RELATED LITERATURES FOR THE

TOPIC:
“ALTERNATIVE
EDUCATION:
Addressing the Diverse Needs of
Learners”

Alternative Learning System
What is Alternative Learning System or ALS?
It is a parallel learning system in the Philippines that provides a
practical option to the existing formal instruction. When one does
not have or cannot access formal education in schools, ALS is an
alternate or substitute. ALS includes both the non-formal and
informal sources of knowledge and skills.

Why is there a need for Alternative Learning
System in the Philippines?
Many Filipinos do not have a chance to attend and finish formal
basic education (Grades 1-6 and Year 1-4) due to many reasons.
Some drop out from schools while some do not have schools in
their communities. Since every Filipino has a right to free basic
education, the Government establishes ALS to provide all Filipinos

Article XIV. The Governance Act for Basic Education otherwise known as the Republic Act 9155 stipulates the establishment of the Alternative Learning System (ALS) to provide out-of-school children. and paragraph (4) concisely encourages nonformal. What is the basis of ALS implementation in the Philippines? The 1987 Philippine Constitution provides for the recognition and promotion of other forms of education other than formal education. Both programs are modular and flexible. independent and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs. This means that learning can take place anytime and any place. through the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS). . adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society. informal and indigenous learning systems as well as selflearning. depending on the convenience and availability of the learners. How does ALS work? There are two major programs on ALS that are being implemented by the Department of Education. Section 2. Paragraph (1) declares that the State shall establish. maintain and support a complete. One is the Basic Literacy Program and the other is the Continuing Education Program Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E). youth and adults population with basic education.the chance to have access to and complete basic education in a mode that fits their distinct situations and needs.

district ALS Coordinators. managed by trained formal school teachers. usually conducted at community learning centers. such as mobile teachers. barangay multi-purpose hall. instructional managers at an agreed schedule and venue between the learners and facilitators.gov. http://www. libraries or at home.ph/als .deped.What is the difference between the Formal Education System and the Alternative Learning System (ALS) Non-formal Education? Formal Education system is classroom-based. community-based. ALS Non-formal Education happens outside the classroom. managed by ALS learning facilitators.

After getting a certificate upon passing. . critical thinking and problem solving. making eligible to pursue college. How does it work In ALS. If they pass the test. sustainable use of resources and productivity. Instead of teachers. the students will take the Accreditation and Equivalency Test (AET). A teacher –called facilitator – helps students navigate the digital modules and monitors his/her progress to determine if the learner is ready for the A&E.but I've read that there are no elementary e-modules yet. encompassing both the non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills. After several months. students come in on a set time and choose a module to read. There are two ways in which you can take the Alternative Learning System. students have to attend 10 months of school or 800 hours in the classroom. Participants of eSkwela just sit in front of a computer for about three hours a week. fishermen. The eSkwela has five main learning strands: Communication skills.” In fact. through the modules (and just months of classroom preparation for the test?) and through the Internet (with also just months of classroom with the computers as preparation for the test). A quiz is given after each module to test their learning. and a saleslady. Then their performance are then assessed. The latter is called the eSkwela project . and babysitters. development of self and a sense of community. facilitators are always present to answer any questions and sometimes lecturers would discuss a certain module.the computer-based way of taking the ALS . Manny Pacquiao took and passed the (AET) under the ALS program. so the eSkwela for elementary school solely is not yet available. Each student in every session uses a computer loaded with digital modules with videos and animation. and expanding one’s world vision. For more information about the latter: click here . they do not even have to go to class five times a week to finish high school. They learn according to their need and speed. they will be given a high school diploma and can now enroll in college.Philippine Alternative Learning System (ALS) for drop-outs and out of school youth The Alternative Learning System (ALS) is a free education program implemented by the Department of Education (DepEd) under the Bureau of Alternative Learning System which benefits those who cannot afford formal schooling and follows whatever is their available schedule. “I have learners who are maids. He was presented a high school diploma. Since ALS is a module-based learning system. The program provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. the students have the option to enroll in ALS again or go to a college.

and its Accreditation & Equivalency (A&E) program? http://eskwela. eSkwela is not separate from DepED-ALS. Is there a test I have to take in order to qualify as an eSkwela learner? Yes. computers. Learning Management System. The difference mainly lies in the mode of ALS delivery.wikispaces. a certification from the school you last attended (if you previously went to school) that you were unable to complete the secondary level. life skills approach). Angelyn Malabanan. they uphold the same set of learning ideals (learning that is self-paced. How do I qualify for a learner slot at an eSkwela Center? You should be able to meet the same set requirements required in the print module version of ALS: · You should be at least 15 years old. · You should be ready with the required documents: your birth certificate. However. which will assess the actual level of education you have acquired. module guides. albeit with a technological twist. 3. Is eSkwela separate from DepED’s Alternative Learning System (ALS). and learner-centered. 4. Learners from both delivery modes (traditional ALS and eSkwela) may aspire to take the A&E exam. secondary A&E (A&E at the secondary level of education) is initially being offered at the eSkwela Centers. 2. print modules are used in the traditional ALS. Am I automatically accepted as an eSkwela learner if I already completed my elementary education? Your chances of acceptance as an eSkwela learner could be higher if you have already completed your . if you are younger than 15 years. equivalent to a high school diploma. an eSkwela learning facilitator. the learner will be given an A&E certificate of completion. 5.Posted by Blogger at 9:20 PM 43 comments: Labels: Philippine Alternative Learning System (ALS). was generous enough to provide him not only a copy of the CD but also a walk-through on how ALS sessions are conducted there. the eSkwela Center will have you take a Functional Literacy Test (FLT). The elementary A&E will be offered soon after the elementary e-modules are developed. No. Internet/World Wide Web) are utilized to deliver ALS. What level of Accreditation & Equivalency (A&E) is currently being offered at the eSkwela Centers? Currently. projectbased. at an eSkwela Center. ICTs (electronic modules.com/eSkwela+FAQs+%28for+learner+applicants %29 Get a copy of the CD to do self learning at home where he can get a copy of the CD. On the other hand. Once he was at the Center. upon passing this exam. you are encouraged to complete your secondary education through the formal education system (private/public high school). Philippine eSkwela project eSkwela Frequently Asked Questions For out-of-school youth and adults interested to complete their secondary education (Accreditation and Equivalency) through eSkwela 1.

three. Once finalized.elementary education. The eSkwela learning sessions are free. in consideration of your work/job (if you are already employed) and availability. For most eSkwela Centers. The eSkwela facilitators will be giving you remedial sessions on basic computer literacy (particularly basic navigation skills. learner selection is usually done from November to December of the previous year. Those who pass the elementary level examination will be allowed to proceed to the high school level while those who passed the secondary level may choose to enroll in post-secondary technical and vocational courses. you are required to observe your learning schedule. which is being administered every October. What are eSkwela locations for school enrollment? http://eskwela. you can still inquire at an eSkwela Center anytime for inquiries. Do I need to know how to use a computer before I can be accepted as an eSkwela learner? Although it is an advantage if you already know how to use a computer. four or five-year courses in member schools of the Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC) and others likewise supervised by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). baon) and minimal fees (some eSkwela Centers have prepared eSkwela shirts as the learners’ uniforms and IDs). 7. When is the best time for me to apply at an eSkwela Center? The best time to apply is the period after learners have taken their A&E exam. and the Internet browser) on your first sessions so you will be able to optimally use the computer for your learning sessions. using the mouse.com/eSkwela+Centers Posted by Blogger at 9:19 PM No comments: Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency Test (ALS A&E) Formerly known as the Nonformal Education A&E Test (NFE A&E). it is not a requirement in order for you to be accepted at eSkwela. BUT you will still have to qualify through the FLT. Apart from your regular expenses (transportation. 8. 9. thus. the Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency Test (ALS A&E) offers examiners certification of learning achievements equivalent to the elementary or secondary level of the formal school . Is there an enrollment/registration fee at an eSkwela Center? No. How often should I attend learning sessions at an eSkwela Center? You and an eSkwela learning facilitator will determine your schedule of learning sessions. 10. Another choice is to enroll in two. the learning period starts in January. However.wikispaces. They can also avail of the skills training programs of the Meralco Foundation and those provided by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).

sustainable use of resources and productivity. processing and certification. or authenticated birth certificate for school-drop-outs who are not employed and not old enough to acquire the above documents. voter's ID. with multiple choice questions for approximately 3 ½ hours for the elementary level and longer by an hour for the high school level. administration.manilatimes. It also determines the examinees' skills and inclinations. to wit: original and xerox copies of the following government-issued identification with photo (valid driver's license. SSS/GSIS ID. and to enroll in any college course for secondary level passers.". It covers the five learning strands: in communication. valid passport.net/inquirerheadlines/learning/view/20090517-205548/Online-hope-for-highschool-dropouts . thus no fees are collected during the registration. and expanding one's world vision. Posted by Blogger at 9:16 PM 24 comments: References: The Philippine eSkwela Project: The Establishment of Community e-Learning Centers for the Out-ofSchool Youth and Adults http://eskwela.html learning Online hope for high school dropouts http://newsinfo. Passers of this test are given a certificate/diploma certifying their competencies as comparable to graduates of the formal school system.The Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) Test is designed to provide learners with a range of alternatives to allow continuity in learning outside the formal school system.net/national/2009/march/20/yehey/prov/20090320pro3. as well as a 30-minute composition writing portion for both. postal ID.ALS) 2010 Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) Examination is set to start on May 3 up to June 15. NBI clearance or barangay certification with photo stating complete name and date of birth of the prospective registrant).com/Project+Description Education department introduces alternative systemhttp://www. According to Education Secretary Jesli Lapus.” The test is a standardized paper and pencil test. problem solving and critical thinking. “Passing the test will pave the way for their re-entry to formal schooling or allow them a chance to pursue other productive endeavors. development of self and sense of community. Qualified registrants must present any of the following documents on the day of the registration. The test is free. REGISTRATION FOR THE 2010 ALS A&E EXAM STARTS ON MAY 3 The registration for the Department of Education’s Alternative Learning System (DepED .wikispaces. The ALS A&E Test is a national government program that aims to provide an "Education for All. which makes them qualified to enroll in high school for elementary level passers.inquirer. 2010. It is a free paper and pencil test which is designed to measure the competencies of those who have not finished either the formal elementary or secondary education.

Philippine Learning Station http://www.org/AL.judiciary.ph/index10.school-survival.gov.alsnet.htm For more information about Alternative Learning System Philippines http://www.ph/cpanel/uploads/issuanceImg/A&E%20write%20up.deped.net/wiki/Philippines BUREAU OF ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM http://elibrary.php? doctype=Executive%20Orders&docid=0368d70a693860b49058b311ac513dba455a487d5159a .gov.pdf in the Alternative Learning System http://www.

second stage interventions have to be implemented that serve the wider population with other educational needs that require learning options in addition to those provided by . Over the years. Yet the mainstream public schools. school-equivalent credentials through learning processes within as well as outside schools. Filipino and English are defined and propagated. This evolution is envisioned to unfold in three over-lapping stages to enable everyone to obtain school-equivalent competencies and. The first and most urgent stage is to make fully functionally literate the core population of adults and youth outside schools who do not yet possess essential functional literacy competencies. the country now aspires to evolving an alternative learning system (alternative and complementary to schools) that is organized and governed in order to provide choices for learning not just as a remedy for school failure but as an addition even to good schools. As this stage progresses to cover all those who are functionally illiterate. eLearning. Training.Maui Salang Technology in Education. many non-formal and informal learning options emerged initially as remedial responses to meeting the basic literacy needs of people that the school system had failed to equip with the necessary basic education competencies. it has been increasingly recognized that diverse educational needs of different groups of people in society are both legitimate and urgent to meet. Adult literacy organizations work more closely with organizations already involved in community development and poverty alleviation. 2008 Alternative Learning System: meeting the Philippines’ Education for All (EFA) Agenda Alternative Learning System: Transform existing non-formal and informal learning options into a truly viable alternative learning system yielding more EFA benefits Action: Cost-effective alternative learning options for achieving adult functional literacy in first language. Thus. Research WEDNESDAY. even in the best of circumstances. if so desired. National government funding is provided to finance the integration of these alternative learning options for the effective acquisition of functional literacy of adults as an essential and routine part of every public. private and civil society socio-economic development initiative reaching disadvantaged persons and communities. are largely unable to meet these educational needs even as effective nonschooling methodologies for meeting these different needs rapidly developed. Meanwhile. MAY 28.

the parallel alternative learning system grows and develops to meet the special needs of different groups of children and adults. accredit and recognize providers meeting standards. It should also be able to contract with or provide grants to providers of non-formal education. Second. This alternative learning system initially focuses on meeting basic education needs of all but eventually serves other education needs even beyond basic competencies. First. the most cost-effective alternative learning interventions for achieving adult functional literacy would be integrated with the wide variety of socio-economic and cultural programs reaching disadvantaged people who are also likely to be educationally disadvantaged. 2. improve. the diverse educational needs of various groups in society assumes greater importance and visibility. coherent and organized system for lifelong learning that will include. The specific actions to be undertaken are the following: 1. The existing Bureau of Alternative Learning System of DepEd and the Literacy Coordinating Council should be developed. meeting the needs of the functionally illiterate and serving the educational needs of minorities. and monitor and evaluate adult literacy outcomes among individuals and populations. but will extend beyond good elementary and secondary schools.. Such a survey should cover national and local government programs. monitor and evaluate but not necessarily deliver alternative learning interventions for functional literacy of out-of-school youth and adults. Meeting these needs would become the impetus for the emergence and organization of the alternative learning system. define and set standards for adult literacy programs. Public funding made available for ALS programs of various government and private entities should be subject to the policies and guidelines of the proposed ALS reconfigured structure. for ethnic minorities and other groups with special educational needs that cannot be met by schools. A survey should be made of socio-economic programs most likely to be reaching communities with high concentration of educationally disadvantaged or illiterates.good schools. Finally. would eventually converge towards a third stage which involve the emergence of a true. Such an agency for ALS should be able to harmonize and assure the quality of programs by various service providers. as well as programs of the private and non-government sectors. This population includes legitimate minorities. Public funding for basic literacy of out-of-school youth and adults should be allocated in order to integrate adult literacy interventions into the most effective socio-economic programs already reaching many communities of educationally disadvantaged people. as good schools meet the common needs of most children. strengthened and mandated to serve as the government agency to guide the evolution of the country’s alternative learning system. Among BALS functions should be to promote. As the school system improves its efficiency and effectiveness and the large pool of youth and adult illiterates shrinks. and for desired competencies that are part of lifelong learning. The successful implementation of these two overlapping stages. such as differently abled children who can best achieve their learning goals outside schools and children from ethnic communities who want to acquire basic competencies desired by all Filipinos while preserving their own unique ethnic identity and culture. i. a parallel delivery system dedicated to providing alternative learning programs to those who cannot meet their needs through schools would be evolved. Two specific strategies in developing the alternative learning system will maximize its contribution to the attainment of EFA goals. Programs should then be assessed in .e.

There are many groups and persons who already recognize the value of non-school options for meeting education needs. The ALS agency should undertake an inventory of available resources in localities foradult literacy interventions outside schools. The actual form and structure of the delivery system for alternative learning is still not yet clear. 4.terms of their potential for integrating adult literacy interventions such as their current reach among illiterates. teaching materials. Service providers. From Functionally Literate Filipinos: An Educated Nation Philippine Education For All (EFA) 2015 National Action Plan Posted by Maui Salang Dulce at 5:36 PM . and facilities with special usefulness to adult literacy programs should be identified for potential use by various welfare and poverty alleviation programs. Media as an alternative and potent source of informal education should be strengthened. They may not readily step up and advocate alternative learning system because of the dominance of schooling in education. Positive examples and promising initiatives in alternative learning should be recognized and given greater appreciation. Available local capacities for high quality non-formal education for adult learners should be promoted among managers and operators of socio-economic programs reaching the poorest households which also likely to have members who are illiterate or educationally disadvantaged. and opportunities available for integrating adult literacy in program operations. course-ware. Effort should be made to build and develop a constituency for ALS development. level of demand by illiterate potential clients. among others. 3. 5. Research and development work will be needed to test cost-effective options for delivering high quality and reliable alternative learning.

at the San Carlos Public Market. For the senior citizens of San Carlos City. Smart and DepEd have developed a mobile application that would digitize the books and other . Smart Communications.Alternative digital learning goes October 3. public market and city plaza as places of learning for his students. Working through startup partner Orange Fix. Edwin teaches market vendors Math and literacy classes.000 mobile teachers all over the country who would go where the students are. (Smart) and the DepEd-BALS are working together to make mobile technologies a more pervasive tool to help enhance Philippine education. At the city jail. These mobile teachers are the Department of Education’s answer to the pressing need of making education available beyond the four walls of the classroom to out-ofschool youth and adult learners. and by this. he would conduct regular social and recreational sessions like ballroom dancing lessons to keep these retirees active and energized. 2013 Share 1 Tweet2 Share0 Email0 Share 9 Dr. Now. Edwin is teaching the inmates basic literacy skills as well as alternative livelihood to give them the chance for a fresh start and become productive citizens once they have served their sentence. Edwin is one of the more than 6. Edwin Ferrer. Edwin and other mobile teachers like him can use mobile technologies. They seek to improve the quality of life of Filipinos by raising the level of literacy in target communities such as out-of-school youth and working individuals who have no access to formal classroom learning. officer-in-charge of the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) for Region 1 counts the San Carlos City Jail. Meanwhile. we don’t mean the usual classrooms in schools where formal education takes place. Inc.

com. “In the future. The ALS mobile app will be made available for free in affordable mobile devices like tablets bundled with Smart connectivity.smart. connectivity and content.” said Darwin Flores. Read more at http://www.” The tablets that are pre-loaded with the ALS mobile app can be ordered online via www. educators can now access teaching materials anytime.99 . Edwin and the other mobile teachers of DepEd BALS are one step closer towards fulfilling their aspiration of providing inclusive education for all.mb.ph/Bro/DepEdBALS<http://www. Alternative learning can now be accredited by the DepEd through its Accreditation and Equivalency Test. Smart department head for community partnerships. anywhere.teaching materials under the ALS curriculum. online or offline from their tablets. With the ALS mobile app. The learner will be awarded Elementary Certificate or Secondary Certificate provided he/she passes the examination.com. “This collaboration with BALS is part of our mEducation initiatives as we seek not only to enhance learning via mobile technologies but also hope to democratize access to devices. Through the mobile app.ph/alternative-learning-goesdigital/#PJG62vHcGeUwG6kO.com. The project is part of Smart’s pioneering initiatives in mEducation.smart. The materials in the mobile app are integrated under the ALS. making it easier for mobile teachers to teach their community of learners.ph/Bro/DepEdBAL S. we will be introducing mobile learning for students as well.

com/2 011/05/problems-inimplementation-of. illiterate adults and special children. this was formulated to provide educational needs of drop-outs. 2011 Problems In the Implementation of Alternative Learning System in the Philippines Alternative education evolved in 2004 from series of modifications and amendments of laws and orders concerning education. Mayo 21.html Sabado. To differentiate it from Formal education.http://alexckingi. .blogspot. out -ofSchool Youths.

Funds 2011 Annual budget of Alternative Learning system is is more than 15 billion pesos which is divided in all ALS schools through out the Philippines. problems arose in its implementation. Funds were also allocated.Plans and mechanics of implementation were created. books. funds for seminars claimed by ALS people. Yet in the Alternative Education these competencies were compacted into a school year's curriculum. Curriculum There are hundreds or not thousand of competencies in the whole New Secondary School Curriculum which are prescribed to be taken in four years in formal education. Is this really enough to cater the services the bureau really need? It is not enough to provide buildings. Despite the endeavors of the state and Bureau of Alternative Learning System to fully attain its goals. With this span of time of learning. Methods of instructions were designed. A first year drop- . Some Problems Affecting Alternative Learning System 1. However. the students in general have not able to attain an MPS of 75. 2. may we also consider the financial management of this fund that it might be the reason of its shortage.

What will happen to these persons? Remain undirected unless had apprentice which will help them land jobs. Consequence is he or she wont proceed to higher level of learning. there were 69 enrollees in 2010 . 4.Pupils with behavioral problems that can irritate teachers are sent to ALS as Children-At-Risks. Formal teachers stick to their traditional practices of ltting their pupils sit properly like trainee soldiers with their fingers crossed position on top of their desks.2011 only 7 passed the A and E test.out can finish high school in just few months. Its either he or she will return back to learn that compacted curriculum or stop from school.Teachers' Attitudes ALS teachers claim they have more difficult tasks than those in the formal education and vice versa. However.In Sadanga Municipality alone. Where will those remaning 62 go? 3. Peace and Order Situations (Ideology) . ALS student who cant be able to pass Accreditation and Equivalency Test wont be able to get certificate.

They are assets to an organization or institution to achieve their goals. 5. They must be aware of their educational needs. Clients of ALS are education-lacked citizens. In fact most of those helping to maintain our economy or Mga Bagong Bayani working abroad acquired their skills in Alternative Learning System. its fund must be increased and . For the betterment of Alternative Learning System. Lack of Coordination Between ALS and the Community Every institution needs the support of both internal and external stakeholders.Peace situations in Mindanao hinder progress or reach of both Formal And Non-Formal Education. Those who provide personal services are products of Alternative Learning System too. Youths who are supposed to be in schools are involved in arm struggle instead of enjoying schooling. Alternative Learning System is of help in the endeavor of the government to eradicate illiteracy and address unemployment problems.

The ten-month period of study must be extended. Curriculum must be modified. Schools purposely for ALS must be fully established.managed well. . Clients must be grouped according to their level of knowledge and not merged as one learning group.