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Nombre de institucin: Universidad TecMilenio

Nombre del nivel: 2do Semestre

Nombre de materia: Habilidades y Valores II: Ser Critico
Nombre del profesor: Ana Taboada
Nombre de alumno y matrcula: Gustavo Fernando Dvila Reyes


Passive Voice
Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not

important or not known, however, who or what is performing the
Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was
stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active
voice, as the following example shows:
Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do
not blame anyone.
Form of passive voice

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle.

Gerunds and Infinitives

Gerunds and infintives can both function as the subject of a

a. Playing basketball takes up too much of her time.
b. To play basketball for UConn is her favorite fantasy.
The infinitive is often a complement used to help define an
abstract noun. Here is a very partial list of abstract nouns, enough
to suggest their nature. Try following these adjectives with an
infinitive phrase (their desire to play in the championship game,
a motivation to pass all their courses, her permission to stay

up late, a gentle reminder to do your work) to see how the phrase

modifies and focuses the noun.
Present unreal conditonials

Present unreal conditionals indicate a situation which is

only imagined or in some-one's mind. For instance:
I wish I had a pony.

(I don't really have a


If I had a pony, I would ride it every

(I imagine what I would



To form present unreal conditionals, use past tense in the if

clause and would + verb in the main clause.
A: What would you do if you had a million dollars?
B: If I had a million dollars, I would invest it in the stock market.
A: What would you do if you didn't have to come to school today?
B: If I didn't have to come to school, I would go to the amusement

Reported Speech

We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell'. If this verb is in the

present tense, it's easy. We just put 'she says' and then the
Direct speech: I like ice cream.
Reported speech: She says she likes ice cream.
We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need
to change the 'person' from 'I' to 'she', for example. We also may
need to change words like 'my' and 'your'.
But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we
change the tenses in the reported speech:
Direct speech: I like ice cream.
Reported speech: She said she liked ice cream.
Tag Questions

It is used at the end of the main part of a Statement or Imperative

Sentence to ask for confirmation or something we are not certain
about, or just to ask for agreement.
A Tag-question means something like Is this true? or Do
you ( Dont you)agree?
You are the new watchman, arent you?

Adjective Clauses

Subject Pronouns

Who is used for people

That is used for people and things
Which is used for things


Using Subject Pronouns

subject + [ who
+ verb ]+ verb
Dependent Clause

Make, Let, Help and Get


[make + person + verb]


This construction means "to

force someone to do
My teacher made me
apologize for what I

had said.
Did somebody make
you wear that ugly
She made her
children do their

[have + person + verb]


This construction means "to

give someone the
responsibility to do
Dr. Smith had his
nurse take the
patient's temperature.
Please have your
secretary fax me the
I had the mechanic
check the brakes.

[get + person + to + verb]


This construction usually

means "to convince to do

something" or "to trick

someone into doing
Susie got her son to
take the medicine
even though it tasted
How can parents get
their children to
read more?
The government TV
commercials are
trying to get people
to stop smoking

Phrasal Verbs
Separable and Non-Separable
Phrasal Verbs
There are two types of phrasal verbs:
separable and non-separable. When a
phrasal verb is separable, a noun or a
pronoun can be inserted between the
verb and the preposition. A noun may
also follow the preposition .
She called the meeting off.
She called it off.
She called off the meeting.
Incorrect: I called off it.
When a phrasal is non-separable, a
noun or a pronoun comes after the

I looked after the baby.
I looked after her.

Present and Past Contrasting Verb Tenses

Present Perfect

Simple Past

Rresult of an action
in the past is
important in the

Recently completed

Actions beginning in
the past and still

Together with lately,

recently, yet

Action finished in the past

series of completed actions in the past

Together with Past

Progressive/Continuous The Simple
Past interrupted an action which was
in progress in the past.

Present Perfect

Simple Past

I have played football.

I played football.

You have played football.

You played football.

He has played football.

He played football.

Future Perfect

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an

unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You
CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions
such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child,
when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We
CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as:
ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far,
already, yet, etc.
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?

Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.

A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

Future Progressive

We use the future progressive tense for:

A continuous action in the future which is interrupted by a time or
by another action.


They will be dancing all night long!

What will they be doing all night long?
We will be working quite closely.
This guy will be sleeping when you find him.
Tomorrow at three o'clock Josh will be cooking.
It will be raining the entire week.