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Fayoum University Faculty of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Fayoum University
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Fayoum University Faculty of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering CE 402: Part C Retaining Structures Lecture

CE 402: Part C

Retaining Structures

Lecture No. (14):

Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls

Dr.: Youssef Gomaa Youssef

Applications of Sheet Pile Walls

Applications of Sheet Pile Walls Sheet pile walls are retaining walls constructed to retain earth, water
Applications of Sheet Pile Walls Sheet pile walls are retaining walls constructed to retain earth, water

Sheet pile walls are retaining walls constructed to retain earth, water or any other fill material. These walls are thinner in section as compared to masonry walls . Sheet pile walls are generally used for the following:

1. Water front structures, for example, in building wharfs, quays, and piers.

  • 2. Building diversion dams, such as cofferdams.

  • 3. River bank protection.

  • 4. Retaining the sides of cuts made in earth.

Materials of Sheet Pile Walls

Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Sheet piles may be: • Timber. • Reinforced concrete . •
Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Sheet piles may be: • Timber. • Reinforced concrete . •

Sheet piles may be:

Timber. Reinforced concrete . Steel.

Materials of Sheet Pile Walls

Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Timber pile wall section Reinforced concrete Sheet pile wall section CE
Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Timber pile wall section Reinforced concrete Sheet pile wall section CE
Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Timber pile wall section Reinforced concrete Sheet pile wall section CE

Timber pile wall section

Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Timber pile wall section Reinforced concrete Sheet pile wall section CE

Reinforced concrete Sheet pile wall section

Materials of Sheet Pile Walls Timber pile wall section Reinforced concrete Sheet pile wall section CE

Sheet pile sections

CE 406: Foundation Design

4

The advantages of using steel sheet-piling

The advantages of using steel sheet-piling 1. Provides higher resistance to driving stresses; 2. Is of
The advantages of using steel sheet-piling 1. Provides higher resistance to driving stresses; 2. Is of
  • 1. Provides higher resistance to driving stresses;

  • 2. Is of an overall lighter weight;

  • 3. Can be reused on several projects;

  • 4. Provides a long service life above or below the water

table;

  • 5. Easy to adapt the pile length by either welding or

bolting; and

  • 6. Their joints are less apt to deform during driving.

SHEET PILE STRUCTURES

SHEET PILE STRUCTURES Steel sheet piles may conveniently be used in several civil engineering works. They
SHEET PILE STRUCTURES Steel sheet piles may conveniently be used in several civil engineering works. They

Steel sheet piles may conveniently be used in several civil engineering works. They may be used as:

1. Cantilever sheet piles

  • 2. Anchored bulkheads

  • 3. Braced sheeting in cuts

  • 4. Single cell cofferdams

  • 5. Cellular cofferdams, circular type

  • 6. Cellular cofferdams (diaphragm)

Cantilever Sheet pile Walls

Cantilever Sheet pile Walls  Cantilever walls are usually used as floodwall or as earth retaining
Cantilever Sheet pile Walls  Cantilever walls are usually used as floodwall or as earth retaining
  • Cantilever walls are usually used as floodwall or as earth retaining walls with low wall heights (3 to 5 m or less).

  • Because cantilever walls derive their support solely

from the foundation

soils,

they may be installed

in

relatively close proximity to existing structures.

Failure Modes of Cantilever sheet Pile

Failure Modes of Cantilever sheet Pile Flexural failure Rotational failure due to inadequate penetration CE 406:
Failure Modes of Cantilever sheet Pile Flexural failure Rotational failure due to inadequate penetration CE 406:
Failure Modes of Cantilever sheet Pile Flexural failure Rotational failure due to inadequate penetration CE 406:

Flexural failure

Rotational failure due to inadequate penetration

Deep-seated failure

Elastic Line and straining Actions

Elastic Line and straining Actions G.S Ka K p M o max K p Ka Elastic
Elastic Line and straining Actions G.S Ka K p M o max K p Ka Elastic
G.S Ka K p M o max K p Ka
G.S
Ka
K p
M
o
max
K p
Ka

Elastic Line

Total earth pressure

Net earth pressure

Bending Moment

Equilibrium of Cantilever Sheet Piles

Equilibrium of Cantilever Sheet Piles For equilibrium, the moments of the active and passive Pressures on
Equilibrium of Cantilever Sheet Piles For equilibrium, the moments of the active and passive Pressures on

For equilibrium, the moments of the active and passive Pressures on about the point of reaction R must balance.

M = 0.0

Equilibrium of Cantilever Sheet Piles For equilibrium, the moments of the active and passive Pressures on

The depth calculated should be increased by at least 20 percent to allow extra length to develop the passive pressure R.

Analysis Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls

Analysis Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls – Select a point O (arbitrary) – Calculate the active and
Analysis Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls – Select a point O (arbitrary) – Calculate the active and

Select a point O (arbitrary)

Calculate the active and passive earth pressures.

Calculate the pore water pressure and the seepage force.

Determine the depth do by summing moments about O.

Determine d = 1.2 to 1.3 d o .

Calculate R by summing forces horizontally over the depth (H o +d).

Analysis Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls

Analysis Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls – Determine net passive resistance between do and d. – Check
Analysis Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls – Determine net passive resistance between do and d. – Check

Determine net passive resistance between do and d.

Check that R is greater than net passive resistance. If not extent the

depth of embedment and determine new R.

Calculate the maximum bending moment M max .

Determine the section modulus: S = M max /σ allow (for steel sheet pile)

Penetration Depth (d)

Penetration Depth (d) Approximate penetration depth (d) of cantilever sheet piling Relative density Depth, D Very
Penetration Depth (d) Approximate penetration depth (d) of cantilever sheet piling Relative density Depth, D Very

Approximate penetration depth (d) of cantilever sheet piling

Relative density

Depth, D

Very loose

  • 2.0 H

Loose

  • 1.5 H

Firm

  • 1.0 H

Dense

0.75 H

Secant Pile Walls

Secant Pile Walls • These walls are formed by the intersection of individual reinforced concrete piles.
Secant Pile Walls • These walls are formed by the intersection of individual reinforced concrete piles.

These walls are formed by the intersection of individual reinforced concrete piles.

These piles are built by using drilling mud (bentonite) and augering.

The secant piles overlap by about 3 inches.

An alternative are the tangent pile walls, where the piles do not have any overlap. These piles are constructed flush with each other.

Secant Pile Walls.

Secant Pile Walls. • The important advantage of secant and tangent walls is the increased alignment
Secant Pile Walls. • The important advantage of secant and tangent walls is the increased alignment

The important advantage of secant and tangent walls

is the increased alignment flexibility.

The walls also may have increased stiffness, and the

construction process is less noisy.

Among the disadvantages are that waterproofing is difficult to obtain at the joints, their higher cost, and

that vertical tolerances are hard to achieve for the

deeper piles.

Slurry Walls.

Slurry Walls. • A slurry wall refers to the method of construction. Specifically, the digging of
Slurry Walls. • A slurry wall refers to the method of construction. Specifically, the digging of

A slurry wall refers to the method of construction. Specifically, the digging of a deep trench with a special bucket and crane.

As the trench becomes deeper, the soil is prevented from collapsing into the trench by keeping the hole filled with a “slurry”.

This slurry is a mixture of water with bentonite (a member of the Montmorrillonite family of clays).

The bentonite makes the slurry thick, but liquid. This keeps the soil lateral walls from collapsing into the excavation.

When the excavation reaches the intended depth, the slurry filled excavation is reinforced with steel and carefully filled with concrete.

Slurry Walls.

Slurry Walls. • These walls have been built to 100 foot depths and range from 2
Slurry Walls. • These walls have been built to 100 foot depths and range from 2

These walls have been built to 100 foot depths and range from 2 feet to 4 feet in thickness.

The panels are typically 15 feet to 25 feet long, and are linked with one another through tongue and groove type seals (to prevent the intrusion of groundwater into the future underground site.

Slurry walls have the advantage of being stiffer than sheet pile walls, and hold back the soil better than soldier piles, lagging and steel sheeting. They also tend to be more watertight than other excavation methods.

Example (1)

Example (1) Design the cantilever sheet pile wall that satisfy the requirements for stability of the
Design the cantilever sheet pile wall that satisfy the
Design
the
cantilever
sheet
pile
wall
that
satisfy
the

requirements for stability of the wall. For this height of sand,

determine the maximum bending moment in the sheet pile

wall.

3.00 G.W.T 1.00 Sand  = 30  d = 1.75t/m 3  sat = 1.75t/m
3.00
G.W.T
1.00
Sand
 = 30
 d = 1.75t/m 3
 sat = 1.75t/m 3

Example (1)

Example (1) 1. Draw earth pressure diagram k  a 1  sin 1  sin
Example (1) 1. Draw earth pressure diagram k  a 1  sin 1  sin

1. Draw earth pressure diagram

k

a

1 sin 1 sin 30

1 sin 1 sin 30

0.33

k

p

1 sin

1 sin

3.00

e *h*k

a

a

e *h*k

P

P

e

1

1.75*3.00*0.33 1.75

e e

2

1

0.95*0.33(1 ) 0.31(1 )

1

d e

d

e 0.95*3.00*d 2.85d

3

e 1d

w 1

e d

w 2

3.00 e 1 G.W.T 1.00 d e 3 e 2 e w2 e w1
3.00
e 1
G.W.T
1.00
d
e 3
e 2
e w2
e w1

Example (1)

Example (1) 2. Estimate earth pressure forces E  1 1.75*3.00 / 2 2.63  y
Example (1) 2. Estimate earth pressure forces E  1 1.75*3.00 / 2 2.63  y

2. Estimate earth pressure forces

E

1

1.75*3.00 / 2 2.63

y 1 =2+d

E  1.75(1  d ) 2 y 2 =0.50(1+d) E  0.31(1 ) / 2
E  1.75(1  d )
2
y 2 =0.50(1+d)
E 
0.31(1 ) / 2
 d
2
3.00
E 1
3
y 3 =0.33(1+d)
1.75
G.W.T
E  (1  d ) / 2
2
1.00
4
y 4 =0.33(1+d)
E 2
E  2.85* d
/ 2  1.43d
E  d / 2  0.5d
2
2
d
E 4
5
y 5 =0.33d
E 6
E 5
E 3
2
2
d
2.85d
1+d
0.31(1+d)
6
y 6 =0.33d

Example (1)

Example (1) 3. Stability of wall  o M  0.0 3 d  3 3.00
Example (1) 3. Stability of wall  o M  0.0 3 d  3 3.00

3. Stability of wall

o

M 0.0

3 d  3 3.00 E 1 1.75 G.W.T 1.00 E 2 E 3 E 4
3
d 
3
3.00
E 1
1.75
G.W.T
1.00
E 2
E 3
E 4
E 5
d
d

E 6

d

2.85d

o

0.31(1+d)

1+d

2.63(2 ) 0.88(1 ) 0.165*0.31(1 ) 0.64 0.0

d

d

2

d

Trial and Error

d = 6.00m

Example (1)

Example (1) 4. Maximum bending Moment Maximum bending moment at distance x below dredge line: at
Example (1) 4. Maximum bending Moment Maximum bending moment at distance x below dredge line: at

4. Maximum bending Moment

Maximum bending moment at distance x below dredge line:

at point of zero shear

2.63 1.75(1 ) 0.33*0.95(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2   x  
2.63 1.75(1 ) 0.33*0.95(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2
 x 
 x
2
  x
2
x
2
/ 2 3*0.95 / 2 0.0
x
2
3.00
E 1
x= 3.5m
1.75
G.W.T
M 
2.63*5.5 1.75*4.5 / 2 0.33*0.95(4.5) / 6 (4.5) / 6
2
3
3
1.00
max
3.5 / 6 3*0.95*3.5 / 6 24.68 . / '
3
3
mt m
x
E 2
d
E 4
M  24.68*100
E 6
E 5
E 3
z 
max
 1762.5 cm
3
1.4
d
2.85d
o
1+d
0.31(1+d)

Example (2)

Example (2) Find the maximum height of sand fill behind the sheet pile wall that satisfy
Example (2) Find the maximum height of sand fill behind the sheet pile wall that satisfy

Find the maximum height of sand fill behind the sheet pile wall that satisfy the requirements for stability of the wall. For

this height

of

sand,

determine

the

maximum

moment in the sheet pile wall.

bending

Sand  = 30  = 1.60 Sand 2.40  = 32  = 1.80
Sand
 = 30
 = 1.60
Sand
2.40
 = 32
 = 1.80

Example (1)

Example (1) 1. Draw earth pressure diagram k  a 1 1  sin 1 
Example (1) 1. Draw earth pressure diagram k  a 1 1  sin 1 

1. Draw earth pressure diagram

k

a 1

1 sin 1 sin 30

1 sin 1 sin 30

0.33

k

a

2

Sand  = 30  = 1.60 e 2 e 1 Sand  = 32 
Sand
 = 30
 = 1.60
e 2
e 1
Sand
 = 32
 = 1.80
e 4
e 3

1 sin 1 sin 32

1 sin 1 sin 32

e *h *k

a

a

1

sin

0.307

k

a 2

1

sin

3.25

e *h*k

P

P

e 1.60*h*0.33 0.53h

1

e 1.60*h*0.307 0.49h

2

e e

3

2

d

2

e

4

1.80* *0.307 1.11

e

1.80*2*3.26 11.74

Example (1)

Example (1) 2. Estimate earth pressure forces E  0.53 h * h / 2 
Example (1) 2. Estimate earth pressure forces E  0.53 h * h / 2 

2. Estimate earth pressure forces

E 0.53h*h / 2 0.265h

1

2

E 0.49h*2 0.98h

2

E

3

1.11*2 / 2 1.11

E

4

11.74*2 / 2 11.74

y 1 =2+h/3 y 2 =1.00 y 3 =0.67 E 1 y 4 =0.67 0.49h 0.53h
y 1 =2+h/3
y 2 =1.00
y 3 =0.67
E 1
y 4 =0.67
0.49h
0.53h
E 2
E 4
E 3
Sand
 = 32
 = 1.80
11.74

e 3

Example (2)

Example (2) 3. Stability of wall  o M  0.0  E 1 0.49h 0.53h
Example (2) 3. Stability of wall  o M  0.0  E 1 0.49h 0.53h

3. Stability of wall

o

M 0.0

 E 1 0.49h 0.53h E 2 E 4 E 3
E 1
0.49h
0.53h
E 2
E 4
E 3

11.74

o

Sand

0.265 *(2 / 3) 0.49 1.11*.67 11.74*0.67 0.0

h

2

h

h

Trial and Error

h = 2.72

= 32 = 1.80