, Russia, India and China have a fundamental role in creating a new international order
that is more just, representative and safe," Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva said
after holding talks with his counterparts.
The group has been pushing for reforms since the global financial crisis of 2008, arguing the
current system is unfairly dominated by advanced economies such as the United States, Japan
and Europe.
The statement said the group would resist all trade protectionism and look into increasing
commerce with one another in local currencies, bypassing the US dollar.
But the group, which has rowed back from talk last year of setting up a new reserve currency,
stressed the importance of maintaining the stability of major reserve currencies. As the largest
holder of U.S. Treasury bonds, China is not keen to see the value of its investments diminish.
Despite their economic clout and 40 per cent share of the world's population, differences among
the four countries have become more evident since their first summit in Russia last year,
exposing the limitations of the group's ambitions.
"We support a multipolar, equitable, democratic and just world order with the (United Nations)
playing a central role in tackling global challenges," said Indian Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh.
The BRIC summit, held in Brasilia, was scaled back when Chinese President Hu Jintao decided
to go home early to deal with a major earthquake in a remote western region of China.
In one of their few concrete steps toward cooperation, the countries' national development
banks signed an accord enabling them to fund projects in one another's countries, the Brazilian
national development bank's president said. Luciano Coutinho, the head of the BNDES, said the
agreement covered the infrastructure, energy, sustainability and technology sectors.
China, Brazil sign deals

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140

China and Brazil, the largest economies in Asia and Latin America, used the summit to bolster
growing ties with trade and investment agreements.
Mr Hu and Mr Lula signed a five-year "action plan" aimed at boosting trade and energy
cooperation. The two nations have grown closer in recent years amid a surge in commerce -- in
2009, China became Brazil's top trade partner.
The projects agreed upon included a $US5 billion steel mill at the Acu port in Rio de Janeiro
state that would be China's biggest investment in Latin America's largest country, home to some
of the world's largest iron ore deposits.
China's Wuhan Iron and Steel and Brazilian logistics firm LLX Logistica, controlled by billionaire
Eike Batista, will build the plant.
China's Sinopec and the country's development bank signed a strategic development
agreement with Brazil's state-run oil giant Petrobras, Sinopec chairman Su Shulin told Reuters.
Mr Su said the deal would cover the development of Brazilian oil resources and trade with
China.
Brazil's recent discovery of vast offshore oil reserves has opened a new area of potential
cooperation with resource-hungry China, which agreed last year to lend $10 billion to Petrobras
in return for guaranteed oil supply over the next decade.
A Brazilian government source said Lula asked Hu to maintain a dialogue with Iran over its
nuclear energy program before the Brazilian leader's planned visit to Tehran next month. Lula
has opposed fresh UN sanctions over Iran's nuclear program, arguing they will not work.
China, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, has also been reluctant to join
Western powers in authorising new sanctions against Iran.
Mr Hu and Mr Lula did not discuss China's currency policy, two Brazilian government sources
said.
Brazil and the other BRICs were not expected to risk fraying ties with China by pressuring it to
allow the yuan to strengthen, despite concerns about the effect of cheap Chinese exports on
their economies.

Data: 16/04/2010-Alemanha - Der Tagesspiegel- Superpotncias do futuro conversam


sobre a substituio do dlar

Uma nova moeda padro o assunto de destaque no encontro da China, da Rssia, da ndia e
do Brasil.
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141

O Ministro Presidente da Rssia Vladimir Putin acabou de visitar, e agora o Presidente do pas,
Dimitri Medevedev, viaja pela Amrica Latina. Depois de passar pela Argentina, ele visitar o
Brasil onde encontrar ningum menos que o Chefe de Estado da China Hu Jintao, que por
sua vez tem bastante intimidade com a Amrica Latina. Anfitrio dos dois o Presidente Luiz
Incio Lula da Silva, que tambm convidou o Primeiro-Ministro da ndia, Manmoham Singh.
Juntos, eles formam os estados BRIC, uma sigla composta das iniciais dos pases que
cientistas polticos consideram as superpotncias do sculo XXI. Quer dizer, aqueles que em
breve determinaro a agenda mundial. Conforme avaliao do banco de investimentos
Goldman Sachs, os quatro pases, que dispem de 40% da populao mundial, um quarto da
superfcie do mundo e um produto interno bruto de quase 35 trilhes, devem tornar-se as
potncias econmicas dominantes at 2050.
Sob este fundo, a superpotncia do sculo XX. acompanha o encontro com muito interesse. Na
ltima dcada, os EUA ficaram para trs no seu continente. A negligncia poltica durante o
governo de George W. Bush foi acompanhada de uma guinada para a esquerda e a
conseqente reorganizao das relaes exteriores de Estados como o Brasil, a Argentina, a
Venezuela, o Equador e a Bolvia. O Brasil consta entre os crticos mais acentuados da
diplomacia comercial de Washington que, conforme a opinio de Lula, consiste em proteger o
mercado americano com subsdios ilegtimos e barreiras comerciais e em forar outros pases
a abrirem seus prprios mercados.
Este debate inclusive elevou a aliana dos pases emergentes ao palco internacional. Em
conjunto com a a ndia e a China e com o apio de muitos outros pases emergentes, o Brasil,
em 2003, causou o fracasso da cpula da OMC em Cancun. O conflito com os pases
industrializados sobre os subsdios agrrios at hoje bloqueia outros acordos de liberalizao.
Outro assunto, no menos controverso, que consta no topo da agenda da cpula dos pases
Bric e um alvo especial de Lula a substituio do dlar como moeda padro no comrcio
entre estes pases.
Como as relaes econmicas ficaram mais intensas, o assunto no nada insignificante.
Pequim aproveitou com destreza o vcuo que o desinteresse dos norte-americanos e europeus
causou. Enquanto nem as negociaes entre os EUA e os latino-americanos sobre a zona de
livre comrcio (Alca) nem as consultas entre a UE e Mercosul avanaram, a China fechou
dezenas de acordos comerciais, concedeu crditos, abriu bancos e agncias de notcias.
Minrios, telecomunicaes, transportes, servios, agricultura e silvicultura so de interesse
especial para Pequim. Neste contexto, trata-se tambm de tecnologias complexas e sensveis.
O volume comercial ente a China e a Amrica Latina chegou, no ano de 2009, a 120 bilhes de
dlares. Um tero dos investimentos estrangeiros da China encontra-se na Amrica Latina. A
Rssia, por sua vez, est interessada em joint-ventures na produo de petrleo e gs natural.
No entanto, considera-se que ainda falta muito para uma parceria estratgica entre a Amrica
Latina e pases como a Rssia e a China. O Ex-Primeiro-Ministro da Espanha, Felipe
Gonzalez, lembrou h pouco tempo numa discusso pblica que o mercado dos EUA ainda
com folga o mais importante mercado para as exportaes latino-americanas. A grande
influncia dos migrantes latino-americanos cria fortes laos entre os Estados Unidos e o resto
do continente.
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Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - Rue 89- Les "Bric" peuvent-ils changer la faon dont tourne le
monde ?
By Pierre Haski
Un petit globe terrestre sur un porte-clef
Ils reprsentent 40% de la population du monde, 15% de son produit intrieur brut, mais surtout
50% de la croissance conomique actuelle. Ce sont les Bric (Brsil, Russie, Inde et
Chine), qui se sont runis jeudi en sommet Brasilia et qui sont unis sur au moins un
objectif : casser le monopole occidental sur la gestion des affaires plantaires.
De fait, le premier avoir pens runir ces quatre pays n'est pas un stratge altermondialiste,
mais une banque d'affaires, Goldman Sachs, qui, en 2003, conoit l'acronyme et le concept de
ces quatre conomies mergentes qui mritaient que les investisseurs s'y intressent.
Le concept a fait son chemin, au point que les quatre pays en question ont progressivement
formalis leur relation pour un faire un vrai club, passant de runions rgulires de ministres
des Affaires trangres des sommets, le premier l'an dernier Iekatrinenbourg, en Russie, et
le deuxime cette semaine au Brsil.

Les BRIC
Brsil : 191 millions d'habitants /8,5 millions de km2 /PIB : 1 500 milliards de dollars
Chine : 1,350 milliard d'habitants /9,6 millions de km2 /PIB : 4 758 milliards de dollars
Inde : 1,156 milliard d'habitants /3,2 millions de km2 /PIB : 1209 milliards de dollars
Russie : 141 millions d'habitants /17 millions de km2 /PIB : 1 254 milliards de dollars
Qu'est-ce qui les rassemble?
Ces quatre pays ont un point commun : fortement peupls (Voir encadr), leurs conomies
connaissent une croissance robuste depuis au moins une dcennie, plus forte que celle des
pays industriels, et leur part de l'conomie mondiale ne cesse de crotre.
Leur caractristique, c'est aussi d'avoir dvelopp les relations commerciales entre eux, d'avoir
fait dcoller un commerce Sud-Sud jusque-l inexistant.
Ainsi, la Chine a supplant les Etats-Unis comme premier partenaire commercial du Brsil, et
est mme en passe de devenir le deuxime partenaire de l'Amrique latine, devant l'Union
europenne.
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143

Mais ce qui les rassemble, surtout, c'est une volont commune de casser l'hgmonie
occidentale sur les leviers du monde. Ils ont dj remport un premier succs avec la cration
du G20 qui les a admis la table des grands , supplantant le G8 qui ne runissait que les
pays les plus industrialiss (plus la Russie, hritire de l'URSS).
Leurs discussions portent ainsi sur l'ide de faire merger une monnaie de substitution au dollar
ou au moins la possibilit de facturer leurs changes bilatraux en monnaie locale, sans passer
par la devise de l'Oncle Sam. On en est encore loin, mme si le yuan chinois s'impose
progressivement dans la zone d'influence chinoise en Asie et pourrait en sortir.
Pour la premire fois, ces pays mergents sont en mesure de prendre toute leur part dans
la dfinition des rgles du jeu international, au lieu de subir celles que dcideraient les
Occidentaux. Cette volont apparat, par exemple, dans le communiqu final de Brasilia, dans
l'allusion du processus de Doha , c'est--dire les ngociations au sein de l'Organisation
mondiale du commerce (OMC).
Avec la runion de Brasilia, ils ont fait un pas supplmentaire en discutant du dossier nuclaire
iranien, une manire de montrer qu'aucun sujet ne leur est tabou, mme si leur capacit de
mdiation dans une affaire aussi dlicate reste prouver.
Qu'est-ce qui les divise ?
A la veille du sommet, un site russe, RIA-Novosti, s'est risqu, dans son dition franaise, un
jeu de mot : Brasilia, un sommet de Bric et de broc [1] (comment dit-on en russe ? ). Pas
tonnant que ce soit de Russie que soit venue cette touche d'ironie pour mettre en avant le
manque de cohrence de ce nouveau club.
La Russie est en effet une ex-superpuissance qui se vivait autrefois galit avec les EtatsUnis, et vient de revivre un peu de ce statut de Grand lors de la signature du nouveau trait
Start (rduction des armes stratgiques) avec Barack Obama.
Seuls les Etats-Unis et la Russie ont (encore) le potentiel de destruction nuclaire de la plante.
Pour Moscou, les Bric sont un pis aller, un marche pied pour reconqurir une influence disparue
avec l'URSS. Une ambiguit accentue par le fait que la Russie a hrit du strapontin de
l'URSS au G7 devenu G8.
De fait, les contradictions ne manquent pas au sein de ce quatuor, commencer par leurs
systmes politiques : rgime autoritaire de tradition communiste pour la Chine et postcommunisme muscl en Russie, tandis que le Brsil et l'Inde ont des prsidents lus dans des
scrutins pluralistes et disputs, des socits civiles fortes et une libert d'expression totale.
Leur vision du monde n'est pas ncessairement la mme et les grincements de dents entre eux
sont lgion. L'Inde continue de voir la Chine comme un ennemi potentiel et rvise sa doctrine
militaire pour pouvoir mener deux conflits la fois (Pakistan ET Chine), tandis que les
Brsiliens vivent mal la nature trs Nord-Sud de leurs changes avec la Chine (matires
premires et produits agricoles contre biens manufacturs).

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144

Les Bric ont nanmoins la capacit de susciter des coalitions ponctuelles, entre eux et largies
(la Turquie a ainsi t associe aux discussions de Brasilia sur l'Iran, l'Afrique du Sud en est
l'extension africaine sur les questions conomiques) sur des dossiers prcis.
La fin du monopole occidental
De ce fait, les Bric ont d'ores-et-dj chang la rgle du jeu international en privant les
Occidentaux, et singulirement les Etats-Unis, de leur leadership exclusif sur la marche du
monde. Mais cela ne suffit pas changer le monde.
Il reste prouver qu'au-del de l'influence individuelle indniable que chacun de ces Etats est
en passe d'acqurir mesure que son poids conomique augmente, ils parviendront forger
une cohrence et une influence collective.
Et plus gnralement, la question reste ouverte de savoir quel poids ils auront sur la marche du
monde : leur ambition est-elle simplement d'tre la table du festin sans en changer la rgle du
jeu, ou sont-ils porteurs d'autres valeurs ? Ceux qui espraient que l'affaiblissement amricain
cde la place un autre monde risquent fort d'tre dus.

Data: 16/04/2010-Frana - Le Temps- Sommet au Brsil - Appel un ordre mondial "plus


juste"

Brasilia Les dirigeants des quatre grands pays mergents du BRIC se sont runis jeudi soir
Brasilia. Ce mini-sommet de deux heures s'est conclu par un appel crer un ordre
mondial "plus juste".
Ce sommet, qui runissait le Brsil, la Russie, l'Inde et la Chine, a t domin par la rforme de
la gouvernance mondiale et, dans des discussions informelles, par la question nuclaire
iranienne.
Ensemble, les BRIC reprsentent plus de 40% de la population mondiale et 16% du PIB de la
plante et sont la locomotive de la croissance mondiale.
Le sommet a t court par le dpart prcipit du prsident chinois Hu Jintao pour son pays
frapp par un puissant sisme. Qualifiant le tremblement de terre de mercredi d'"norme
dsastre", Hu a confirm qu'il rentrait en Chine ds la fin du sommet, coupant court une
tourne en Amrique latine qui devait le conduire, aprs le Brsil, au Venezuela et au Chili.

Data: 15/04/2010-Malsia - Malaysian Mirror- Leaders of top emerging economies meet in


Brazil

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145

BRASILIA -The leaders of China, India and South Africa have flown into Brazil for two days of
talks among the world's top emerging economies.
The main event is a BRIC summit on Friday that brings together the leaders of Brazil, Russia,
India and China.
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Chinese President Hu Jintao and South African
President Jacob Zuma arrived one after the other in Brasilia late Wednesday, Brazilian officials
confirmed.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was to arrive Thursday.
India, Brazil and South Africa will hold their own three-way summit on Thursday, while China's
Hu and Russia's Medvedev hold a number of bilateral talks.
Hu's presence in Brasilia comes as his country struggles with the aftermath of a quake that
killed nearly 600 people in northwestern China.
Singh, Lula, Zuma and visiting Palestinian foreign minister Riad al-Malki will hold talks on
Thursday, followed by a meeting between Singh and Lula, then a full gathering of Singh, Lula
and Zuma.
Hu, meanwhile, was to hold bilateral meetings with Singh, Zuma and Medvedev on Thursday,
according to the Chinese embassy.
After the BRIC summit on Friday, Hu was to hold a brief official visit to Brazil, with which China
has trade ties worth 36 billion dollars.
On Saturday, the Chinese president was to fly on to Venezuela for a meeting with President
Hugo Chavez, and on Sunday he visits Chile.
--AFP

Data: 17/04/2010-Cingapura - Asia One- Early BRIC summit wraps up

BRASILIA - Brazil, Russia, India and China wrapped up their second-ever BRIC summit here
after sharpening their call for reforms of international institutions and discussing a push to
impose more UN sanctions on Iran.
The gathering of the world's top emerging economies Thursday was truncated and brought
forward one day to ensure the participation of Chinese President Hu Jintao, who announced he
had to race home to oversee the response to the quake.

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146

"Brazil, Russia, India and China have a fundamental role in the construction of a fairer
international order," the summit's host, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, told a
closing media conference.
Lula, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh all
extended their sympathies to Hu and the Chinese people after an earthquake struck
northwestern China Wednesday, killing 760 people.
The Chinese president, who flew back to Beijing after the summit to handle what he called "a
huge calamity," thanked the leaders for their "solidarity and sympathy."
Singh called the summit "very successful" and described the BRIC grouping as key to
"contributing to world economic growth and prosperity."
Medvedev said the meeting showed that the BRIC format is maturing "and allows us to not only
coordinate our efforts but to also make concrete decisions."
A joint statement emphasized the group's intent to see a "multipolar, equitable and democratic
world order" that would result from a shake-up of the United Nations and global financial
institutions like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank to better reflect the aspirations
of their emerging economies.
It also spoke of "the importance of maintaining relative stability of major reserve currencies and
sustainability of fiscal policies in order to achieve a strong, long-term balanced economic
growth."
That vague clause appeared to refer to China's reluctance to unlink its yuan from the US dollar
-- a policy that has boosted China's exports but raised cries of unfair currency manipulation by
countries including the United States.
Missing from the statement was any mention of Iran, even though a push by Western nations to
obtain more UN sanctions against the Islamic republic figured strongly in several meetings on
the sidelines of the BRIC meeting.
A trilateral summit between Brazil, India and South Africa held just before the BRIC summit
agreed that more diplomacy was required in the international standoff with Iran over its
controversial nuclear program.
Lula, Singh and South African President Jacob Zuma "recognized the right of Iran to develop
nuclear programs for peaceful purposes," and underlined "the need for a peaceful and
diplomatic solution of the issue."
That language, however, was noticeably missing from the BRIC statement.
The leaders decided to not discuss Iran in their plenary session "but rather concentrate on
issues relating to global governance," said Brazil's presidential adviser on international affairs,
Marco Aurelio Garcia.
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147

Russia and to a lesser extent China -- both veto-wielding permanent members of the UN
Security Council -- have reduced their resistance to the sanctions push in recent weeks.
But Brazil, a non-permanent member of the Security Council, has resolutely defended Iran.
"Our impression... is that the effectiveness of sanctions is debatable," Brazilian Foreign Minister
Celso Amorim told reporters, adding that Lula had set out that position in talks with the leaders
of China and India.
"President Lula gave an explanation, to provide better transparency, on what we've done in
relation with Iran. And we see great affinity with the points of view of each country," Amorim
said.
Lula also discussed the issue with Medvedev, Brazilian officials told AFP.
The United States, Britain, France and Germany have been urging the BRIC nations to support
sanctions against Iran.

Data: 16/04/2010-Sua - Schweizerische Depeschenagentur- Schwellenlnder fordern


rasche Reform der Finanzinstitutionen

Die vier grossen Schwellenlnder Brasilien, Russland, Indien und China dringen auf eine
rasche Reform der internationalen Finanzinstitutionen, um den unterentwickelten Staaten
grsseres Gewicht zu verleihen.
Die sogenannten BRIC-Staaten forderten den Internationalen Whrungsfonds (IWF) am
Donnerstag auf, noch in diesem Monat ber die Vernderung der Stimmgewichte in der
Weltbank zugunsten der rmeren Lnder zu entscheiden. Die Reformen sollten bis zum Gipfel
der 20 fhrenden Industrie- und Schwellenlnder im November abgeschlossen werden.
"Brasilien, Russland, Indien und China" streben eine neue Weltordnung an, die gerechter,
reprsentativer und sicherer ist", sagte der brasilianische Prsident Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
nach einem Treffen mit seinen drei Amtskollegen.
Die Gruppe dringt seit der Weltfinanzkrise von 2008 auf Reformen. Nach ihrer Ansicht sind die
Gewichte in Weltbank und IWF unfair zugunsten der USA, Europas und Japans verteilt. So ist
der Chef der Weltbank grundstzlich ein Amerikaner, whrend ein Europer an der Spitze des
IWF steht.
Gipfel wegen Erdbeben vorverlegt
Das BRIC-Gipfeltreffen war vom Freitag auf Donnerstag vorverlegt und verkrzt worden, weil
Chinas Prsident Hu Jintao nach dem schweren Erdbeben in seiner Heimat schnell nach
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148

Peking zurckkehren will. Nach einer Plenarsitzung fanden sich die Prsidenten der vier Lnder
zu einem Abendessen im Aussenministerium ein.
Bei Gesprchen ber das umstrittene iranische Atomprogramm waren sich China, Indien und
Brasilien nach Angaben des brasilianischen Aussenministers Celso Amorim "einig, dass die
Wirksamkeit von Sanktionen sehr fraglich ist".
Die USA haben einen UNO-Resolutionsentwurf fr ein viertes Sanktionspaket gegen den Iran
vorgelegt, ber den die fnf Vetomchte des UNO-Sicherheitsrates und Deutschland derzeit in
New York beraten.
Brasiliens Prsident Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, der Irans Staatschef Mahmud Ahmadinedschad
im November empfangen hatte, reist selbst im Mai an den Golf. Chinas Prsident Hu sagte
seine ursprnglich geplanten Besuche in Venezuela und Chile wegen des Erdbebens ab.

Data: 15/04/2010-China - Beijing Information- Hu Jintao arrive Brasilia pour le sommet


du BRIC et une visite d'Etat

Le prsident chinois Hu Jintao est arriv mercredi Brasilia, capitale du Brsil, pour participer
un sommet des pays du BRIC (Brsil, Russie, Inde et Chine) ainsi qu'une visite d'Etat au
Brsil.
Les dirigeants des quatre pays vont discuter de l'conomie mondile, de la situation financire,
de la rforme du systme financier international, le changement climatique et la coop ration
entre les quatre pays, a-t-on appris de sources dioplomatiques.
D'autres activits sont prvues en marge du sommet, y compris un forum d'entrepreneurs, une
runion des banques de dveloppement, une runion des coopratives et un sminaire des
groupes de r flexion, selon les mmes sources.
Le porte-parole du ministre chinois des Affaires trangres, Qin Gang, avait indiqu plus tt ce
mois que la Chine souhaite que le sommet examinerait les problmes mondiaux dans l'esprit de
bn fice mutelle, afin de faciliter le redressement de l'conomie mondiale, de sauvegarder les
intrts communs des quatre pays et de promouvoir leur coopration.
Les pays du BRIC, considrs comme conomies mergeantes, repr sentent 42% de la
population mondiale, 14,6% du PIB mondial et 12, 8% du commerce mondial et deviennent une
force importante dans la communaut internationale.
Aprs le sommet du BRIC, le prsident chinois effectuera une visite d'Etat au Brsil, six ans
aprs son dernier dplacement dans ce pays latino-amricain.
Hu Jintao est arriv Brasilia en provenance de Washington o il vient d'assister au sommet
sur la scurit nuclaire.
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Aprs le Brsil, le prsident Hu se rendra au Venezuela et au Chili.


Data: 14/04/2010-Mxico - Rdio Frmula- Emprende presidente chino gira por
Latinoamrica para afianzar lazos

Pekn.- El presidente chino Hu Jintao inicia hoy en Brasil su gira por Amrica Latina, una regin
clave para la expansin china y con la cual Pekn ha trabajado los ltimos aos para
afianzar estrechas alianzas polticas y comerciales.
Tras asistir a la cumbre sobre seguridad nuclear en Washington y reunirse con su homlogo
estadunidense Barack Obama, Hu Jinato inicia en Brasilia una gira por Amrica Latina con el
objetivo de afianzar los lazos con tres pases claves en la estrategia china regional: Brasil,
Venezuela y Chile.
La visita de Hu a Amrica Latina, como las anteriores, permitir una nueva oleada de
proyectos econmicos entre China y la regin, coment en la prensa china el exembajador
chino en Mxico y Chile, Huang Shikang.
Adems de por sus ingentes reservas de materias primas, petrleo y minerales
fundamentales para el crecimiento chino-, Amrica Latina interesa a China para llevar a cabo
su estrategia de multilateralismo, que contrarreste a la superpotencia estadunidense, y
asegurar el suministro alimenticio de su poblacin.
Brasil, potencia regional que los ltimos aos estrech lazos con China, ser la primera etapa
de la gira de Hu por Latinoamrica, donde tiene previsto reunirse con su homlogo brasileo
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, para suscribir varios convenios de cooperacin en diversas reas
(tecnologa, energa).
Ser en Brasil donde Hu participe adems en la segunda cumbre de jefes de Estado del
llamado grupo de los BRIC (Brasil, Rusia, India y China), que agrupa a los pases donde
residen ms del 40 por ciento de la poblacin del planeta.
Brasil se ha convertido en un socio de peso creciente para la diplomacia china, despus de que
China superar el ao pasado a Estados Unidos como primer socio comercial del gigante
brasileo, con una balanza comercial de 36 mil millones de dlares.
Adems, los dos pases comparten posturas en cuestiones como el caso nuclear iran, donde
se niegan a la aplicacin de sanciones contra Tehern, y en el proyecto de crear una moneda
supranacional que desbanque al dlar como divisa internacional por excelencia.
Tras Brasil, Hu tiene previsto visitar Venezuela por primera vez desde que lleg a la presidencia
china en 2004, en un gesto que demuestra la importancia que Caracas tiene para Pekn.

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Venezuela es un pas amigo importante. El presidente venezolano Hugo Chvez ha visitado


China en seis ocasiones. Es el visitante ms frecuente a China de todos los lderes
latinoamericanos, indic a Notimex Xu Shicheng, experto en relaciones entre China y Amrica
Latina en la Academia China de Ciencias Sociales (CASS), uno de los think tanks ms
influyentes del pas.
Este acercamiento entre Caracas y Pekn se explica por las reservas petroleras del pas
latinoamericano, que vende diario 460 mil barriles de petrleo al gigante asitico y pretende
aumentar esta cifra a un milln de barriles diarios antes de finales de 2010.
Aunque China se ha mantenido alejada de la retrica anti-imperialista del presidente Chvez, s
ha estrechado los vnculos polticos con la nacin bolivariana, pas con el que estableci un
fondo comn de 12 mil millones de dlares para promover la cooperacin entre los dos
pases.
China est ayudando a Venezuela a construir carreteras, desarrollar la agricultura y la
tecnologa, en especial en materia de satlites, indic Xu, quien escribi una biografa de
Chvez en mandarn.
Antes de regresar a Pekn el da 18, Hu tiene previsto visitar Chile, donde China es tambin el
primer socio comercial y los intercambios crecieron considerablemente los ltimos aos tras la
firma de un Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) que ha servido de plataforma para las
exportaciones chilenas de cobre y otras materias primas.
Ser tambin la ocasin de que Hu se rena con el presidente Sebastian Piera.
La prensa china ha destacado la importancia de la gira de Hu por la regin para promover los
lazos econmicos y polticos, aunque sin hacer mencin a las crticas expresadas por algunos
pases, por la excesiva dependencia de las materias primas en el comercio con China y las
inversiones chinas que nunca llegan.
Amrica Latina es un proveedor masivo de materias primas a China y un importador de
manufactura china que cada vez tiene ms valor agregado, resumi en Pekn el experto
mexicano Enrique Dussel.
Esto tiene un doble impacto: por una parte, positivo, ya que la creciente demanda china ha
dejado entre 23 y 45 mil millones de dlares en la regin, pero al no tratarse de manufacturas
con valor aadido, ha hecho perder competitividad y empleos a la regin.
Algunos expertos y organizaciones han pedido la coordinacin de las polticas regionales de
Amrica Latina a la hora de abordar la relacin con China, con el objetivo de ganar peso en las
negociaciones con el gigante asitico.

Data: 18/04/2010-Sua - Tages Anzeiger-1 Russland markiert Terrain in Lateinamerika

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Prsident Medwedew hat jenseits des Atlantiks neue Beziehungen geknpft. Hhepunkt der
Reise war der Bric-Gipfel in Brasilia. Gemeinsam mit Brasilien, Indien und China fordert
Russland eine neue, gerechtere Weltordnung.
Russlands Prsident Dmitri Medwedew ist durch Lateinamerika gereist, um alte
Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zu strken und neue aufzunehmen. In Argentinien, das er am Mittwoch
als erstes russisches Staatsoberhaupt berhaupt besuchte, traf er mit einem Flugzeug voller
Unternehmer und konomen ein. Nach einem Treffen mit der argentinischen Prsidentin
Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner unterzeichnete erein Dutzend Abkommen von
Raumfahrttechnologie ber Atomenergie bis zu lgewinnung.
Vor allem bei der Energiegewinnung sehen beide Lnder noch Potenzial. Ein Fnftel der
argentinischen Energie - l, Gas, Wasserkraft - wird nach Medienberichten mithilfe russischer
Technik und Ausrstung verarbeitet. Dieser Anteil soll noch steigen. Russische Kernkraftfirmen
bemhen sich um den Bau von zwei Atomkraftwerken in Argentinien. Wir halten diesen Markt
fr sehr vielversprechend, zitiert die russische Zeitung Kommersant ein Mitglied der
Delegation aus Moskau.
Skepsis in den USA
In den vergangenen Jahren hat Russland seine Prsenz jenseits des Atlantiks zusehends
ausgebaut, vor allem mit dem venezolanischen Prsidenten und Amerika-Schreck Hugo
Chvez, Russlands grsstem Abnehmer fr Waffen und Militrgter in der Region.
Auf die Frage, ob Washington das neue russische Auftreten in der Region nicht mit Skepsis
sehe, antwortet Dmitri Medwedew in Argentinien lakonisch, seine amerikanischen Kollegen
seien ja schon hier gewesen, nun sei er eben an der Reihe: Ich hoffe, dass das niemanden
strt. Ansonsten kmmere ihn das nicht weiter.
Die Krnung der Reise durch den Kontinent aber war das Treffen der Bric-Staaten in Brasilien
von Donnerstag und Freitag. Zum zweiten Mal kamen die Regierungschefs von Brasilien,
Russland, Indien und China zusammen. Sie wollten vor dem G-20-Gipfel am 26./27. Juni im
kanadischen Toronto Einigkeit demonstrieren.
Dabei ging es unter anderem um den chinesischen Yuan, den Peking zum rger Washingtons
knstlich niedrig hlt, weil dies Chinas Exportwirtschaft einen Vorteil verschafft. Allerdings hlt
Moskau diese Frage fr eine innere Angelegenheit Chinas, sagte der Prsidentenberater
Arkadi Dworkowitsch gegenber der Agentur Interfax.
Die vier grossen Schwellenlnder drngen auf eine rasche Reform der internationalen
Finanzinstitutionen, um den unterentwickelten Staaten grsseres Gewicht zu verleihen.
Brasilien, Russland, Indien und China streben eine neue Weltordnung an, die gerechter,
reprsentativer und sicherer ist, sagte der brasilianische Prsident Luiz Incio Lula da Silva
nach dem Gipfeltreffen mit seinen drei Amtskollegen in Brasilia. Die Bric-Staaten vertreten 40
Prozent der Weltbevlkerung und 50 Prozent des globalen Wirtschaftswachstums.
Seit der Weltfinanzkrise von 2008 drngt die Bric-Gruppe auf Reformen. Nach ihrer Ansicht sind
die Gewichte in Weltbank und Internationalem Whrungsfonds (IWF) unfair zugunsten der USA,
Europas und Japans verteilt. So ist der Chef der Weltbank grundstzlich ein Amerikaner,
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whrend ein Europer an der Spitze des IWF steht. Die Reformen sollten bis zum Gipfel der 20
fhrenden Industrie- und Schwellenlnder abgeschlossen werden.
Bei Gesprchen ber das umstrittene iranische Atomprogramm waren sich China, Indien und
Brasilien nach Angaben des brasilianischen Aussenministers Celso Amorim einig, dass die
Wirksamkeit von Sanktionen sehr fraglich ist. Russland hingegen lehnt neue Sanktionen nicht
grundstzlich ab. Die USA haben einen UNO-Resolutionsentwurf fr ein viertes Sanktionspaket
gegen den Iran vorgelegt, ber den die fnf Vetomchte des Sicherheitsrates und Deutschland
derzeit in New York beraten. Brasiliens Prsident Lula da Silva, der den iranischen Prsidenten
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad im November empfangen hatte, reist im Mai in den Golfstaat.
Bric-Gipfel vorzeitig beendet
Chinas Prsident Hu sagte seine ursprnglich geplanten Besuche in Venezuela und Chile
wegen des Erdbebens ab. Das Bric-Gipfeltreffen war verkrzt worden, weil Chinas Prsident Hu
Jintao nach dem schweren Erdbeben in seiner Heimat schnell nach Peking zurckkehren
wollte.

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