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CIRCUIT THEORY EE411

INDEX
essential node .................. 4
Eulers identity ................ 5
frequency domain............. 5
horsepower ...................... 6
impedance triangle ........... 5
inductor
voltage and current....... 3
integrating amplifier......... 2
inverting amplifier ........... 2
loop ................................. 4
magnetically coupled coils 6
maximum power transfer.. 5
mesh ................................ 4
mesh current .................... 6
motor efficiency ............... 6
motors
electric......................... 6
natural response ............... 4
Neper frequency............... 4

3-phase power.................. 6
amplifier
difference..................... 2
differentiating .............. 2
integrating ................... 2
inverting ...................... 2
noninverting................. 2
summing...................... 2
average power .................. 5
branch.............................. 4
capacitor
voltage and current....... 3
complex power................. 5
critically damped.............. 4
current division ................ 2
delta circuit...................... 6
difference amplifier.......... 2
differentiating amplifier ... 2
essential branch ............... 4

TWO-PORT CIRCUITS

V1

I1

circuit
network

z=

1
y

I1 = y11V1 + y 22V2
I 2 = y 21V1 + y 22V2
I 2 = y12V2 + y11V1 ?

I2

V1 = z11 I1 + z 22 I 2
V2 = z 21 I1 + z 22 I2
V1 = z12 I2 + z11 I1 ?

V2

V1
I1

z12 =
I2 = 0

V1
I2

z 21 =
I1 = 0

RMS
rms stands for root mean square. To obtain the rms
value of a periodic function, first square the function,
then take the mean value, and finally the square root.

V1 = h11 I1 + h22V2
I 2 = h21 I1 + h22V2
I1 = h12 I 2 + h11V1 ?

V2
I1

z 22 =
I2 = 0

V2
I2

root

mean

I1 = 0

1
T

X rms =

( f ( x ))
T

dt

Vrms =

Vmax
2

square

h parameters are used for transistor specifications


y parameters may be easier to find than z parameters
and may be added when networks are paralleled.

Tom Penick

rms by definition:

rms value of AC voltage:

To calculate the z parameters in a resistive network the


equations above are manipulated to the following form,
where one of the currents is held to zero. Various
manipulations are carried out to find values for the V and I
quantities using the known values of the resistors.

z11 =

rectangular notation.......... 5
resonant frequency ........... 4
RLC circuits..................... 3
rms .................................. 1
root mean square.............. 1
sinusoidal analysis ........... 4
step response.................... 4
summing amplifier ........... 2
T equivalent circuit .......... 6
Thvenin equivalent......... 3
transformers..................... 6
trig identies...................... 4
two-port circuits ............... 1
underdamped ................... 4
wye circuit ....................... 6
wye-delta transform.......... 6
z parameters..................... 1
time constant ................ 3

node................................. 4
noninverting amplifier...... 2
Norton equivalent............. 3
one port network .............. 3
op amps ........................... 2
overdamped ..................... 4
path ................................. 4
phasor notation................. 5
phasor transform .............. 4
power............................5, 6
average ........................ 5
complex....................... 5
reactive ........................ 5
real .............................. 5
power factor ..................... 5
power factor correction..... 6
power transfer .................. 5
power triangle .................. 5
reactive power.................. 5

p2

f ( t )rms =

f (t )

The plot below shows a sine wave and its rms value, along
with the intermediate steps of squaring the sine function
and taking the mean value of the square. Notice that for
this type of function, the mean value of the square is the
peak value of the square.

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

5/1/2001 Page 1 of 7

Op Amps
INVERTING AMPLIFIER

DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER

Rf
Rs

Vs

Rf

Vo =

Rs

+Vcc

Vo

Vs

Rf

Va
Vb

-Vcc

Rs

Vn

Ra

Vp

+Vcc
Vo
-Vcc

Rb
INVERTING SUMMING AMPLIFIER

Rf

Ra

Va

Vn = V p = Vb
Rb

Vb

Rc

Vc

+Vcc

Vo

Vn Va Vn Vo
+
=0
Rs
Rf

Rb
Ra + Rb

INTEGRATING AMPLIFIER

Cf

-Vcc

Rs

Vs

Rf
Rf
Rf
Vo =
Va +
Vb +
V
Rb
Rc c
Ra

NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER

Rf
Rs

Vo =

+Vcc

Vo

Rg

Vg

Vo =

Rs + R f
Rs

1
Rs C f

V
to

+Vcc
Vo
-Vcc

d + Vo (t o )

CURRENT DIVISION

-Vcc

IS

I1

I2

R1

R2

Vg

R2
I
R1 + R2 S
R1
I2 =
I
R1 + R2 S

I1 =

DIFFERENTIATING AMPLIFIER

Rf
Cs

Vs
Vo = R f Cs

dv S
dt

+Vcc
Vo
-Vcc

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

5/1/2001 Page 2 of 7

THVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS

LC CIRCUITS

A one-port network (circuit presenting 2 external terminals)


may be represented by either a Thvenin or Norton
equivalent. Note that REQ has the same value in both the
Thvenin and Norton equivalents.
THVENIN EQUIVALENT
NORTON EQUIVALENT

Energy (joules): w =

+
v L
-

IN

Voltage: v L ( t ) = L

REQ

Find the Thvenin voltage (the open-circuit voltage) or the


Norton current (the short-circuit current).

2)

To find Req, first Turn off the independent sources, i.e.


voltage sources go to zero which means they are shorted
and current sources also go to zero which means they are
opened. Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit.
This is Req.

3)

4)

If there are no independent sources (dependent sources


may be present) then VTH = IN = 0 and the circuit reduces
to an equivalent resistance.
If there are independent and dependent sources, turn off
the independent sources and apply a test source (VTEST = 1
or ITEST = 1) to the port. Calculate the unknown parameter
VTEST or ITEST at the port and find REQ using

VTEST = I TEST REQ

THVENIN/NORTON EXAMPLE
4
Given this circuit:

- 12 v

4
The Thvenin voltage is
the open circuit voltage,
i.e. with the load
disconnected.

RL

V TH = 6 v
4

- 12 v

1
2

Ce 2

Time Constant: = RC
Voltage: Vc ( t ) =

dv
dt

1 t
i d + Vo
C 0

Current: ic ( t ) = C

dv
dt

Current: i( t ) = I f + ( I o I f )e t /
Voltage: v ( t ) = V f + (Vo V f )e t /
Power: p = I o R e 2 t /
where I0 is initial current [A]
If is final current [A]
t is time [s]
is the time constant; = RC for capacitive circuits,
= R/L for inductive circuits [s]
V0 is initial voltage [V]
Vf is final voltage [V]
p is power [W]
R is resistance []
2

RLC CIRCUITS -- Parallel


Sum of node currents in a Parallel RLC circuit:

R EQ = 2

dv
dt

v 1 t
+ +
v d + I o = 0
R L 0

which differentiates to:

C ddt 2v +
2

1
R

dv
dt

1
v=0
L

RLC CIRCUITS -- Series


Sum of voltages in a Series RLC circuit:

2
The Thvenin equivalent
circuit can now be written
as:

Equations Common to L & C Circuits

4
4

1 t
v d + I o
L 0

also: w = 12 CVo (1 e 2 t / )

Power:

P = Cv

di
dt

Energy (joules): w =

+
v C
-

The Thvenin resistance is


the equivalent resistance
with the independent
voltage source shorted and
the load disconnected.

1
2

Current: I L ( t ) =

1)

Li 2

LI o 2 (1 e 2 t / )
Time Constant: = L / R
also: w =

REQ
VTH +-

1
2

- 6v

RL

di
dt

1 t
+ Ri +
i d + Vo = 0
C 0

dx
j X
dt

which differentiates to:

L ddt 2i + R dtdi +
2

1
i=0
C

d 2x
( j ) 2 X
dt 2

VTH = I N RTH
And the Norton equivalent
can be written as:

3a

Tom Penick

RL

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

5/1/2001 Page 3 of 7

RLC CIRCUITS solving second order equations


the Neper frequency (damping coefficient) [rad/s]:
Parallel
circuits:

Series
circuits:

1
2RC

R
2L

the Resonant frequency [rad/s]:


o =

used in
underdamped
calculations

d = o2 2

LC

s1 , s2 the roots of the characteristic equation [rad/s]:


s1 = + 2 o 2

s2 = 2 o 2

Overdamped 2 > 2 (real and distinct roots)

X ( t ) = X f + A1 ' e s1t + A2 ' e s2t


X ( 0 ) = X f + A1 '+ A2 '

( 0) = s1 A1 '+ s2 A2 '

dx
dt

Underdamped 2 < 2 (complex roots)

X ( t ) = X f + B1 ' e t cos d t + B2 ' e t sin d t

X ( 0) = X f + B1 '

( 0) = B1 '+ wd B2 '

dx
dt

Critically Damped 2 = 2 (repeated roots)

X ( t ) = X f + D1 ' te t + D2 ' e t

X ( 0) = X f + D2 '

(0) = D1 ' D2 '

dx
dt

Some Trig Identities

A cos t + B sin t =

B
A2 + B 2 cos cot + tan

c j = cos j sin Euler identity


sin t = cos( t 90 )

In an overdamped circuit, 2 > 2 and the voltage or current


approaches its final value without oscillation.
In an underdamped circuit, 2 < 2 and the voltage or current
oscillates about its final value.
In a critically damped circuit, 2 = 2 and the voltage or
current is on the verge of oscillating about its final value.
When an expression is integrated, it may be necessary to add
in initial values for the constant of integration even if they
have been taken into account within other terms.
Natural response is the behavior of a circuit without external
sources of excitation.
Step response is the behavior of a circuit with an external
source.
A node is a point where two or more circuit elements join.
An essential node is a node where three or more circuit
elements join.
A path is a trace of adjoining basic elements with no elements
included more than once.
A branch is a path that connects two nodes.
An essential branch is a path which connects two essential
nodes without passing through an essential node.
A loop is a path whose last node is the same as the starting
node.
A mesh is a loop that does not enclose any other loops.

SINUSOIDAL ANALYSIS
degrees = 180 radians
= 2 f [rad / s] = 360 f [deg / s]
1
resonant frequency o =
LC
v ( t ) = Vm cos( t + )
i( t ) = I m cos( t + )
where Vm and Im are maximums

product
sum
j
V = Vm e = P{Vm cos( t + )}
v ( t ) = A cos( t + ) A
sin t = cos( t 90 )

equivalent of two parallel impedances =


Phasor Transform:

Inverse Phasor Transform

P 1{Vm e j } = R{Vm e j e jt }

A smaller causes a right shift of the sinusoidal graph.

SINUSOIDAL ANALYSIS
Element:

Resistor

Capacitor

Inductor

Impedance (Z):

R (resistance)

j / C

j L

Reactance (X)

--

1 / C

G (conductance)

j C

1 / j L

--

1/ L

IR

I / j C

j L I

( I m / C ) ( V 90 )

L I m ( V + 90 )

j C V

V / j L

(Vm / C ) ( V + 90 )

(V m / L ) (V 90 )

Admittance (Y):
Susceptance:
Voltage:

Amperage:

V/R

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

5/1/2001 Page 4 of 7

PHASOR and RECTANGULAR NOTATION


The phasor is a complex number that carries the
amplitude and phase angle information of a sinusoidal
function. The Phasor concept is rooted in Eulers
identity, which relates the exponential function to the
trigonometric function:

e j = cos jsin

In conversions, the j value will have the same sign as the


value for angles having a magnitude < 180.
Phasor impedance
diagram for series
circuits, where +j is
inductive and -j is
capacitive:

XL

VL

The use of phasor notation may be referred to as


working in the phasor domain or the frequency
domain. Note that the phasor notation M is

R
I

Phasor Notation: M , where M is the magnitude of the

E
( )
F
to positive by

Rectangular form: X jY

M=
tan =

X2 + Y2
Y
X

To convert from phasor to rectangular (j) notation:


M
Phasor form:

X (real) Value: M cos


Y (j or imaginary) Value:

IL

POWER
Average Power or real power (watts)

P=

Vm I m
cos( v i )
2

= Vrms I rms cos( v i )

Positive P means the load is


absorbing average power,
negative means delivering
or generating.

Q=

Vm I m
sin( v i )
2

= Vrms I rms sin( v i )

Positive Q means the load


is absorbing magnetizing
vars (inductive), negative
means delivering
(capacitive).

Complex Power (VA)

S = P + jQ
= Vrms I rms ( v i )

* means "the complex


conjugate of"

1
V 2 rms
Vmax I *max =
2
Z*

Power Factor (ratio of true power to apparent power)

pf =
cos( v i )

Lagging: Inductive, current lags (-j), +Q


Leading: Capacitive, current leads (+j), -Q

Power and Impedance triangles


A]
r [V
e
w
Po
nt
Reactive Phase
are
p
power in Angle
Ap
[VARS]

Phase
Angle

True or Average Power [watts]

M sin

VC

= Vrms I *rms =

(Caution: The Y will be


negative is the j value is being
subtracted from the real.)
Note: Due to the way the calculator works, if X is negative,
you must add 180 after taking the inverse tangent. If the
result is greater than 180, you may optionally subtract
360 to obtain the value closest to the reference angle.

Angle :

XC

axis. Use this

To convert from rectangular to phasor notation:

Magnitude:

IR

Reactive Power (VARS)

( A + jB) + ( C jD ) = ( A + C) + j[B + ( D)]


phasor and f is the angle CCW from the X
form for multiplication and division.
E
( E )( F ) = EF ( + )
=
F
A negative magnitude may be converted
adding or subtracting 180 from the angle.

IC
VR

equivalent to Mej , where is in radians.

Rectangular Notation: X jY where X represents the


horizontal or real coordinate
and Y
the vertical or
de
itu
imaginary coordinate.
Use
gn
M Y
a
M
this form for addition and
subtraction by separately

adding and subtracting the


X
real
and
imaginary
components. Be careful with
the sign of the j term:

Phasor amperage
diagram for parallel
circuits, where +j is
capacitive and -j is
inductive:

Phasor voltage
diagram for series
circuits, where +j is
inductive and -j is
capacitive:

]
ms
[oh
e
c
an
ped
Im

X
Reactance
[ohms]

Resistance [ohms]

= cos 1 pf The power triangle is geometrically identical


to the impedance triangle.

Maximum Power Transfer


Maximum power transfer occurs when the
load impedance is equal to the complex
conjugate of the source impedance. Under
these conditions, the maximum value of
average power absorbed is

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

Pmax

VTH
=
4 RL

5/1/2001 Page 5 of 7

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

5/1/2001 Page 6 of 7

3-PHASE POWER

TRANSFORMERS

Phase and line voltage relationships in a Wye Circuit


(positive sequence - clockwise)
VCN
VAB
A + VAN
Z
+
VCA
V
AB
B
30
Z
N
+
VAN
C VBC
Z
VBN
V =V
3 or

Ideal Transformer

VAB = VAN 3 (1 30 )

Transformer Turns Ratio

AB

AN

VBC

IaA

IAB
Z

IBC

V1

VS
Z IN =

ZL

V1
1 V
1
= 2 2 = 2 ZL
I1 a I 2
a

V2
a

I1 = aI 2

ZIN is the load seen by the source.

V2

N1 N2

IAB
C

V1

I2

V1
V
= 2
N1 N 2

N 1I1 = N 2 I 2

Moving a dot results in a


negative sign on one side of
each equation.

30

IbB

IaA

IBC

I1

+
+
-

Van

Motor Ratings

P = 3 VL I L cos( v i ) =

L1 -M

L2 -M
M

This circuit is equivalent to the


magnetically coupled coils
above. We are not concerned
about the orientation of the dots.

Mesh Current Equations involving mutual inductors

hp 746
efficiency

where:

P is the power input in watts


cos( v i ) is the power factor

efficiency is expressed as a decimal value

A mesh is a loop that does not enclose other loops in the


circuit.
1. Draw current loops emanating from positive voltage
sources if present and label I1, I2, I3, etc. for each interior
path of the circuit.
2. For each loop form an equation in the form: Voltage or 0
if there is no source in the loop = R1 (sum of

Power Factor Correction

VARS
( 460 / 3 ) 2
=
3
x c = 1 / C

M = k L1 L2 where k is

T Equivalent Circuit
A

VAN

di1
di
+M 2
dt
dt
di2
di
V2 = L2
+M 1
dt
dt
V1 = L1

the coefficient of coupling

IaA

I2
L1 L2

Single-phase Equivalent
Circuit:
a

V2

Wye-Delta Transform (for balanced circuits only)

Q=

V2

N1
N2

Magnetically Coupled Coils

IaA = I AB 3

Z
ZY = D
3
Vlineto line = Van 3
V
I aA = an
Z

a=

V1 =

I1

IbB
IcC

ICA

ICA

V1

Phase and line current relationships in a Delta


Circuit (positive sequence - clockwise)
A
IcC

1:a

ZS

where:

amperages passing through R1) + L1

d
dt

(sum of

amperages passing through L1) + . . .

VARS is a negative value for the amount of correction


460 is the line voltage
C is the value of the capacitor in Farads

Tom Penick

3. Amperages are positive in the direction of loops


regardless of the location of dots on inductors in the loop.
However, the sign of an amperage through a mutual
inductor is positive iff it enters the mutual inductor at the
same end (i.e. dotted or undotted) at which the reference
current loop enters the reference inductor.

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

5/1/2001 Page 7 of 7