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Age:Nuclear TheSecond Nuclear in Century Weapons theTwenty-first
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The two Nuclear Ages
. FirstNuclear Age: approximately 1945to
number nuclear of states, of which two - Small (thesuperpowers) enormous built arsenals
. . Second Nuclear began the Age with collapse theUSSR of
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1ST UC L E A R G E A N
. Nuclear weapons havenotbeenusedin conflict since atomic bombs in weredropped Hiroshima Nagasaki, on & Japan 1945. are along ' Nuclearweapon categorized, withchemical, biological radiological & devices, a weapons mass as of destruction. . Competition the building nuclear in of weapons very was closely to the coldwar between United tied the Statesand the SovietUnionand the theorctical modelsrelating deterrence to that werebuiltduringthattime reflect bipolar the competition between two suoeroowers. the of depending their on ' NW are dividedintoa variety categories, design, means delivery, other of and factors. . Two of mostimportant distinctions between are fissionand thermonuclear weaponsand between tactical and strategic weapons.
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. Ballistic Missile. missile A with rocket motors which flieson a ballistic Ballistic traiectorv. missiles carrva payload conventional WMDwarheads, of of A.K.Aas re-entrv vehicles. Earlvballistic missiles were inaccuiate couldrinlycarryrelatively and small payloads shortdistances, advanced for but missiles canbe intercontinental rangeandcarryindependently target ablewarheads. . Cruise missile. missile A withan air breathinq motor: in essence. smalloiiotlessaircraft Curren-l a . modeis travel subsonic at speeds. Bombers be equipped can to carrynuclear missiles. -tippedcruise . Decapitation strike. attack An intended destroy to the leadershipcommand, & control, communication & (C3)network an enemynation. of
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. Disarming to strike. attack An thatattempts lf destroy enemy's an nuclear forces. a disarming strike successful, enemy is the statewill notutterly & destroyed wlllbe mi)itarily but he)p)ess compelled negotiate peaceon the disarmer's to a terms. . Fallout. froma Radioactive debris resultino nuclear exolosion. Heavier oarticled to settle tend in the areaof the exolosion. whileliqhter ones oftentraveloreatdidtances. Falloutiontamination can result iriserious, evenfatal,health effects. . Triad. The combinationSLBMs. of lCBMs. & nuclear-armed range bombers together that long comprise strategic forces the United of the nuclear States Russia. &
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Material. ' Fissile . Themostimportant missile material uranium (U235) are 235 andpluton'um (P239). 239 Theseradioactive isotopes are given quantity mined difficult acquire. to A of uranium contains very littleU235:the lattermustbe separated from nonmissile uranium. . Plutonium notfoundin nature anysignificant quantityis in it processes guided humans. is a by product nuclear of by . The controlof fissilematerial very important preventing is in proliferation, thegeneration nuclear power nuclear but of requires fissile material. . Theinternational (IAEA) tasked Atomic Agency is with ensuring nonnuclear weapons countries whichhave that powerplants notdivert nuclear do fissile matefial useit to and buildnuclear weapons.
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r Along withchemical, biological, and radiological devices, considered are weapons massdestruction of . Fission thermonuclear vs. . Tactical strategic vs.
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Typical means nuclear of delivery
Strategic weapons:Intercontinental ballistic (lCBMs),ubmarine-la ed missiles s unch (SLBMs), ballistic missiles heavy bombers Tactical weapons:Artillery, tactical aircraft, short-range ballistic cruise and missiles, etc.
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. Horizontal vedical proliferation vs.
proliferation, total - Continuing horizontal but fallinq number warheads of worldwide
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ColdWar Nuclear Deterrence
. lt is impossible prove to definitively Cold that Warnuclear deterrence or didnot did orevent between United war the States and Soviet Union
"worked," theories - Evenif ColdWardeterrence thereis no guarantee theywillbe continue that
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. Consist ofthe following a threat, intended dissuade state to "Do fromaggression: notatlack because u do me if something unacceptably horrible happen you". will to . A form of persuasion military in strategy. . As a strategy, deterrence oftencontrasted defence. is with . Defence focuson military capabilities ratherthan intentions. . Deterrence worksby threatof punishment, defence works by denying ability achieve objectives an the to its once attackhas begun. . BeforeNilAD, D&D simplyreferred different time periods. to . Nuclear deterrence no nuclear armedstateshasgoneto war. . Q: Howmuchnuclear enough? is
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ColdWar Nuclear Deterrence
. Withthe end of the ColdWar,the worldhas entered a Second Nuclear Age in which number actors the of processing weapons progressively nuclear. is increasing evenas absolute number suchweapons falling. of is . Deterrence prove may unreliable thefuture. in Deterrence theories that weredeveloped the context struggle in of between UnitedStates& the SovietUnionmav Drove the powcr to be inapplicable other to suchas Nor:hKorba & lran. . Strategic culture influence a country how usesits nuclear arsenal deterrence for and/or war fighting. . Ballistic missile defenses be important will in factor nuclear decision making thefuture, theexistence B[,4D in and of maydiscourage from somecountries atiempting acquire to nuclear weapons.
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Nuclear Deterrence theSecond in Age
. "Rogue of states"andthe reliability deterrence culture important howleaders to ' Strategic thinkaboutnuclear arms . Mutually Assured Destruction relevant.to not the currentUS-Russia relationship
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(NPT) The Non-Proliferation Treaty
. NonProliferation counter proliferation and measures prevent, horizontal areusedto control ideally and lhc proliferation nuclear of weapons. . NPTAcknowledges fivenuclear only weapons states (China, France, Great Britain, Soviet the Union/Russia, the United and States) . Forbid from nLrclc:r othersignatories obtaining weapons. . Moststatesaresignatories, although somelncluding nuclear suchas India, lsrael & armedcountries Pakistan not. are . However, otheruniversal like disarmament provisions. it agreements, lacksstrong enforcement . Non-prolife ratio andcounter-proliferation n
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Treaty TheNon-Proliferation (NPT)
. Effective enforcement universal of suchas the NPT disarmament agreements as especially such has proven difficult, generally onlyhaveveryweak agreements enforcement orovisions. . lt is veryunlikely nuclear weapons will that become obsolescent the nextfew in powers decades, thatthe worlcl nuclear or s willall agree dismantle arser,als. to their
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nuclear weapons states Non-NPT
. India havetcsied and Pakistan openly nuctear weapons and North Korea:Presum:rio be ' lsrael nuclear-armed . South Africa built, later but disnr.rliec, a nuclear arsenal
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r,rse? A tabooaoainst nuclear
. Nuclear weaoons usedin wai-fare since not 1945 . However, truly"hardcases"in v;lrich no a statedecidednotto useits arseral,so the strength ofthe "taboo" ':certain is . Candeterrence indefinitelv? last
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(BMD) Ballistic missile deienct:
missile(ABM)ii, a missiie dr.,signed to ' An anti-ballistic ,Jefense). (e counter ballistic missiles misail )r misr;le . A ballistic missile usedto delivr)" is nuclearcl .mical, biological conventional or warhe.,i.s a bi,,lisLrc in flight rrajeclory. . Theterm"anti-ballistic missile" describes Erntimissile a1y system designed counter to ballif r missils. 1.)!veverthe " for./ termis usedmorecommonly c\,4 sys' rn '.s;rrcd to counter longrange, nuclear-arnr ':ierc lir ", rl lJ,llrstic (lCBNls). missiles . Likely thatnumerous states s ., i to a( !i . liv4Din the wiil
Country with BMDability US. iina,ti are
. ls[el &
proliferation Possible disincentiv, horizontal s
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