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Memoria de Calculo de Orejas de Izaje de Tanques: segn DIN 28086


Equipo:

Orejas de izaje de trunnion OT2013-2644


Oreja DIN 28086 - 3 - 17100 - 17100

Tamao Oreja
Figura
Material L
Material V
Material B
F (Kg)

R (mm)
Se (mm)
c1 (mm)
c2 (mm)

2
4
A-36
A-36
A-36
4000
1.6
45
60
3600
20
1
1

Tabla 1: de 1 a 5
Figura Seleccionada de 2 a 5
Material base de orejas
Material base de placa de refuerzo
Material base del tanque
Carga
Factor de Seguridad
Angulo de la eslinga hacia la vertical
Angulo entre eslinga y el eje vertical de la oreja
Radio exterior del tanque cercano a los puntos de carga
Espesor actual de el casco
Reduccion en caso el espesor de casco menor que el dise
Reduccion por uso

Table 0: Seleccon de Materiales Base


K (N/mm2)
Material
Numero
A-572 Gr.36
235
10037
265
A-36
275
17100
A-572 Gr.50
295
10050

Tabla 1: Dimensiones de Oreja


Tamao
1
b (mm)
90
d (mm)
38
h (mm)
55
l (mm)
170
r1 (mm)
55
20
r2 (mm)

2
110
38
60
220
71
30

DIN
St 37-2
St 44-2
St 50-2

3
160
50
75
320
105
40

EN

10025

ksi
33000

10025

36000
50000

4
200
62
95
390
130
50

1 de 80

5
240
74
115
470
155
60

04/15/2016, 03:27:27
Elaborado por:
15
15
20
25
A ser calculado como se especifica en subclase 5.4
simbolos y unidades
Valor
Cantidad
2
Numero de orejas uniformemente cargadas
#ADDIN?
Espesor de garganta entre la oreja y la placa de refuerzo
#ADDIN?
Espesor de garganta entre el casco y la placa de refuerzo
15
Espesor de la oreja
#ADDIN?
Espesor de la plancha de refuerzo
#ADDIN?
Espesor del casco con reducciones (So=Se-C1-C2)
275
Parametro de esfuerzo de placa de refuerzo
275
Parametro de esfuerzo de tanque
A
76
Valor intermedio
f
#ADDIN?
Factor de correccion de carga
U
#ADDIN?
Valor intermedio
W
1
Factor de incremento de carga
Tabla 3: Maxima carga de trabajo segura de grilletes, F, de acuerdo con DIN 82016 o DIN 82101
tamao de oreja
1
2
3
4
5
tamao de grillete
5
5
10
16
25
FS, en N
50000
50000
100000
160000
250000
Tabla 4: Maxima carga segura de trabajo, FG para diferentes orden de las orejas
s1 (mm)
s2 (mm)
Tabla 2: Cantidades,
Simbolo
n
a1 (mm)
a2 (mm)
S1 (mm)
S2 (mm)
So (mm)
KV (N/mm2)
KB (N/mm2)

Angulo
fig. 2
fig. 3
0 to 15
Over 15 up to 30
Over 30 up to 45
Over 45 up to 60
0 to 15
Over 15 up to 30
Over 30 up to 45
Over 45 up to 60
cf. Figura

10

Tamao nominal de orejas


Maxima carga segura de trabajo, en N, a 20C con KL=240N/mm2
1
19000
38000
36000
33000
27000
19000
55000
50000
40000
29000
Cant.Orejas

2
77000
154000
149000
133000
108000
77000
223000
199000
163000
115000

3
4
131000
218000
262000
436000
254000
422000
227000
379000
185000
310000
131000
218000
380000
633000
341000
567000
278000
464000
197000
328000
Orden de las orejas

2 de 80

5
332000
664000
642000
576000
470000
332000
962000
863000
704000
499000

04/15/2016, 03:27:28
2
3
4
5

1
2
2
3

Oreja Simple (cf. figura 2)


Dos orejas con las cabezas cruzadas (cf. figura 3)
Dos orejas sin cabezas cruzadas (cf. figura 4)
Tres orejas (cf. figura 5)

1 Calculos
2 5.2 Maxima carga de trabajo segura de grilletes
3
4

5
6
7

(1) FSe = FLe = FGe/(n*cos)


FGe
Carga efectiva
Tamao de grillete
FS
Maxima carga segura de trabajo
(2) FSe<= FS table 3

8 5.3 Maxima carga de trabajo segura de orejas


9
10

11

(3) FG= FG*KL/240


(4) FLe= FSe
FG

12
(5) FGe<= FG tabla 4
13 5.4 Espesor de plancha de refuerzo y espesores de garganta de soldaduras
14 Tabla 5: Factor de incremento de carga

15
<=60
>60
16
W
1
2
17
W
18
(6) S2= 0.5*(FLe*W*/KV)^(1/2)
19

Se<= S2<=1.5*Se

20 Espesor de garganta de soldadura a1


21
22

S1
S2
23
(7) a1 >= 0.7*S1min
24
a1
25 Espesor de garganta de soldadura a2
26
(8) a2 >= 0.7*S2min
27
a2
28 5.5 Capacidad de carga del tanque
29 Tabla 6: Valor Intermedio A
30
Tamano de oreja
1
2
31
A
59
76

3
113

4
139

3 de 80

5
167

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32
33
34

35
36

A
(9) U= A/((R*So)^(1/2))
f
(10) FB= f*So^2*KB/
(11) FLe<= FB/W

U - factor de correccion de carga


100.00

10.00

1.00
0.00

0.20

4 de 80

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

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DIN 28086

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Luis Enrique Aguilar Montoya
Inspector QA/QC FLSmidth

7 de 80

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N
N
N

28284
40000
5
50000
Cumple

77000
Cumple

mm
mm

1
6.4
#ADDIN?

mm
mm
mm
mm

15.0
#ADDIN?
#ADDIN?
#ADDIN?

mm
mm

#ADDIN?
#ADDIN?

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76
#ADDIN?
#ADDIN?
#ADDIN?
#ADDIN?

.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

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10 de 80

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Memoria de Calculo de Oreja de Izaje: segn ASME BTH-1


Equipo:
4000
4
1
A36
38.1
30
12.7
49.05
9.525
E71T-1
Y
38.1
30
40
Cumple
Cumple
Cumple
Cumple

Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller


Carga (Kg)
Nd (2-2.1 o 2-2.2)
Numero de orejas
Material (A36 o A572)
Dh [mm]
be [mm]
t [mm]
R [mm]
Soldadura Filete [mm]
E7018/E71T-1
Y(si) o N(no)
Dp [mm]
a [mm]
H [mm]

Diametro de agujero
Ancho de oreja
Espesor de oreja
Radio exterior
Altura de pierna
Material de aporte
Terminacion redondeada
Diametro de grillete
Altura de oreja
Material base a eje

Esfuerzo de Traccion
Resistencia al corte a travs del agujero
Esfuerzo cortante en Soldadura
Garganta de Filete mnima 3-3.4.3

Nd factor de Diseo (para. 3-1.3)

2-2.1 Categora de Diseo A: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas son predecibles, donde la carga y condiciones ambientales se definen con prec
2.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,
2.40 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin.

2-2.2 Categora de Diseo B: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas no son predecibles, las condiciones de carga y del medio ambiente son graves
precisin.

3.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,

11 de 80

04/15/2016, 03:27:28
Elaborado por:

3.60 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin.

Oreja con conexin para grillete: ASME BTH-1


Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller
2 Descripcion:
1

8,818 W [lb]
4 Nd

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Peso de la carga
Design factor

Material:
A36
36,000
58,000
29,000,000

Material
Fy [psi]
Fu [psi]
E [psi]

Limite elastico
Resistencia a la traccion
Modulo de Elesticidad

Dh [in]
w [in]
t [in]
R [in]
Leg [in]

Diametro de agujero
Ancho de oreja
Espesor de oreja
Radio Exterior de oreja
Altura de filete de soldadura

Material
Fy [psi]
Fu [psi]
E [psi]

A36
36,000
58,000
29,000,000

10 Dimensiones:
11
12
13
14
15

1.50
3.86
0.50
1.93
0.38

16
17
18
19
20

Esfuerzo de Traccion:

21
22
23
24
25
26

Resistencia al Corte a travez del agujero:

27
28
29
30
31
32

Esfuerzo Cortante en la Soldadura:

33

Garganta de Soldadura minima: 3-3.4.3

Ft [psi]
A [in^2]
St [psi]
CheckSt

=
=
=
=

Fy/Nd
t*(w-Dh)
W/A
St < Ft

Esfuerzo de traccion admisible (eq 3-1)


Area en tension
Esfuerzo de traccion

Av [in^2] = 2*(R-(Dh/2)*cos(radians(45)))*t
Area total de dos planos de corte (eq 3-50)
Pv [lb] = 0.7*Fu/(1.2*Nd)*Av
Doble plano de resistencia al corte (eq 3-49)
CheckPv = W < Pv
Exx [psi]
Fv [psi]
Aw [in^2]
Fw [lb]
CheckFw

=
=
=
=
=

Fu si Fu<Exx
0.6*Exx/(1.2*Nd)
(2*w+2*t) * (0.707*Leg)
Fv*Aw
W < Fw

Resistencia a la traccin de la soldadura del metal de aporte


Esfuerzo cortante de soldadura admisible(eq 3-53)
rea de la soldadura
Carga de soldadura admisible

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34 garganta_3-3 [in] = IF(K14<=0.25,0.125,IF(K14<=0.5,0.188,(IF(K14<=0.75,0.25,(IF(K14<1.5,0.313))))))
35
36 check_garganta = Pierna filete*0.707 >=garganta_3-3

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BTH-1

mbientales se definen con precisin o no grave.

el medio ambiente son graves, o no se define con

14 de 80

04/15/2016, 03:27:28
Luis Enrique Aguilar Montoya
Inspector QA/QC FLSmidth

A572
50,000
65,000

A516
16,000
30,000

29,000,000

9,800,000

E7018/E71T-1

58,000
70,000

psi
in^2
psi

9,000
1.18
7,466
Cumple

in^2

1.401

lb

11,848
Cumple

psi
psi
in^2
lb

58,000
7,250
2.313
16,770
Cumple

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in

0.188
Cumple

16 de 80

04/15/2016, 03:27:28

Memoria de Calculo de Oreja de Izaje: segn ASME BTH-1


Equipo:

Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller

5,000
3.6
4

Carga (Kg)
Nd (2-2.1 o 2-2.2)
Numero de orejas

A36
55
50
20
77
6
E71T-1
Y
40
50
115

Material (A36 o A572)


Dh [mm]
be [mm]
t [mm]
R [mm]
Soldadura Filete [in]
E7018/E71T-1
Y(si) o N(no)
Dp [mm]
a [mm]
H [mm]

Cumple
Cumple
Cumple
Cumple

Diametro de agujero
Ancho de oreja
Espesor de oreja
Radio exterior
Altura de pierna
Material de aporte
Terminacion redondeada
Diametro de grillete
Altura de oreja
Material base a eje

Esfuerzo de Traccion
Resistencia al corte a travs del agujero
Esfuerzo cortante en Soldadura
Garganta de Filete mnima 3-3.4.3

Nd factor de Diseo (para. 3-1.3)

2-2.1 Categora de Diseo A: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas son predecibles, donde la carga y condiciones ambientales se definen con prec
2.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,
2.40 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin.

2-2.2 Categora de Diseo B: cuando la magnitud y la variacin de las cargas aplicadas no son predecibles, las condiciones de carga y del medio ambiente son graves
precisin.

3.00 para los estados lmite de fluencia o pandeo,

17 de 80

04/15/2016, 03:27:28
Elaborado por:

3.60 para los estados lmite de fractura y para el diseo de conexin.

Oreja con conexin para grillete: ASME BTH-1


Atril de Armado de contraejes Fuller
2 Descripcion:
1

11,023 W [lb]
3.6 Nd

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Peso de la carga
Design factor

Material:
A36
36,000
58,000
29,000,000

Material
Fy [psi]
Fu [psi]
E [psi]

Limite elastico
Resistencia a la traccion
Modulo de Elesticidad

Dh [in]
w [in]
t [in]
R [in]
Leg [in]

Diametro de agujero
Ancho de oreja
Espesor de oreja
Radio Exterior de oreja
Altura de filete de soldadura

Material
Fy [psi]
Fu [psi]
E [psi]

A36
36,000
58,000
29,000,000

10 Dimensiones:
11
12
13
14
15

2.17
6.10
0.79
3.03
0.24

16
17
18
19
20

Esfuerzo de Traccion:

21
22
23
24
25
26

Resistencia al Corte a travez del agujero:

27
28
29
30
31
32

Esfuerzo Cortante en la Soldadura:

33

Garganta de Soldadura minima: 3-3.4.3

Ft [psi]
A [in^2]
St [psi]
CheckSt

=
=
=
=

Fy/Nd
t*(w-Dh)
W/A
St < Ft

Esfuerzo de traccion admisible (eq 3-1)


Area en tension
Esfuerzo de traccion

Av [in^2] = 2*(R-(Dh/2)*cos(radians(45)))*t
Area total de dos planos de corte (eq 3-50)
Pv [lb] = 0.7*Fu/(1.2*Nd)*Av
Doble plano de resistencia al corte (eq 3-49)
CheckPv = W < Pv
Exx [psi]
Fv [psi]
Aw [in^2]
Fw [lb]
CheckFw

=
=
=
=
=

Fu si Fu<Exx
0.6*Exx/(1.2*Nd)
(2*w+2*t) * (0.707*Leg)
Fv*Aw
W < Fw

Resistencia a la traccin de la soldadura del metal de aporte


Esfuerzo cortante de soldadura admisible(eq 3-53)
rea de la soldadura
Carga de soldadura admisible

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34 garganta_3-3 [in] = IF(K14<=0.25,0.125,IF(K14<=0.5,0.188,(IF(K14<=0.75,0.25,(IF(K14<1.5,0.313))))))
35
36 check_garganta = Pierna filete*0.707 >=garganta_3-3

19 de 80

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BTH-1

mbientales se definen con precisin o no grave.

el medio ambiente son graves, o no se define con

20 de 80

04/15/2016, 03:27:28
Luis Enrique Aguilar Montoya
Inspector QA/QC FLSmidth

A572
50,000
65,000

A516
16,000
30,000

29,000,000

9,800,000

E7018/E71T-1

58,000
70,000

psi
in^2
psi

10,000
3.10
3,556
Cumple

in^2

3.568

lb

33,536
Cumple

psi
psi
in^2
lb

58,000
8,056
2.301
18,538
Cumple

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in

0.125
Cumple

22 de 80

1Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation


Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t)
=
Width of Lug (W)
=
Radius of Circular Section (R)
=
Diameter of Hole ( Dh)
=
Diameter of Pin ( Dp)
=
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)=
Area of Cross Section
=
Length of Crack ( a )
=
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (Dh / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T)
Fracture Toughness ( k1c)

=
=
K1c =

Check For Geometry


We =R- Dh/2
=

100 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

100 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

100 - 60/ 2 =

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate
Effective width of plate
Tensile Load capacity

=
=
=

By Fracture Theory
K1c =

Fd . . Sqrt(. a)

Fd =
Where,

d=
d=
Fd =
=

K1c =
63 =

345
200 - 60- 2 x4.5 =
0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d)3 ]


a / (Dh / 2 + a)
4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5)
0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]
2.61
Load (P)
Area

Fd . . Sqrt( . a)
2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)

Load ( P)

812 kN

Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
35
35.8
37
38
39
40

5.8
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.162
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.13
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4

4.5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
34.5
36
37
38
39
40

Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
33.7
35
36
37
38
39
40

3.7
5
6
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.11
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.094
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3

(Dh / 2 + a)

3.1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Temp = -30 Degree Celcius

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.1
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
32.6
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

2.6
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.08
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.067
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2

2.15
3
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.15
33
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC


> Dh/4 ; Hence OK

20 mm
200 mm
100 mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm
57 mm
100 mm
4.5 mm

4000 mm2
Both side of Hole
35 mm

15 C
o

(60 + 0.2 T)
Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150

(60 for Steel WT Caterary 4)

63 oC

70 mm

> Dh/2 ; Hence OK

70 mm

< 5t ; Hence OK

70 mm

> 2t ; Hence OK

MPa
131 mm

131 x 20/1000 =

814 kN

0.13

-0.13)^3 ]

6 x 0.0045)

P / 4000 =

0.0003 P

100
mm

20 x 200 =

> 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.457
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1492
601
1257
510
1121
458
1031
424
967
401
918
383
882
371
827
354
796
344
762
336
741
332
725
330
711
329

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
130
128.4
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.61
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1424
573
1200
487
1070
437
984
405
923
383
876
366
842
354
812
344
754
327
727
321
708
317
692
315
678
314

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
797
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
128
126
124
122
120

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
814
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.711
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1356
546
1143
463
1019
416
937
386
879
364
834
349
821
344
752
321
718
312
693
305
674
302
659
300
646
299

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132.6
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.796
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1289
519
1086
440
968
396
890
366
835
346
826
343
762
321
715
305
682
296
658
290
640
287
626
285
614
284

Fracture Theory

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
823
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133.8
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
831
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.873
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1221
491
1029
417
918
375
843
347
832
343
751
314
722
304
677
289
646
281
623
275
607
272
593
270
581
269

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134.8
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.947
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1153
464
971
394
867
354
842
345
747
310
709
296
682
287
639
273
610
265
589
260
573
257
560
255
549
254

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
837
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135.7
134
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
843
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

kh P.Eng. UofC

LOAD (P)

100
mm

100
mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm Dia.
hole
200 mm

Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

a (mm)
6

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacit


1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capac


1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


(kN)

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


1400

1400
1200

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 30 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

a (mm)
6

10

12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 15 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

Load (kN)

C
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
2

6
a (mm)

10

12

400
200
0
0

0
0

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 0 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -15 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -45 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN)


1600
1400

Temp = 30
Degree Celcius

1200

Temp = 15
Degree Celcius

1000

Temp = Zero
Degree Celcius

800
600
400

Temp = -15
Degree Celcius

200

Temp = -45
Degree Celcius

0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

Load (P) (kN)


-Yeild Theory

Degree Celcius

0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

Load (P) (kN)


-Yeild Theory

1Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation


Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t)
=
Width of Lug (W)
=
Radius of Circular Section (R)
=
Diameter of Hole ( Dh)
=
Diameter of Pin ( Dp)
=
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)=
Area of Cross Section
=
Length of Crack ( a )
=
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (Dh / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T)
Fracture Toughness ( k1c)

=
=
K1c =

Check For Geometry


We =R- Dh/2
=

100 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

100 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

100 - 60/ 2 =

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate
Effective width of plate
Tensile Load capacity

=
=
=

By Fracture Theory
K1c =

Fd . . Sqrt(. a)

Fd =
Where,

d=
d=
Fd =
=

K1c =
43 =

345
200 - 60- 2 x4.5 =
0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d)3 ]


a / (Dh / 2 + a)
4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5)
0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]
2.61
Load (P)
Area

Fd . . Sqrt( . a)
2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)

Load ( P)

554 kN

Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
35
35.8
37
38
39
40

2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
5.8
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.162
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.13
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temp = 15 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1

1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
34.5
36
37
38
39
40

Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
33.7
35
36
37
38
39
40

1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
3.7
5
6
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.11
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.094
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temp = -15 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)

(Dh / 2 + a)

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.1
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Temp = -30 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)

(Dh / 2 + a)

1
1.5
2
2.5
2.6
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.5
32.6
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Temperature
(T) oC
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.08
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.067
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temp = -45 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)

(Dh / 2 + a)

1
1.5
2
2.15
3
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.15
33
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC


> Dh/4 ; Hence OK

20 mm
200 mm
100 mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm
57 mm
100 mm
4.5 mm

4000 mm2
Both side of Hole
35 mm

15 C
o

(40 + 0.2 T)
Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150

(40 for Steel W 350)

43 oC

70 mm

> Dh/2 ; Hence OK

70 mm

< 5t ; Hence OK

70 mm

> 2t ; Hence OK

MPa
131 mm

131 x 20/1000 =

814 kN

0.13

-0.13)^3 ]

6 x 0.0045)

P / 4000 =

0.0003 P

100
mm

20 x 200 =

> 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.457
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1040
419
876
355
782
319
718
296
674
279
640
267
615
259
577
246
555
240
531
234
517
232
505
230
495
229

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
130
128.4
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.61
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
972
391
819
332
731
298
672
276
630
261
598
250
575
242
554
235
515
223
496
219
483
216
472
215
463
214

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
797
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
128
126
124
122
120

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
814
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.711
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
904
364
762
309
680
278
625
257
586
243
556
232
547
229
501
214
479
208
462
204
449
201
439
200
431
199

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132.6
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.796
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
836
337
705
286
629
257
578
238
542
225
536
223
494
208
464
198
443
192
427
188
416
186
406
185
398
184

Fracture Theory

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
823
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133.8
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
831
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.873
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
769
309
648
263
578
236
531
219
524
216
473
198
454
191
426
182
407
177
392
173
382
171
373
170
366
169

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134.8
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.947
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

Load (P) (kN)


- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
701
282
591
239
527
215
512
210
454
188
431
180
414
174
389
166
371
161
358
158
348
156
340
155
334
155

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
837
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135.7
134
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Load (P)
(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
843
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

kh P.Eng. UofC

LOAD (P)

100
mm

100
mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm Dia.
hole
200 mm

Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

a (mm)
6

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacit


1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture


Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capac


1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


(kN)

Net Section will Fracture


Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


900

900
800

Net Section will Fracture


Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

Net Section will Fracture


Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity


900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 30 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

a (mm)
6

10

12

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 15 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

Load (kN)

C
1200
1000
800
600
400
2

6
a (mm)

10

12
200
0
0

0
0

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for 0 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -15 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -30 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

rack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN) for -45 oC

Load (P) (kN) Fracture Theory


Load (P) (kN) -Yeild
Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Load (kN)

Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity (kN)


1200
1000

Temp = 30
Degree Celcius

800

Temp = 15
Degree Celcius

600

Temp = Zero
Degree Celcius

400

Temp = -15
Degree Celcius

200

Temp = -45
Degree Celcius

0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

Load (P) (kN)


-Yeild Theory

Degree Celcius

0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

Load (P) (kN)


-Yeild Theory

Tabla 8.4 Especificaciones para pernos mtricos de acero.


Clase
Intervalo de
tamaos
(inclusive)
(mm)
Resistencia
lmite mnima
a la traccin
Sp (MPa)
Resistencia de
fluencia
mnima a la
traccin
Sy (MPa)
Resistencia
ltima mnima
a la traccin
Su (MPa)
Caracterstica
4.6 M5-M36 225 240 400 Medio o bajo carbono
4.8 M1.6-M16 310 340 420 Medio o bajo carbono
5.8 M5-M24 380 420 520 Medio o bajo carbono
8.8 M16-M36 600 660 830 Medio o bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
9.8 M1.6-M16 650 720 900 Medio o bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
10.9 M5-M36 830 940 1040 Martenstico de bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
12.9 M1.6-M36 970 1100 1220 De aleacin, templado y
revenido
Tabla 8.3 Especificaciones SAE para pernos UNS de acero.
Grado
SAE
Intervalo de
tamaos
(inclusive)
(in)
Resistencia
lmite mnima
a la traccin
Sp (ksi)
Resistencia de
fluencia
mnima a la

traccin
Sy (ksi)
Resistencia
ltima mnima
a la traccin
Su (ksi)
Caractersticas
del acero
1 a 1 33 36 60 Medio o bajo carbono
2
a 55 57 74 Medio o bajo carbono 7/8 a 1 33 36 60
4 a 1 65 100 115 Medio carbono estirado en
fro
5
a 1 85 92 120 Medio carbono templado y
1 1/8 a 1 74 81 105 revenido
5.2 a 1 85 92 120 Martenstico de bajo
carbono, templado y revenido
7 a 1 105 115 133 Aleado de medio carbono,
templado y revenido
8 a 1 120 130 150 Aleado de medio carbono,
templado y revenido
8.2 a 1 120 130 150 Martenstico de bajo carbono,
templado y revenido
Tabla 8.2 Dimensiones de roscas mtricas ISO, series de pasos bastos y finos
Dimetro
mayor
(nominal)
d (mm)
ROSCA BASTA ROSCA FINA
Paso
p (mm)
Dimetro
menor
dr (mm)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (mm2
)
Paso
p (mm)
Dimetro
menor
dr (mm)

rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (mm2
)
3.0 0.50 2.39 5.03
3.5 0.60 2.76 6.78
4.0 0.70 3.14 8.78
5.0 0.80 4.02 14.18
6.0 1.00 4.77 20.12
7.0 1.00 5.77 28.86
8.0 1.25 6.47 36.61 1.00 6.77 39.17
10.0 1.50 8.16 57.99 1.25 8.47 61.20
12.0 1.75 9.85 84.27 1.25 10.47 92.07
14.0 2.00 11.55 115.4 1.50 12.16 124.55
16.0 2.00 13.55 156.7 1.50 14.16 167.25
18.0 2.50 14.93 192.5 1.50 16.16 216.23
20.0 2.50 16.93 244.8 1.50 18.16 271.50
22.0 2.50 18.93 303.4 1.50 20.16 333.50
24.0 3.00 20.32 352.5 2.00 21.55 384.42
27.0 3.00 23.32 459.4 2.00 24.55 495.74
30.0 3.50 25.71 560.6 2.00 27.55 621.20
33.0 3.50 28.71 693.6 2.00 30.55 760.80
36.0 4.00 31.09 816.7 3.00 32.32 864.94
39.0 4.00 34.09 975.8 3.00 35.32 1028.4
Tabla 8.1 Dimensiones de roscas unificadas (UNS), serie de roscas bastas (UNC) y finas (UNF).
Tamao
Dimetro
mayor
(nominal)
d (in)
ROSCA BASTA (UNC) ROSCA FINA (UNF) Ancho
aproximado
entre caras
AT (in)
Nmero de
hilos por
pulgada
Dimetro
menor
dr (in)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (in2

)
Nmero de
hilos por
pulgada
Dimetro
menor
dr (in)
rea de
esfuerzo a
traccin
At (in2
) Cabeza Tuerc
0 0.0600 - - - 80 0.0438 0.0018
1 0.0730 64 0.0527 0.0026 72 0.0550 0.0028
2 0.0860 56 0.0628 0.0037 64 0.0657 0.0039
3 0.0990 48 0.0719 0.0049 56 0.0758 0.0052
4 0.1120 40 0.0795 0.0060 48 0.0849 0.0066
5 0.1250 40 0.0925 0.0080 44 0.0955 0.0083
6 0.1380 32 0.0974 0.0091 40 0.1055 0.0101
8 0.1640 32 0.1234 0.0140 36 0.1279 0.0147
10 0.1900 24 0.1359 0.0175 32 0.1494 0.0200
12 0.2160 24 0.1619 0.0242 28 0.1696 0.0258
0.2500 20 0.1850 0.0318 28 0.2036 0.0364 7/16 7/16
5/16 0.3125 18 0.2403 0.0524 24 0.2584 0.0581
3/8 0.3750 16 0.2938 0.0775 24 0.3209 0.0878 9/16 9/16
7/16 0.4375 14 0.3447 0.1063 20 0.3725 0.1187 5/8 11/16
0.5000 13 0.4001 0.1419 20 0.4350 0.1600
9/16 0.5625 12 0.4542 0.1819 18 0.4903 0.2030 13/16 7/8
5/8 0.6250 11 0.5069 0.2260 18 0.5528 0.2560 15/16 15/16
0.7500 10 0.6201 0.3345 16 0.6688 0.3730 1 1/8 1 1/8
7/8 0.8750 9 0.7307 0.4617 14 0.7822 0.5095 1 5/16 1 5/16
1 1.0000 8 0.8376 0.6057 12 0.8917 0.6630 1 1
1 1/8 1.1250 7 0.9394 0.7633 12 1.0167 0.8557 1 11/16 1 11/16
1 1.2500 7 1.0644 0.9691 12 1.1417 1.0729 1 7/8 1 7/8
1 3/8 1.3750 6 1.1585 1.1549 12 1.2667 1.3147 2 1/16 2 1/16
1 1.5000 6 1.2835 1.4053 12 1.3917 1.5810 2 2
1 1.7500 5 1.4902 1.8995 2 5/8 2 5/8
2 2.0000 4.5 1.7113 2.4982 3 3
2 2.2500 4.5 1.9613 3.2477 3 3/8 3 3/8
2 2.5000 4 2.1752 3.9988 3 3
2 2.7500 4 2.4252 4.9340 4 1/8 4 1/8
3 3.0000 4 2.6752 5.9674 4 4
3 3.2500 4 2.9252 7.0989 4 7/8
3 3.5000 4 3.1752 8.3286 5
3 3.7500 4 3.4252 9.6565 5 5/8

4 4.0000 4 3.6752 11.083 6

(UNC) y finas (UNF).