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3DOHUPR,WDO\1RY

solar cell arrays exposed to dynamic changing

inhomogeneous illuminations.

Liping Shi

Robert Brehm

University of Southern Denmark

Sonderborg, Denmark

Email:slp art@hotmail.com

University of Southern Denmark

Sonderborg, Denmark

Email: brehm@mci.sdu.dk

arrays is highly effected by partial shading effects. Especially for

solar panel arrays installed in environments which are exposed

to inhomogeneous dynamic changing illuminations such as on

roof tops of electrical vehicles the overall system efciency is

drastically reduced. Dynamic real-time reconguration of the

solar panel array can reduce effects on the output efciency due

to partial shading. This results in a maximized power output of

the panel array when exposed to dynamic changing illuminations.

The optimal array conguration with respect to shading patterns

can be stated as a combinatorial optimization problem and this

paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm

which nds the optimal feasible solution to recongure the solar

panel array for maximum efciency in real-time with linear time

complexity. It is shown that the effective increase of efciency is

up to 50%. An experimental platform to evaluate and validate

the DP algorithm performance under real conditions to proof the

concept of the proposed reconguration scheme is introduced.

I.

I NTRODUCTION

the battery lifetime and operational time of unmanned areal

and surface vehicles (UAV/USV) [1] [2] as well as support

powering of vehicles for e.g. transportation [3] such as buses

with solar panels on the roof. Also, there is active research of

how to integrate solar cells into textiles [4] to harvest energy

and to recharge e.g. portable electronic equipment. In these

applications the solar panels are exposed to high dynamic

illumination changes and partial shading when e.g. passing

clouds or when mounted on roof-tops of electrical vehicles

where trees or other objects partially shade the solar cells.

In addition to the shading dynamics, often these applications

are constrained by a limited area for solar cell installation,

therefore getting the most power efciency out of the solar

cell area is an important requirement.

Solar panels are usually congured as arrays of photo-voltaic

cells in which the solar cell acts as a current source where

current, and therefore power output/efciency is proportional

to the light intensity the cells are exposed to. If several

photo-voltaic cells or complete solar panels are connected

in series, the efciency of the complete cell string will be

degraded in case that a part of the string is suffering from

partial shading or non-uniform illumination. That cell with the

weakest illumination will determine the total current [5] of

the solar cell string. Besides that, the non-uniform illumination

causes a hot spot where a shaded solar cell will become reverse

biased and dissipates the power through heat [6]. In the worst

case, when the dissipated power exceeds the maximum power

the shaded solar cell can sustain, it will get damaged and an

open-circuit results breaking the whole solar cell string.

Several approaches have been proposed to reduce the effects

of partial shading on a solar cell system. A common method

is to use bypass diodes [7] which are integrated into the solar

panel module to prevent hot spot formation by providing a

current path around them. The drawback of this method is

that it limits the power loss according to the conguration of

bypass diodes. It has been shown that for a module of series

connected solar cells with integrated bypass diodes across

each cell, the nth lowest cell determines the efciency of the

complete solar panel module [8]. Common Maximum Power

Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques only take complete solar

panel strings consisting of multiple solar panel modules into

account [9]. In MPPT technology the current of the solar panel

array is controlled to follow the global optimum operating

point. However, in this solution non-shaded solar panels still

perform below their individual MPP resulting in power loss

of the complete string caused only by the shaded panels. On

the other hand, a multi-modal P-V curve caused by two or

more MPPs appears since multiple solar modules suffer from

partial shading. It is difcult to readily and immediately track

the global MPP and sometimes the system operating point

only converges to a local maximum [10]. As an alternative,

reconguration of the solar panel array allows pairing shaded

and non-shaded cells to have them operating independently

and at their individual specic MPP. Many of the proposed

reconguration solutions are derived from the compensation

principle [11][12] which has the drawback that a large amount

of extra solar cells is needed to compensate the losses of the

shaded cells. These approaches do not t applications where

only a limited area for installation is available. In a reconguration approach, the exibility for reconguration of the cells

determines the tolerance of partial shading effects and thus

inuences the performance of the overall solar cell system. The

remaining of this paper addresses the above mentioned issues

with respect to exibility and scalability by introducing a

high performance reconguration scheme and related dynamic

programing (DP) based algorithm to reduce effects of partial

shading without the need of extra solar cells. A sensor matrix

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is used to determine the illumination pattern the cells are

exposed to which is used to feed the reconguration algorithm.

It is described how the complex reconguration problem is

divided into subproblems and sequential decisions. A solution

for the curse of dimensionality (Bellman,1957 [13]) is given

and we present benchmark testing where the DP algorithm

shows excellent performance and scalability with quadratic

time complexity or even linear time complexity when using

decomposed serial or parallel implementation of the algorithm.

At last an experimental platform of a recongurable solar cell

array is presented which is used to validate and verify the

performance of the proposed recongurations scheme.

II.

S YSTEM M ODELS

A. Reconguration Topology

An imbalanced solar cells reconguration topology [14]

is introduced. The proposed topology has presented excellent

performance in practical usage when e.g. used in partial solar

powered vehicles [2]. As shown in Figure 1 does the proposed

topology consist of a number of series connected solar panel

groups in which solar panels are connected in parallel. In the

remaining nk is used to denote the total number of groups.

The number of solar panels in the i-th group is denoted by

gi , with i {1, 2, ..., nk} and N to denotes the number of all

solar panels in the given topology. The complete topology can

then be described by:

T (nk, g1 , g2 , ..., gnk )

which satises:

N=

nk

(1)

3DOHUPR,WDO\1RY

inuences the MPP. The maximum output power of the solar

panel Pmax is given by Equation 3 which states that Pmax is

reached only when all solar panels are simultaneously working

at their MPP. In Equation 3 UiM P P is the MPP voltage of panel

i and IiM P P the MPP current of panel i.

Pmax =

N

PiM P P =

i=1

gi

UiM P P IiM P P

(3)

i=1

reconguration problem can be described as a mathematical

optimization problem and in particular as a combinatorial

optimization problem with the objective to have all solar panels

operate simultaneously at an optimal MPP when they are

suffering from partial shading effects. Given the relationship

MP P

has

between U M P P and the MPP, a constant voltage Vavg

to be dened for all solar panels to approximate their U M P P .

This reduces the optimization problem to nd a conguration

(grouping) to maximize the overall current.

Generally the current is at maximum for a conguration that

maximizes the minimum current of the solar panel groups.

This is because the overall current of the complete system

is restricted by the group with the minimum current. The

objective function of the optimization problem is therefore

given as:

(4)

Pmax = max(min(Pg ))

with:

MP P

Pg = Vavg

IiM P P

(5)

Sk <i<Sk

(2)

i=1

N

Sk < i < Sk denotes the index of each solar cell in the k th

MP P

group. Vavg

is an estimation of the MPP voltage over each

group. IiM P P represents the current when the solar panel is

MP P

working at voltage Vavg

.

In the given scheme it is required to connect a converter to

the cell array in order to stabilize the voltage over the array

since voltage correlates with the solar irradiation. Given the

model presented in [15], the solar panel group number nk can

be dened by satisfying:

MP P

= Vin Vout

nk Vavg

(6)

the output voltage of the converter.

Fig. 1.

which has been used on the experimental platform in

contrast to an imbalanced topology (Figure 1 A), with

T (4, 5, 3, 6, 2). The proposed reconguration scheme exhibits

its high exibility by the ability that gi can change from 1 to

N nk + 1 for each group.

B. Problem Introduction

By looking at the electrical equivalent model [5] of a solar

cell which represents the I-V and P-V characteristics, it is

obvious that the voltage level is very stable when the solar

the given problem represents a classical constrained classication problem given by:

class = arg maxclass (min(Pg ))

III.

(7)

based algorithm to solve the given reconguration problem.

The underlying principle of the proposed DP algorithm is to

divide the complex reconguration problem into hierarchical

sub-problems and then use the backward induction method to

continuously solve the Bellman equation [16].

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3DOHUPR,WDO\1RY

The given reconguration problem can be stated as

dynamic decision problem as shown in Equation 8:

power

=

Wnk

nk

u(xt , ct )

(8)

xt

(9)

t=0

subject to

N=

nk

t=1

group t + 1 is in and ct represents the action that arrange xt

solar panels into group i. If for example 10 solar panels shall

be divided into 3 groups, the classication can be divided into

a sequence of three decisions: Step 1: put 3 solar cells in group

1; Step 2: put 5 solar cells in group 2; Step 3: put 2 solar cells

in group 3.

B. Subproblems In Reconguration

Given Bellmans principle of optimality the described

reconguration problem (N, nk) can be separated into

subproblems as shown in Figure 2. The corresponding

Bellman equation is given in Equation 10:

Fig. 3.

(10)

C. Algorithm

}

(11)

This section introduces the DP based reconguration algorithm based on the Backward Induction method to continuously

solve the bellman equation beginning from the back. The

detailed steps are listed as follows:

c0

Where Vnk (x0 ) denotes the current value if the optimal policy

is selected and go represents an optimal action c0 taken

at state x0 , and specically, as in the here introduced case,

an optimal separation where xt solar cells belong to the rst

group is taken.

The complete reconguration problem (N, nk) can be

solved by nding the optimal action c0 and solve the partial

reconguration problem (N x0 , nk 1) as shown in Figure

2. The partial reconguration problem (N x0 , nk1) can be

solved by nding the optimal action c1 and solving its partial

reconguration problem (N x0 x1 , nk 1 1), and so

on so forth. It can easily be seen that the subproblem chain

nk1

reduces to (N

xi , 1) which is by far easier to solve in

i=0

in the above given example for a 3 group classication of 10

panels, the given 3-class classication problem can be solved

by solving a 2-class classication and the 2-class classication

problem can be solved by solving a 1-class classication

problem.

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Max u(x0 ,C0 )

(N,nk)

(N-x0,nk-1)

(N-x0-x1,nk-2)

...

nk1

(N-

6)

Read illumination level for each solar panel as N -by1 matrix (original pv(N, 1)), where N denotes the

total number of solar panels.

Declare a N -by-nk matrix optimal min and

a N -by-nk matrix group index, where nk denotes the group number of solar panels and

optimal min(a, b) ( with i = 1, 2, ..., m, 1 a

N, 1 b nk) denotes the optimal performance if

there are a solar panels in total to be classied into

b groups. group index(a, b) shows the index of the

individual solar panel within the group.

Initialize optimal min(i, 1) and group

1):

index(i,

MP P

=

optimal min(i, 1)

1iN Ii

group index(i, 1) = 0

Execute a pre-calculation and save the results into a

N by N matrix new pv

table(a, b):

new pv table(a, b) = aib IiM P P

with 1 a N, 1 b N .

Execute main algorithm to get optimal min and

group index as shown in Figure 3.

With the given matrix group index, trace back to

nd the optimal policy .

x i, 1)

0

Fig. 2.

IV.

P ERFORMANCE T EST

its capability to nd not only a feasible but also an optimal

classication for a solar panel array. Thus, as long as the

processing time complies to the given real-time constraints

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3DOHUPR,WDO\1RY

that the system is congured to deliver the highest efciency

under all shading conditions.A series of benchmarking tests

for the introduced DP algorithm have been implemented using

MATLAB on an Intel CORE i5 platform. Figure 4 shows the

overall performance of a solar cell array under 30 different

shading conditions where the improved efciency using the

introduced reconguration algorithm (dark blue) versus a xed

conguration (light blue) can clearly be seen, the DP algorithm

improves the efciency of up to 50% in average over 30

random selected shading conditions.

Fig. 6. DP algorithm time cost with group increase, (xed solar cells number)

of solar cells based on Decompose-Serial/Parallel Computing.

algorithm. The algorithm was benchmarked by dividing an

increasing number of solar cells into 10 groups while measuring the execution time of the algorithm to nd an optimal

conguration versus an increasing number of solar cells.

The result shows that the algorithm preforms at a satisfying

processing speed with a runtime of less than 100ms for a

classication of 1000 solar cells into 10 groups. In addition,

the time complexity versus the number of groups was tested

as shown in Figure 6. The number of solar cells was xed

to 1000 while the number of groups was increased. To nd

an optimal classication for 1000 solar cells to be classied

into 100 groups the algorithm runtime was less than 800ms.It

can be seen in Figure 5 that the runtime complexity of the

algorithm exhibits quadratic growth with respect to the number

of solar cells, given a xed group number, resulting in a time

complexity of O(n2 ), with n being the number of solar cells.

As shown in Figure 6, the runtime is linear proportional to the

number of classications (groups) being made, thus the time

complexity is O(n), where n is the number of groups.

Fig. 5. DP algorithm time cost with solar cells increase, (xed group number)

V.

The main idea of the Decompose-Serial/Parallel DP algorithm is to equally divide the solar panel array into a number

of processing blocks and nd the optimal classication of

each block by using serial computing or parallel computing.

The decomposition strategy of how to dene the number of

solar panels per block is shown in Figure 7. In Figure 7, the

Decomposition Strategy

2.5

Algorithm Time Consumption

Fig. 4.

1.5

time constraint

1

0.5

Fig. 7.

for serial

computing

0

10

15

20

25

30

for parallel

computing

35

40

45

50

DS/P DP strategies

panels per processing block. This correlates with the time

constraint for the DP algorithm and the number of solar cells.

With a given time constraint of 1s the maximum number of

solar panels is 5000 as shown in Figure 7. The cross point

between the time consumption curve and the linear growth line

denotes the maximum amount of solar panels the DP algorithm

can handle within the given real-time runtime constraint. By

using this decomposition strategy the serial computing device

is able to compute the optimal solution block by block and

hence nd an approximate optimal reconguration for a very

large solar panel array. Suitable parallel processing hardware

can be a FPGA or multi-core CPU, in contrast to serial

processing hardware can these simultaneously execute multiple

DP algorithms on all dened blocks so that the number of solar

panels in each block is only constrained by the processing realtime constraint as shown in Figure 7.

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VI.

recongurable solar panel array is composed of a 4-by-4 solar

panel matrix with 48 switches used for reconguration. A

sensor module is used to measure the illumination data and

the control module (FPGA for a possible DP implementation)

contains the DP algorithm.

time complexity a Decompose-Serial/Parallel DP scheme was

introduced by separating the given problem into blocks which

size depends only on the number of solar cells and given realtime constraints.

R EFERENCES

[1]

A. Experiment Result

A series of experimental benchmarking tests under different shading conditions have been executed to compare

the efciency of a static array conguration with that of a

dynamic reconguration. The experimental results show good

correlation with the simulated system performance tests, as

shown in Figure 8. The recongurable solar panel array shows

a great increase in current compared to the xed solar panel

array conguration, thus achieving a much better efciency

under different shading conditions.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Fig. 8.

Efciency at xed versus dynamic conguration under different

shading effects with xed voltage at 800mV. The gray block represents the

shaded regions of solar panel array.

VII.

C ONCLUSION

systems in mobile application such as vehicles are getting more

and more attractive. This paper has introduced the theory and

methods for reconguration of solar panels to signicantly

increase the efciency of these systems. It was shown that

dynamic reconguration of solar cell arrays can increase the

output power efciency of up to 50% if dynamic reconguration is used. The problem of partial shading of solar panel

arrays for area constrained applications which are exposed to

dynamic shading conditions has been addressed and a solution,

based on dynamic reconguration of the solar array topology,

based on dynamic programming has been introduced. With focus on the practical feasibility and given practical constraints,

a topology (scheme) for reconguration of solar panel arrays

has been introduced with the purpose to maximize the output

power of area constrained solar panels in dynamic changing

illumination environments. The proposed system shows excellent expandability for large scale solar panel arrays. The given

problem was mathematically described and transformed into

a multi-class classication problem. A DP based algorithm

was introduced to nd the optimal conguration of the solar

array under any shading condition. A DP based reconguration

algorithm was used based on Bellmans principle of optimality

and the backward induction methods was used to solve the

Bellman equation. The algorithm was analyzed with respect

to scalability, performance and time complexity. It can be

seen from the results that the DP algorithm is able to nd

the exact optimal solution for solar panel array reconguration

with quadratic time complexity for a changing number of solar

3DOHUPR,WDO\1RY

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