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# SUST

Collage of Engineering
School of Civil Engineering
rd
th
3 Class 6 Semester 2014

## Design of Reinforced Concrete I

According to American Standards (ACI 318M-11)

## Analysis and Design of the Section for F lexure

Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

2
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 1 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)

Determine the reinforcing bars for a rectangular section of beam subjected to ultimate moment using
the following design data:
(

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & the corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

))

):

## 3) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):

(

4) The reinforcement:

)
(

)

(
*

)
(

(
)+

)
*

)+

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

3
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 2 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)

Design the flexural reinforcement for a
The
beam
is
simply
supported
are (

) to carry an
beam with cross-section of (
).
) span,
over (
and
the
materials
).
), and the reinforcement cover to center of bars (

Solution:
The ultimate moment (

):
(

( )
( )

(
(

## The effective depth ( ):

The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

(

):
)

):

(

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

4) The reinforcement:

4
Analysis and Design for Flexure

(
(

(

## Example 3 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)

Calculate the flexural reinforcement of a rectangular section of beam with width of (
) to resist an ultimate moment of (
overall depth of (
), and cover to the center of reinforcement (
).

) and
)

Solution:
The effective depth ( ):

The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

(

):
)

):

## 3) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):

(

4) Compression reinforcement ( ):
)
(

*
*

)+

)+

)
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

5
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

(
(

)(

)
)(

) (

5) Tension reinforcement ( ):
[

*
(

)

)
(

)+
(

):
)

)
[

## The effective depth of the section (d=630 mm) is the distance

from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the
longitudinal tension reinforcement, so that the overall depth
of the section (700 mm) should be increased to allow for
placing two layers of the tensile reinforcement of (6 T 32).

(at depth ).

## Is the net tensile strain at the extreme layer of tension

steel (at depth ).

## The value of the flexural strength reduction factor ( )

depends on the ( ) not ( ), but it has been calculated
conservatively in this example, and it is more safety
).
because (

)
(

)+
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

6
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 4 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)

) thick supported monolithically on
The figure below shows a reinforced concrete floor slab (
) to resist an ultimate positive moment of (
).
beams with cross-section of (
), (
), design the
Using (
) and cover to the center of reinforcement (
]
). [
flexural reinforcement if the beam span is (

Solution:
The effective depth ( ):

## The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

{
The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

## 2) Check that how the section should be designed (rectangular or T-section):

)

)+
(

*
(

)+
)
) Like this

3) Moment of resistance provided by the Slab (overhanging flange) & the required steel (
*

)(

)+

):

)(

)+

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

7
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) Moment of resistance required of the beam alone (web) & the required steel (
4.1 Moment of resistance required of the beam alone (web) (

):

):

):

(

):

(
(

)

(
*

)
(

)(
)

)+
)(

)+

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

8
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 5 (Reinforcement for given Moment & Section)

) thick supported monolithically on beams with effective
A reinforced concrete floor slab (
) to resist an ultimate positive moment of (
). If the materials
cross-section of (
), (
).
) design the flexural reinforcement of the beam to span (
[

Solution:
The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

{
The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

(

)+
(

*
(

)+
)
) Like this

):

(

)
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

5) The reinforcement:

9
Analysis and Design for Flexure

(
(

(

## Example 6 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)

Determine the ultimate flexural strength of the singly reinforced rectangular
section of beam shown, considering the following design data:

Solution:
The effective depth ( ):

)

):
(

)+
(

)+

):

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

10
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 7 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)

Calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the doubly reinforced rectangular
section of beam shown, using:

Solution:
The Ultimate flexural strength:

(
(

)
)

)
(

)
(

(

):

)
)

)+
(

)+

## Calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the beam shown,

using:

11
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Solution:
The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

(

)
(

)
) Like this

)(

)(

)+

(

):

):

)+

(
(

[

):
]

)
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

12
Analysis and Design for Flexure

):

)
)

## Example 9 (Flexural strength for given Section & Reinforcement)

Calculate the ultimate flexural strength of the beam
shown, using:

Solution:
The effective breadth of the flange ( ):

(

)
(

)
) Like this

)

)
(

)
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

13
Analysis and Design for Flexure

):
(

)+
(

)+

):

## Example 10 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)

Determine the rectangular cross-section of beam and the required steel to resist an ultimate design
) using the following data:
moment of (

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
)

(

(
(

)
):

( )

)
)

):

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

):

14
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) The reinforcement:

(
(

(
*

)+

)
*

)+

## Example 11 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)

Determine the rectangular cross-section of beam and the required steel to carry an ultimate moment
) considering the following design data:
of (

Solution:

(

):
)

):
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (

15
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## 3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (

):
(

( )

4) The reinforcement:
(
(

(

## Example 12 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)

) and reinforcing bars grade (
)
section to resist an ultimate moment of (

Solution:

(

):
)

):
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (

16
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## 3) The effective cross-sectional dimensions (

):
(

( )

4) The reinforcement:
(
(

(
(

)
(

(
*

)
(

(
)+

)
*

)+

## 6) Structural detailing (sketch):

17
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 13 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)

Design a rectangular reinforced concrete section using the following design data:

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

(

)

):

):

)
):

## 4) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):

(

5) The reinforcement:

(
(

(

## 7) Structural detailing (sketch):

18
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 14 (Section & Reinforcement for given Moment)

Design a rectangular reinforced concrete section using the following design data:

Solution:
1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

):

):

(

)
):

## 4) Required reinforcement ratio ( ):

(

)
(

5) Compression reinforcement ( ):
(

)
(

)+

)+
(

(
(

)(

)
)(

) (

(
(

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

19
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

6) Tension reinforcement ( ):
[

*
(

(

)
(

]
(

(
)

)+
(

*
(

):

[
*

)
[

)
(

)+
)

## 9) Structural detailing (sketch):

20
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Example 15 (Design of a beam for Flexure and Shear)

The figure shows a concrete beam supported directly on masonry walls. The beam is required to carry
)(including the beam self-weight). Using concrete with characteristic compressive
), flexural reinforcement with yield strength of (
)
strength (for cylindrical sample) of (
)
shear reinforcement with yield strength of (
and cover to the center of
), design the beam.
reinforcement (

Solution:

## The ultimate moment (

):
( )

(
(

The design:

1) Assume the strength reduction factor & corresponding minimum tensile strain (
(

)

(

):

):

)
):

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

( )

21
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) The reinforcement:
(

(
(

(

( )
( )

The design:

):

(
(

)
[

)
(

(

[
[

(
(

)
(

)
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

22
Analysis and Design for Flexure

## Structural Design of Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

4) Spacing of stirrups ( ):

)
(

) or (

).

4.2 After (

) from support:

## This shear reinforcement is conservative, but it is practical and convenient.

More accurate shear reinforcement can be provided by considering more intervals for distribution of Stirrups spacing.

)
)

## Eng. Nyazi Tawfeeg

23
Analysis and Design for Flexure

Table-1

( )
(

)
(

( )

The End

+)

))

Table-2