fil
Qr
SOLID GEOMETBY.
WORKS BY CHAKLES
Thirteenth Edition.
Elementary Algebra.
Globe 8vo.
Enlarged.
4s. Gd.
Treatise on Algebra.
7s.
Gd.
Key
An Elementary
tieth Edition.
Ninth Edition.
Crown
Key
6s.
Crown
8vo.
8vo.
Solid Geometry.
Eleventh
9s. Gd.
Key
Revised and
10s. Gd.
10s. Gd.
An Elementary Treatise on
Edition.
SMITH, M.A.
Fourth Edition.
Crown
6s.
D.Sc.
Book
I,
Is.
Books I and
II.
Is.
Key.
Books
I to
Books
VI and XL
Crown
8vo.
IV.
8s.
Gd.
2s.
3s.
Is.
Gd.
Gd.
MACM1LLAN AND
CO., LIMITED,
LONDON.
ELEMENTAEY TREATISE
ON
SOLID GEOMETRY
DY
CHARLES SMITH,
M.A.
ELEVENTH
EDITION.
Hontion
MACMILLAN AND
CO.,
LIMITED
Agtron.
899.
/7/M
^//M Edition,
90 1
M/A ,ff^Vw,
^y,
Edition, 1895.
903.
PREFACE.
THE
following
work
is
to present
an
earlier stage
this
than
is
is
for
arrangement
and I do not believe that beginners will find it difficult.
The examples have been principally taken from recent
Mr
am
S. L.
indebted to several of
to
Mr
my
also
friends, particularly to
CHARLES SMITH.
SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE,
April, 1884.
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
I.
COORDINATES.
PAGE
1
Coordinates
Coordinates of a point which divides in a given ratio the line joining
Direction cosines
....
4
5
Locus of an equation
Polar coordinates
CHAPTER
II.
THE PLANE.
An
Equation
Equation
Equation
Equation
10
11
....
.
planes
Conditions that three planes
may have
11
common
line of intersection
11
.12
14
14
15
CONTENTS.
Vlll
...
PAOK
....
....
1C
line
19
16
17
18
19
20
.22
Projection on a plane
Projection of a plane area on a plane
Volume of a tetrahedron
23
....
24
25
line
26
Oblique axes
26
Directionratios
26
27
28
28
...
...
.
CHAPTER
28
29
34
III.
Number
chord of a conicoid
is
37
38
.38
....
.
40
its
polar
plane
Condition that a given plane may touch a conicoid
.
.
Equation of a plane which cuts a conicoid in a conic whose centre
.
40
.41
is
43
given
39
of a
44
44
CONTENTS.
IX
PAGE
Parallel plane sections of a conicoid are similar
conies
Classification of conicoids
The
The
The
The
The
The
....
ellipsoid
.49
.
.
.
.
paraboloids
paraboloid a limiting form of an ellipsoid or of an hyperboloid
.52
52
54
54
Cylinders
The centre of a conicoid
56
.......
.
50
.51
51
...
Invariants
46
58
59
60
66
66
Examples on Chapter
67
III
CHAPTER
IV.
The sphere
The ellipsoid
Directorsphere of a central conicoid
Normals to a central conicoid
Diametral planes
Conjugate diameters
69
".71
.
72
73
.74
75
75
Sum
76
The
Equation
76
78
The paraboloids
80
81
81
80
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Cones
83
83
Reciprocal cones
Eeciprocal cones are coaxial
84
85
may have
may have
....
.
85
86
86
88
90
CHAPTER
V.
98
....
99
Two
CHAPTER
99
101
101
102
103
102
common have
also another
103
97
......
right angles
Conicoids which have one plane section in
Circular sections
96
on a sphere
.
"..
105
105
108
VI.
all
....
113
113
113
115
.
115
XI
CONTENTS.
PAGE
one
116
lines
systems of generating
lines
All straight lines which meet three fixed nonintersecting straight
of the same system of a conicoid, and the three fixed
are
11G
117
Two
generators
H?
The
118
.118
118
***
12
l"1
paraboloid
CHAPTER
SYSTEMS OP CONICOIDS.
All
124
VII.
RECIPROCATION.
TANGENTIAL EQUATIONS.
124
common
curve of
I 28
129
Selfpolar tetrahedron
129
130
point
130
.131
Rectangular hyperboloids
Tangential equations
Centre of conicoid whose tangential equation is given
Directorsphere of a conicoid
Locus of centres of conicoids which touch eight given planes
Locus of centres of conicoids which touch seven given planes
.
132
.133
.
134
.135
.
136
137
CONTENTS.
Xll
PAGE
Director spheres of conicoids which touch eight given
planes, have a
common radical plane
The
......
Reciprocation
137
137
The
...
.
138
138
140
141
CHAPTER
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
137
VIII.
CONCYCLIC CONICOIDS.
Foci OP CONICOIDS.
144
145
....
.
Two
line to the
145
146
146
147
it
148
149
151
152
153
....
153
155
155
Focal conies
156
156
.
158
160
159
CHAPTER
IX.
164
165
167
CONTENTS.
xiii
PAGE
Plane at infinity
167
168
.
169
170
170
Diametral planes
Condition for a cone
Any two conicoids have a
171
171
common
selfpolar tetrahedron
172
172
.172
173
173
Examples on Chapter IX
175
CHAPTER
X.
SURFACES IN GENERAL.
at
any point
of a surface
178
Inflexional tangents
The Indicatrix
179
180
180
parameter
of regression of envelope
Envelope of a system of surfaces
181
.182
Edge
183
184
185
186
188
190
generating
line
Lines of striction
191
,.
191
.
192
194
CONTENTS.
XIV
CHAPTER
XI.
CURVES.
PAGE
197
....
......
may
202
203
203
206
Examples on Chapter
201
202
204
be plane
Centre and radius of spherical curvature
198
207
208
XL
210
CHAPTER
XII.
CURVATUBB OF SuKFACES.
Curvatures of normal sections of a surface
...",".
Euler
213
214
Theorem
s Theorem
.214
Meunier
215
217
The normals
to
any surface
217
intersect
217
218
.
.218
*
.
.
Lines of curvature on a developable surface .
219
Lines of curvature on a cone
on both
If the curve of intersection of two surfaces is a line of curvature
220
the surfaces cut at a constant angle
221
s Theorem
Dupin
To
...
any point
Geodesic lines
of a surface
222
223
Umbilics
z=f(x,
y)
224
225
22 6
CONTENTS.
XV
PAGE
its
focal conicoids
The
227
228
228
228
229
230
Miscellaneous Examples
237
SOLID GEOMETRY.
CHAPTER
I.
COORDINATES.
THE
by referring
XOY
its
LPM
XOY\
OP
LP = OQ,MP =
OR, and
NP = 08.
OS
S. S. G.
COORDINATES.
Q, R, S parallel respectively
then the point of intersection of
If the coordinates of
tively be a,
b, c,
then
is
to OX, OY,
parallel
said to be the point (a,
OZ respec
6, c).
sufficient
LP
drawn
those drawn
If lines
sidered as positive,
as negative.
shall consider that the directions
must be considered
We
OX, 0\
OZ
are
positive.
The whole
of space
is
UAY /,,
namely OXYZ, OX Y /,,
YZ
OX
and
YZ
OXYZ,
OX
2
OXYZ, OXY
there is a
(a&gt;
respectively,
00OKDINATES.
4.
To find the coordinates of the point which divides the
straight line joining two given points in a given ratio.
Let P,
divides
Let
N.
PQ in
Pbe
LM will
be in that
in the points K,
plane,
suppose.
Then
PR
HU
m
m
+
PQ
77^=
But Z/P = z
!
.
9?^
~&
*,
=
tt^
2=
+ m,
*
?;
oc
Similarly
and y
When Py
is
divided externally,
is
negative.
ll
COORDINATES.
We
may
is
bisected
the
PQ
be.
To express
5.
of
their coordinates.
Let
Pbe
Draw through
OX,
QKL,
the angle
Now PL
is
PLQ is
a right angle,
PL
and Q
x^ and
LK and KQ.
Hence PQ 1 = (,  *,) + (y, + (,,  ztf
(i).
The distance of P from the origin can be obtained from
the above by putting #2 = 0, y^ = 0, z^ = 0. The result is
similarly for
y,)"
&lt;
2
i/ 1
+*
2
1
(ii).
COORDINATES.
Ex.
(a?2 , t/ 2 ,
z,,),
(x9 ,
Ex. 2. Shew that the three lines joining the middle points of opposite
Shew also that this point is on the
edges of a tetrahedron meet in a point.
line joining any angular point to the centre of gravity of the opposite face,
and divides that line in the ratio of 3 1.
:
Ex.
of points
3.
(1, 2, 3)
0, ) is
3), (3, 2,
!),(
1, 1, 2)
and
(1,
1,
2).
PNQ
PQ cos a = PL,
PQcos/3 = PM,
and
PQcosy=PN.
PQ
{cos a
+ cos 7 = PU + PM* + PN = PQ
cos a + cos /? 4 cosfy = 1.
cos
/8
Hence
by the
letters I, m, n.
the above we see that any three directioncosines
2
are connected by the relation f +
+ n2 = 1. If the
directioncosines of
be I, m, n, it is easily seen that those
of QP will be
n and it is immaterial whether we
I,
m,
consider I, m, n, or the same quantities with all the signs
From
PQ
changed, as directioncosines.
If
we know
cosines of
cosines.
that a,
some
For we have
.
6,
we can
line,
=T=
b
hence each
V(^~+
6*
c )
is
equal to
..,_
*
V(a*
+ &* + (?)
COORDINATES.
The
where the
line is
is
the point
OZ
spectively.
same
direction
always have pq
PS on any line
as
positive
+ qr + rs = ps,
P and
If
projections of
PQ
Then
it
COORDINATES.
z
Also
c for all points on the plane PLSM.
=
=
and
b
and
at
have
x
the
the
line
we
a,
y
along
we have the three relations x = a, y = b, z = c.
point
So that a plane is determined by one equation, a straight
line by two equations, and a point by three equations.
= 0,
In general, any single equation of the form
(x, ?/, z)
in which the variables are the coordinates of a point,
represents a surface of some kind ; two equations represent a
curve, and three equations represent one or more points* This
and that
NP
we proceed
to prove.
of
z.
Since the
number
of roots
is finite,
COOEDINATES.
equations
represent one or more points.
12.
The position of a point in space can be defined by
other methods besides the one described in Art. 1.
Another method is the following: an origin
is taken, a
fixed line
through 0, and a fixed plane XOZ. The
is
position of a point
completely determined when its
distance from the fixed point 0, the angle ZOP, and the angle
between the planes XOZ, and
are given.
These coordinates are called Polar Coordinates, and are usually de
noted by the symbols r,
and 0, and the point is called the
OZ
POZ
point
(r, 6,
$).
OX
Draw
PN
x=
y=
and 2
XOY,
and
NM
MN= ONsm
&lt;f)
= OP sin
&lt;/&gt;
6 sin
= r sin
&lt;
6 sin
&lt;f&gt;
&lt;/&gt;,
4/ (a?
=,
tan"
an d
= tan
CHAPTER
II.
THE PLANE.
To shew that
13.
is
a plane.
of the
first
degree
is
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0.
If
(o? f ,
y lt z^ and
(o?a ,
locus,
we have
Ax + By + Cz D = 0,
^1^
B + Cfe + D = 0.
I
and
f
then we have
t
B2l
m^m^
and
and add:
12
m, f m2
mj + m2
m, + m 2
This shews [Art. 4] that if the points (#,, y,, s,), (a?a y a a ) be
on the locus, any other point in the line joining them is also
on the locus this shews that the locus satisfies Euclid s
{
definition of a plane.
To find
of a plane.
from the
Let p be the length of the perpendicular
of
on
the
and
let
be
directioncosines
n
the
I,
m,
origin
plane,
14.
the equation
ON
THE PLANE.
10
(he perpendicular.
PL
Let
on
perpendicular
and draw
XO Y, and LM perpendicular to
on ON is equal
and LP on ON.
we have
OP
OX.
to the
sum
ML
Hence
if
P be
(a?,
y, z),
las
is
15.
To
find
is
of the plane
is
THE PLANE.
To find
16.
11
points.
?/ 2 ,
^2 ), (xs ys ^3 ).
,
Ax f By 4 Cz + D = 0.
If the three given points are on this plane,
+ By\ + Cfc +
Ax^
Ax + By^ + Gz + D
and
we have
= 0,
Z&gt;
0.
x.
?/
0.
and 8 =
be the equations of two planes,
be the general equation of a plane through
their intersection.
For, since S and S are both of the first
and hence S \8 =
represents
degree, so also is
If
8=0
S X S =
will
17.
S\S
The plane
a plane.
planes.
18.
common
may
have a
line
cis
and
a"x
The equation
of
(i)
and
(ii)
(ax
4
+ Vy +
c"z
(ii),
d"
(iii).
is
by
of
cz
d)
f
X (ax +
y f
c z
+ d ) = Q... (iv).
THE PLANE.
12
If the three planes
have a
can,
by properly choosing
plane as (iii). Hence corresponding coefficients
proportional, so that
a
f
Xa
~~ _
~an
Put each
must bo
+ \b
~ _ c + Ac _ d + \d[
~wr
fraction equal to
\a
~ar~~*
then we have
~~&lt;r~
JJL,
f
+ \c +
4
pa"
= 0,
=
0,
/ic"
= 0.
d f Xd +
the required
X
and
have
we
/A
Eliminating
namely
and
/*d"
conditions,
0,
Othe
We
Ax + By + Gz + D =
Ix
+ my + nz=p
..................... (i),
and
let
Ix
is
+ my \nz = p
The
..................... (ii)
Ix
*
+my +nz =p
.................. (iii).
THE PLANE.
Now
if
PL
13
on the plane
(i),
=p p
= lx + my
f
nz
p.
+ my +
may be
f my \nzp.
Ax \By\Cz\DQ, it
written
Ax + By + C*+D
Ex. 1. Find the equation of the plane through (2, 3,  1) parallel to the
Ana. 3oc  4y f 7 + 13 = 0.
plane 3os 4y + Iz = 0.
Ex. 2. Find the equation of the plane through the origin and through
the intersection of the two planes 5x  3y f 2* + 5 = and 3#/p: 5y  2z  7 = 0.
Ex. 7. Shew that the two points (1,  1, 3) and (3, 3, 3) are equidistant
from the plane 5x + 2y  Iz + 9 = 0, and on opposite sides of it.
Ex. 8. Find the equations of the planes which bisect the angles between
the planes Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, and A x + B y + C z + D = 0.
Ax+By + Cz + D _ A x + B y+C z + D
"
THE STRAIGHT
14
LINE.
The
Ex.
0.
in a constant ratio,
We
Let
PQ
X OY by lines parallel to
of
projection in pq.
if Ix f my
nates of any point on
its
Hence
Ix
+ my
1.
lx
+ my = I,
ny
+ pz
1.
find.
THE STRAIGHT
Let
22.
(x, y, z)
(ex,
ft
&lt;y);
let
I,
(a, /3,
15
LINE.
any point
on the
and
Draw through
planes parallel to the coordinate
planes so as to make a parallelepiped, and let AL, LM,
be edges of this parallelepiped parallel to the axes of x, y, z
on the axis
is the
Then
projection of
respectively.
MP
AP
AL
of#; therefore
,
We
= lr,
or
X ~
have similarly
r,
m
Hence the equations
and
OL
zy =

r.
OL
_y
ft
_z
7_
n
*
Ex. 1. To find in a symmetrical form the equations of the line of inter
section of the planes 5x  4y = 1, By  5z = 2.
written
=  = ^^?
4
o
O
Ex.
2.
Find
in a
The
3.
Am. %(x
Ex.
(2, 3, 4)
4.
Hence the
3x+y~7z=Q.
Ex.
direction
line
5)
x2y 5,
=y=z If.
^.^j.^.
Write down the equation of the straight line through the point
Ans.
THE STRAIGHT
16
LINE.
AB
AB
y*&gt;
*&gt;
AP
x
~x
*
To find
24.
y
\
y&lt;i~~
y\
zz
~z
whose
Let
two
I,
lines,
first line.
MQ
PQ
MQ
that line.
Hence
But
PQ cos = PL .1 + LM .m + MQ
Pl = l.PQ,
LM=m.PQ,
and
n.
MQ = n.PQ;
THE STRAIGHT
therefore
cos
we have
If L,
17
mm + nn.
II
LINE.
+ mm + nn
0.
N are
M,
___
M
are proportional to L,
*
r&gt;r\o
1
y(
The condition
LL + MM + NN
+ ^ + ^ *j (L* + M* + N*y
1
of perpendicularity
is
as before
LL + MM + NN = 0.
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
Shew
3x= y=
Ex.
= =
and
4z=3t/= Z
=
is
are
^ 1
at right angles.
4z.
3.
lines
?=
1
= and 
f
1
U
o
^.
4
^4ns.
e
5
cos"
yV
Ex.4. Shew
that
the lines
3x + 2y + z5 = Q = x + y2z3, and
8x  4y  4z = = Ix + 1 Oy  82 are at right angles.
Ex. 5. Find the acute angle between the lines whose directioncosines are
Ex. 6. Shew that the straight lines whose directioncosines are given by
the equations 2l + 2mn = Q, and mn + nl + lm = Q are at right angles.
2
Eliminating I, we have 2mn (m + n) (2m n) = 0, or 2in
Hence, if the directioncosines of the two lines be l^ m v n^ and
have
1
.
Similarly
n^n^
+ 71^2 =
LI =
Hence the
^.
mnn = 0.
z m 2 w 2 we
z
condition
1^1^
+ m.m,,
^1^2
is satisfied.
Ex. 7. Find the angle between the two lines whose directioncosines are
Ans. 60.
+ n = 0, Z2 + 2  n 3 = 0.
given by the equations I +
Ex. 8. Find the equations of the straight lines which bisect the angles
x y
..
,,
,
= z and, x. = u = z .
between the lines T =
I
m n
V
m n
= r. Then
be two points, one on each line, such that
the coordinates of P are li\ mr, nr, and of Q are I r, m r, n r; hence the co
ordinates of the middle point of PQ are ^(1 + / ) r, ^ (//* + m ) r, % (n + n ) r. Since
,
Let P,
S. S. G.
OPOQ
T&E STRAIGHT
18
middle
the
m+m
+l
on
is
point
.
By
+ ri.
mm
.,
the
equations
;
required
of
the
equations
are
of
the
bisector
n
therefore
sin
= A/
therefore sin
26.
bisector,
the
Similarly
25.
the
LINE.
To find
= II + mm f nri
= 1 (II + mm f nri)*
;
(mri
+ mm
+ (Imf
^ (II
rij*
+ (nl
rilf
f nri)*
I
m)
}.
are given.
+
IS
&lt;
V (A*
Cz
AA +Bff+Oa
B C V (A 4 JT 4 C
*
4
+Z=0
4
Ex.
?
1
2.
x
x2yz=
cut ? Is the
Is the point (l,3, 1) in the
1
Ans. cos~ v/2, acute, obtuse.
Ex.
4.
Shew
+iiz+p = Q
if IX
^=
\
y


fj.
+ m/jL + nv =0,
is parallel to
xy
Ans.
x+ lly + 14je=0.
the plane
THE STRAIGHT
19
LINE.
w
 ft
7
n
M\s
a
MP
AP
AQ
AQ = (/ a) + (g  @) m + (h  7) n.
therefore
Hence
.
To find
28.
Cv ^
27
a.
7
,
)
lines
ana
&lt;
be
T
,
jnjtyLmtersect.
lie
7),
,
on a plane
n
;
and, since
we may take
for
(i).
22
its
THE STRAIGHT
20
The point
(a
/3
) is
LINE.
both
lines,
perpendicular to
is
we have
\l
+vn =
+ fjum + vri =
\fjim
\l
and
...................... (iii),
...................... (iv).
(ii),
//,,
and
(iii)
(iv)
we have
/,
,
I
I
77 = 0.
n
ri
= 0.
I
I
in
a zx + bjj
4
c/ 4 dz =
0,
and a 9ao
a x a? + b,y 4c
d B = 0,
4
+ b$ + c# 4
A KB and GLD
Let
KL be
a line which
KL
is
We
can find
parallel to
CD
plane
cut
PAB
m,
I
1
line required.
KL
CD
in
and
f.
AP
let
~i
draw
AE
through
LK
X
Since the line
of the line
OL
ft
21
y
(i).
(i)
a.
\
and
Since
(i)
and
is
//,
a
r
b
ft
wi
n
^
,
7 c
.(iii).
11
lines,
we have
therefore
mn
mn
nl
nl
Im
Hence, from (ii) ani (lii), vc aee that (a, ft, 7), which is
an arbitrary point en the shortest distance, is on the two
planes
a
I
m
nl
0,
Im
ril,
m n,
m.n
nl
m n,
mn
and
a,
I
m
= 0.
ril,
Im
We
line
on which the
lies.
Now
line
(a
(6
X,
6)
/A,
/z
v is
(c
c) v
THE STRAIGHT
22
But
LINE.
as above
mn
mn
is
nl
lm
equal to
1
+ (Im  m?}
1
ril)*
is
Ex.
2.
How
from the
Ans.a^\.
line of intersection of
4.
fi
a.
Ans.
(a
/3
7% and
P _ ~~ y
Ex.
5.
of a rectangular
parallelepiped
be
where
a, 6, c are
Ex.
6.
5m 10
Ans.
ix=
7.
6yz
be
23
PROJECTIONS.
P Q ,R ...;
P Q R
ft JS...
then
on the plane.
between the
line
...
If the lines
PP
31.
The orthogonal projection of any plane area on
any other plane is found by multiplying the area by the
by projection in the
ratio 1
cos
0.
jection
33.
Let
I,
m, n the
A Ay A
the
we have
VOLUME OF TETRAHEDRON.
24
P + m*
Hence, since
we have
f
n2
1,
A x + Af + A* = A
*
2
.
Also the projection of A on any other plane, the directioncosines of whose normals are l m, ri, is A cos 6 ; and we
y
have
cos 6
= (U + mm + nri) A
Hence
sum
y,
To find
coordinates of
the
its
).
4&gt;
is
=0.
.*
2/3
2/4
A
A
on
this is
found by sub
and
z.
Now
the coefficients of
x, y, z
L.
IL.
are
1
2/ 2
2/3
2/4
2/3
2/4
coefficients are
1
!
respectively equal
to twice the area of the projection of
on the planes
# 0, y  and z = 0. Hence the square root of the sum
of the squares of the coefficients of xt y and z is, by the
BCD
A BCD.
TWO STRAIGHT
Therefore 2p
25
LINES.
therefore
volume
2/&lt;
of tetrahedron
2/2
2/3
*4&gt;
2/0
1
^4&gt;
Let
be the middle point of CO the shortest distance
draw
between the two straight lines CD,
Through
OA, OB parallel to CD, C D and let OX, OY bisect
the angle A OB. Take OX, OY,OG for axes of coordinates
x tana
then, if AOB be 2a, the equations of OA, OB are y
2 = 0, and y =
x tan a, z 0.
,
CD
When
it
rectangular,
tions of CD,
W
CD
Also
lines
are
is
may
Z&gt;
(7Z&gt;,
c.
OBLIQUE AXES.
26
36.
intersection cut
ratio.
P",
S"
Q", E",
{P"Q"R"S"}\
{P"
Q"
QR
R"
OBLIQUE AXES.
38.
Some
We
These may be
different.
KQ
to
PQ are
clear
that
directionratios.
It is
by
its
OBLIQUE AXES.
27
of
XOY
Let
therefore
f
Similarly
and
cos 7
To find
41.
cos
/z
+m
cos X
/i.
n.
of a
line.
Project
PL, LK,
KQ on
(I
+ m + n cos \)
cos /A + m cos X
(I
2mn cos X + 2?iJ cos ^ + 2/m cos = 1
(I
cos y
f
or
r+m + n
which
is
f
i&gt;
I
n)
.(i),
=1
OBLIQUE AXES.
28
Q be
&gt;
*&gt;
i&gt;
l.PQ = PL = xz 
Then
n.PQ
and
Hence from
2 (,
 *J
we have
(i)
K
#1) cos /i
+ 2 (a,  aj
f)
(y a
y
cos ? ......
t)
in
(ii),
terms of their
oblique coordinates.
To find
42.
Let
lines
I.
m, n and
PQ and PQ
and
KQ
let
n be the
6
l&gt;e
directionratios of the
the angle between them.
LK=m
KQ = n .PQ.
then
Project PQ and PLKQ on the line P Q
=
a
cos
n
cos
m
P
cos
+
Q
PQ
PQ
ft + P Q cos 7
where a /3 7 are the angles the line P Q makes with
PL = l.PQ,
PQ, and
axes.
the
(I
+m
cos v
f
w cos //,)
m (r cos v + m + n cos X)
+ w cos + m cos X + n
+ wm 7m + (mri f m n) cos X +
4
(If
II
/A
f
(&gt;?
4 (iwi
+ w7)
f
???)
cos
cos
/^
j^.
Volume = J
0,
OBLIQUE AXES.
where
plane
be
is
OZ
to the
XOY.
I,
to the plane
XOY
+ ra cos v f n cos = 0,
+ w + cos X = 0,
I cos
+ m cos X f 7i = cos
//,
cos p
?z
yu,
Multiply by
The
I,
elimination of
I,
1,
COS//,
cosX,
0,
o,
6=
COS
1
cos
cos
fju
cos
Art 41,
COS V
1
COS
/IP ,
cos
COS
/JL
COS
costf
1,
cos e
COS V
cosy,
(i)
1,
0.
/t.
cos v
cos v
f
+2
2 cos
cos
X cos
cos
//,
/u
cos
cos
v).
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
44.
To change
the origin
referred
Let/, g, h be the coordinates of the new origin
Let
be any point whose coordinates
to the original axes.
referred to the original axes are #, y, z, and referred to the
be parallel to the axis of x and
Let
new axes x,
z.
let it
meet
FO^in
PL
L, and
T OZ
in
30
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
Then
x
therefore
= LL
=f.
Similarly
and
Hence,
y + g,
if in
+h
= h.
for x, y, z respectively,
To change
45.
Let l v v n^ /2 ra n
and lv y n s be the direction?
cosines
ines of the new axes referred to the old.
,
&lt;2
Let
P be any point
are x, y, z and x,
Draw PL
pendicular to
whose coordinates
in the
two systems
X OY and LM per
ML
and LP=z
OX is equal to the sum of
OM
OX
ML
Similarly
y=
and
we have
a + ra 2 y + mn z,
x + n2 y + n s z
/*,
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
31
OX OY OZ
Also, since
angles,
we have
y,
y
^
m m 4 nji = 0,
j
m^j + n n = 0, L
+ m^ + w^ = J
4
4 f
and
two at right
This
m,,
follows
m m
2,
OX, OY,
46.
at
and
once
n,,
OZ referred
n2
from
wg
the
fact
are the
that
J
f
lh + m,?^ f WjWa = 0,
IJ,9
+m
m + n^ = 0,
B
we have
Hence each
fraction is equal to
^,
of
OX OY OZ
Since
and
directioncosines
TRANSFORMATION OP COORDINATES.
Also
If in Art. 45 the
47.
/j,
??
lt
new axes
are oblique
we
still
have
the relations
y = mjc
z
+ m,y + m/,
+ i\y + n z
njc
can deduce the values of x
We
z in terms of x, y, z
x
Ill
is
axes
stituting for
We
49.
by the solution of
some examples.
(1)
line of constant length has its extremities on two fixed straight lines;
the locus of its middle point is an ellipse.
take the axes of coordinates as in Art. 35, the equations of the lines
z=c. Let the coordinates of the
and
z =
shew that
If
we
will be
= mx,
c\
y= mx,
EXAMPLES.
33
x
Then,
y&lt;
&gt;2&gt;
22
allcl lct
l&gt;o
&gt;
if 21
21
2 = 0,
c, we have
is
moves so as always
line
z2
z 2 = 2c, and
(2)
to intersect three
plane
Draw through each of the lines planes parallel to the other two; a
parallelepiped is thus formed of which the given lines are edges. Take the
centre of the parallelepiped for origin, and axes parallel to the edges, then
the equations of the given lines are y = &, z
c; * = c, x= a; and x = a,
y=
b respectively.
"
cy

cy
6j8
=
n
we have
aa
=7
and
aa
b8
r
~^
whose equation
is
=
be
ca
ab
The
two homographic
ymx + \(zc)=0,
y+mx + \ (z+c)=Q.
and
S. S. G.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
34
Hence the
II.
and we have
(y
+ mx) + G (z2 
c 2)
= 0.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
:^(
1.
equally
through
IF
inclined
whose reciprocals
v
2.
II.
Shew
is
constant.
of a tetrahedron
a plane
the six
4.
&gt;
is
is
x (m  n) + y (n ~&gt;.
Shew
a
z (I  m) =
1) +
in,
= n
.
(i
and
and which
===
ni
0.
ft
aa
bfi
cy
in
V&lt;
a)
t&gt;
then
111111
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
7.
35
II
so as always
to be equally distant
drawn
9.
and shew
10.
two given
by it,
straight lines
lines
equations ax
will
represented by the
be perpendicular if
1
 + 1 + I~ = n
0.
a y
o
c
diagonal, is a
maximum.
^1
is
olmn
is
14.
straight line meets two given straight lines and makes
the same angle with both of them; find the surface which it
generates.
Any two
by a straight
15.
ratio
line
same
which it
generates.
16.
straight line always parallel to the plane of yz passes
2
2
2
2
through the curves x + y = a 2 = 0, and x = az, 2/ = 0; prove
that the equation of the surface generated is
,
32
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
36
TI.
18.
19.
P,
AB, A
lines
\GO.
AP
is
constant
Find
+ by* +
+ la yz + 2b zx +
cz*
Zc
xy 
tan
= *v/
it satisfied, if
+ 2 bccaab
r
a+b+c
be
c"
equations of
its
plane faces.
CHAPTER
III.
the nine.
To find
the prints
degree.
38
to this line
and the
surface,
i
IrY
+b
(/3 4
m/)*
or
I
!7
+ p(a,/8,7)=0 ............ (i).
J
any straight
meets
line
at
any
one root of
a point on F(x, y, .z) =
the equation found in the preceding Article will be zero.
Two roots will be zero if I, m, n satisfy the relation
If
(a,
0, 7) be
,dF +
lT
da
The
line
^^ =
I
dF
mjlz
dp
dF
+ nr = V .................. W,.&lt;
dj
1$
= *^
n
m
w il]
in that case
be a
39
is
+ C + 23 + 2a 4 2/ta + ua + v + wy.
+ 0? to both sides, then the right side
Add t*a + 17/8 +
= act
^which
zero; we therefore
at (a,
7)
equation of the tangent plane
becomes F(a,
/8,
7),
is
have
for
the
&
x (aa + A
v
Ex 1 Find the equation of the tangent plane at the point (# , y , z ) on
9
Ans. ax x + by y + cz z +d=&lt;X
the surface as 2 + by + cz* + d=0.
Ex 2. Find the equation of the tangent plane at the point (x , y , z ) on
2
Ans. ax x + by y + z + z =0.
the surface az 2 + 6i/ + 2,s = 0.
53.
may
The
(a,
&
7)
+ v/3 +
This condition
is
+ = 0.
o?
w&gt;7
equivalent to
+ 1;^ + wz + cZ = 0.
/
From
is
x (ax
?/
+ d = 0.
This plane
is
tangent
The equation
putting x
=y =
= 0.
by
40
The
54.
pass through
a (ax
This equation
is
may
y, z)
above
7) is as
unaltered
if
we interchange
4
d = O. c
a and x,
the polar
and 7 and a
it therefore follows that if
/8 and y
with respect to a conicoid pass through
plane of any point
a point Q, then will the polar plane of Q pass through P.
55.
Let
be any point on the line of intersection of the
,
polar planes of P, Q.
If any chord of a
conicoid be
lines.
x
_
I
i/
*_
=r
r (aV
have,
+ but + en + 2fmn +
Hence
we
tynl
I
2hlm)
2r (id
_ + _=_({+,,, +
The equation
ux
4
vm + wn) + d
,).
is
0.
CONDITION OF TANGENCY.
Hence
D=
~
&gt;
ULI
+ vm +
(ul
JL
therefore
tori)
41
OQ~ OR
To find
57.
the
may
touch
conicoid.
+ my + nz +p =
f
at
(i).
(so
z)
is
and
+ z (gx
have
ax
by
(i)
(ii)
...... (ii).
are the
same we
f
hy + gz
I
+u _ hx + by +fz
m
}
_ gx +fy
4 cz
+w
_ ux + vy + wz + d
P
Put each
X; then we have
fraction equal to
+ hy + gz + u + X =0,
+ by^ +fa + v + X m = 0,
X w = 0,
f /y + c^ + w
wa/ f vy +wz
d+\p = 0.
ax
hx
f
&lt;7#
f
Also, since
(a/,
ia? f
namely
a,
h,
g,
u,
h,
b,
f,
v,
g,
u,
f,
c,
w,
v,
w,
d,
m, n, p,
=0.
42
TANGENT PLANE.
The determinant when expanded
AP + Bin + On + Dp +
2
where A, B,
determinant
+2
+2
2 .Fww
cases
72p
+ 2Fwp + 2Wnp =
g
6, /,
h,
We
is
Gnl + 2 fl7m
c,
0,
&c. in the
g,
f,
c,
u,
w,
b,
two following
I.
ax 2 + by 9 f cz2 + d = 0.
The tangent plane at any point (a? y z)
cw? # + 6^/ 2/ + cz z + ^ = 0.
7
is
ax
we have r
=~ =
+ my +nz + p=Q,
bi/
cz
= ~d
p
2
f
4/(ax
v//
hence, since
ao;
fy/
6y*
is
equal to
c/
II.
fraction
+ c/ + f?)
f
p,
Bacn
+ = 0,
rf
is
at
+ by* +
2z
0.
?/,
is
axx + by y + z + / = 0.
Hence, comparing this equation with the given equation
Ix + my + nz + p = 0,
hence, since
==
Each
ax*
f
4
fraction
%z
is
43
equal to
0,
is
V
+2np =
f
a
b
0.
58.
If we find, as in Article 51, the quadratic equation
giving the segments of a chord through (a, ft, 7) the roots of
the equation will be equal and opposite, if
,dF +
ljda.
dF A
m dF + nj^O
.............
,^
dft
dy
...
(i).
In this case (a, ft, 7) will be the middle point of the chord.
Hence an infinite number of chords of the conicoid have the
point (a, ft, 7) for their middle point.
we
If
chord and
eliminate I, m,
(i), we see that
whose equation
(a, ft,
all
of the
such chords are in the plane
is
.dF
Hence
.dF
.dF
which
....
(ii)
meets
the surface.
The equation
/,
&lt;/,
of the locus is
(fx)^
+ (yy) +(hz)
j
where
&gt;
V Ex.
2.
The locus
straight line.
DIAMETRAL PLANES.
44
The
lx
whose centre
section
+ my + nzQ
is
(a,
dF
dF
dF
~da
_ dg
~
dy
m~~
is
_I
^
dx
m
~~
The
parallel
the given
to
plane
11
planes
7) is
/3,
if
i??
_ 1 dF
~
dy
n dz
straight lines clearly all pass through the point of intersection of the
dF = dF
= dF = n0.
dx
dy
dz
59.
To find the locus of the middle points of
parallel chords of a conicoid.
As
a system of
.dF
+m
dF
lj
da
^5
d/3
ft
dF =
5
0.
dy
Hence the
.dF
,
c i

ax
m dF
j
dy
\
dF =
y
0.
dz
conicoid.
I,
m, n
dF
~j
ax
or,
I
whose
dF =
O
m dF
J + n TJdz
(ax
or
of the chords
direction cosines
is
v/
dy
full,
45
PRINCIPAL PLANES.
be perpendicular to the chords
If this plane
it
bisects,
we have
hi
+b
Put X
common
for the
+ gn
0,
+ (b\)m+fn
=0,
+ (eX)oJ
+fm
hi
gl
I,
+hm
(a\)l
Eliminating
ra
.......
n we have
ra,
aX,
h
h,
b\
0,
f
c
f&gt;
g&gt;
2
X  (a + b + c) X + (6c + ca + a& f  g  tf) X
 (ale
+$fgh of* bg*
2
or
ch*)
0.
+ 2zx~2xy
+ Wy* + &z*8yz + 4z
x* + y*z * + 2yz
&lt;
\/
(i)
(ii)
llx&gt;
Ans.
Ans.
61.
and
(i)
(ii)
sections
in such a
way
that the
of parallel planes
and
second degree.
Let the equation of any one of the planes bo z = k. At
= 0, by the
all points of the section of the surface
(x, y, z)
46
=k
plane z
satisfied
we
therefore
have
ax*
+ by
f
ck*
F
t
CLASSIFICATION OF CONICOIDS.
6*2.
We
surfaces
first
in a new system of co
this plane for the plane z =
ordinates.
The degree of the equation of the surface will not be altered
will be of the form
the transformation ; hence the
Take
by
ax*
equation
2wz + d = 0.
Zfyz + 2gzx + Zlixy + 2ux + 2vy +
by*
= bisects all chords parallel
By supposition the plane z
f
f cz* 4
to the axis of z
therefore
Now
if (#
will also
that/= g
=w = Q.
~_^
&gt;
will disappear.
[See Conies, Art. 167] the term involving xy
CLASSIFICATION OF CONICOIDS.
zx,
and xy are
47
all
When the terms yz, zx, xy are all absent from the
64.
equation of a conicoid, it follows from Art. 60 that the coordi
Hence by
nate planes are all parallel to principal planes.
the preceding article, there are always three principal
This shews
planes, which are two and two at right angles.
that all the roots of the cubic equation found in Art. 60 are real.
For an algebraical proof of this important theorem see
Todhunter s Theory of Equations.
We have
65.
degree can in
I.
We
all
,
+ 77 =
A
which we can write
or
or
in the
B
form
1,
48
CLASSIFICATION OF CONICOIDS.
according as
j
D
,
^
^ are
all
positive,
if+
Let
II.
G,
2
&lt;7z
=0
................ (8).
coefficients
A, B,
G,
be
zero.
then,
if
W be not
be reduced
by a change of
origin,
to
If
Aa?
or, if
in the form
jy be
+B
Q
III.
We
..................
coefficients,
(77).
be zero.
Wa
Wz+D^
for the
plane y
= 0,
and
If
however
F=
TF= 0,
= 2% .........................
the equation
a?
66.
We
now proceed
=k
to
is
((9).
equivalent to
........................ (*)
consider
the
nature of the
surfaces
49
THE ELLIPSOID.
The
is
a
an
called
is
Let
(a, y, z)
ellipsoid.
c be in
a,
b,
*2
and
then
+ v? + ^^1.1
ordinate planes.
If r be the length of a semidiameter whose directioncosines are I, m, n, we have the relation
1
"72
\ mT
 ~2
l
T~
U*
4.
+ fa = 1
^
a
6
2
x.
The
its
spheroid.
If
a=b = c
is
x3 + if +
a*,
u.
67.
is
called
The
on the
surface
is
axis of z are
The
whose equation
surface
is
real,
and those
imaginary.
clearly symmetrical
ordinate planes.
The
sections
and that by
which on 2
is
=1 +
Jf
to z
l) }
is
circle.
=1
about
its
51
conjugate
axis.
The
figure
68.
The
~~
a2
is
is
*&gt;
surface,
~~
The
k*
&gt;
The parallel
is imaginary.
by the plane x
does not meet the surface in real points unless
2
2
If &
a the section is an ellipse the axes of which
section
=k
plane x
2
ft .
&gt;
The
the figure.
If I
circle.
= c,
is
the section by any plane parallel to a; =
surface is that formed by the revolution
Hence the
of the hyperbola
y^
about
its
transverse axis.
ft
69.
a cone.
The
is
Ax*
+ By* f
Cz*
42
is
THE CONE.
52
is
cone.
If the vertex of a cone be taken as origin, the
equation
of the surface is homogeneous. This follows at once from the
consideration that if (x, y, z) be any point
on the surface,
is also on the
any other point (kx, ky, kz) on the line
OP
surface.
whose vertex
surface.
Zfyz
Zgzx
+ Zhxy =
0.
If r
70.
surface ax*
+ by + cs +
+ by + c/ =
= al* + bin +
2
en*.
Such
j
f
jj
2
+ 6m +
en
0.
This cone
71.
meet the
is
The equation Ax 2 + By 2 + 2 Wz =
= %z,
or
y = 2z,
is
equivalent to
and
THE PARABOLOID.
The
is
called
The
an elliptic paraboloid.
sections by the planes
having a
is
#=
and y
are parabolas
concavities are in the same
direction.
is
surface
whose equation
is
The
which have a
common
axis,
opposite directions.
= 0,
and
THE PARABOLOID.
5*
The
section
by the plane z
x*
the equation r
given by
y=
is
u*
0.
The
section by
any plane
axis of y.
The
Ly
*Sr
The equation
l
origin
is
2tfa
u
(i
become
b
infinite,
tively to
while
and
= 0.
c
,
Now
suppose that
a,
is
The
b,
c all
 remain
finite
we have
=
I
which
0) as
0,
f
yI
2#,
sign.
If the signs of A, B,
same the
surface
is
imaginary.
The equation
curve
is
The
2%
x*
represents a cylinder whose guiding
a parabola, and which is called a parabolic cylinder.
2
k represents the two parallel planes
equation #
EXAMPLES.
55
Ex. 1. The sura of the squares of the reciprocals of any three diameters
of an ellipsoid which are mutually at right angles is constant.
n t ) we
If rx be the semidiameter whose directioncosines are (l lt
lt
have
/*i
= ^ + 5 + T
2
a
c
and similarly
111111
i
By
addition
0"
Ex. 2. If three fixed points of a straight line are on given planes which
are at right angles to one another, shew that any other point in the line
describes an ellipsoid.
Let A, JB, C be the points which are on the coordinate planes, and
P (x, y, z) be any other fixed point whose distances from A, B, G are a, &, c.
Then  = l,
a
line.
Ex.
m, and
^~
= n,
of the locus is
X%
y%
+ fr
a2
6^
,
22
5=!.
c2
3.
ellipsoid
ellipsoid
a?

+ my \nz \.
We
Ex.
4.
it is
and
ellipsoid
is
2

of the
of the equation of the plane: the result
^ + f +^ =(i*+my + ^)
For
z
p + =1
i/
homogeneous by means
at the origin
and
the same points.
is
in
is
fyz
+ gzx + hxy = 0.
Ex. 5. Find the equation of the cone whose vertex is at the centre of a
given ellipsoid, and which goes through all points common to the ellipsoid
and a concentric sphere.
2
xa
z2
7/
515
If the equations of the ellipsoid and sphere be
^ and
~+ 55
o:
+ 2/ 2 + 2 2 = r2
"^"i
THE CENTRE.
56
Ex.
6.
any generator be
*=
and y =
p^
7,
+ p(/37i7?7i) 2 = n2
the line,
and we have
Hence
y.
2(an7Z)
whose vertex
of the cone
lines pass
=
is
j^
the point
(a,
/3,
7)
= ^, 2 = 0.
This meets
2=0 where
Substitute for
^ +
I,
^ (a.zyx)^+j^(^z
yy)
= (zy)
&lt;2
the
required
equation.
Hence we have
ax*
ux
therefore
+ v^ + ic^j = 0.
all
surface,
coefficients of x,
75.
Let
To find
(f,
77,
f)
y and z are
of a conicoid, the
all zero.
of a conicoid.
if
we take
will
be [Art. 44]
J)
(a?
f
THE CENTRE.
57
4 hrj
are
+ g + u = 0, V
and
The equation
i),
of the conicoid
when
f) as origin is
ax?
//?/
+ ct? +
Multiply equations
2fyz
(i)
*],) ,
fyzx
in order
+
by
2Jucy
f,
77,
(i)
and
(iii)
...... (ii),
then we have
d^ug+wrj + wZ+d.
From
+d =
,(iii).
we have
v^.
^"&lt;akJ
THE CENTRE.
58
(iv)
is
z}&gt;
called the
is
denoted by the
76.
obtained
y,
(f,
f),
pro
dF df ~ dF
d%
It should
dij
by the equations
are given
I5li
U V ~W~D
where U, V, W,
77.
If,
origin,
57.
aV + &y + c z* + Zf yz + Zg zx + Zh xy
then, since x*
ax*
will
+ y* + z*
is
+ a? + Zfyz +
Zgzx
+ 2hxy  \
(x&gt;
+f+z
).
.(i)
be changed into
aV +
+ cz* +
2f yz
f
2g zx
+ Zh xy
X(^i2/ + 5
The
expressions
(i)
) ...... (ii).
59
INVARIANTS.
The
condition that
aX,
b\,
9
that
is
(i)
&gt;
is
= 0,
f
c
is
 (ale +
The
condition that
(ii)
is
 a/ 2
2fgh
by*
 ctf) = 0.
is
similarly
2
2
/  #  h *}
2 2
cA
a/
(a Vc + 2/y#
X  X2 (a! + V + c) + X (6Y f cV
4
aV
are unaltered
same
= 0.
are the
by any
origin,
and
2
+ ab /*  g  A .......... II,
f 2////1
af bf ctf ...... III.
ale
ca
We
any
parallel axes.
THE DISCRIMINATING
60
CUBIC.
will
become
2
) ............... (ii).
g
But
a,
(ii)
is
equation
0.
6X,
cX
when X
is
equal to
0, or 7.
Hence the
X,
is
coefficients
a, /3,
(iii).
X
/)
This equation
is
is
/  #* 2
2
7&gt;
 a/ ~
(abc
f
2/5*
fyf
c/t )
0.
is
We
79.
proceed to shew how to find the nature of a
conicoid whose equation is given.
a,
h,
h,
b,
f
c
9&gt;
is zero.
f&gt;
If
centre,
ax*
where d
is
bif
cz*
61
+ 2fyz + tyzx +
Zlixy
+d = 0,
a,
& 7 will
in such
criminating cubic.
[When the discriminating cubic cannot be solved, since its
roots are all real [Art. 64], the number of positive and of
negative roots can be found by Descartes Rule of Signs.]
Dd
Since
may be
written in the
+ D/3f + Dyt* + A = 0.
~?
~ are
quantities
Dztf
form
If the three
^
all
negative,
the surface
surface
surface
A = 0,
If
Ex.
is
the surface
llx"
(i).
The equations
+ l(ty + 62
is
a cone.
 8yz + 4zx
=
dx
dy
dz
The equation
is
(2,
2,
1).
are 3, 6, 18.
*2
or
7
We
3j,
22
+C + pl.
7/2
can find the equations of the axes by using the formulae found in
Art. 60.
The
!,!,*.
directioncosines
of
the
axes
are
I,
i,
 I
62
x2 + 2i/ 2 + 32 2  4x3  xy + d = 0.
(ii).
The Discriminating Cubic is X 3  6\ 2 + 3X + 14 = 0.
Ex.
that D = 0.
Then the three planes
on
which
the
will not intersect in a
centre
lies
(i)]
point at a finite distance from the origin, and we shall have
three cases to consider according as the planes meet in a
point at infinity, or have a common line of intersection, or
are all parallel to one another.
These three cases we shall
consider in the following Articles.
Next suppose
[Art. 75
The
81.
when
D=
ax + hy + gz + u
0,
+ 0=0,
gx + fy + cz + iv= 0,
kB.+ty +fj
and
may be
parallel are
a
j
h b f
 Th 9 ana
= :,= ,
nd
b J
g f c
7,
fl
Now
fgh
^f/
2ux
2vy
+ 2wz + d =
......... (ii).
C/
If the plane
ux
+ vy+wz=Q
x
11
*2
is
= 0,
63
(ii) will
the con
uf=
If the conditions
(iii)
vg
=wh
(iii).
the form
Ay*
+ Ex = 0,
(ii) is
whose generating
of
lines
+~+
J7
=
(i)
ux + vy 4 wz
of the
whose generating
(iii)
are not
satisfied.
found
Art. 172.
Ex.
The equation
+y +
4 Z 2 _ 4^ 2 + Q Z
_
xy + 2 X
4i/
52
is
+ 1 = 0.
is
(2o;
This
is
equivalent to
be perpendicular,
2)
if
written
y (2\
X=l.
(2x
4)
+ z (4\  5)  1 + X 2 = 0,
of the surface
+ 22 + l\ a = 1 2x + 2y~z
s
3(2,xy 3
)
Hence, taking 2x  y + 2z + 1 = 0, and 2x + 2y  z =
and x = Q
may
as the planes y
respectively, the equation of the surface will be
be
 y + 1z +
64
82.
all parallel,
common
If \ve take any point on the line of centres for origin, the
equation will take the form
ax*
by*
C2
2fyz
2gzx
+ %lixy + d!  0.
+ Py* + d =
ax*
........................
If d
0, the surface represented by the equation
two planes, real or imaginary.
If d be not zero, the surface is a cylinder.
The
may have
^
a
ax
hx
common
is
a,
h,
g,
h,
b,
/,
f,
c,
is,
+ hy + gz + u = 0,
+ by 4 fa + v 0,
g,
Ex.
(i)
that
(i).
D=
=0,
=7=F = D=0
by
[Art. 18]
The equations
 4x+ y
10 = 0,
 80;
+4z 4 = 0.
and
Hence there is a line of centres. Find one point on the line, for example
the origin to the point (0, 10, 1) the equation will
(0, 10, 1), and change
32x 2 + y 2 + z*  16s.c  8xy = 1.
then become
:
65
is X 3
The
83.
If the planes
at infinity,
is
and
we proceed
equations are
its
meet
lies
at a point
as follows.
or,
+ fry* + 2ux +
by a change of
v,
being
principal parabolic
A ~and
6zx7x5y
Qyz
directioncosines
is
X3  3X 2  18X =
the
of
principal
axes
1
r
are
to find tlie
e(l uation
^/o
i^/o
referred to
"72
"73
v/6
&gt;
N/2
/3
for x, y, z respectively.
6z 2 
the surface
is
x/3
N/6
The equation
_ 4^/6* 3?/2
parabolas being
we must
substitute
JLJL_^__
+
JL +
4. JL +
4. JL
S. S.
Hence
an&lt;
73 73
~/2
axes parallel to the principal axes,
6,
1
,
&gt;/w
Thus
its
The
0,
origin,
Ex.
+ 2w z + d =
2v y
Gaj
3y
will
^2
~ 2x
,
7C
then become
2J3y  J2z + 3 =
2
fJ2z= 0.
^2 and J^/2.
G.
66
is
84.
It follows from Art. 75 (ii) and (iv) that when
not zero, the necessary and sufficient condition that the
surface represented by the general equation of the second
= 0.
degree may be a cone is A
= 0, then will U, and
=
be
also
and
A
When
all zero*: hence [Arts. 81 and 82] the surface must be either
and cylinders and planes are
a cylinder or two planes
of
cones.
forms
Conversely, when the surface re
limiting
W and D are
all
We
+ ay + 7/.
Hence
ax*
*
by*
+ cz* +
2fyz
+ Zgzx +
Zhasy
\(x*+y* + z*).
.(i),
We have
u U + vV+wW+dD = &.
and
when two
we
aU+HV+gW+uD = 0,
hU+bV+fW+vD = Q,
=
9 U+fV + cW+wD 0.
Hence when A =
U V
U, V, and W.
SURFACE OF REVOLUTION.*
67
ax*
Now
X=
we take
if
Hence
aif
^\
cr,
(ii)
(x
+ f + /) ........ .(ii)
be a perfect square.
will
a surface of revolution,
a proper choice of X, make (i) a perfect square
square must be
if
the surface
[x
We
is
we
;
can, by
and that
V(a \)
therefore have
........ (Hi).
Hence, iff,
h be
g,
a
ah
all finite,
we have
c=
=b  hf
fg
or/=0.
Suppose g
and h
then X
= a,
(ba)(ca)=f
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
(v).
III.
(ii)
x a + y* +
(iii)
x  2xy
2
(iv)
+ xy  2xz + 4
2
2yz 2zx = a
.
3!
(v)
(vi)
2;
52
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
68
2.
III.
equations
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
2
If  3* 
 1 2xy + 1 = 0.
yz + Szx
2 2x* + 2y*
4*
2yz 2zx5xy 2x2y + z=Q.
2
2
2
5aj  y + z + Qxz +
xy + 2x + ky + Qz = 8.
2x 2 + 3y 2 + 3i/z + 2zx + xy  by + Sz  32 = 0.
x9 +
Find the equations of the axes of (i), and the latera recta of
the principal parabolas of (ii) and of
(iii).
3.
Shew
x + y 2 + 3 2 + yz + zx + xy = 1,
represents an ellipsoid the squares of whose semiaxes are 2,
Shew also that the equation of its principal axis is x = y = z.
~
4.
Shew
2, i.
Shew
all lie in
the conicoid.
lines are drawn in fixed directions
6.
Through any point
and Q Q respectively;
which meet a given conicoid in points P,
shew that the rectangles OP, OP and OQ, OQ are in a constant
ratio.
PP
OP*
OP*.
OP OP
.
be constant.
OQ*.
OQ
77,
OQ. OQ
OR OH
2
OR OIC
.
cut
CHAPTER
IV.
reduced.
We
shall
THE SPHERE.
87.
The equation
and radius d
is
of the sphere
whose centre
is (a, b, c)
[Art. 5]
2
2
(xa) +(yby + (zc) =
d*.
+D =
0.
in
yz, zx,
sphere.
88.
of a
sphere contains
four
THE SPHERE.
70
f?/
_L
7/
TjTj
+
4.
i/ 4 ,
r
*^l
?/
^*j
*
*l
Ji
be the four
z4)
them
will be.
0.
I1
 
2/2
2/3
2/3^
f/+*;
89.
(x
2/4
+ yy + zz = a
xx
joining (x y
of the plane
t
(x
x
+(y y y+(z z) z = 0,
)
xx
or
the
to the centre.
+ yy + zz = a?.
(a/,
y /) can be shewn, by
+ yy + zz = a
3
.
be the equation
It can be easily shewn, that if S =
90.
of a sphere (where 8 is written for shortness instead of
2
8
a f
4 z + 2 Ax + 25?/ + ZCz + D), and the coordinates of
any point be substituted in S, the result will be equal to the
square of the tangent from that point to the sphere.
= be the equations of two spheres
0, and
Hence, if
S is the
of x* is unity), S
which
coefficient
of
the
each
(in
locus of points, the tangents from which to the two spheres
S=
&gt;ST
are equal.
The surface whose equation is 8 S = passes through all
= 0, and S
for, if
;
points common to the two spheres 8
and
the coordinates of any point satisfy the equations S =
S = 0, they will also satisfy the equation S  S = 0.
=Q is of the first degree,and therefore represents
Now
a plane. The plane through the points of intersection of two
spheres is called their radical plane.
SS
THE ELLIPSOID.
71
The
viz.
and
(a^, y lt zj
a diameter.
If (x, y, z) be any point on the sphere, the direction cosines of the lines
joining (x, y, z) to the two given points are proportional to x X L y y^
Ex.
(# 2 ,
1.
z 2 ) for extremities of
i/ 2 ,
of
equation
V*
Ex. 2. The locus of a point, the sum of the squares of whose distances
from any number of given points is constant, is a sphere.
Ex.
^*
3.
from the
six faces of a
shew
Ex. 4. A, B are two fixed points, and P moves so that
;
that the locus of P is a sphere. Shew also that all such spheres, for different
values of w, have a common radical plane.
PA=nPB
Ex. 5. The distances of two points from the centre of & sphere are pro
portional to the distance of each from the polar of the other.
Ex.
Shew
6.
and
cut one another at right angles,
We
91.
and we
shall
if
a*
__
a
a
unless
it is
z
if
__ __
J_
6*
otherwise expressed.
and
72
DIRECTORSPHERE.
i
~
The length of the perpendicular from the origin on the
tangent plane at the point (x y z) is [Art. 20] given by the
equation
1
x * y 2 z*
,
p
Equation
(i)
is
I
2= a44 +
2
T44
6
.................. (11).
equivalent to Ix
+ my +
y
^*
nz
= p, where
+ my + nz=p,
is Ix
will
92.
To find the locus of the point of intersection of three
tangent planes to an ellipsoid which are mutually at right
angles.
+ nz = J
1
By
have
+ m y 4
?i
=
3
/y/
4
(V
2
3
Vm
4 6
??i
+c
/i
8 )
of perpendicular lines
x^
The required
+y
+ z2 = a
+b +G
i
.
therefore a sphere.
called the directorsphere of the ellipsoid.
93.
locus
The normal
is
to a surface at
P perpendicular
This sphere
any point
to the
is
is
the
tangent plane
NORMALS.
The normal
an
to
73
ellipsoid at the
point (x,
z)
is
therefore
&
_y
JL
a2
JL2
fl
++
Since
_z
!.
[Art
91.]
94.
If the
normal at (# y z
we have
,
_^
a2
Put each
y_
b*
Hence, since
we have
plane in G,
GG
bisects
PP
DIAMETRAL PLANES.
74
PQ.
5.
P, Q are any two points on an ellipsoid, and planes through the
centre parallel to the tangent planes at P, Q cut the chord PQ in P , Q
Shew
Ex.
95.
The
line
a.
= yp = zy = ^
+ &)
+ tf+ntrf
(y
r)
have
la.
a2
+ mp + ny
~F ^~
This plane
is
is
nz
my
Ix
all
of lines
parallel to the
y, z) on the surface
xx
yy
&lt;?+f
diameter
is
zz
,.^
?=
( );
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
(#
75
y" ,
z")
should
be
is
(i)
~f
a"
"
56
a
"
Ms
6
"
V_8_o
c
_,
2/i"
^+
SC
It
j^
_1_
76
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
Now
from equations
_&gt;,
*}
o
_2
ii
(ii)
we
see that
12
be
,
3.
and
We
have
fi
&
also
=1,
or
x lt y 1?
zv
=abc
(v).
a
the sum of the squares of the pro
(iii) we see that
jections of three conjugate semidiameters of an ellipsoid on
any one of its axes is constant.
From
CONJUGATE DIAMETEKS.
77
We
We
OR
OR
QOR
POR
which
Q lies in the
OP" and in the
plane
line
OP",
POR
and
then
let
OR
OP",
OR"
be conjugate to
and OR" are
OQ
is
conjugate to
OP"
when
it is an
hyperbola and that both will meet the curve
in imaginary points when it is an imaginary ellipse.
Hence,
by transforming as in the preceding Article, we see that
three conjugate diameters of a conicoid will all meet the
surface in real points when it is an ellipsoid
that one will
;
in
it is
an hyper
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
78
boloid of one sheet; and that two will meet the surface in
imaginary points when it is an hyperboloid of two sheets.
To find
99.
the
equation of an
ellipsoid
referred to
Ax* + Bf + Gz + IFyz +
l
to the axis of x.
Hx y =
G = H=0.
Gz x +
1
that
will
for all
Qzx + ZHxy =
1.
Therefore
(~^^yv z^
surface,
1
By
if
(x v
also
F = 0.
y*
z*
JF+fr+Jl1.
where a
c are
The expression
is
v*
z*
+T
+ x (^ + y* + z + ^z cos a + 2*00B0f 2yco87).
+~
o
c
The two
expressions
will
same values
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.
and
+X
cos 7
cos
ft
X
X
/9
cos
+X
fTa
cos a
79
cos /?
cos a
^
+X
6V + cV + a 6 = 6 V
2
sin a
sin
/3
+a
/2
6 sin
(ii),
and
abc
=abc
cos a
*J(\
cos
/3
cos
+2 cos acos/3cos7)..(iii).
parallelepiped
1.
If
is
constant.
a parallelepiped be inscribed in an
be
Ex. 2. Shew that the sum of the squares of the projections of three
conjugate diameters of a conicoid on any line, or on any plane, is constant.
&gt;
y^
Ex. 4. If
t
(#31/323) be extremities of three conjugate
(tfji/jZj), (x z
diameters of an ellipsoid, the equation of the plane through them will be
Ex. 5. Shew that the tangent planes at the extremities of three conju
gate diameters of an ellipsoid meet on a similar ellipsoid.
Ex. 6. Shew that the locus of the centre of gravity of a triangle whose
angular points are the extremities of three conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid
is a similar ellipsoid.
THE PARABOLOIDS.
80
THE PARABOLOIDS.
We
We
We
to
shall always
be
x*
y* =
+V
a
102.
To find
the locus
to
tangent planes
.
22.
angles.
Let
then,
+ bm* =
al*
Hence we may
2n p
have
Z
and
(al?
+ bm*) =
n3
&lt;m/i
x4 m n
s
0.
II.]
also
n x+
2 2
&
[Art. 57,
l^x r vip^y + n* z + %
We
is
we have by
addition
a plane.
The equation
of the paraboloid
=
(a + b)
is
y z)
t
The normal
point
at (x,
PARABOLOIDS.
81
will pass
y z)
,
if
(/, g, h),
Put each
/*
gtf
?L
yL
fraction equal to
and substituting
_h~*
~
l
then
in
we have
The equation
five
in
of the
is
fifth
degree;
therefore
104,
The middle points of
which are parallel to the line
x
l
all
= z
in
11
whose equation
dF
dF
dy
dz
jdF + m
~T~
~r + n
ax
is
=0,
 + my
^n= 0.
Ix
or
Hence
all
surface.
is
s. s.
G.
PARABOLOIDS.
my
x
a
_+/n
o
and
are such that each
is
= 0,
other, if
by the
mm _ n
 
II
"
rT~=
^Vi
a
1.
a
If
+V+
b
+4^
o
 2s =
(a, ft,
0.
Cb
+ ^*=0
x_y_z
x_y_z
a~0~a
for axes,
we must
,os
_y =
0~6~/3
ax
by
for x, y, z respectively.
is
$y
7) on the
CONES.
This
is
83
plane at
Ex.
Shew
1.
paraboloid
is
a diameter.
^j \&.
"&gt;
Shew
Ex.
2.
parabolic sections of a
all parallel
Ex.
at P,
5.
US
ES
PQ
CONES.
106.
degree
of a
is
ax*
+ by* + cz* +
The tangent
plane
2fyz
at
+ 2gzx + 2hxy = 0.
on the
surface is
(x
x)
(ax
hy
+ gz) + (y  y )
(hx
+ by +//)
or
62
107.
may
(#
+ by + cz + 2fyz +
aa?
^gzx
lx+my + nz=Q
+ Vhxy = 0.
z (got
+fy + cz ) =
+ hy + gz = hx + by +fz = gx +fy +
ax
Put each
fraction equal to
0,
cz
n
then
\,
lx
t
AF + Bm* +
13,
\,
a,
g,
h,
&
/,
f,
c,
m,
n,
Cn*
+ 2Fmn +
2 6^w? + 2777m
minors of
a,
,
condition
0,
I,
g&gt;
where A,
minant
0.
on the plane,
my + nz = 0.
is
y, z)
Eliminating x, y z
or
+ cz + \n =
gx +fij
Also, since (x
h,
6,
= 0,
a, b, c, &c. in
the deter
108.
The
line
RECIPROCAL CONE.
Hence, from the result of the
85
the cone
aa?
Ax*
is
A, II
B, B,
G, F,
,
r
O
we
are proportional to a,
b, c,
a reciprocal one.
As a
is
&c.,
cone
+ by* + cz = 0,
z
aj?
From
tin s
we
is
^+^+
 = 0.
a cone and
its
reciprocal
may
have three
are coaxial.
Zhxy
(i).
(ii).
2
sum
Since the
is
a+
If the
+c=
(iii).
86
coefficient of a?
is
zero, so
is
of
the form
Now
the section of
coefficients of x*, y* y z* is
by the plane x
(iv)
is
an in
the two
straight lines
ty +
ca?
+2/y*=0;
f
= 0.
sufficient condition
that the
cone
may
0,
B+
Ex. 1. CP,
Q OR are three central radii of an ellipsoid which are
mutually at right angles to one another shew that the plane PQR touches
a sphere.
Let the equation of the plane PQR be to + my + nz =p. The equation of
the cone whose vertex is the origin, and which passes through the intersection
x + my+ nz \
+ + =
\
of the plane and the ellipsoid
+ * +
1, is
1^
^
t
By
^=
therefore
Ex. 2. Any two sets of rectangular axes which meet in a point form six
generators of a cone of the second degree.
Ex.
a point
3.
all
111.
point
to
ellipsoid
2
x
a
a
y
*
Tlj
2
==
a
be
any
TANGENT CONE.
87
and
x"
respectively.
coordinates of a point
The
P Q
be x, y
z"
y",
which divides
PQ
in the ratio
n are
+
m+
nx
If this point
(not
mat"
be on the
mx J
(ny
+
m+n
+
m+n
ny
mz"
we have
ellipsoid,
nz
my"
my")*
}
or
PQ
If the line
Hence,
if
the point
(a?
must have
is
y /) be
,
zz
Hence
from
(a?
112.
infinite
is
(i)
y, z
to the ellipsoid.
to
move
to
an
cylinder whose
to the line from the centre
z).
ENVELOPING CYLINDER.
8S
Hence,
if
x =
and then make r
of
the
= mr, z
lr,
enveloping
nr,
we
infinitely great,
cylinder
parallel to
we put
?!m = ?.n
I
Hence, when r
x y z
we have
,
respectively in the
is infinite,
The equations
any
point (x
y /)
,
?!m
I
X

are
II
 
The
The
(x,
drawn through
n
Z
in
!/
is
meet the
tf,
the surface, if
straight line will therefore touch
ix
EXAMPLES.
satisfy the
Ex.
is
on a
in
equation
ix
which
is
x^y_ =
I
89
(i).
To
may have
three
perpendicular generators.
The equation
is (#
If this
2
7/
and
/a; 2
Shew
The equations
"
of the cones
whose
is
if),
of
the vertex
\ _a: 2
~
z*
i/
*"1
coefficients
1\
Ex. (ii).
plane curves.
vertices are
(a; ,
an
ellipsoid intersect in
y\ z
and
(x",
y",
z")
are
respectively.
The
surface
whose equation
Ex.
(iii).
common
is
points,
ax* + by* + 2z = 0.
Ans. (ax
and clearly
is
two planes.
+ by* + 2z)
(ax
+ by 2 + 2z ) = (axx + byy + z+ z ) 2
Ex. (iv). Find the locus of a point from which three perpendicular
2
2
tangent lines can be drawn to the paraboloid ax + by + 22 =
Ans. ab (x2 + y*) + 2 (a + b) *=1.
90
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER IV.
Find the equation of a sphere which cuts four given spheres
1.
orthogonally.
2.
S =
and
3.
OP, OQ, OR are three perpendicular lines which meet in
a fixed point 0, and cut a given sphere in the points P, Q, R;
shew that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from
on
the plane PQR is a sphere.
4.
two straight lines are drawn perpen
Through a point
dicular to one another and intersecting two given straight lines
at right angles; shew that the locus of
is a conicoicl whose
centre is the middle point of the shortest distance between the
given
lines.
5.
will
of
^
6.
+

+^= 1, if Aa* +
plane
distances from
+ Cc 2 = 0.
n given
touches an ellipsoid.
Shew
9.
Having given any two systems of conjugate semidiameters
of an ellipsoid, the parallelepiped which has any three for conter
minous edges is equal to that which has the other three for
conterminous edges.
If lines be drawn through the centre of an ellipsoid
10.
the cone so
parallel to the generating lines of an enveloping cone,
formed will intersect the ellipsoid in two planes parallel to the
plane of contact.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
91
IV.
three
Shew
conjugate
diameters
15.
Shew
ellipsoid is
l*
16.
D, E, / and P, Q, R are the extremities of two sets of
If p, p l} p a p a are the per
conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid.
pendiculars from the centre and P, Q,
respectively on the
plane DEF, prove that
,
an
ellipsoid at
is
(c
m
2 2
then will
2111
]t
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
92
IV.
21.
Shew
x
is
the ellipse
^ = 1,
0,
1
22.
is
is
ic
is
A cone,
when
=
^
that
^
the cone
tits
the hole
its
x*
is
vertex must
lie
if
~=1
on the
shew
ellipsoid
Shew
curves;
&gt;f
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
28.
common
x2
i
if
tangent plane
i*
Prove that an
tric
sphere of radius
definite
number
if
0.
ellipsoid of semiaxes a,
=====
Jb^ + c
2z
if
&lt;*
V. V.
29.
x2
_z
_2z
^~^ ? V~
*
+ y _
&lt;
have a
will
93
IV.
V+
6,
and a concen
a*b*
30.
which touch
31.
ellipsoid;
a conic.
JB K ITS
==
^2
,2
=1
z*
a*"
1.
cylinder.
The
(b
c)
x2 +
(c
a) if
c (a
two perpendicular
+ b) z9 = 0.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
94?
IV.
The
lt
n^,
(/
2,
n2 ),
(la ,
0,
1,
n a)
is
1,
I?
y,
u
42.
a,
g&gt;
=0.
m,
i&gt;
__ __.
a*
sin a
a, (3,
sin
sin
/?
XOY respectively.
ZOX, and
43.
Prove that four right cones may be described, passing
through three given straight lines intersecting in the same point,
and that if 2a, 2/2, 2y be the mutual inclinations of the straight
lines, the equations of the cones referred to the straight lines as
coordinate axes will be
2
sin a
sin
/?
sin
sin
sin a
/?
"
cos
y
2
cos a
cos
v
1
cos y
z
/?
y
z
= 0,
cos a
cos
/?
sin y
L
= 0.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
95
IV.
Shew
that,
if
maximum
^+fy/+&lt;^_I
my
4
drawn
nz + p =
0,
p
2
triangles
cz*
= 1.
C(Q)
f(Q)
48.
its
The
sum
of the squares of
ellipsoid.
Q&gt;
/",
or
invariable.
chord of a quadric
is
CHAPTER
V.
We
114.
have seen [Art. 51] that all plane sections of a
conicoid are conies, and also [Art. 61] that all parallel
Since ellipses, parabolas, and
sections are similar conies.
hyperbolas are orthogonally projected into ellipses, parabolas,
and hyperbolas respectively, we can find whether the curve
of intersection of a conicoid and a plane is an ellipse,
parabola, or hyperbola, by finding the equation of the pro
jection of the section on one of the coordinate planes.
For example, to find the nature of plane sections of a
paraboloid.
The plane
2
aa? f by
4
2#
Ix 4
= 0,
a (my
passes.
my + nz + p =
f
nz
which
0,
is
paraboloid
+ p) + Wy +
The plane x =
the
cuts
in a curve through
2l*z
perpendicular to the
it in the conic whose
= 0, a (my + nz + pf f
z =
and
f 2
equations are x
this conic is the projection of the section on the plane x = 0.
If n = 0, the projection will be a parabola
but, if n be not
an
or
be
will
the
zero,
ellipse
hyperbola accord
projection
Wy
mn
a
ing as an? (am + bl )
that
positive or negative,
is,
is
is
an
97
of
hyperbolic
r
Ans. 1
Ex
in
^+^ =
0.
Shew
115.
section of
+ 2=1
c
and
let
y + nz = Q .................. (i).
Every semidiameter of the surface whose length is r
generating line of the cone whose equation is [p 55 Ex
is
5]
r2
From
(iii)
we
see that
__
abc
abc
t+Afy
is
the
PLANE SECTIONS.
98
From
(iv)
we
is
equal to
ellipsoid.
Trabc
116.
To find
Take
for
the area
The
11*
+y.*
is
j_fL
&
=1
/
Tra b sin v
by z =
is
XOY.
Tra 6 sin
I
(
The
F\
^
v.
be the area of
Hence
A=
PLANE SECTIONS.
99
U?
_
i_
/
IS
V (a?l*
2
4 6Vi TcV)
^=
For
.
aT
T^vo
p* = a*F + Vm* +
and
[Ari
cV
[Art. 91].
The
is
the conic
and therefore
U2
TT
Jab
Ex.
plane
2.
Ix
i
To
my
The area
la
*&gt;
e area
are of the section of the cone
find the
+ nz
x9
we put k =
+ c =
by the
p.
of the section of
y"
v
z2
y
1
If
 + ^a
b
=1
v
kaP+kbmz + kcn]
is
is
therefore
Jabc
72
PLANE SECTIONS.
100
Let the area be
and
let
Then we have
irdbc
irabc
a 2 i 2 + 6 2 m 2 + c 2w 2 = d 2
or
2
(a
 d2
r2
2
(ft
Ix
 d2 )
w + (c 2  d
2
+ my + nz =
n 2 = 0.
2
)
We
(a
x*
p)
When
(b
is
i)
lines of
is
f + (c  p
Ix
+ my + ns =0,
equation
9"
h,
m,
1,
f
c/ + %fyz +
2^^a;
+ 2hxy =
1,
and
^a?
+ my
101
section
Zgzx + Zhxy
the equation of the plane be
Ix 4 my + nz = 0.
and
let
2fyz
1,
P
P
Hence,
if
be
(f,
//.,
rj,
v,
and
f),
if
the directioncosines of
we have
and
Ix
it is
is
+ my + nz = 0,
and
\l\
Eliminating
have
X,
//,,
fim \vn
..................... (iii).
(i),
(ii),
(iii),
we
= 0.
f,
,
I,
hence
m,
gg+fy
n
Hence the required axes are the lines in which the given
plane cuts the cone whose equation is
z
0.
x,
y,
ax
+ hy + gz, hx +
I,
by
m,
+ fz, gx +fy + cz
n
119.
To find the angle between the asymptotes of any
plane section of a conicoid.
Let 6 be the angle between the asymptotes of the plane
section, and let the semiaxes of the section be a, fi.
102
Then
tan
4
1.
of
the
section
of
2
by* + cz
The semiaxes
p2
tan
therefore
Ex.
2.
To
= 
7*2
^^ =
^,
iV
n2 \
*
^
r2
The
al 2
Ex.
Ix +
required condition
is
therefore
my
Shew
+ m 2 + n2

P (6 + c) + w 2
The
(l
by the plane
(c
+ a) + n 2
(a
).
+ by* + cz = 0,
1
+ b) = 0.
2
asymptotes of the section of the conicoid ax
+ by* + cz2
CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
120.
103
of intersection
lie
common
section in
on another plane.
+ by* +
Zhxy
+ 2ux +
2vy
+c+
z (Ix
+ my + nz+p) = 0,
and
+
for
(i^
a;
+ r/i y +
riz
+ p) =
0.
equation
z+p=
x+
m y + riz + p
CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
121.
To find
of an ellipsoid.
number
a,
equation being
pianos pass
104
CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
The equations
Of these three
if a, b, c
pairs of planes,
Cv
r&
Since
all
parallel
sections are
similar,
122.
If the surface be
of c
an hyperboloid of one
2
sheet,
we
in the
b being supposed to be
numerically greater than
c.
123.
If a series of
planes be drawn parallel to either
of the central circular sections of an
ellipsoid, these planes
will cut the surface in circles which become smaller and
smaller as the planes are drawn farther and farther from
the centre and, when the
is drawn so as to touch the
plane
the circle will be
indefinitely small.
;
ellipsoid,
CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
105
Any
sphere.
The
Hence
The equation
is,
paraboloid
a?
+
7/
&lt;L
cut,
is
%z
form
*0+ir(Js) .
i&lt;^+
It is clear that the
in the
z*
%az
106
CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
and, since the planes must cut the sphere in circles, they will
cut the paraboloid in circles.
Of the two
by the equations
one will be real, if a and b are of the same sign but both
pairs of planes will be imaginary if a and b are of different
sioris, so that there are no circular sections of a hvperbolic
;
paraboloid.
Ex.
1.
Shew
all
is
values of X.
3.
planes.
~^&gt;
Ex.
4.
Find the
(ii).
we
shall
4x
(ii)
2x^
+ 2f
+ 5y
* This is not
strictly true: a section through any generating line by
plane parallel to the axis of the surface is a circle of infinite radius.
107
EXAMPLES.
Ans.
(i)
planes parallel to
(ii)
planes parallel to
(x
Ex.
may
5.
ax 2 +
1
by"
in a circle.
As
(a _
1\ x*+fb
i,
+ (c
z&gt;
\"\
must, for some value of 7, be two planes of which the given plane
The equation must therefore be the same as
By comparing
7V
m\
7V
We
one.
n\
120.
is
2
2
_ am + bl  2hlm
by the solution
of
two examples.
Ex.
1.
(Chasles.)
The equation
is of
the form
*
a2
f+
6J
*
c2
=i
s2
7/2
2
ai+S+
62
g
2
2z
A
= 0.
This we will take for the equation of the surface, the common vertex of the
cones being the origin. Let lx + my+nz = L be the equation of any plane
section ; then the corresponding cone will be
x~
2
7/
22
2z
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
103
V.
The
is
is
on the
The equation of the cone whose vertex is the origin, and which passes
through the points of intersection of the conicoid and the plane
my + HZ = 1
Ix +
is
Now
Ix
+ my + nz) = 0.
lines is
a + b + c + 2n=Q
This shews that the intercept on the axis of
The
(i).
[See Art.
and y in
which proves
be an axis of the cone are
Hence the plane meets the axes of x
60]# + i = 0,
fixed points;
and/+m = 0.
which proves
[Art. 109].
z is
constant
may
(ii).
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER V.
1.
SHEW
that the
area
of the
section of an ellipsoid,
by
to its plane.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
4.
Shew
109
x2
a2
which pass through the
y*
a?
b*
line
m~ n
!&gt;
lie
V.
is
of which
6.
M =
b
2*
is
of the
1&gt;
by
n9
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
110
Shew
9.
V.
2/
b*
Shew
+ my + nz =
by the plane Ix
10.
_ 2x
~ z*2 ~
_
that
all
is
"^
a rectangular hyperbola,
if
plane sections of
11.
(xa)
(yftf
^,tf^
ab
of a paraboloid,
axis.
Shew that,
cz* = 1 in
if
ax 2 + by 2 +
ax /I
I
1\
\b
cj
fy/l_l\
cz /I
l\
a)
n \a
b/
\c
The area
3^/3
cone
is
x (af +
bg*
ax2 +
cz*
g, h)
made by
f chz 
1).
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
Shew
15.
all
y +
i
lie
Ill
V.
parabolic sections of
**
b=
x
&gt;
on the surface
two
axes.
18.
Points on an ellipsoid such that the product of their
distances from the two central circular sections is constant lie on
the intersection of the ellipsoid with a sphere.
circular sections of
20.
curves
21.
The hyperboloid
x*
+y
z*
tan a
a* is built
up of thin
(nx
Izf
+ (ny
mzf = n
(z*
tan 2 a + a
2
).
ellipsoid.
112
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
V,
23.
Any number of similar and similarly situated conies,
which are on a plane, are tho stereographic projections of plane
sections of some conicoid.
25.
iintil it
a+
abc
a b
abc
CHAPTER
VI.
We
which
lie
upon them.
line
not intersect,
is
128,
straight line,
_
in
S. S.
G.
GENERATING LINES.
114
ih
is of the k
degree, the equation for finding
&tb degree hence any straight line meets a surface
degree in k points.
If the surface
is
of the
of the &tb
efficients in
generating lines
obviously the case
129.
surface at
may however
when
all
the surface
is
be
an
imaginary,
is
ellipsoid.
any point
as
touches the
115
The
section of a conicoid
intersection.
upon
it.
132.
it,
and we
any point
generating
Hence,
line,
if
We
point.
The equation
2
a;
the conicoid
,
?/
+ ~s
x=
116
straight lines
of two sheets.
is
Hence an hyperboloid
133.
lines
PB
Now
117
134.
it will
Ex. 1. Two planes are drawn, one through each of two intersecting
generating lines of a conicoid shew that the planes meet the surface in two
other intersecting generating lines.
;
18
Ex. 2. She,w that the plane through the centre of a conicoid and any
generating line, will cut the surface in a parallel generating line, and will
touch the asymptotic cone.
Ex.
lines
3.
and
Ex.
The
4.
dicular to
conicoid.
DD
&gt;
BB
DD
7&gt;
ABCD
Ex.
BCD
BD
BD
AC
BCDEF
EF
BC
XZ
opposite vertices
lie
in the plane
XYZ.
Four
119
and
the points A,B,C,D; A , B , V,
Then,
respectively.
the four planes through A
and the fixed generators cut all other
straight lines in a range of constant crossratio [Art. 36] we therefore have
A",
B",
C",
D"
"B"C"D"
{A B
CD
and
L&gt;
R
tan^V1,
Z
a
Then
and therefore
tan
2.
Now the sum of the squares of three conjugate semidiameters is constant, and also the parallelepiped of which
Hence
they are conterminous edges.
and
o.j3p
=J
abc.
Hence we have
abc
137
We can
120
EQUATIONS OF GENERATORS.
sheet in such a
generating
way
lines.
a
is
equivalent to
*2
_!*2
a2
c
= i_^.
6
and
by the equations
We
The equations
a
and
A,
ab~
&gt;
ab~\
The equations
x=a
cos 9 sec $,
y = b sin
9 sec
&lt;,
and z
= c tan
$.
we
if
21
are the
through the point
and the tangent plane at
is
Now, the equation of the tangent plane at (0,
lines
P.
&lt;/&gt;)
 cos
sec
*r
sin
6 sec
+ sin
o
cos 6
a
If this line
we have from
(i)
or
0, and
is
The
a
= 00
plane
in
the
......... (i).
in
meet the section of the surface by z =
whose eccentric angles are a, ft respectively,
the points A,
the
= cos0,
tan
......... (ii).
hence from
through P
on the generator AP, and
;
constant for
all
AP
(cos a
 
cos 6 sec
b (sin a
&lt;/&gt;),
cos (6
\
0) cos
;
cos 9
sin
sin (6
+ 0) cos
:
sin
&lt;/&gt;
sin (0
6 cos (^
&lt;/&gt;),
c
^&gt;),
AP are
sin (0
+ 0)
&
a cos
sec
&lt;f&gt;
sin (0
_y
b sin
sec
cos (0
BP
$~
_
tan
&lt;/&gt;
0)
are
b sin
sec
tan
"
"
0)
6 cos
tan
(f&gt;
sin
(/&gt;
or to
&lt;/&gt;),
or proportional to
C&
sin 6 sec
(00)
c
~~ C
122
x  a cos 6
bsind _
~
_y
~
~bcosT0
a sin 9
The
line
a cos 6
I
==
b sin 9
meet the
will
(b sin
~9
(a cos^Jhjr)
~aT
Hence,
^z
==
Vy
7i
where
surface,
line,
+ mr)* __ rrV _
"
in order that
may be a generating
we must have
lcoB0
and
 + in sin
T
L
a
,, r ,
Whence
sin
The equations
x
=0.
^ =
cos0
?.
1
a cos
a sin
b sin
b cos
__
1
d
_^_9,
~"
b*
lines
123
# = y 
The
= z
7=r
2
Hence, in order that the straight line
line, we must have
7
/yvi
(1)
&lt;"&gt;
!?#"
=
^C27
6
a:
surface
we
(iii).
The equation
;
(iii)
from
(i)
we have  =
?o
the point
is satisfied if (a,
obtain
of the
is
(ii),
two generating
lines
through
7) are
a
It is clear
and, substituting in
= 7;~R
=^1T
6
paraboloid
a generating
&?and
may be
iv )
parallel to
124
to that section.
&lt;x&gt;
line
moves
all parallel to
=  (b 2  a).
hyperbolic
paraboloid.
Ex.
and
5.
line moves so as always to intersect two
given straight lines
to be parallel to a given plane : shew that it
generates a hyperbolic
paraboloid.
Ex. 6. AB and CD are two finite non intersecting straight lines; shew
that the lines which divide AB and CD in the same ratio are
generators of
one system of a hyperbolic paraboloid, and that the lines which divide AC
and BD in the same ratio are generators of the opposite system of the same
paraboloid.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
125
VI.
y=a&gt;
section.
4.
Find
coinciding
surface y*
(i)
z*
all
kcfx.
lie
in
an
ellipse.
6.
Given any three lines, and a fourth line touching the
hyperboloid through the three lines, then will each one of the four
lines touch the hyperboloid through the other three lines.
7.
line is
two
perpendicular to
parallel generators.
Shew
x2 y 2
+jb
a
^
+ =
0.
of the form
z*
9.
on a ruled quadric
in
and Q. Shew
intersect the generators at a fixed point
lies on a plane section of
that if the ratio
is constant,
the quadric which passes through 0.
OP OQ
:
tors
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTEK
126
VI.
14.
CP CD
that
TF = CD
If
1 5.
(xyz} of
TD&gt;
ellipse in points
16.
elliptic section,
P,
GJ
~~ \~
&gt;
\&gt;
\&gt;
17.
of the
Shew
lie
whose equation
is
cxy
t&gt;,
g&gt;
f&gt;
(x
s
+ y* + z ) =
bc
+ ca + ab
f g*
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
VI.
127
20.
Having given two generating lines that intersect and two
points on an hyperboloid, shew that the locus of the centre is
another hyperboloid bisecting the straight lines joining the two
points to the intersection of the generators.
If
two points P,
same system
such that the tangent planes at those points are at right angles to
one another, then will the two generating lines through P appear
to be at right angles when seen from Q.
24.
common
common
generator,
two of their
point of contact.
25.
lines
If
G A, BC
AB,
CA B C
boloid.
[Ex.
6.
28.
If from any point on the surface of an hyperboloid of one
sheet perpendiculars be drawn to all the generators of the same
system, they will form a cone of the third degree.
The normals to a conicoid, at all points of a generating
29.
line, lie on.
30.
a hyperbolic paraboloid.
ABCDEFGH
which
is
on
EB
CHAPTER
SYSTEMS OF CONICOIDS.
VII.
TANGENTIAL EQUATIONS.
RECIPROCATION.
8=
and
S =
0,
pass
to
S=
and
the conicoid
A$ = can be made to pass through any ninth point;
and therefore will represent any conicoid through the eight
given points.
= Q not only passes through
Since the conicoid
the eight given points, but also through all points on the
curve of intersection of S =
and S = 0, we see that all
conicoids through eight given points have a common curve of
$+
S+\S
intersection.
Four cones
141.
will
129
cone, if
The
142.
intersection
let
Then
two conicoids.
form Fl (x, y,
z)
+ \F
equation will be
is
We
homo
or
Now
any conicoid
FI (x
x +
and, from
(i),
&gt;
y&gt;
vi
it is
S. s.
G.
/*^i
x
&gt;
y&gt;
+ /^2 y + w +
i
z)
=o
/^
is
=
;
UjX
for all values of
z}
with respect to
+ v$ + w^z +
d =
1
//,.
130
Hence
has the same polar plane with respect to all
conicoids through the curve of intersection of the two
given
conicoids.
$=0
If
be the equation of any conicoid, and
the equation of any two planes, then will S
Aa0 =
be the general equation of a conicoid which passes through
=
the two conies in which S =
is cut by the
planes a
143.
aft
and
0.
a =
be supposed to move up to and
= 0, we obtain the form
ultimately coincide with the plane
S A0 2 = 0, which represents a system of conicoids, all of
which touch S = where it is met by the plane ft = 0.
and
The surfaces S \y./3
touch one another at
the two points where they are cut by the line whose equa
= 0. For at either of these points the
tions are a = 0,
surfaces have two common tangent lines, namely the tangent
= 0.
and
lines to the sections by the planes a =
If
$=
Then the
A$ + /j,S9 =
$ = 0, $2 =
//.
the theorem.
is
an
131
EXAMPLES.
[A rectangular hyperboloid
pendicular generating lines.]
is
lie
Ex. 2. Any two plane sections of a conicoid and the poles of those planes
on another conicoid.
(x",
The
axx"
byy"
czz"
y",
z")
+ J=0.
conicoid
X (ax + by* + c
(axx"
byy"
czz"
+ d) =
The
X (ax * + by* + cz
1
or
if
+ d)  (ax 2 + by * + cz * + d)
\=ax + by + cz
x"
y"
The symmetry
through
(x",
y",
(ax
z"
x"
+ by
y"
+ cz
z"
+ d) = 0,
+ d.
mss
z").
and
(xa)* + (
92
132
EXAMPLES.
if
equations
and
axp
Eliminating
x, y, z
we have
If, for any particular value of X, the conicoid given by (i) is a cone, the
equation of the cone, when referred to its vertex, takes the form
is parallel to
one
m2
n2
and equal
to
 X.
Hence also the continued product of the squares of the four values of
the semidiameters is equal to the product of the four roots of the equation (ii)
and the product of the roots is easily seen to be a 2 6 2cV.
;
Ex. 4. The locus of the centres of all conicoids which pass through seven
given points is a cubic surface, which passes through the middle point of the
line joining any pair of the seven given joints.
Let &]==0, S2 =0, S8 =
points
The equations
&lt;&+&+
dx
dx
4
dx
r
g+xa+fS
dy
dy
dy
is
TANGENTIAL EQUATIONS.
Hence the equation of the locus of the
and in, is
dx
dx
dx
dS l
is
=0,
dSi
df&gt;
dS,
dz
which
133
~d7
&lt;fcc.
~dz
are of the
first
degree.
Now,
xm.
pair
p. 145,
given points.
and
xiv. p. 97.]
TANGENTIAL EQUATIONS.
If the equation of a
plane be Ix + my + nz
then the position of the plane is determined if
Z,
145.
+1 = 0,
m, n are
known, and by changing the values of I, m and n the
equation may be made to represent any plane whatever.
The quantities I, m, and n which thus define the
position of
a plane are called the coordinates of the
These co
plane.
a + \a
1 _l_^
+ X6
&gt;
T~+~\7
+ \c
1 4
CENTRE OF CONTCOID.
134
We
147.
will
f
my +
nz
+1=
a#2 +
bif +
if
is
where A, B,
G... are
the cofactors of
a, b,
c...
in the dis
criminant.
Hence the
is
of the
second degree.
Conversely every surface whoso tangential equation
the second degree is a conicoid.
is
of
148.
Since the tangential equation of a conicoid is of the
second degree, which in its most general form contains nine
constants, it follows that a conicoid can be made to satisfy
nine conditions and no more and in particular a conicoid
can be made to touch nine given planes.
;
149.
To find the Cartesian coordinates of the centre of the
conicoid given by the general tangential equation of the second
degree.
is
on the plane x
=
^..
DIRECTORSPHERE.
Similarly the centre
on the planes y
is
= 5
coordinates are
and
,
^
;j
^
a
y
[See
Art. 76.]
equation
If
plane,
we take Ix+my
we may suppose
+ nz+p =
I,
To find
151.
tangential equation
If we eliminate
the
directorsphere of a
conicoid
whose
is given.
be
2
off
+ 6m + en +
(Ix
0.
we have
a
which
is
+ G  2ux 
2vy
 2wz + d (x* +
y*
+ z*) = 0,
136
S+\S = 0.
also
S =
and
any plane
Also,
0,
they will
by giving a
S + \S = can be made to
touch any ninth plane it will therefore
represent any coni
coid touching the eight given
planes.
:
153.
If Sl = 0, $ = 0, $ =
be the tangential equations
2
3
of any three conicoids which touch seven
given planes then
the conicoid whose tangential
=
equation is S + X$ f
;
/j,Sa
S + \Sa +
t
Also,
by
can be
t*S9
made
to touch
= 0.
X and
/UL,
the conicoid
8 +X
l
4
/*Sa
hence
is
planes.
Ex.
1.
The
straight line.
If S =
and S =0 be the equations of any two conicoids which touch the
eight given planes, then S + \S = Q will be the general equation of a conicoid
The centre of the conicoid is given by
touching them.
_
= u + \u
_v + \v
_w + \w
dzw
dxu ~
_ dyv _
~~
dzw
dyv
d x~^u
hence the locus
is
a straight
line.
EXAMPLES.
Ex.
The
2.
137
a plane.
S + \S +
planes will be
Ex.
The directorspheres of
3.
pS"
= 0.
which have eight common
all conicoids
+d
2
(a;
+ y 2 + * 2)
4.
If (?!
(),
(7,5
= 0,
&lt;7
six
= and
planes;
(7 4
will be
ai +
X&lt;7
Now from
conicoid
S3 =
is
and S4 =
0,
Ci = 0, C3 = 0, Ca =
+ X(73 + /x(78 + v C4 =
S, + XS + j*S + vS = 0.
sphere of
will
Cj
be
Now from
Ex.
6], it
is
S,
0,
+ XS 2 + ^S + vS. = 0.
This
Theorem.]
By Ex. 4
all
same sphere; and the director spheres have a constant radius. Hence
their centres, which are the centres of the
conicoids, are on a sphere con
the
RECIPROCATION.
154.
space,
If
138
RECIPROCATION.
PQR
PQR
exactly as
is
from
S.
156.
The
two surfaces
surfaces.
is
reciprocal
139
RECIPROCATION.
of consecutive
Any
planes.
surface.
by reciprocation from Art. 144, that all coniwhich touch seven fixed planes will touch an associated
It follows
coids
eighth plane.
It also follows from Art. 140 that all conicoids which
touch eight given planes have an infinite number of common
tangent planes, provided that the eight given planes do not
form an associated system.
is
140
RECIPROCATION.
surface
surface.
if
"
If
"If
0."
mon
"
radical
plane."
As another example
straight line is
drawn
A BCD
common
Let
radical
axis."
141
RECIPROCATION.
The
1.
any point
is
a conicoid
of revolution.
Ex.
a
2.
s + 2/ + 2
Ex.
3.
Shew
Ex.
4.
Shew
that
if
is
a ruled surface.
2z
is self
reciprocal witli
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTEK
142
3.
Shew
intersection of
4.
VII.
any two
Shew that a
intersection of
conicoids.
parallel.
6.
Any
plane.
at 0.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
VII.
143
all
the surfaces.
a conic having
its
foci.
diagonals have the same radical centre, and the same orthogonal
sphere.
CHAPTER
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
VIII.
CONCYCLIC CONICOIDS.
Foci OF CONICOIDS.
Conicoids whose principal sections are confocal
160.
conies are called confocal conicoids.
The general equation of a system of confocal conicoids is
tf
x*
z*
Suppose
If
a, 6, c to
is
is
of one
sheet.
hyperboloid
plane z
is
is an hyperboloid
2
c
the
very nearly equal to
very nearly coincident with that part of the
When X
is
3?
which
is
if
z
b
2=1
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
When X
145
the hyperboloid is
is very nearly equal to
that
the plane y =
with
of
coincident
nearly
part
very
which contains the centre and is bounded by the hyperbola
b",
_i_
If X is between
boloid of two sheets.
the hyperboloid
of the plane y =
is
&lt;&gt;
______
7
f&gt;
i
*
&lt;J
a2 the surface
and
When X
an hyper
2
a?
z*
**
is
6
very nearly equal to
very nearly coincident with that part
which does not contain the centre and is
is
a"
is
imaginary.
and
which we have seen are the boundaries of limiting forms
of confocal conicoids, are called focal conies, one being the
focal ellipse,
focal hyperbola.
will
Any
is
a*
a?
A,
tf
_x
X
(6
 X) (c  X) + g* (c2  X) (a 
S. s.
u.
(f,
h)
if
X)
10
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
146
If
we
for
substitute
X the values
a?,
2
,
2
,
and
oo
in
negative,
2
2
when X is between 6 and a two
is
162.
will touch
any plane.
Let the equation of the plane be
Ix 4 my + nz = p.
The plane
will
if
163.
X.
Two
conicoids of
straight line.
Any
plane
__
+X
c*
if
+\(l + klj + (6 + X) (m + km )*
+ (c + X) (n + knj = (p + kp
2
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
147
Now,
this gives
2
{(a
X)J
X,
4 (c
(c
+ X) n*  p *}
+ X)
un
pp
}*.
cut
and let
x y z
,
subtraction
we have
...... (i).
~
*LI
+ s#!
2 +
2
,
5^x + vh + ?Tx
and
The
condition
(i)
common
=*
resP ectively
right angles.
102
CONFOCAL CONICOTDS.
165.
If a straight line touch two confocal conicoids, the
tangent planes at the points of contact will be at right angles.
Let (x y z),
conicoids be
(x"y"z")
x2
if
FTx + ?Tx
&lt;?Tx
let
the
a;
aMX
The tangent planes
will
if
&
+V
+ _j?*__i
?Tx
be at right angles
(a
if
"
"
x/x
zz
+ X) (a
2
I
X)
(6*
+ X)
(6
+ V)
(c
+ X)
"
(c"
+X
But, since the line joining the two points is a tangent line to
both conicoids, each point must be in the tangent plane at
the other. Hence
"
x"
z"
and
By
subtraction
we
(i) is satisfied.
The
Ex.
difference of the squares of the perpendiculars from the
centre on any two parallel tangent planes to two given confocal conicoids is
constant,
[p^ p^= X, X 2 .]
1.
Ex.
3.
The
focal hyperbola.
a?b*
c 2
Ex. 4. If two concentric and coaxial conicoids cut one another everywhere
at right angles they must be confocal.
Ex. 5. P, Q are two points, one on each of two confocal conicoids, and
the tangent planes at P, Q meet in the line RS shew that, if the plane
through US and. the centre bisect the line PQ, the tangent planes at P and Q
must be at right angles to one another.
;
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
Ex.
6.
149
is ,^
= 2z + \.]
166.
We have seen that three conicoids confocal with a
given conicoid will pass through any point P, the parameters
of the confocals being the three values of X
given by the
equation
f
+
where
(a
\, X a X 3
,
it is
easy
+ X )(a + X )(a + X )
(a 6 )(a c )
1
2
2
fl
point
are parallel
to the
Let (x, y
equation
then,
if
be any point
on the conicoid
whose
is
P be
xz
J*
and therefore
"
y"
:c
x)
is X,
we have
150
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
The equation
plane at
is
is
r*
The equations
normal at
to
a2
is
parallel to the
X
(H) =
the condition that this
may be
the case
~\)
and
it is
clear
Hence an
from
(i)
2^/X if it
Art 73

Ex
be
is
is satisfied.
that confocal.
151
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
J
two
when
/3
Let (x lt y lt
conicoid, and (f,, v^
on the other conicoid.
*!&gt;,
2/2
),
(
t&gt;
We
(, *,)*+ (v
8
")
t
(*,
W=
(*.
 ?.
011
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
152
which
is
and
2V*e focii.9
170.
the poles of a given plane with respect
a system of confocal conicoids is a straight line.
Let the equation of the confocals be
q/"
to
?^x + F^x + ^x = *
and
let the
The equation
is
zz&gt;
^X^6 X^c
8
Comparing
plane,
l2
A,~
this
we have
therefore
Hence the
%I
a?
y V=
=
equations are
a?l
I
_y
is
m __ z
 c\
the straight line whose
c*n
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
the
153
to the three
OR be the normals at
and are con focal with a given
which pass through
with
conicoid; and let P, Q, R be on the polar plane of
respect to the given conicoid.
Let
OP, OQ,
conicoicls
PQR
ROP
OPQR
POQ
is a selfpolar tetra
Hence
respectively.
hedron with respect to the original conicoid.
so as to
let any straight line be drawn through
and
Now
OP
OP
OP
We
the
equation of the
The equation
Ix
of
is
bV + cV).
fl
154
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS.
equation
aT + & m + cV f
(laoQ
+ my + ^
2
)
0.
whose vertex
y Q)
is
(XQ
is
aV + &y + cV  (CCX + yy + ^
Q
=
(i&gt;
is
(a
#+ (6  X) y + (c
2
X)
2
X)*  OBO + 2/7/ + ** )*=
0. .(iii).
.
It is clear from Art. 60, that the cones (i) and (iii) are
coaxial for all values of X.
Hence, since a cone and its
it follows that all cones which have a
are
coaxial,
reciprocal
common vertex and envelope confocal conicoids are coaxial
;
\, \,
xx
Hence the equation
its axes, is
+ xy + x/ = o.
of the enveloping cone
is
155
CONCYCLIC CONICOIDS.
Find
Ex.
locus of the
the
vertices of the
circumscribe an ellipsoid.
reciprocal cone will be right circular.
may
2
)
is
= 0,
be right circular.
If
x0t
2/ ,
be
all finite,
a2  a
[Art. 85]
V=
62
y&lt;?
+ y 2 = c2  z 2 +
?/
2
o
must be
zero.
If z
=0, the
focal ellipse
is right circular.
on
or from points on
are right circular.
The
conic
(ii) is
and
(iii)
is
imaginary.
CONCYCLIC CONICOIDS.
173.
The
X^ f+ X^V ^_
+X
_**_
a
y*
?, is
Hence a system
156
FOCI OF CONICOIDS.
174.
The following are examples of reciprocal properties
of confocal and concentric
concyclic conicoids.
Three
any
ccmfocals
pass
namely an
point,
through
an
ellipsoid,
Two
Two
line,
is
a straight line.
line,
Foci OF CONICOIDS.
175.
spond
to the focus
One
plane.
Also
let the
157
FOCI OF CONICOIDS.
in
Let
and
a/ ,
let
M, then
is
\f+
Now OP = e*
2
l
PM
(z
 h), g +
^ (z
 h), z\
^+ f+*= f */*
The
locus
parallel to z
is
ratio.
Hence
&lt;*
If the axes be
of the
is
(i)
will always
be
form
is
due
to
Salmon,
distance
The equation
We
of the locus
is
clearly of the
form
definition
will
if (a, /3,
7) be a focus,
158
FOCAL CONICS.
To find
177.
We
focus
the foci
/3,
7) is a
when
*)
is
(a,
is
 a)
(6
6,
or
c.
X = a, then
(i) becomes
+ (c a) + 2aax + 2a/%+ 2ayz  a (a + /3 +7 ) 1,
2
?/
to a, or
b
Similarly,
if
= b, we
if
and
have
a
and,
may be
(i)
0,
X = c, we have 7 =
0,
/3
arid
and
JL fiLi
in rn
lie.
conies,
159
78.
a, b, c,
Since
ellipse,
a, 6, c
(ii)
is
an hyperbola, and
conicoids.
2
2
can
the cone ow? + by f cz* =
be deduced from the above, or found in a similar manner.
179.
The
The
conies
focal conies of
become
JL
~~6
One
0;
straight
conies are pairs of imaginary straight lines,
consider as pointellipses.
Ex.
1.
Two
which we may
cones which have the same focal lines cut one another at
right angles.
Ex. 2. Shew that the enveloping cones from any point to a system of
confocals have the same focal Hues.
Ex. 3. Shew that the focal conies of a paraboloid are two parabolas.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
160
VIII.
180.
cyclic
aa?
fof
+ cz* = 0,
and
 + f +  = 0.
a
o
c
The
The
y=0&gt;
by the
irTn:r
a
b
last article
and
y=0&gt;
^^
+
=a
THREE
plane of each
is
shew
3.
Q
P, Q are two points on a generator of a hyperboloid;
Shew that
the corresponding points on a confocal hyperboloid.
is a generator of the latter, and that PQ = P Q
FQ
If
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
161
VIII.
hyperbolic paraboloid.
Shew
to a system of confocals
9.
all
At
a given point
given conicoid.
11.
Through a straight line in one of the principal planes
tangent planes are drawn to a series of confocal ellipsoids ; prove
that the points of contact lie on a plane, and that the normals at
G.
11
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
162
Any
15.
line,
has
16.
P, then
section of a cone
which
is
VIII.
normal at
to a focal
If a section of
P will
18.
From whatever point in space the two
viewed they appear to cut at right angles.
on any
plane.
23.
straight line meets a quadric in two points P, Q so
and Q intersect prove that PQ meets any
that the normals at
confocal quadric in points, the normals at which intersect, and
that if PQ pass through a fixed point it lies on a quadric cone.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
163
VIII.
25.
The envelope of the polar plane of a fixed point with
respect to a system of confocal quadrics is a developable surface.
Prove this, and shew that the developable surface touches the six
tangent planes to any one of the confocals at the points where the
normals to that confocal through the fixed point meet that confocal.
26.
Prove that the developable which is the envelope of the
with respect to a system of confocal
polar planes of a fixed point
with respect to one of the
quadrics, meet Q the polar plane of
confocals in a line, whose polar line with respect to the same
confocal is perpendicular to Q ; and that these polar lines generate
the quadric cone six of whose generators are the normals at
to
the three confocals through
and the three lines through
t
and 2a yz + 2b zx + 2c xy 
&gt;2
a
3
12
(a
s
c"
+ b + c 2)3
~ *7
29.
Two ellipsoids, two hyperboloids of one sheet, and two
hyperboloids of two sheets belong to the same confocal system;
shew that of the 256 straight lines joining a point of intersection
of three surfaces to a point of intersection of the other three, there
are 8 sets of 32 equal lines, the lines of each set agreeing either in
crossing or in not crossing each of the principal planes.
30.
A variable
fixed confocals;
shew that
112
CHAPTER
IX.
where
is
is
ABCP
universally true.
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
The
182.
tetrahedral coordinates
165
a, /3, 7,
S of any point
is
easily seen to
be
We
&lt;y
proportional to them.
The
line joining
184.
plane.
We may
shew that
of the
first
degree
is
m/3 + 717 f pB = 0.
f
by the method
of Art. 13.
&gt;
kj
OL
Of
&gt;
/A
^
&gt;
^y
"Y*
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
166
To shew
185.
the
from
angular
Let L, M, N,
be the perpendiculars on the plane from
the angular points A, B, C,
respectively; the perpendicu
lars being estimated in the same direction.
Let the plane
meet the edge
in
then at
we have 7 = 0, 8 =
AB
and
IOL
+ m/3 = 0:
therefore
.
Now
L:M ::AK
But
AK AB ACDK AGDB
::
similarly
.
::
ft
1;
BK.
::
L=
y
I
M
m
and similarly
::
N P
each =
n
I,
m,
n,
is h.
+ m/3 + nj +pS = 0.
The
+ ny +p^ = 0.
m^ of the first
1
is
the
,
are
Hence
degree.
(/ +
m/3
\l
I
m + \m,
+ \ri, p
f
\p.
1G7
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
188.
a plane.
Let the equation of the plane be
and
let
its
axes be
Ax + By +
We
Cz
+ D = Q ..................... (ii).
know
IOL
+m{3+ny+p$.
189.
may
result
also
be
manner.
Let
the
a
Jfo, k/3,
7,
+ 7 + S = _.
relation
invariable
If therefore k
become
infinitely great,
we
fc
+ /3 + y + S =
0.
This
is
the relation
any
&
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
168
PQ
A, B, C,
D respectively,
we have
 7i = j c.PQ cos
The equations
of the
directionangles are
J}
#2
and S
8t
= J d PQ cos
.
77. = 8a cos
6 cos # 2
0,
c cos
d cos
#3
a cos
+ b cos
putting I, m, n,
cos # 4 respectively,
or,
eZ
Ex.
1.
#2
f c
cos
d cos #4
acos0 l?
instead of
b cos
0,
,
c cos
3,
line of
intersection.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
parallel.
parallel to a
given plane.
[Any plane
Hence the
parallel to la
parallel plane
la
+ mfi + ny+pd = Q
through
(a
(?,
in
is
(a
+ 18 + 7 + 5).]
The equations
Ex.
4.
Ex.
5.
Ex.
6.
Ex.
7.
/3
+ 7 + 5 = 0, 7+5+a = 0,
+ a + /3 = 0, and
a+p
The equations
+ y = 0.
lie
on a plane.
in a point.
and
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
169
Ex. 8. Shew that the lines joining the middle points of opposite edges of
a tetrahedron meet in a point.
Ex.
9.
respec
+ mfi + ny +pd = 0,
a+m
/3
+ n y +p 3 = 0.
Ex. 10.
plane cuts the edges of a tetrahedron in six points, and
six other points are taken, one on each edge, so that each edge is divided
:
harmonically shew that the six planes each of which passes through one of
the six latter points and through the edge opposite to it, will meet in a
point.
Ex. 11.
DOd
be (a
[If
j8 ,
+l+
/3
BCD,
DAB,
dab,
is
l_^~
5
Shew
a
bed
is
on the plane
We
qa*
The
F(a,
left
A y,
192.
f
+ S7 +
rj3*
side
of
ttf
the
will
0.
be denoted by
S).
To find
the points
&lt;$_
S,
=
v"
TETRA11EDRAL COORDINATES.
170
F (a + lp, P + mp,
l
7j
to this line
+ np,
dF
Bl
and the
surface,
+ pp) = 0,
dF^
dF
.
or
is
To find
193,
the equation
a conicoid.
of a conicoid.
be a point on the surface, one root of the
8j)
Two
in
the
preceding article will be zero.
equation found
roots will be zero, if
If (a
P^Vt,
dF
*dF
dF
dF
The
= is
dF ^^ dF =
dF
JQ + 7i T~ + S TF
o
dF
,
l
J
+ Pi
,
cfa,
&,
7, 3)
homogeneous,
t
I
ap,
"ay,
j3,
7., 8,) is
194.
dF
195.
The
To ,/md
dF
dF.dF
polar plane
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
Hence,
if (a
1}
f$ lt
171
we must have
196.
of the plane
The equation
is
,dF + m dF + n dF
~T~
~Ja
di
aft
^T~
dy
dF
+P~7*
* d8 ~
v,
Since I +
+ n +p = [Art. 190], it follows that all the
diametral planes pass through the centre, that is through the
point for which
dF == dF == dF^dF
doL
To find
197.
d/3
dS
dy
a given plane
may
touch
the conicoid.
Ql*
where Q,
JR,
0,
criminant.
198.
To find
#a+//3f
and
UOL
57+^8 = 0,
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
172
is
therefore
q,
h,
g,
f,
h,
r,
9,
f&gt;
U,
V,
u
v
s,
W,
199.
To shew that any two conicoids have a common
polar tetrahedron.
self
We
ga
For, since a
we have
200.
is
h=g = u = Q
To find
+ r/3 + S 7 + ttf = 0.
2
and similarly /= v
= w = 0.
(1, 0, 0, 0),
of a conicoid circum
0.
Q = 0,
R = 0, 8 =
T=
and
0.
[Art. 197.]
conicoids which are inscribed in the tetrahedron of
reference are given by the general equation, with the con
= =
ditions
Hence
R S=T=0.
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
173
To find
202.
the equation
of
reference.
of a circumscribing conicoid
is
and
we
BC*/3y
+ CA
yz
+ AB*a/3 = 0,
obtain
CD*S = 0.
To find
203.
of
represent a sphere.
Since the terms of the second degree in the equations of
all
spheres, referred to rectangular axes, are the same; if
8 = be the equation of any one sphere, the equation of any
other sphere can be written in the form
the second degree
may
8+
or, in the
lx
+ mP + ny + p$ = 0,
homogeneous form,
S+
(fa
m/3
+ 717
+&gt;S)
(a
+ /3
4
f 8)
0.
TETRAHEDRAL COORDINATES.
174
also
and
^
^
should
juO
&lt;y
and,
if
the roots be
j3 lt /32 ,
we have
r + s _
HP
2/
m&gt;
Now
hence,
if
lengths
of
respectively,
be the
A, B,
we have
2
t*
By
+
~~~
2w
_q +
CA we
2&lt;7
"
CA
_
=
have similarly
s
C,
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
175
IX.
Shew
that, if qa
The
r/3
+ sy + ti* =
= 0.
2
a/?y8
be a paraboloid,
it will
system of conicoids
line.
line.
Shew
lie
on a sphere.
that an ellipsoid
its
may be
middle point.
Ur+l and
Ur+t and
a tetrahedron are
the straight lines
tetrahedron with
a point.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
176
IX.
13.
plane moves so that the sum of the squares of its
distances from two of the angles of a tetrahedron is equal to the
sum of the squares of its distances from the other two ; prove that
its envelope is a hyperbolic
paraboloid cutting the faces of the
tetrahedron in hyperbolas each having its asymptotes passing
through two of the angles of the tetrahedron.
DC
15.
If a tetrahedron
= 3 ^5
5OS
Zio
where
the
s is
sum
the
sum
if its
of the
of the squares of
all
16.
Shew that the locus of the centres of
circumscribe a quadrilateral is a straight line.
all
conicoids which
19.
The
lie
on a plane.
shew
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
22.
Nine conicoids have a common
shew that the eight points of intersection
IX.
177
selfpolar tetrahedron;
of any three, the
eight
points of intersection of any other three, and the eight points of
intersection of the remaining three are all on a conicoid.
23.
The sphere which circumscribes a tetrahedron
selfpolar
with respect to a conicoid cuts the
directorsphere orthogonally.
24.
The feet of the perpendiculars from any point of the
surface 
OL
~
+  +T=
o
0,
tetra
27.
When a tetrahedron is inscribed in a surface of the second
degree, the tangent planes at its vertices meet the opposite faces in
four lines which are generators of an
hyperboloid.
28.
The lines which join the vertices of a tetrahedron to the
points of contact of any inscribed conicoid with the opposite faces
are generators of an hyperboloid.
29.
The lines which join the angular points of a tetrahedron
to the angular points of the polar tetrahedron are
generators of the
same system of a conicoid.
30.
Cones are described whose vertices are the vertices of a
tetrahedron and bases the intersection of a conicoid with the
oppo
site faces.
The other planes of intersection of the cones and
conicoid are produced to intersect the
corresponding faces of the
tetrahedron.
Prove that the four lines of intersection are
genera
ting lines, of the same system, of a hyperboloid.
S. S. G.
12
CHAPTER
X.
SURFACES IN GENERAL.
We
205.
Let F(x,
y, z)
To
some
_y
we have
z _
_z
n
the equation
F(x + lr
+ mr,
+ nr) =
0,
or
dF
2 V dx
dF
dy
dF
dz
ih
If the equation of the surface be of the n
degree, the
ih
a
Hence
n
the
will
of
be
straight line
degree.
equation (i)
th
will meet a surface of the 71
degree in n points, and any
ih
surface in a curve of the n degree.
cut
the
will
plane
INFLEXIONAL TANGENTS.
Two
jf
line will
m, n
satisfy
4
m j + n
t
the relation
dF = n
0.
j,
dz
dy
a
be
in that case
tangent
dx
The
I,
dF
,dF
179
and
Hence
at
dF
j,
dx
jT7
dx
dF
+ m j 4f
dy
+ wj, + n
dy
dF
j,
dz
j,}
dz
0,
F=Q,
real or
imaginary
points.
point of contact
is
section.
122
180
TNDTCATRTX.
indefinitely
ax*
+ %hxy f
by*
we
Hence,
that
tion
we may
is
by the plane z
= &;
ax*
f
by
the section
2hxy,
therefore a conic.
is
dicatrix
210.
is
an
If,
or
ellipse, parabola,
y z
,
hyperbola.
y, z)
= 0,
we have
dF _dF
dx
dy
==
dF
==Q
dz
dy
will
meet the
181
ENVELOPES.
called tangent lines.
d*F
is
d*F
When
t&gt;e
Ex.
1.
of
surface x% + y% + z% = a%; and shew that the sum of the squares of the inter
is constant.
cepts on the axes, made by a tangent plane,
3.
xyza
(x*
+ y + z2 +
)
and
[The conical points are (2a, 2a, 2a,) (2a, 2a,2a,) (2a, 2a, 2a)
 2a,  2a, 2a). The tangent cone at the first point is
ENVELOPES.
of the ultimate intersections of a
whose
equations involve one arbitrary
of surfaces,
parameter.
Let the equation of one of the surfaces be
To find
211.
the locus
series
where a
is
the parameter.
ENVELOPES.
182
A consecutive
surface
is
F(x,y,
or
F(x, y
z,
a + Sa)=0,
+ 7 F(x,
a)
y, z, a]
&a
=0.
4 ......
F(x
The
y, *, a)
required envelope
and
0,
is
0.
(x, y,
a)
^
found by eliminating a from these
z,
equations.
212.
the equations
envelope.
The equations
surface
F (x
y, z,
F(x,
y, z, a)
The equations
and
^F
(x, y, z,
a)
0.
therefore
F(x,
or
y, z,
J+a
Hence
at
a+ 8a) =
... ==
and
F
(x, y, z,
,ana
at
8a)
............
0,
= 0.
=0.
The equations
ENVELOPES.
183
213.
The envelope of a system of surfaces, whose equation
involves only one parameter, will touch each of the surfaces
along a curve.
F(x,y,z,
where
a, b
= 0,
F(x,
or
a, 6)
y, z,
a+
8a, b
is
86)
F**b + fo+8b+
0,
.........
0.
da
or,
since Sa
.,
do
F = 0,^=0,
da
and
^=0
db
F
184
FAMILIES OF SURFACES.
equations
^
v
dF =
is
and
dF
rf&=
215.
To shew that the envelope of a series
of surfaces,
whose equations involve two
arbitrary parameters, touches each
F F
Ex. 1. Find the envelope of the plane which forms with the coordinate
planes a tetrahedron of constant volume.
Am. xyz = constant.
Ex. 2. Find the envelope of a plane such that the sum of the
squares of
its intercepts on the axes is constant.
Ans. x% +
z%= constant.
y%
Ex.
3.
plane x sin
Am.
x
+ y = a 2 y = x
,
tan
FAMILIES OF SURFACES.
To find
216.
tions
of
The
conical surfaces.
equation of any cone,
origin, is
homogeneous
and
when
is
F(*,
and
differential
equa
?Uo.
CONICAL SURFACES.
This
(a, /3,
of any cone
of the form
is
7)
185
whose vertex
is
at the
is
dF
~.
dF
dF
() s Ky^)^K7)^=o
which
is
217.
tions
....
...... (iO,
To find
and
differential
equa
of cylindrical surfaces.
A
which
cylinder
is
=
I
The equations
_ ==
line
be
xa
n"
/3
being arbitrary.
Now,
we have from
(i)
F (nx
or
which
in \
 z = Jf,/[y z
is
lz,
ny
mz)
............... (ii),
CONOIDAL SURFACES.
186
which
= Av,
m ^j~ + n dF
j~
dz
,
lj+
dx
is
=z
dF
.dF
we have
11
&
ay
To find
218.
and
differential
equa
The
surface
is
when the
fixed plane
is
and
parallel,
be
\x + py
The equations
conditions are
Ix
and
x + my + riz+p = 0;
which the moving line is
+ my + nz + p=Q,
of
any
vz
line
to
be
= 0.
which
satisfies
the given
+ my + nz + p + A (I x + my + n z +p) = 0,
X# + MJ + y + B = 0.
there
m y+riz+p
f(
yz) .........
DEVELOPABLE SURFACES.
fixed plane, the
187
*=/
........................ (")
to be
dF
*^ +
dF =
_

may be on
the plane
dF
dF
dF
=
X j + 9
jdx y dy
is
Ex.
1.
Shew
.dF
.dF
0.
Ex. 2. Find the equation of the right conoid whose axis is the
and whose generators pass through the circle x=a, y z + z2 = W.
Ans.
axis of
z,
a?
Ex. 3. Find the equation of the right conoid whose axis is the axis of z,
and whose generators pass through the curve given by the equations
Ex.
4.
Shew
is
a hyperbolic
paraboloid.
219.
Cones, cylinders and conoids are special forms of
There are two distinct classes of ruled
ruled surfaces.
surfaces, namely those on which consecutive generators inter
sect, and those on which consecutive generators do not
intersect; these are called developable and skew surfaces
proceed to consider some properties of
respectively.
We
surfaces.
DEVELOPABLE SURFACES.
188
220.
Suppose we have any number of generating lines
of a developable surface, that is any number of straight lines
such that each intersects the next consecutive. Then, the
plane containing the first two lines can be turned about the
second line until it coincides with the plane containing the
second and third lines this plane can then be turned about
the third line until it coincides with the plane through the
third and fourth lines; and so on.
In this way the whole
surface can be developed into one plane without tearing.
;
221.
The tangent plane at any point of a ruled surface
must contain the generator through the point [Art. 129]. If
the surface be a skew surface, the tangent plane will be
different at different points of the same generator but, if the
;
through
the
given
generator
and
the
next
consecutive
generator.
To find
of develop
able surfaces.
dF
j
dx
+
(l~
\ ax
and
must
dF
+ m y f
coincide.
dy
dF
j
dz
m~m dz
ay
=0,
lines
DEVELOPABLE SURFACES.
The
may be
This
is
The
differential equation
the case
189
is
may
also
parameter.
For, the general equation of the tangent plane
surface at the point (x y, z) is
of a
Hence,
the surface
if
is
flf
dx
and
dz
7
.
:
we
df
~
that
therefore nave
dy
dz
7
dx
Therefore
dz
*
dx*
d*z
and
dxdy
Hence
which
is
tfz
^T2
dx
d?z
.
=
dy*
equivalent to
(i).
\dy
dxdy
/dz
dz
\dy
dy*
d*z
3 j
\dxdyl
is,
connecting
DEVELOPABLE SURFACES.
190
We
Now
contains
three
constants,
arbitrary
is
Ex. Find the equation of the developable surface whose generating lines
pass through the two curves
2
t/
its
= 4a#, 2 = and
edge of regression
ca;
is
a;
= 4ai/, z=c;
 3ayz = = n/ 2  Sax
(cz).
Ix
+ my + nz + 1 = 0.
is
The
surface
is
m between
(i),
and
From
This
is
(ii)
and
(iii)
we have
and
therefore,
from
(iii),
cx 2 = 3ayz.
=*
in
(i);
We
the
2
to the surfaces cx = 3ayz,
SKEW SURFACES.
191
will
224.
touch
AB
Let AB,
any skew
A"E"
surface.
AB
AB
PQR
A"B".
AB
PQR
A B.
By means
ruled conicoid
may be shewn
To find
225.
the lines
1.
To
sin 6,
b cos 0,
c,
and a sin
(8
+ d0)  6 cos
t
(0
+ de),
c.
SKEW SURFACES.
192
Hence the
Now, if (x, y, z) be the point where the shortest distance meets the con
secutive generators, the normal at (x, y, z) must be perpendicular to the
therefore have
given generator, and also to the shortest distance.
We

sintf3
and
Eliminating
surface
0,
we
cos0
c3
= 0.
IV * ?
4.
Ex.
b3
To
2.
4. 1V *
a2
z2
?/ \c
\a
IV
b
2
whose equation
is
All the generating lines of one system are parallel to the plane
K=
.......................... ..........
&lt;&gt;
The
x_
= _
a2
Hence one
y_
62
 + ^=
plane
is
which are
parallel to the
^^=0
cuts the
surface.
[See a
Vol. xix.
226.
differential
^_
equa
SURFACES OF REVOLUTION.
193
lx
+ my \nzp.
2
Hence, since there must be some relation between r
the
functional
is
p,
required
equation
(x
a)
f
by +
(y
(z
c)
=f(lx
f
my
f
and
nz).
The normal
xaf
_/
By
writing
CLJj
CvJj
dx
zz
_yy
U?
CLJf
dz
dy
dF
dx
in
dF = 0;
dF_
*
dy
dz
m,
G
I,
this
is
NOTE.
student.
For
is
fuller
referred to
s. s.
a.
Salmon
13
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
194
X.
EXAMPLES UN CHAPTER X.
1.
Shew
= xs
(c*
).
y*
4ax, z =
its
the
of
and (y
developable
a
b)
which
surface
 4cz, x = 0;
(ax
by +
4
= 3abx
cz)
(y
b).
The developable
z*
6.
y
9
= 5 a*
and x 
0.
Explain what
is
meant by a nodal
There
find
line
on a surface, and
on the surface
&lt;
is
(x, y, z)
0.
+ 2axy =
it.
z (x
+ y*) = 2kxy.
is
circle.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
195
X.
of the
planes passing through the conical point and a pair of the inter
sections with the axes touches the surface along a straight line.
If a ruled surface be such that at any point of it a straight
can be drawn lying wholly on the surface and intersecting the
axis of z, then at every point of the surface
10.
line
d?z
8
7
dx*
+ 2xy
J
d*z
,
f
dxdy
d*z
y*5s
y
=A
0.
dy*
sin
+y
sin 6
 ?/ cos =  (cO 
What
12.
1
sin"
family of surfaces
its
is
determined by
a,
is
is
z),
edge of regression.
represented by the equation
=ntan~
1J
.
If
n=
2,
is
infinite
At
14.
Any
meets
it
a
2
tangent plane to the surface a (oj + y ) + xyz =
again in a conic whose projection on the plane of xy is a
rectangular hyperbola.
15.
Shew
surface yx*
a?z
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
196
X.
19.
meets
generator PQ of the surface xyz k(x + y*) =
the axis of z in P.
Prove that the tangent plane at Q meets the
surface in a hyperbola passing through P, and that as Q moves
to the hyperbola generates a
along the generator the tangent at
a
plane.
section about
and
fortyfive triple
8
2/
+ x*z + yzw =
0.
Any
25.
Shew
iy
is
cv
CHAPTER
XI.
CURVES.
227.
WK
represent a curve.
228.
To find
the equations
curve.
Let x,
and
curve,
y,
let
1.
PQ
are
Also, since the direction cosines of the chord
proportional to Sx, &y, Bz, and the tangent coincides with the
ultimate position of the chord, the directioncosines of the
tangent are equal to
dx
dy
ds
ds
dz
y
ds
dx
dy
dz
ds
ds
ds
(x, y, z)
are
TANGENT TO A CURVE.
198
and
G (x, y,
two surfaces
= 0,
z)
dF
dF
(f) S + (iy) ;
/f .
229.
dG
+
,
dG
.,
dF =
75
.dG
;*&gt;
/f ,
0,
tangent line at
given plane.
It is clear that the tangent line to such a curve at any
point is in the tangent plane to the surface at that point, and
is perpendicular to the line of intersection of the tangent
plane and the given plane.
dF
dF
 ra ymj
dz
The
n~i
dx
j
dz
dF
m j~
dx
.dF

dF
 dF
7
dy
&gt;
lj
dy
Hence we have
dxf
j
ds
dx
dy
dz
ds
ds
ds
dF
dF\ dy f dF
 nj)+f(n,
mj
dx
/
dz
ds\
dy
dz (. dF
r(l j
 mdF\
=
~j
ds\ dy
dx]
dF
Jj
()
&gt;
CURVES.
0, the differential
If the given plane be the plane z
line of greatest slope will be
a
of
equation
_
dx ds
=
dy ds
Ex. Find the lines of greatest slope to the plane z  on the right conoid
x = yf( z
whose equation is
The differential equation of the projection on * = of a line of greatest
slope is x dx \ydy 0.
Hence the projections of the lines of greatest slope on the plane s=0 are
)&gt;
circles.
is
The
of a curve
curvature.
NOTE.
200
to
we
employ
CURVES.
differential coefficients with respect to the arc
dx
~7~
ds
x x
,
d*x
&gt;
~T~9
ds*
x"
d*x
t
and
&c. instead of
~TT &C.
ds*
201
Then, in the
become
limit,
ABC,
BCD,... become
. .
surface.
A
B
B,
qMP
rMP
P
all
A, B,
polar surface
232,
To find the equation of the osculating plane at any
point of a curve.
Let P, Q,
R be three
PQ = QR = 8s;
and
x  rfM
Y *s\
 y Ss +
will
8s*,
z
8s
+~
Ss*
8s.
The equation
of
is
of the form
202
and R,
\ve
must
have
Lx + My +Nz =0,
=
+
+
Lx"
Nz"
My"
fa?,iyy,
y
To find
233.
the curvature, at
Let P, Q,
the equations
any point of a
R be
?
0.
V be the
QV
is in the plane
middle point of PR,
PQ and QR only differ by cubes
is ultimately perpendicular to PR, and is therefore
of Ss,
the principal normal at Q.
Then,
PQR
if
QV
Again, the
circle of curvature.
we have
But
being as in the
PQR,
position, is the
the
radius
of curvature,
be
p
in its limiting
Hence,
if
in the limit
QV =
(x"&lt;
last
QV are
of
as
circle
V are
2
y"
+*
"),
and
PQ = &
THE BINORMAL.
203
px",
The
z",
y",
and
py"
pz".
to be
To find
234.
the directioncosines
of the binormal.
_
~
z
z"
__
x"
z"
yx"
xy"
y"
But
(y
z"
 zy J + (z
=
x"
 xzJ+
(x*
+y +*
(x"
(xy"
2
y"
yxJ
*"*)
 (a
x"
+y
y"
+ zz J
_ 1
~?
+ y + z* = 1,
= 0.
+y +
2
x*
since
and therefore
z"
z
To find
235.
zz"
y"
x"
directioncosines are
y"),
 *V),
the
curve.
PQ
osculating planes,
sin
we have
BT = (mSn
n$m)"
+ (nU
Ihif
(ISm
m&lf.
204
MEASURE OF TORSION.
Hence, in the
we have
limit,
dn
dm\ z
 n ~j~]
j
j
ds
dsj
dr\*
dl
ds
dl \*
m ds
~r
cfriY
+ ( n :r*:j~
^i
ds/
ds
or,
l =
Now
z"z
f&gt;(y
We
I
m)*
x"
x
z")
(xy"
yx
(i).
y");
ril,
and
for
;
&gt;
r.
z
&gt;
*
y"&gt;
"
236.
To find
**
y",
a curve may
be
a plane
curve.
will
Then the
be
.
**
a*
coordinates of
205
Ax + By + Cz + D =
0,
the equation
+*V +
&lt;
+ C(g +
z"
be
The
therefore be zero.
+~
. . .
= 0,
will
^V+
cr.
powers of
different
cr
must
Hence we have
Aaf
+ By + Gz = 0,
+
+ C/  0,
7
Ax"
The
elimination of
By"
J.,
B,
G gives
P is
arbitrary,
0,
must be
satisfied at all
The
also
The
to
the
osculating
p (y
z"
y"\
(zx"
x
z")
and p
(xy"
y
may
x").
MEASURE OF TORSION.
20G
and
(zx"
p (x
x
y
y"
z")
x")
Vx
^ (x
y"
y
z"
x"
which
is
zy")
y"
(zx"
x
z")
z"
= 0.
x"}
we then have
(y
0,
z")
ac",
(x
y"
and add
z"
 yx
y"
")
= 0,
237.
To find
the centre
The
The equation
(tx)*
Hence
+(i&lt;y)y
+(t*)*
regression
the
of
point
(x, y, z) is
......... (i).
of
intersection
on the edge of
and the
(i),
two planes
(tjhr+tof)f+($4f
= x * + y + z = l ............ (ii),
*
and
(f
x)x"
since
238
+
x"
= pL =
Sr
If
and
y)y
+y
y"
"+
+z
z"
(Sz)z
"=
O...(iii),
0.
and
have
(n
= qM = rM,
p + Sp
= LqM=LPM.
qL,
MQP and
KP LP
to the
LP==
ar ultimately
or
qKL, we
............ (i).
MEASURE OF TORSION.
207
Also
where
1? is
KLP
a?,
on the axis of
Projecting the sides of the triangle
if /, m, n be the directioncosines of the binormal,
we have,
,,
dl ds
dl
dp
,..
therefore ultimately
or
(iii).
Since
= p(y
p*"
Similarly
and
=
py"
^^"
z"
zy")
ap (y
crp
= ap
z"
(sV"
"
(x
we have from
[Art. 234]
z
x
y
+ag
y"}
z")
x")
&lt;r
+a
z"
/&lt;/").
^ (aV
and add
(y
(iii)
W
CD",
 #V),
2/
y",z"
^)respectively
x
x
//
//
x"
.(iv).
//
z"
&lt;?/",
fJ/Y*
either of the
known formulae
j
dp
or
p f
THE HELIX.
208
Hence the
is
equal to
,, dll
2ij
d*p
+ jrf.
dr*
or to p
dp
[For this
Dr Routh, Quarterly
a paper by
see
article
Journal, Vol.
vii.]
240.
The following examples will illustrate the use of
the different formulae we have investigated in this chapter.
Ex.
1.
To find
and
the curvature
the torsion of
helix.
A helix is
# = acos
Hence
We
therefore have
and also
0,
= asin0.
"
x"
=a
y = a sin
y
2
0"
sec 2
sin
= a0 tana.
6
= atana.
a.
^
a
 cos
a*
0, z
= a cos
cos3 a,
,y"=
"=
"
^
2
sin
^^
a
cos3 a, z
cos
z"
"
= 0.
Hence
and
v
 sin
a
cos a,
cos
 sin
cr
cos a,
cos
cos 2 a,
  sin
cos 2
cos
cos 3
cos 3 a,
a2
sin a
a,
a,
cos 6 a sin a ;
sin a cos a
It should be noticed that the principal normals all intersect perpendicularly
the axis of the cylinder. This is seen at once by writing down the equations
of the principal normal at 0, namely
x  a cos 6 _ y  a sin
cos
(9
sin
_ z  ad tan a
EXAMPLES.
209
We have
 12a cos 2
z =.
sin
12asin 2 0cos0
6csin20
= 6 \/(a 2 + c 2
sin 20
Hence
The equations
of the principal
x  4a cos3
_ya sin
The equation
x  4a cos3
0,
 a cos 0,
sin
Ex.
To find
_ z  3c cos
Id
cos0
sin
0,
is
 4a sin 3
a sin
0,
cos
0,
0,
to the third
OZ
of a curve.
point
from O, and
Then,
We
let
 and
at the origin,
= l,
y =0,
0;
Differentiating,
we have
.............. . ............ (i).
Also, by differentiating
f
we have
at
any point
s. s. o.
14
EXAMPLES ON CtiAPTER
210
Also
we know
that
c"
x",
From
(i),
Xt.
(ii), (iii)
we
Hence, by Maclaurin
y",
",
z&gt;"
",
Theorem, we have
2.
x=a
3.
of
the curve
9
x 9 + y = a az = x*,
4.
point moves on an
y*.
its direction of
ellipsoid so that
of the ellipsoid
principal
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER XL
211
its slope is
tan"
f
and
Shew
curve
pass
that
equations are x*
radius
if
2
4
2
+ y* + z = a and x + y* + z* =
,
are circles of
^
a.
9.
circular curvature
is
curve
is
of
of
y=2a
curvature
prove that the radius of circular
2
/( (&lt;f+W)*_
aV
12.
In any curve
if
2
(a + 6 +
is
equal to
2
i
 the
tortuosity at any
p the radius of absolute curvature and
&lt;r
point
(x, y, z),
then
sin/?
dp
tortuosity respectively.
&lt;r
142
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
212
14.
XI.
of the curve
in question 5.
15.
of
the
whose
curve ax? +
ar
b
16.
at the
r
r.
s&lt;
= 0.
to the axis
prove that
a
= p tan
a.
If
&lt;r
pp
= (TO
18.
Every portion of a curve is equal and similar to the
corresponding portion of the edge of regression of the polar sur
face ; prove that the tangent to it makes an angle of 45 with a
fixed plane, and that its projection on that plane is the e volute of
a circle.
19.
Shew that if along the tangent to any curve a point be
taken at a constant distance c from the point of contact of the
tangent to the given curve, and if p be the radius of curvature in
the osculating plane of the curve traced out by the point, then
t
,l
where p and
a
curve.
circle
now
becomes, then
p
+
o cos4 a~
a
o
where
&gt;
s is
the distance,
CHAPTER
XII.
CURVATURE OF SURFACES.
WE
is
on the
Since the
sum
reciprocals
stant.
CURVATURE OF SURFACES.
214
Zz
+ by\
ax*
x=
respectively
then
it
made by
the planes y
clear that p l
is
= ,
and
p*
= 0,
=
^
Pl
The semidiameter
ft.
of the indicatrix
which makes an
&gt;T
+77
Hence
=
The

Pi
P*
to Eider.
entirely
point,
neighbourhood
The surface in this case is said to be
tangent plane.
Synclastic at the point.
When the indicatrix is an hyperbola, the sign of the
radius of curvature is sometimes positive and sometimes
MEUNIER
215
THEOREM.
of some sections is
negative, shewing that the concavity
turned in opposite directions to that of others. The surface
in this case is said to be Anticlastic at the point.
When
the indicatrix
and, if p y
of
curvature
the
be the finite radius of principal curvature,
C03
!
p
the tormula  any other normal section is given by
,
247.
section of
of a surface
the normal
let
and
line
in
the
indicatrix
the
cut
section through the same tangent line cut the indicatrix
be the middle
Let K,
in the line QVQ parallel to RKR.
and let p, p be the radii of
of
RKR,
points
RR, QQ
respectively,
Then we
2 Po
and
ROR, QOQ
respectively.
.OV=QV*.
RR
where
is
ROR
and
QOQ
216
LINES OF CURVATURE.
Hence we have
ultimately,
Z
h~OK~
or
p
This
is
it
cos
0.
Meunier s Theorem.
248.
245,
called
=p
follows that
if
The
249.
Dr
Theorem
is
due
to
Besant.
Let
OT be
of a surface,
any tangent line at the point
be a point contiguous to
on the normal section
on an oblique
through OT, and Q a point contiguous to
section through OT.
Then a sphere can be described to
touch OT at 0, and to pass through P and Q; and the
sections of this sphere by the planes TOQ, TOP are
of the sections of
ultimately the circles of curvature at
the surface by those planes. Hence, as Meunier s Theorem
is obviously true for a sphere, it is true for the surface.
and
let
Ex.
2z = 6x 2
1.
Ans. ra
7&gt;
 Tav
pp
Hence, eliminating
0,
cos
6,
we have
sin 2 a
r2~
PI
1
+ ft
2 cos a
PiP2
the
the
two
two
LINES OF CURVATURE.
217
250.
DEF. A line of curvature on any surface is a curve
such that the tangent line to it at any point is a tangent line
to one of the principal sections of the surface at that
point.
251.
The normals to any surface at consecutive
points of
one of its lines of curvature intersect.
Let
be an extremity of an axis of the indicatrix which
of a surface, then 0,
are
corresponds to the point
consecutive points on a line of curvature.
Let
be the centre of the indicatrix, then
the normal to the surface at 0.
0V
will
be
The tangent
line at
to the indicatrix is
perpendicular
to the surface at
it is also
;
perpendicular to
OF; and, since is an extremity of an axis of the indicatrix,
the tangent line is perpendicular to PF. Hence
to the
normal
OF, PF,
and
Conversely, if the normals at
intersect, the tan
to the indicatrix will be
gent line at
perpendicular to the
and P therefore the
plane which contains the normals at
tangent line will be perpendicular to PF, and hence
is
an axis of the indicatrix.
PF
252.
To find the differential equations
curvature on any surface.
of
the
#
vi
"
The normal
dF
dF
dx
dy
z
=r
dF
dz
%xdx
dx,
y + dy, z
vydy
+ dz)
is
% z  a2
lines
of
Then
LINES OF CURVATURE.
218
dF
dy
dz
rV
d
d JL
dJF
dx
dz
dy,
dF
y
j(dF\
d
dz
w&gt;
Since (x
dx,
f dy, z
is
also
dF,
dx
The equations
(i)
dF
dF
dy
and
dz
(ii)
...
equations.
253.
lines
and
the
are the meridians, and the circular sections which are per
pendicular to the axis.
It is easy to see that one of the principal radii at any
is the radius of curvature of the generating curve at
point
radius is the length of the
and that the other
principal
and the
axis.
LINES OF CURVATURE.
219
The other
which cut
all
the
developes.
at
its axis.
The equations
are
dx
dy
dz
OF
dF
dF
= 0.
dz
dx
dF
(?)
&lt;()
and
Since the surface
is
dF
(IF
dx
~dz
a cone
whose vertex
dF
dx
therefore from
(ii)
.(ii).
d_F
dy
is at
the origin,
dF_ Q
dz
we have
.(iii),
220
LINES OF CURVATURE.
dx
dx
dy~
and add
dF
(**.]
Hence
dy
dF
y, z respectively,
(}
either
or
dz
dy
From
( v)
(vi)
dx
I,
we have
dF
where
+ z 2 = constant
From
y? + y2
we have
m, n are constants.
dy
dz
Hence, from
Ix
dF
dF
(iii),
we have
+ my + nz = 0,
lines.
Ex. 3. If two surfaces cut one another at a constant angle, and the
curve of intersection be a line of curvature on one of the surfaces, it will be
a line of curvature on the other.
Let P, Q be any two consecutive points on the curve of intersection, and
Oab be the line of intersection of the normal planes of the curve at P, Q,
where
is in the osculating plane of the arc PQ.
If the curve of inter
section be a line of curvature on one of the surfaces, the normals to that
surface at P, Q must intersect, they will therefore meet the line Oab in the
same point, a suppose.
Let the normals to the other surface at P, Q meet Oab in c, c respectively.
let
The
and Oa
triangles
is
common.
DUPIN S THEOREM.
221
Ex. 5. If a line of curvature be a plane curve its plane will cut the
surface at a constant angle.
Any
therefore
is
255.
(or
on a sphere).
The theorem
4.
all their
is
on a plane
line
If three
series
common points,
Take
surfaces,
2sc+ay
2y + aV
2r
At
x
0,
+1)2*
4
6V
f
4
2hyz
2h zx
......... (i),
......... (ii),
a consecutive point
= z, where z
0, z
common
y=
planes to
+ ......... =
4 ......... =
(i)
and
(ii)
at
(0, 0,
to
(i)
and
(ii)
we have
is
+ hyz = 0,
y 4 dzz + h xz = 0.
tK 4
bzz
= 0.
have similarly, since the other
ultimately, h 4 h
surfaces cut at right angles, h +
+ h = 0.
0, and
Hence h = h ~h" = 0, and therefore the axes are tangents to
or,
We
h"
h"
222
256.
To find the principal radii of curvature at any
point of a surface.
Let f, 77, f be the coordinates of the point of intersec
tion of the normals at two consecutive points (x, y, z) and
(x + dx, y\ dy, z + dz) of a surface, and let p be the radius
of curvature at (x, y, z) of the normal section through those
Then [Art. 251] p is one of the principal radii of
points.
we have
curvature, and
dF
Tx
Tz
Ty
:.
?=
pdF
= y+pdF
?= 2 + r
jK dz
Kdy
ff+r
K dx
since (f,
And,
y+
dF
~dT"
dz)
rj,
i7
dy,
equations, considering
f) is also
we have by
f,
= rfa; +
,
77,
f,
differentiating the
p as constant,
p
 d, /c?F\
(J }
\dxj
/&lt;:
rf^
 pd*
T^js
rfa;
/t
d*F
d*F ,
d*F
dz
d,(dF\
r = TT w* + j T~ a y f
dxdz
dx*
\dxl
dxdy
,
and similarly
for
and d
d
(TJ}
written
z
r^r
dx* J
p
We
r
f^rj
.
the equations
d*F
^jdxdz
dxdy
*F\
d*F
have also
_ dx + dF,
= dF,
,
dF
d* dF
K dx
j
die
dF
may be
223
tJMBlLlCS.
To find
257.
the umbilics
At an umbilic the
of any surface.
indicatrix is a circle.
Hence the
indicatrix
T&gt;\
is
similar
to
conicoid
d*F
d*F
d*F
d^F
d*F
dz dy
by the plane
dF
dF
dF
is
two values
(i)
by
(ii).
224
lines
be
?;
~7~ ~7~
=!
= T"
va+i&gt;
= p (f z),
ny = q(Zz).
therefore
and
+?y
through
(f,
7j }
we
f)
equations,
 dx =  dp
dy = dq (f
z) f pdz,
and
that
p (pdx +
dx
is
dy = q (pdx
and
Eliminating %
(1
therefore (1
which
is
s)
+ gc?^
g o?!/)
+ qdy)
from
(i)
(? s)
(rc?a; 4
(f
(5c2a? f
and
0)
(ii)
sdy)..
.
&lt;^)
&lt;f)
((1
+#
(ii).
(1
+7
2
)
r}
lines of curvature
Again, from
(
and
.(i)
we have
+/) * pqr +
(i)
(pq
and
r p\
2
/&gt;
(ii)
KJ
^
J
we
(
dx + no
I
sp\
H
d + (l +
8
&lt;/
dy
0.
c?y
= 0.
3?j
225
Hence
or
(rt
s 2)
which
is
+ K [t(l +/) + r
radii of curvature.
l+ff
_ 1 + g _pq
"
surface,
off
in p, q, r, s.
Then, since the principal planes at any point of a
surface are at right angles, the angles p t q, r, s are right
angles, and therefore pqrs is ultimately a rectangle whose area
is
pq.ps.
S. S. G.
at
and
15
GEODESIC LINES.
226
pQ
is
ultimately
and
is
ultimately
of curvature at P.
area of pqrs
is
Hence pq =
PO
,
ultimately
and ps =
radii
so that the
PS
is
of
1S
GEODESIC LINES.
DEF.
262.
geodesic line on a surface is such that any
is the shortest line which can be drawn
small element
on the surface from A to B.
The length of the line joining any two indefinitely near
But
points will clearly be least when the curvature is least.
by Meunier s theorem, the curvature of a surface through a
given tangent line is least when the section is a normal
section. Hence at any point of a geodesic line on a surface the
plane of the curve contains the normal to the surface, so that
the principal normal of the curve coincides with the normal
therefore have at any point of a geodesic
to the surface.
line on a surface
d*x
AB
We
dy
ds* __ ds*
"
dF
dF
dx
dy
&lt;Tz
ds*
dF
dz
CURVATURE OF CONICOIDS.
Since all parallel sections of a conicoid are similar,
263.
of a conicoid is
follows that the indicatrix at any point
similar to the central section which is parallel to the tangent
Hence the tangents to the lines of curvature
at P.
it
plane
at any point
P are parallel
CURVATURE OF CONICOIDS.
227
Now, by
We
At
its
points
common
to
+ =L
^
a + X 6 +X
and
we
have,
by
a (a
Differentiating
+
b (b
X)
and
(ii)
xdx
+ X)
xdx
a(a + X)
The
(v)
c (c
+ X)
zdz
ydy
+X
ydy
6(6 + X)
(v).
c(c+X)
+ X,
elimination of a
we have
(iii)
and
+X
subtraction,
X, c
+X
from
(iii),
(iv),
gives
which
is
dx
dy,
dz
dx
a
dy
dz
\
(vi),
(i)
152
228
of
where d
and
is
is
at P.
equal to
where
pQ
is
for
is the semidiameter
the cosine of the angle
is
P
At any
266.
Let
that
py. is
f
by*
&lt;tf*
dty
&lt;ft
d? ~
= d/ _ d
"
ax
by
cz
on the conicoid
GEODESICS ON CONICOIDS.
We
ax
is
.....................
cz
by
229
where
constant,
.................. (ii),
and
= aV + 6y + cV
2
Differentiating
cw?
by* f cz*
f
=1
..................
(iii).
5,
we have
2
+ by* +
ax"
From
(i)
cz
"
cw%6
byy"
czz"
...... (iv).
we have
axx"
byy"
oz/
p
fr
. .
. . .
(111)
and
&lt;
lv)
l_dr
ds
&gt;
 dr
1
Hence
j
r as
and therefore
Ex.
an
1.
1 cZp
jp
/
ds
from
....
.
= 0,
jsr is constant.
The constant pr
is
the
same
unibilic.
This follows from the fact that the central section parallel to the tangent
plane at an umbilic is a circle, and therefore the semidiameter parallel to
the tangent to any geodesic through an unibilic is of constant length.
Ex. 2. The constant pr has the same value for all geodesies which touch
the same line of curvature.
At the point of contact of the line of curvature and a geodesic which
touches it, both p and r are the same for the line of curvature and for the
geodesic.
Ex. 3. Two geodesies which touch the same line of curvature make equal
angles with the lines of curvature through their point of intersection.
From Ex. 2, the semidiameters parallel to the tangents to the two
geodesies, at their point of intersection P, are equal to one another, and are
therefore equally inclined to the axes of the central section which is parallel
to the tangent plane at P. But the axes of the central section are parallel to
the tangents to the lines of curvature through P: this proves the proposition.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
230
XII.
Ex. 4. Two geodesies which pass through umbilics make equal angles
with the lines of curvature through their point of intersection.
Ex.
5.
Any
umbilic.
Ex. 6. The locus of a point which moves so that the sum, or the differ
ence, of its geodesic distances from two adjacent umbilics is constant, is a
line of curvature.
Ex.
7.
length.
11
where a and /? are the semiaxes of the central section parallel to the tangent
plane at P. But, if p be the perpendicular on the tangent plane at P, then
prl =pr,l = constant, from Ex. 2. Hence, since pa/3 is constant, and also
2
it follows that OP is constant.
,
A surface is formed
1.
its
directrix
in a constant ratio.
If p, p be the principal radii of curvature of any point of
with a given concentric
ellipsoid on the line of its intersection
2.
an
p+ p
will be invariable.
3.
where u
l
origin.
u +u. + u 3 +
l
is
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
231
XII.
The normal
ellipsoid is intersected
In the surface
cos
Shew
sin 
= 0,
(x, y, z)
=
lie
are
is
is
abc
=
equal to
7.
ab + OG + ca
any point
lie
on the surface
P
8.
line
the anticlastic
it the inflexional tangents coincide.
along
on a sphere
on concentric spheres.
plane curve
is
surfaco.
&lt;/&gt;
sin
=f =
&lt;
1
3
 12
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
232
XII.
ciicles,
If a geodesic line
13.
curve
it is
is
is
not necessarily
geodesic.
Shew
they are
that
if
one
all repetitions of
curvature
the same plane curve.
is
geodesic
14.
Shew that if the normal to a surface always passes
through a given curve, one set of the lines of curvature are circles;
and that those normals which pass through a given point on the
curve are generating lines of a right cone whose axis is the
Hence shew that if the normal always
tangent at that point.
passes through two curves, these curves must be conies in planes
at right angles, the foci of one being the vertices of the other.
15.
Find the differential equation of the projection on the
plane xy of each family of lines of curvature of the surface which
is the
envelope of a sphere whose centre lies on the parabola
x 2 + kay = 0, z = 0, and which passes through the origin.
16.
Shew that the principal curvatures at
surface are given by the equation
&lt;U
(tt
dy
dm
dm
Ifa
dy
dn
dn
dx
where
I,
m,
are the
of a
0,
7~
dx
any point
dz
dm
1
1
dy
dn
T+ dz
p
direction cosines of
point.
17.
The tangent planes to the surface of centres at the two
points where any normal meets it are at right angles.
18.
Shew
=z
is
an umbilic of
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
233
XII.
of an ellipsoid is measured
Along the normal at a point
of a length inversely proportional to the perpendicular from
the centre on the tangent plane at P; prove that the locus of Q is
20.
PQ
another ellipsoid, and that the envelope of all such ellipsoids is the
surface of centres," that is the locus of the centres of principal
"
curvature.
21.
Shew that the specific curvature at any point of the
surface xyz abc varies as the fourth power of the perpendicular
from the origin on the tangent plane at the point, and that at an
umbilicus
22.
stant
(abc)~*.
If a surface
it is
23.
it is
xs
Find the umbilici of the surface 
if
abc4
^
k*.
and
abc
by the equations
dz
dz
= dx respectively.
and
~
abbe
dx
to
= dy
dy
fsa
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
234
Shew
XII.
p cos a
and
sin
cos
and
da
=
as
If 
Pi
of
Pa
shew that
30.
Through a given generator of a hyperboloid of one sheet,
draw a variable plane this will touch the surface at some point
A on the generator and will contain the normal to the surface at
;
is
true for
any skew
surface.
31.
If w be the pitch of the screw by which any generator of
a skew surface twists into its consecutive position, shew that
&* + pp = 0, where p, p are the principal radii of curvature at the
point where the shortest distance between the two consecutive
generators meets them.
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
32.
to
235
XII.
an extremity
is
where
in
If
drawn in
the greatest and
lines be
equation
is
Prove
central circular sections of a series of confocal ellipsoids.
that this surface cuts all the ellipsoids orthogonally, and that the
are
trajectories of the circles, drawn upon the surface,
orthogonal
lines of curvature upon
ellipsoids.
2a
is
The measure
of curvature at
any point
it
divides
it
into
of the surface
where r
EXAMPLES ON CHAPTER
236
XII.
surface
If a surface roll
about the
all
common
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
THE inclinations to the horizon of two lines which are at
1.
on a plane in
right angles to one another are a, 13, the lines being
3
= sin 2 a + sin 2 /?.
clined to the horizon at an angle 6 , shew that sin
that the volume of the tetrahedron of which a pair
formed by lengths r, r on the straight lines
whose equations are
2.
Shew
of opposite edges is
y
xa
zc
_ zc and xa!
^ yV _
y
n
in
n
L
,
?V a  a
is
bb
m
m
cc
n
n
its shorter
parallelogram of paper is creased along
to make an angle
diagonal, and the two halves are folded so as
with each other find the distance between the extremities of the
it is equal to the shorter, if
longer diagonal, and prove that
3.
S\
sin
j8
make
 z = 1, x = 0;
straight lines are y
= 0; prove that the locus of all
the three lines is
straight lines which intersect
*
x* +
+ z2  z  2zx  %xy = 1
5.
zx=l,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
238
Three fixed lines are cut by any other line in the points
6.
is the point on the line ABC such that [ABCD]
A, B, C, and
is harmonic: shew that the locus of D is a straight line.
7.
two given
its
hyperboloid.
8.
upon two
9.
sphere touches the six edges of a tetrahedron shew
that the three lines joining pairs of opposite points of contact
will meet in a point.
:
10.
straight line moves in such a manner that each of
four fixed points on the line is always on a given plane; shew
that any other fixed point on the line describes a plane ellipse.
11.
Any three points P, Q, R, and the polar planes of those
are
V
points with reference to any conicoid are taken.
the perpendiculars from
on the polar planes of Q and
respec
QPS are the perpendiculars from Q on the polar
tively
S
are the perpen
of
and
a
A
planes
respectively; and
and Q respectively.
diculars from
on the polar planes of
PQ PR
QR
RP RQ
Shew
that
PQ QR RP^ = PR QP RQ
.
12.
Shew
b\f
ax + hy + gz,
y
kx + by +fz,
,
bghf
afgh
Shew
ax2 +
13.
0.
gx +fy + cz
1
chfg
ax"
by*
cz
0,
between
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
239
ax 9 + by 3 +
+ 2fyz + 2gzx +
U = (abcdlmnpqr) (xyzw)* =
If
14.
cz
dU
d_U
Ha _
da
15.
is
d_U_
~db
_
9A~~9A~
where
is
2/ixy
_~dl _
~H&~"
db
~dl
the discriminant.
Shew
cz
cz
1 G.
Shew
w = 0,
(ex
+ u) Ja +
(cy
v)
Jb =
0.
ax 2 + by 2 +
cz
ax + hy +gz,
Gz,
where A,
hx + by +fz
Hx + By + Fz,
,
minors of
a,
b,
*
17.
a, 6, c
h,
b,
f,
gx +fy + cz
Fy + Cz
=0,
in the determinant
If r be
if
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
240
18.
 a*b* = 0,
The ellipse b*x* f
whose equation, referred to its
of a cone
Shew
is
z=0
a plane section
is
principal axes, is
on the curve
s a
 (a9 + b 2 )
( a b  6V  g
z*a*b a }
=
+
+
+
P y
Py ya afi
)(
19.
Shew
cz*
d=0
own
is its
ax*
by
d=
cz*
0.
20.
Find the locus of the centre of the sphere which passes
through two circular sections of a conicoid which are of opposite
systems and whose planes are equidistant from the centre.
21.
Prove that the foci of sections of an ellipsoid
a series of parallel planes lie on an ellipse.
22.
Shew
made by
Ou
"4"
%5 =
CLG
77
a/
1 is
.
where r
the length of a generator through the point cut off by the plane
of xy.
is
AB B
BC
AB B
BO
ax 2 +
24.
Shew
bif
+ cz 2 + 3 =
0.
we move along
it is ^
 =
c
ct
where r
is
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
25.
angles;
,
is
right
or
AS,
D be any
C,
241
an hyperboloid
if
A,
one sheet.
of
=+
cos^a
(3
cos^y
~
cos*/3
~
is
constant.
YOZ, ZOX,
XOY
OD
30.
If
any
line
rr^
OX.
X will be a plane.
31.
^
UA
^=
On
m m m
+
GO
+
us 
and
plane.
S. S.
G.
16
be a
242
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Two
point
.,
A, B, C
32.
33.
on
its
...,
shew that
OA.OB.OC.OD...
,
,,
is
constant.
axis
that, if the pitch of the helix be JTT, this curve will cut
perpen
34.
curve is drawn on a sphere of radius a cutting all the
meridians at a constant angle ; shew (i) that the foot of the per
pendicular from the centre of the sphere upon the osculating plane
be the radii of curva
is the centre of curvature ;
(2) that if p,
2
= a 2.
ture and torsion
&lt;r
&lt;rp
35.
points
o
PQ
of any curve
is
ultimately equal to
PQ
at
two
where p and
line of curvature
CAMBRIDGE
14
DAY USE
STATISTICS LIBRARY
This book is due on the last date stamped below, or
on the date to which renewed.
Tel.
LD
2140m10, 6J
(F7763slO)476
No. 6423381
General Library
University of California
Berkeley
ti