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AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON

COORDINATE GEOMETRY OF THREE DIMENSIONS

MACMILLAN AND
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

MADRAS

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


MEW YORK

DALLAS

THE MACMILLAN

BOSTON CHICAGO
SAN FRAN'CISCO

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA, Ltd

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON

COORDmATE GEOMETRY
OF THREE DIMENSIONS

BY

ROBERT

J.

T.

BELL, M.A.,

D.Sc.

LECTURER IN IIATHEMATICS AND ASSISTANT TO THE I'UOFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS


AN THE UNIVERSITT OK GLASGOW

MACMILLAN AND
ST.

CO, LIMITED

MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON


1923

Vk

COPYRIGHT
First Edition 1910.

Second Edition

PRINTED

1912. 1914, 1918, 1920, 1923

IN (JREAT BRITAIN

PREFACE
The

present elementary text-book embodies the course in

Geometry which, for several j^ears, it has


been part of ray duties as Lecturer in Mathematics at the
University of Glasgow to give to two classes of students.
Solid Coordinate

For the student whose interests

lie

in the direction of

Applied Mathematics, the book aims at providing a fairly


complete exposition of the properties of the plane, the
straight

furnish

when

line,

and the

conicoids.

his

It is also

intended to

which he may consult


reading on Applied Mathematics demands a know-

him with a book

of reference

ledge, say, of the properties of curves or of geodesies.

same time

it is

At the

hoped that the student of Pure Mathematics

ma}^ find here a suitable introduction to the larger treatises

on the subject and to works on Differential Geometry and


the Theory of Surfaces.
Tlie

matter has been arranged so that the

chapters contain a

first

first

ten

course which includes the properties

of conicoids as far as coufocals.

elementary character, and

all

Certain sections of a less

sections

and examples that

involve the angle- or distance-formuiae for oblique axes

have been marked with an asterisk, and may be omitted.


Chapter XL has been devoted to the discussion of the
General Equation of the Second Degree.
This order of
arrangement entails some repetition, but it has compensating advantages. The student who has studied the special
forms of the equation finds less difficulty and vagueness in
dealing with the general.
I have omitted all account of Homogeneous Coordinates,
Tangential Equations, and the method of Reciprocal Polars,

30387

PREBACE

vi

and have included sections on Ruled Surfaces, Curvilinear


Coordinates, Asymptotic Lines and Geodesies.
It seemed
to be more advantageous to make the student acquainted
with the new ideas wliich these sections involve than to
him in the application of principles with which his
reading in the geometry of two dimensions must have made
exercise

him

to

some extent

familiar.

In teaching the,subject constant recourse has been had to


the treatises ofC^mith, Frost and Salmon, and the works of

Carnoy, de Longchamps and Niewenglowski have been


occasionally consulted.

My

obligations to these authors,

which are probably much greater than


gratefully acknowledged.

am

am aware

of,

are

specially indebted to Resal,

whose methods, given

in his Theorie des Surfaces, I have


found very suitable for an elementary course, and have

work of the last two chapters.


The examples are very numerous. Those attached

followed in the

to the

most part easy applications of the theory


or results of the section. Many of these have been constructed to illustrate particular theorems and others have
been selected from university examination papers. Some
have been taken from the collections of de Longchamps,
Koehler, and Mosnat, to whom the author desires to acknowsections are for the

ledge his indebtedness.

have to thank Profs. Jack and Gibson for their kindly


and encouragement. Prof. Gibson lias read part of
the work in manuscript and all the proofs, and it owes much
to his shrewd criticisms and valuable suggestions.
My
I

interest

colleague, Mr. Neil

M' Arthur, has read all the proofs and


examples part of that tedious task
was performed by Mr. Tliomas M. ]\IacRobert. I tender ni}^
cordial thanks to these two gentlemen for their most efficient
help.
I desire also to tliank Messrs. MacLehose for the
Bxcellence of their printing work.
ROBT. J. T. BELL.
verified nearly all the

Glasgow, September,

1910.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


In this edition a few alterations have been made, chieHy
the earlier part

ot*

the book.

One

rewritten and additional figures


have been inserted.

R
June, 1912

in

two sections have been


and illustrative examples
or

J. T. B.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
t^

SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES, THE EQUATION TO


A SUEFACE
PAGE

AKT.
1.

Seguieuts

2.

Relations between collinear segments

3.

Cartesian coordinates

4.

Sign of direction of rotation

5.

Cylindrical coordinates

6.

Polar coordinates

7.

Change

8.

Point dividing line in given

9.

The equation

of origin
rati

to a surface

10.

The equations

11.

Surfaces of revolution

to a curve

CHAPTER n
PROJECTIONS.

DIRECTION-COSINES.

DIRECTION-

RATIOS
12.

The angles between two directed

13.

The

projection of a segment

lines

15
15

14.

Relation between a segment and

15.

The

16.

The angle between two planes

17.

Relation between areas of a triangle and

its

projection

17

18.

Relation between areas of a polygon and

its

projection

18

its

projection

projection of a broken line

15

16
17

CONTENTS
&RT.

19,

between

Relation

areas

of

and

curve

closed

its

projection
20,

Direction-cosines

The

23.

definition

Direction-cosines (axes rectangular)

21, 22.

angle

between

two

lines

with

given

direction-

given

direction-

cosines

Distance of a point from a line

24.

Direction-cosines (axes oblique)

25. 26.

The angle

27.

between

two

with

.......

cosines

Direction -ratios

28, 29, 30.

lines

31.

Relation between direction-cosines and direction-ratios

32.

The angle between two

lines

with given direction-ratios

CHAPTER

III

THE PLANE. THE STRAIGHT LINE. THE VOLUME


OF A TETRAHEDRON
33.

Forms

34, 35.

of the equation to a plane

The general equation

to a plane

36.

The plane through three points

37.

The distance

of a point

38.

The planes

bisecting

39.

The equations

40.

Symmetrical form of equations

41.

The

line

42.

The

dii^ection-ratios

43.

Constants in the equations to a line

44.

The plane and the

45.

The

46.

Lines intersecting two given lines

from a plane
the

32

33

35

two giver

between

angles

34

planes

37
to a straight line

'

found from the efjuations

42

43
-

47

53

47.

Lines intersecting three given lines

48.

The condition that two given

lines

49.

The

two given

shortest distance between

54
should be coplanai

-----

Problems relating to two given non-intersecting

51.

The volume

56
57

lines

50.

of a tetrahedron

40
40

straight line

intersection of three planes

38
38

...
-

through two given points

lines

61

84

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

IV

CHANGE OF AXES
ART.

I'AliK

5'2.

Formulae

53.

IJclations

54.

Transformation to examine the section of a given surface

55.

Formulae

of trauHforiiiatioii (leetangulav axes)

between the

perpendicular lines

69

by a given plane

ExAJirLKS

08

diiectioii-cosiiies of tliree niutually

72

of transformation (oblique axes)

75

76

I.

CHAPTER V
THE SPHERE

......

56.

The

57.

Tangents and tangent plane to a sphere

58.

The

ecjuation to a sphere

radical plane of

EXAMI'LES

two spheres

81

82

83
85

II.

CHAPTER

Vf

THE CONE

--..,..

88

which a plane cuts a cone

90

59.

The equation

60.

The angle between the

61.

The condition

62.

The condition that a cone has three mutually perpendi-

63.

The equation

to a cone

lines in

of tangency of a plane

and cone

cular generators

Examples

92

92

to a cone

with a given base

93
95

III.

CHAPTER Vn
THE CENTRAL CONICOIDS. THE
THE PARABOLOIDS
64.

The equation

6").

Diametral planes and conjugate diameters

CONE,

to a central conicoid

99
-

on.

Points of intersection of a line and a conicoid

67.

Tangents and tangent planes

101

102

102

CONTENTS

xii

PAfiK

ART.

68.

Condition that a plane should touch a conicoid

69.

The polar phine

70.

Polar lines

71.

Section with a given centre

72.

Locus of the mid-points of a system of

73.

The enveloping cone

74.

The enveloping cylinder

-110

75.

The normals

The normals from a given point

...

76.
77.

Conjugate diameters and diametral planes

78.

Properties of the cone

79.

The equation

104
105
107

108

Conjugate diametral planes

Diameters-

82.

Tangent planes-

83.

Diametral planes

84.

The normals

112

114

119

123

124

124

125

126

127

-------

111

-122

80.

parallel chords

to a paraboloid

81.

Examples IV.

108

-----=

103

CHAPTER

VIII

THE AXES OF PLANE SECTIONS. CIRCULAR


SECTIONS
85.

The determination of axes

86.

Axes

of a central section of a central conicOid

87.

Axes

of

88.

Axes

of a section of a paraboloid

89.

The determination

90.

Circular sections of the ellipsoid

91.

Any two

92.

Circular sections of the hyperboloids

93.

any section

of a central conicoid
-

of circular sections

circular sections

131

131

134

137

138

138

from opposite systems

lie

on
139

a sphere
.

139

Circular sections of the general centi'al conicoid

140

94.

Circular sections of the paraboloids

142

95.

Umbilics

143

Examples V.

144

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

IX

GENERATING LINES
PAi:E

ftHT.

148

96.

Euled surfaces

97.

The

98.

Line meeting

99.

Conditions that a line should be a generator

section of a surface

150

by a tangent plane

conicoicl in three points is a

102

generator

152
154

of generators of a hyperboloid

100.

System

101.

Generators of same system do not intersect-

155

ion.

Generators of opposite systems

155

103.

Locus of points of intersection of perpendicular genera-

104.

The

105.

Along a generator

106.

The systems

107.

Conicoids through three given lines

163

108.

General equation to conicoid through two given lines

163

109.

The equation

163

165

inter.sect

15G

tors

projections of generators

The

110,111.

fc*

</)

is

...
...

constant

of generators of the hyperbolic paraboloid

to the conicoid

through three given lines

straight lines which meet four given lines

112.

The equation

113.

Properties of a given generator

114.

The

to a hyperboloid

when generators

15G
-

158

161

are co-

166

ordinate axes

167

....-

central point and parameter of distribution

Examples VI.

169

172

CHAPTER X
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS
115.

The equations

116.

The three

117.

Elliptic coordinates

118.

Confocals cut at right angles

119.

The

confocal toucliing a given plane

120.

The

confocals touching a given line-

121.

The parameters

of confocal conicoids

...<.-.
....

confocals through a point

....
.

176

17G
178
179
179
180

of the confocals through a point on a

central conicoid

181

CONTENTS

xiv

PAGE

ART.

122.

Locus of the poles of a given plane with respect to

123.

The normals

124.

The

12.5.

The axes

confocals

181
to the three confocals through a point

self -polar

of

tetrahedron

an enveloping cone

The equation

to

The equation

to the conicoid

128.

Corresponding points

129.

The

foci of a conicoid

130.

The

foci of

183

183

------

an enveloping cone

126.

127.

1S2

184
184
186

187

an ellipsoid and the paraboloids

-189

Examples Vll.

193

CHAPTER XI
THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE
131.

Introductory

132.

Constants in the equation

..--..

133.

Points of intersection of line and general conicoid

134.

The tangent plane

135.

The polar plane

136.

The enveloping cone

137.

The enveloping cylinder

138.

The

139.

The diametral planes

140.

The

141.

Condition that discriminating cubic

142.

Principal planes

when one

root

143.

Principal planes

when two

roots are zero

144.

The

145.

T\ieinctorsoi(abcf(/h)(.vi/zy-\(.v-+//'^+Z')

146.

Conditions for repeated roots

147.

The

principal directions

148.

The

principal dii'ections at right angles

149.

The

principal directions

-------

locus of the chords with a given mid-point

203
203

204
204

is

ha.s

two zero-roots

zero

206

206

207

212

212

208

when

209
210

there are repeated roots

.,.,.,.,.

The transformation

202

roots are all real

The centres

201

principal planes

151.

197

198
-

150.

196

196

of (a?x'/(7/0(.y'A:)2

212

214
215

CONTENTS

XV

ART.

l'A<^K

"

152.

The

deterniiiiation of the centres

153.

The

central phines

154.

The

LHiuation

2216

when the

origin

is

at a centre

217

Different cases of reduct'on of general etiuation

155-161.

21G

162.

Conicoids of revolution

163.

Invariants

219

228

....-..

231

EXAMPLE.S VIII.

CHAPTER

233

XII

THE INTERSECTION OF TWO CONICOIDS. SYSTEMS


OF CONICOIDS
164.

The quartic curve

165.

Conicoids with a

of intersection of

common

common

two conicoids

generator

...

....

166.

Conicoids with

167.

The cones through the

168.

Conicoids with double contact

169.

Conicoids with two

170.

Equation to conicoid having double contact with a given

171.

Circumscribing conicoids

conicoid

generators
intersection of

common

two conicoids

245

248

248

249

Conicoids through eight given points

173.

The polar

174.

Conicoids through seven given points

251

planes, of a given point with re-sjject to the

system

...

Examples IX.

CHAPTER
CONOIDS.

252

253

257

XIII

Definition of a conoid

176.

Equation to a conoid

177.

Constants in the general equation-

The degree

251
-

SURFACES IN CENERAL

175.

78.

241

246

plane sections

172.

238

239

of a surface

179.

Tangents and tangent

180.

The

...
------

|)lancs-

inrtexional tansjents

..

257

259
260

261

261

CONTENTS

xvi

PACE

181.

The equation C=f(^,

182.

Singular points

263

183.

Singular tangent planes

265

y)

The anchor-ring

266

The wave surface


184.

185.

The

267

indicatrix

Parametric equations

..

ExAMPLiiS X.

270
271

273

CHAPTER XIV
CURVES IN SPACE
186.

The equations

187.

The tangent

188.

The

189.

The normal plane

190.

Contact of a curve and surface

191. 192.

to a curve

275

....
---.-...

275

277

......

279

direction-cosines of the tangent

The osculating plane

193.

The

194.

Curvature

principal normal

195.

Torsion

196.

The

197.

Frenet's formulae

The

signs of the curvature

and binomial

spherical indicatrices

198.

..

'

278

282

284

......
and torsion

277

284

285

285

288

199.

The radius

200.

The

201.

The radius

202.

Curves in which the tangent makes a constant angle


with a given line

291

203.

The

292

of curvature

direction-cosines

288

of

tlie

principal

normal

and

binormal

289
289

of torsion

circle of

curvature

.-..--.
-.----.
....-.-

204.

The osculating sphere

205.

Geometrical investigation of curvature and torsion

206.

Coordinates in terms of the arc

Examples

XL

'

292
298
301

303

CONTENTS

CHAPTER XV
ENVELOPES. RULED SURFACES
AWT.

one

PACE

207.

Envelopes

208.

Envelope touches each surface of system along a curve

209.

The edge

210.

Characteristics touch the edge of regression

parameter

307

of regression

two

308

309

211.

Envelopes

212.

Envelope touches each surface of system

309

312

315

parameters

311

213.

Developable and skew surfaces

214.

The tangent plane

215.

The generators

of a developable are tangents to a curve

31G

216.

Envelope of a plane whose equation involves one parameter

316

217.

Condition for a developable surface

218.

Properties of a skew surface

313

to a ruled surface

Examples XIL

318

320

322

CHAPTER XVI
CURVATURE OF SURFACES
219.

Introductory

220.

Curvature of normal sections through an

326

221.

Curvature of normal sections through a hyperbolic point

327

222.

Curvature of normal sections through a parabt)lic point

329

223.

Umbilics

224.

Curvature of an oblique section

330

331

326
elliptic

point

330

Meunier's

theorem

225.

The radius

226.

The

227.

Lines of curvature

228.

Lines of curvature on an ellipsoid

229.

Lines of curvatuie on a developable .surface

230.

The

231.

Lines of curvature on a surface of revolution

of curvature of a given section

principal

normals

i-adii

to

at a point of an ellipsoid

332

333

surface

at

points

of

333

line

333

of

curvature

334
-

335

CONTENTS

xviii
ART.

232.

PAGE

Determination

of

principal

tlie

radii

...

and

curvature
233.

Determination of umbilics

234.

Triply-orthogonal systems,

lines

of

342

Dupin's

theorem

344

346

347

349

235.

Curvature at points of a generator of a skew surface

236.

The measure

of curvature

237.

The measure

of curvature

238.

Curvilinear coordinates

239.

Direction-cosines of the normal to the surface

240.

The

linear element

241.

The

principal radii

337

346
is

l/pip.2

348

350

and

lines of curvature

Examples XIII.

350

354

CHAPTER XVII
ASYMPTOTIC LINES GEODESICS
242.

Asymptotic

243.

The

244.

Osculating plane of an asymptotic line

245.

Torsion of an asymptotic line

246.

Geodesies

247.

Geodesies on a developable surface

248.

The

249.

Geodesies on a surface of revolution

lines

differential equation of

358

asymptotic lines
-

358

359

359
362

363

363

365

367

----.--=.

370

differential equations of geodesies

250.

Geodesies on conicoids

251.

The curvature and

252.

Geodesic curvature

253.

Geodesic torsion

373

Examples XIV.

375

torsion of a geodesic

Miscellaneous Examples

INDEX

369

378
,

391

CHAP'IEK

1.

SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES. THE EQUATION


TO A SURFACE.

Two .segments AB and CD are said to


1. Segments.
have the same direction when they are colhnear or parallel,
and when B is on the same side of A as D is of C
If AB
and CD have the same direction, BA and CD have opposite
directions.
If AB and CD are of the .same length and in
the same direction they are said to be equivalent segments.
2.

line

If

A,

B,

C,

...

N,

P are any points on a straight

X'OX, and the convention

the straight line


direction

is

is

that of

is

made

that a segment of

positive or negative according as its

OX

or OX', then

we have

the following

relations

AB=-BA; OA + AB = OB, or AB = OB-OA,


or OA + AB + BO = 0;
OA + AB + BC+... NP=:OP.
If

.i\,

..,

OA and OB

OA and OB, ie. the ratios of


segment of unit length, L, then

are the measures of


to

any

positive

OA = ii:^L, OB = a\,L,
and
or the measure of

AB = (a'.3-.\)L,
x^
AB is
.r.,

X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ be any three


which are not coplanar, and whose
positive directions are chosen to be X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ and let
planes through any point in space, P, parallel respectively
to the planes YOZ, ZOX, XOY, cut X'X, Y'Y, Z'Z in A, B, C,
3.

Coordinates.

Let

fixed intersecting lines

(tig. 1),
E.G.

then the position of P

is

known when

the segments

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

[CH.

I.

A conin magnitude and sign.


would be cut off from OX the segment OA,
draw AN, through A, equivalent to the segment OB, and
draw NP, through N, equivalent to the segment OC. OA,
OB, OC are known when their measures are known, and

OA, OB,

OC

are given

struction for P

these measures are called the Cartesian coordinates of P


with reference to the coordinate axes X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ.
is called the origin and the planes YOZ, ZOX,
The measure of OA. the
XOY, the coordinate planes.
segment cut off from OX or OX' by the plane through P

The point O

parallel to

of

YOZ,

OB and OC

is

called the a;-coordinate of P

P, {x, y, z) is

used to

are x, y,

The coordinate planes

z."

the measures

and ^-coordinates, and the symbol


denote, " the point P whose coordinates

are the y

divide space into eight

parts called octants, and the signs of the coordinates of a


point determine the octant in which it lies. The following
table

shews the signs for the eight octants

Octant

SIGN OF DIRECTION OF ROTATION

3,4]
It

is

generally

most convenient

to

perpendicular lines as coordinate axes.


"

rectangular," otherwise they are


Ex.

SIsetch

1.

ill

(H, 0, 3),

5),

choose

mutually

Tlie axes are then

" oblicjue."

a figure the positions of

(-2,-1,

(-4,-2,

tlie

points

0), (0, 0,

-6).

What is the locus of the point, (i) whose .i--cooi-dinate


Ex, 2.
whose .r-coordinate is 2 and whose _?/-coordinate is 4 ?

is 3,

(ii)

Ex.
(i) ,r

iiwA

What

3.

= and
j/ = h'l

ij

the locus of a

is

(ii)

])()int

x = a and ^ =

whose coordinates satisfy


x = a and = h (iv) z=c

(iii)

if

= c, (fig. 1), what are the equations to


Ex. 4. If OA = a, OB = /;,
the planes PNBM, PMCL, PNAL? What equatii^is are satisfied by
the coordinates of any point on the line PN

OC

Sign of direction of rotation. By assigning positive


directions to a system of rectangular axes X'X, Y'Y, Z'Z, we
have tixed the positive directions of the normals to the
coordinate planes YOZ, ZOX, XOY.
Retaining the usual
4.

made

convention

in plane geometry, the positive direction

of rotation for a ray revolving about


is

that given

by XYX'Y', that

is,

is

in the plane

counter-clockwise,

XOY

if

the

clock dial be supposed to coincide with the plane and front


in the positive direction of the normal.

Hence

positive direction of rotation for a ray in

amj

to fix the

plane,

we

have the rule if a clock dial is considered to coincide


ivith the plane and front in the positive direction of the
:

normcd

the plane, the

to

fyr a ray revolving in

Applying
positive

rule

this

to

directions of

positive
the

plane

direction of rotcdion
is

counter-clockwise.

the other coordinate planes the


rotation

for the planes

YOZ,

ZOX

are seen to be YZY'Z', ZXZ'X'.

The

positive direction of rotation for a plane can also be found by


it is the direction in which a right-handed gimlet or
may move forward in the positive

considering that

corkscrew has to be turned so that it


direction of the normal to the plane.

ABC

OZ

plane
meets the axes OX, OY,
Ex.
in A, B, C, and
is the normal from O.
If
is chosen as the positive direction
of the normal, and a point P moves round the perimeter of the
triangle
in the directicui ABC, what is the sign of the direction
when OA, OB,
of rotation of
are (i) all positive, (ii) one
negative, (iii) two negative, (iv) all negative?

ON

ON

ABC

NP

CO

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Cylindrical coordinates.

5.

rectangular axes, and PN

is

If

x'ox,

[CH.

y'oy,

ON, the angle XON, and NP are known.

of these (quantities, u, 0,

The

of P.

are

the perpendicular from any

point P to the plane XOY, the position of P


if

z'oz,

I.

is

determined

The measures

are the cylindrical coordinates

z,

positive direction of rotation for the plane

XOY

been defined, and the direction of a ray originally

lias

coincident with OX, and then turned through the given

angle 0, is the positive direction of ON.


u, (j>, z are all positive.
If the Cartesian coordinates of

are

x, y, 0.

If

we

P are

In the

x, y, z,

figure,

those of N

consider only points in the plane XOY,

the Cartesian coordinates of N are

x, y,

and the

polar, u,

(j>.

Therefore

x = u cos

6.

y = u sin

Polar coordinates.

plane OZPN,
of

0,

0,

then

(fig. 2),

u? = x^-{- y-, tan

= yjx.

Suppose that the position of the

has been determined by a given value

we may

define the positive

direction of the

normal through O to the plane to be that which makes an


angle
+ 7r/2 with X'OX. Our convention, ( 4), then fixes
the positive direction of rotation for a ray revolving in the
plane OZPN. The position of P is evidently determined
when, in addition to 0, we are given r and d, the measures

CYLINDRICAL AND K)LAll COORDlNATivS

i^5,6]

oL'

OP and

arc the polar


The (juantitics r, 6,
The positive direction of OP is tliat of a
coincident with OZ and then turned in the

.ZOP.

coordinates of

P.

ray ori<^inally

phme OZPN through


is

tlie

given angle

In the figure,

6.

OM

the positive direction of the normal to the plane OZPN,

and

r, 6, <p

are

all positive.

consider P as belonging to the plane

we
and ON
If

OZPN and OZ

as rectangular axes in that plane, P has Cartesian

coordinates

and polar coordinates

u,

z,

Therefore

r, 0.

= 7'cos0, u = r sin 9; r^ = z^-\-ii", tan6 = ~.


P is
y, z), a; = ucos0, y = UH\n(p.
Whence = r sin cos 0, = r sin sin 0, s = rcos0;

But

if

(.x-,

i/

r-

= X- + 2/^ + 2

tan Q =

^-

tan

1.

Draw

is

given by Jx'^ + y'^ + zi

figures

shewing the positions of the points

(^.-I'l> ^T>-|>(-^--|'-|)What

are the Cartesian coordinates of the points

Ex.

2.

so that r

where tan"i-,

4, 5), (

2, 1,

- 2),

be positive.

tan-'l),
'-,

tan"'^:^

(.3,

+ tan-i^, | + tan-i2),

tan"i2 are acute angles.

3
3.

(^-I'-t)

Find the polar coordinates of the points (3,

may

(5V2,

Ans.

Ex.

= -.

(/>

If the axes are rectangular the distance of {x, y, z)

Cor.

from the origin


Ex.

Shew

that the distances of the point

(1,

2,

3)

from the

coordinate axes are Vl3, \/l6, ^5.

Ex. 4. Find (i) the Cartesian, (ii) the cylindrical, (iii) the polar
equation of the sphere whose centre is the origin and radius 4.
(i)

/Ih.s.

.r-+,?/-^

+ 22 = 16,

(ii)

u'^

+ z^=l(i,

(iii)

r=

4.

the polar, (ii) the cylindrical, (iii) the Cartesian


e([uation of the right cii'cular cone whose vortex is O, axis OZ, and
seniivertical angle a.

Ex.

5.

Ans.

Find

([)

(i)

$ = a,

{n)u = ztiiuu,

(iii) .>;'-^+y-

= 3-tan-a.

the cylindrical, (ii) the Cartesian, (iii) the polar


equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is OZ and radius a.

Ex.

Ans.

6.

Find

(i)

(i)

u = a,

{u) .v-+/r =

a'\

(iii)

r sin

^ = .

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

[en.

Ex. 7. Find (i) the polar, (ii) the Cartesian equation to the
through OZ which makes an angle a with the plane ZOX.
Ans.
7.

(i)

Change

y'(oy, (tig. 3),

be

(ii) .?/=.r

tan

(^,

Let w have coordinates

set.

NM

is

])lane

a.

Let x'ox, y'oy, z'oz

be two sets of parallel axes, and

OX, OY, OZ.


/3(oy,

= a,

referred to the first and

{x, y, z)

second

<^

of origin.

1.

?/,

a,

^)
h,

let

ol'cool,

fi'w^,

any point P

referred to the
referred

c,

to

the line of intersection of the planes

XOY, and the plane through P


GH and XOY in KL.

parallel to /Swy cuts

OLcoh in

OL = OM + ML = OM + a)H,

Then
x = a + ^.

therefore

Ex.

1.

y=h+
= y b, ^=z c.

Similarly,

^=x a,

whence

i]

)],

= c + ^;

The coordinates of (3, 4, 5), ( - 1 - 5, 0), referred


(-2,-3, -7), are (5, 7, 12), (1, -2, 7).

to par, illel

axes through

Ex. 2. Find the distance between P, {x^, y^, z^) and Q, {.v^, y^
the axes being rectangular.
Change the origin to P, and the coordinates of Q become x^y<i-yx, z^-z^; and the distance is given by

{{x^-x,)'^Hy,-ihYHH-H^'YEx. 3. The axes are rectangular and A, B are the points (3, A r.),
(-1, 3, -7). A variable point P has coordinates .r, ?/, z. Find the
equations satisfied by .r, y, z, if (i)PA = PB, (ii) PA2+PB2 = 2F,
,

PA--PB^ = 2F.
Am. (i) 8,^ + 2^ + 242 + 9 = 0,

(iii)

(ii)

(iii)

+ 2y2 + 2i-2-4.r-14y + 42 + 109 = 2A;2,


= 0.
+ 2// + 24: + 9 +

2.7;2

8,r

2/(-2

CHANGE OF ORIGIN

7,8]

Ex.

4.

Find the centre of the s))heie through the four points

(0, 0, 0), (0,

-1,

U),

Ans.

(1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 4).

Ex. 5. Find the ecjuation


and radius 2.

whose centre

to the sphere

{\, 1, 2).

is (0, 1,

Ans. x-+y--[-z^-'i)/ +

'Zz

1)
'2.

.(,--y + s'-- 4j; + 2/y + 6i:+ 12 =


represents a
right circuhir cone whose vertex is the point (2, 1, -3), whose axis
is parallel to
and whose semivertical angle is 45.

Ex.

6.

Trove

that

OY

Prove that x^+y' + z- -2x + \ij -Qz-2 =


sphere whose centre is at (1, 2, 3) and radius 4.
Ex.

8.

-join,

represents

7.

To find
of

the coordinates of the 'point

P, (.t-p y^, z^)

and

Q, (x^,

?/.,,

Zo)

which divides the


in a given ratio,

X:l.

Let
Pj Q>

R,

{.v,

y, z),

(%.

R; parallel to

be

4),

tlie

point,

and

lot

planes through

OX

the plane YOZ, meet

in

P',

Q',

R'.

Then, since three parallel planes divide an^^ two straight


lines proportionally, P'R'

x x.
^

x^-x^
Similarly,

PQ' = PR PQ = X A +
:

X
X+1

= r-rr,

and

x=

^-"Y+T' ^-

if

negative, R

Cor.

is

If

is

Therefore

..^

X + T1

X+1

These give the coordinates of R for


positive or negative.

1.

\x^-\-x,

positive,

all

real values of X,

lies

between P and

on the same side of both P and Q.

The mid-point

of

PQ

is

(^^',

'^^^~, -'4^-).

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Ex.
(2,

Find the coordinates

1,

- 3,

- 5)

1), (3, 4,

2.

(I

Given that

3,

-.4

P, (3, 2,

i.

of the points that divide the join of

in the ratios

^"-(M-D^
Ex.

[en.

-4)

<^.

Q,

3,

2.

-.-")
-6)

(5, 4,

divides PR.
coUinear, find the ratio in which
found by considering tlie ^.--coordinates only ?

R, (9,

Why can

8, -10) are
the ratio be
Ans. 1 2.
:

B, (^-2, ?/2, 22)


C, (.V3, 7/s, 23)
D, {.v^, y^, z^
Prove that A', the centroid of the
are the vertices of a tetrahedron.
triangle BCD, has coordinates

Ex.

3.

A,

(.i'l,

?/i,

?,)

'

'

D' are the centroids of the triangles CDA, DAB,


that AA', BB', CC, DD' divide one another in the ratio 3
If B',

C,

ABC, prove
:

1.

Ex. 4. Shew that the lines joining the mid-points of opposite


edges of a tetrahedron bisect one anothei', and that if they be taken
for coordinate axes, the coordinates of the vertices can be written
(a, 6, c), (fl, - 6, - c), ( - a, 6, - c), ( - a, - i, c).

Ex.

Shew

5.

in the form (a,


as origin.

Ex.
(Ex.

6.

3),

Ex.

that the coordinates of any three points can be put


a fourth given point being taken

i, 0), (a, 0, c), (0, 6, c),

The centres

ABCD,

of gravity of the tetrahedra

AB'C'D',

coincide.

7.

Find the

ratios in

line joining the points

- 2,

which the coordinate planes divide the


- 5, 8).
Am. 2:3, 4:5, -7:8.

4, 7), (3,

Ex. 8. Find the ratios in vi'hich the sphere A-^Tf ?/+2;2 = 504 divides
the line joining the jDoints (12, - 4, 8), (27, -9, 18).' Ans. 2:3, -2:3.
Ex.

9.

The sphere .r2+^2+22-2.^ + 6?/ + 14^+3 =

joining A,
that

(2,

-1,-4);

B,

(5, 5, 5)

in the points

meets the line


Prove
Q.

P and

AP:PB=-AQ:QB = 1:2.

Ex. 10. A is the point (-2, 2, 3) and B the point (13, -3, 13).
Prove that the locus of P is
point P moves so that 3PA = 2PB.
the sphere given by

x'^^-y-

and

2'-

+ 28,r -

verify that this s])here divides


the ratio 2 3.

2y + 10^ - 247 = 0,

AB

internally

and externally

in

Ex. 11. From the point (1, -2,3) lines ai'o drawn to meet the
sphere ./-'+ //--!-.: = 4, and they arc divided in the ratio 2:3.
Prove
that the ])(>ints of section lie on the sphere
'-

n.,'-

+ 5vHn---C,r + 12y-18-+22 = 0.

A\)ij cquniion iiivolviru/


9. The equation to a surface.
one or more of tJte current coordinates of a variable
point represents a surface or system of surfaces which
is the locus

of the variable point.

EQUATION TO A

TllH

5^9]

The

locu.s

the equation x
/(a;)

whose

of all points

to a constant a,

;t;-coorcli nates

are ecjual

a plane parallel to the plane YOZ, and


If the equation
represents that plane.

is

a.

has roots

.SUllFxU'K

equivalent to the

o.^, oc,, 0C3, ... oc,,, it is

x = a.,,, and therefore represents


a system of planes, real or imaginary, parallel to the plane

equations x = cl^, x = (X.,,

...

YOZ.
Similarly, /(/y) =
parallel to

0,

ZOX, XOY.

f(z) =

represent sj^stems of planes

In the same way,

if

polar coordinates

represents a system of spheres with a


be taken, f(r) =
common centre at the origin, /(^) = 0, a system of coaxal
right circular cones whose axis is OZ, /((/>) = 0, a sj'stem of

planes passing through OZ.

Consider now^ the equation f{x, y) = 0.

This equation

is

by the coordinates of all points of the curve in the


plane XOY whose two-dimensional equation is f{x, y) = 0.

satisfied

Let
Xq,

P,
7/0,

(tig.

0.

")),

any point

Draw tinough P

of the curve,

have coordinates

a parallel to OZ, and

let

be

any point on it. Then the coordinates of Q are .^'^, y^^, r,


and since P is on the curve, /(Xq, y^) = (), thus the coordinates
of

satisfy the equation f(x,

ordinates of every point on

//)

PQ

().

Therefore the co-

satisfy the equation

every point on PQlies on the locus of the equation.


P

is

any point

equation

is

of

and
But

the curve, tlierefore the locus of the

the c^dindgr generated by straight lines

drawn

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

10

to

parallel

OZ through

points of the curve.

represent cylinders
f{y, 0) = O, f{z, a;) =
parallels to OX and OY respectively.
Ex. What surfaces are represented by
the axes being rectangular ?

Two

tion is/(x, y)

and hence

(i)

(i)

Similarly,

by

generated

x'^+y^ = a'^^

!.

{\\) i/"

= 4(u\

equations are necessary to determine the curve in

The curve

the plane XOY.

Ex.

LCH.

"

What

is on the cylinder whose equaand on the plane whose equation is s = 0,

the equations to the curve

"

are f(x, y) =

(),z

= 0.

curves are represented by

x'^+f = d",

= 0;

(ii) x"-

+f = d",z = b;

(iii) z^

= 4ax,

y=^G%

f(x,y,^) = o

(The surface shewn

Consider

now

is

represented by the equation

the equation

/(., y, c)

z = h represents a plane parallel to


fix, y, k)

represents, as

we have

= 0.

I'he equation

XOY, and the equation


just proved, a C3'linder

THE

^D]

A SURFACE

K(,)UATI0N TO

The equation /(, y, k) =


and z = k are
y, z) =

oenerated by lines parallel to OZ.

where f{x,

at all points

is satisfied

simultaneously

satisfied,

y, k)

parallel to

The two

common

at all points

i.e.

plane and the locus of the equation


/{.',

11

/(cc, y, s)

= 0,

represents the cylinder generated

OZ which

pass through the

ecjuations f(x, y,

of section of the cylinder

Jc)

= 0,

all

from

real values

surface.

The coordinates

6).

+oo be given

to

k,

is

If,

the

now,

the curve

z = h, varies continuously and generates a


of every point on this surface

satisfy the equation f{x, y, z)

value of

lines

z = k represent the curve

by the plane z = k, which


to

= 0,

by

common points, (tig.

curve of section of the locus by the plane z = k.


fix, y, k)

to the

and hence

k, f{x, y,

k)

= 0,

= 0,

for they satisfy, for

z=^k; and any point

(x^,

some
z^

y.^,

= lies on the surface,


z^ = 0, z = z^, and thereon one of the curves which generate the

whose coordinates

satisfy f{x, y, z)

for the coordinates satisfy f{x, y,


fore the point
surface.
surface,

is

Hence the equation f{x, y,


and the surface is the locus

whose coordinates

z)

=Q

represents

of a variable point

satisfy the equation.

Discuss the form of the surface represented by

Ex.

1.

The

section

.r2/a2 \-)fi'h'^

+ z'^jc^ = 1

by the plane z = k has equations


= k, x'^la? ^f'l})^ = 1 - F/f2
.-

The

therefore a real ellipse if /-<c-, is


= c-. The surface is
and reduces to a point if
by a variable ellipse whose plane is parallel to
is on OZ.
The ellipse increases from a point in
the ellipse in the plane
which is given by
then decreases to a point in the plane z = c.
section

is

/(,''

iiuaij;iuary if /->f-,

therefore generated
and whose centre
the plane z= -c to

XOY

XOY

iflh'^=\, and
Tlie surface is the

x-lcfi

ellipsoid, (fig. 29).

Ex.

2.

What

surfaces are repiesented l)y the equations, referred

to rectangular axes,
(i) .r2

Ex.

3.

'

(i)

(ii)

?/2

+ 22 = a2^

(ii) ,r2

+ ?/ = 2as?

Discuss the forms of the surfaces

a-

h'

The hyperboloid
The hy})eiboloid

c-

'

of

a'

''

of one sheet

b-

(fig. 30).

two sheets

(lig. 31).

c^

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

12

Ex.

What

4.

(i)

loci

m
A

are represented by

f{n) = 0,

(iv)

[ch.

(ii)

^) = 0,

J\z)

= 0,
= 0,

(iii)

(v) /{r, (^)

f{r, 6)

= 0,

(vi) f{u, ct>)=0

a system of planes
generated by rotating
parallel to
whose polar equation is /(r, 0) = about
the curve in the plane
(v) a surface generated
the 2-axis (iv) a cone whose vertex is at O
by circles whose planes pass through OZ and whose dimensions vary
(vi) a cylinder whose generators are
as the planes rotate about OZ
is the curve
parallel to OZ, and whose section by the plane z =

Ans.

of coaxial right cylinders


(iii) the surface of revolution

system

(i)

XOY

(ii)

ZOX

f{u,

c^)

10.

= 0.

The equations

f^{x, y, s)

section of
f.,{x, y, z)

= 0,

to

f.2{x, y, z)

a curve.

=Q

the two surfaces given

= 0.

If

we

The two equations

represent the curve of inter-

by

f^{x, y, z)

eliminate one of the

and

variables,

z,

Fig. 7 shews part of the curve of intersection of the sphere


+ y'^ + z'^ = a? and the right circular cylinder x" + y- = ax. The
cylinder which projects the curve on the plane .t = is also shewn.
The projection of the curve
Its equation is n?('if-z'^)^-z^^O.
is the parabola whose equations are 7/ = 0,
on the plane
x'^

ZOX

z-

= a{a-x).

between the two equations, we obtain an e([uatioii.


generators are
y) = 0, which represents a cylinder whose
If any values of x, y, z satisfy f^(x, y, z) =
parallel to OZ.
and f,{x,y,z) = 0, they satisfy </>(, ?/) = 0, and hence the
say,

(f>{x,

cylinder passes through the curve of intci'sectlon of the

SUIJFAC'KS

10,11
surfaces.

If the axes are rectangular

cylinder which

tlie

projects

intersection on the plane


ju-qjection are 0(a), ^)

Ex.
{\)
.,2

If the

1.

Find

2.

13

y)

^(.',

represents

orthogonal ly the

XOY, and the

curve

of

to the

(M|U;iti()ns

= 0, s 0.

axes are

x~ + f = u:\ s- = /;2;
= 62, (2>62)V

Ex.

OF IJKVOIA'TIOX

rectaii,ii;ul;ir,

(ii) .r-'+y-^

whut

+ .-;-^-,

lori ;iic lepi'esciitcd

'//-

= -iaz;

(iii)

by

= -,

.'-+//-

equations to the cylinders with generators parallel


pass through the curve of intersection of the

tlie

OX, OY, OZ, which

to

by x^ + i/- + 2z^ = '\2, :c-y + z=\.


2f - 2tfz + 3^2 + 2^ - 2i - 11 = 0, 2,i-- + 2xz + 3j2 - 2,r - 2^

surfaces represented

A ns.

1 1

= 0,

- 4.ry 4- 3?/2"- Ax + Ay -10 = 0.

3.r2

Let

Surfaces of revolution.

11.

p.((),y^,z^),

be any point on the curve in the plane

equation

is

j\y, z)

= 0.

The

rotation of the curve about

revolution.

s-coordinate of
of

P from the

by

(1),

8),

(1)

OZ

produces a surface

As P moves round the


P remains unaltered, and
2;-axis,

(fig.

^yhose Cartesian

Then
/(2/i,^i)

of

YOZ

is

always equal to

surface,
ii,

y^.

z^,

the

the distance
'J'herefore,

the cylindrical coordinates of P satisfy the equation

f{u, z) =

Q.
But P is any point on the curve, or surface,
and therefore the' cylindrical equation to the surface is
Hence the Cartesian equation to the surface
f{u, z) = 0.

''i^f{sl^if+y\z) =

0.

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

14

Since the distance of


is

Jz'^

+ X',

it

tlie

point

follows as before

{.v,

tliat

[ch.

from the

y, z)

i.

^/-axis

the equation to the

surface formed by rotating the curve f{y, z) = 0, x = Q about


OY is/(7/, v/sH^) = 0, and similarly f{sjy'^ :^\ x) = repre-

sents a surface of revolution

whose axis

is

OX.

Ex. 1. The equation x^+y'^+z^ = a? represents the sphere formed


by the revolution of the circle x^+y^ = a^, 2 = 0, aljout OX or OY.
Ex. 2. The surface generated by the revolution of the parabola
y^ = Aax, s = 0, about its axis has equation ]f^ z^ = Aax
about the
tangent at the vertex, equation y*= \Qa'^{z^ + x'^).

Ex.

= 0,

The surfaces generated by rotating the ellipse x'la^+y^/b'^=l,

3.

about

its

axes are given


by -r+ '^
^
a^
'

Ex.
line z

=1,

b^

'--

a^n^

+'/7,

= l.

b^

Find the equations to the cones formed by rotating the


about OX and OY.

4.

0,y = 2x

4x^~f-z^ = 0, 4x^-f + 4z^ = 0.

Ans.

Ex.

Find the equation to the surface generated by the revolu+ 2ax+=0, 2 = 0, about the //-axis.

5.

tion of the circle x^+y'^

Ans. (x^

+f + + 62)2 = 4^2

Ex.

Sketch the forms of the surfaces

6.

(i)

z^

(^-2

(f + z^)(2a-x) = A-3,

+ ^2).
(ii) r^

= a^ cos 2 6,

(iii) ^l?

= 2cz.

surfaces are generated by rotating (i) the curve ?y2(2a-^;)=.r3


(ii) the lemniscate in the plane ZOX, 7-2 = a2cos2^, about
about
(iii) the parabola in the plane YOZ, ?/- = 2c2, about OZ.

The

OX

OZ

Ex. 7. Prove that the locus


from the points (, 0, 0), (-a,
^2

of revolution

y2

j^+'h

-2
2

= ^-

of a point, the
0, 0) is

sum

of

constant, {2k\

whose distances
is

the ellipsoid

11-14J

CHAPTER

IL

PROJECTIONS.
The angle that a oiveu

12.

a second directed line

OX we

OP makes with

directed line

shall take to be the smallest

angle generated by a variable radius turning in the plane

XOP from
fio-ures

the position

to the position OP.

The

sign of

is

angle that

13.

OX

determined by the usual convention. Thus, in


9 and 10, 6^ is the positive angle, and O^the negative

the angle

OP makes

witli

OX.

Projection of a segment.

// ab

i.v

a given segment

of the 'perpeiidiculavs from A, B to a


f/iven line X'X, the segment A'b' is the projection of the

and

A', B'

are

tJte

feet

segment AB on X'X.

From
is

B'a',

ditier

the definition

it

BA
AB and BA

follows that the projection of

and therefore that the projections

of

only in sign.

It is evident that A'B' is the intercept

the planes through

A and B normal

made on X'X by

to X'X,

and hence

the

projections of equivalent segments are equivalent segments.


14.

If AB

is

a given segment of a directed


MN, makes an angle

ivhose positive direction,

line

MN

ivith

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

16

given line X'X,

AB

cos

projection of

tJie

is

to

12,

AB

is

positive, in figures 13

and

14,

negative.

Fig. 13.

Fig. 14.

Draw OQ from O
positive, cut off

same direction as MN.


OP, the segment equivalent to AB
in the

the projection of

AB = the

= OP
= AB
// AB

is negative,

BA

is

(the

If A,

B, C,

...

AB

is

then

projection of OP,
.

cos

d,

(by the definition

cos

6.

of cosine),

and therefore
BA = BA cos 6,
.

= AB cos 6,
AB = AB cos d.

projection of AB)

the projection of

i.e.

//"
;

positive,

the projection of
i.e.

15.

is eqrial

II

0.

In figures 11 and

AB

[CH.

AB on X'X

M, N are

any n points in

space,

tlie

sum. of the 2^rojections of AB, BO, ... MN, on any given line
X'X is equal to the projection of the straight line AN on X'x.
Let the feet of the perpendiculars from A, B, ... M, N, to
X'X be A', B',
M', N'.
Then, (i^ 2),
.

a'b'+b'c'+...m'n' = a'n',
which proves the proposition.

rRO.TE(TT()N

1^14-171

OF A CLOSED FIOURE

The anolc between two planes we

16.

17

take to be

shall

the angle that the positive direction of a normal to one

makes with the

posjtiNc direction of a normal to

Projection of a closed plane figure.

17.

jections of three jxti iifs A, B,

= C()sO ABC,

AA'B'C'

then.

planes ABC,

C on

(/I

(rliere

th*;

//

other.

the

ren ptduc (ire

pro-

A', B', C',

the oiKjIe liefween the

is

A'B'C'.

(consider first the areas ABC. A'b'C' without re(,^ard to

If the planes

(i)

AA'b'C' = cos0
(ii)

If

ABC, A'b'C' are

a ABC

is

one side of the

parallel, the

equation

obviously true.

ABC, say BC,

triano^le

phmc

throu<^h

to the plane A'B'C' in A^,

15).

Draw

angles to BC, and join AD.

(fio-.

Then BC

i.s

parallel to

is

the plane A'b'C', let AA' meet the

BC

A.^D

parallel

at right

at right angles to

AD and AA2, and therefore BC is normal to the plane AA^D,


and therefore at right angles to AD. Hence the angle A.^DA
is

equal to

6,

or its supplement.

AA'B'C'^AA.BC,

But

A A.^BC A ABC = A.p AD = cos _ A.pA


A A'b'C' = cos l\ ABC.
therefore
(iii) If none of the sides of the triangle ABC
to the plane A'B'C', draw lines through A, B, C

and

is

the line of intersection of the planes ABC, A'B'c'.


lines lie in the plane
A'B'C',

ABC and
!

These

are parallel to the plane

and one of them, that through

P.G.

parallel

parallel to

A, say, will

cut the

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

18

[cii. II.

opposite side, BC, of the triangle ABC, internally. And


therefore the triangle ABC can always be divided by a line

through a vertex into two triangles, with a common side


plane

the given

to

parallel

AA'B'C' = cos0

A'b'C',

and hence, by

(ii),

AABC

Suppose now that the areas ABC,

A'b'C' are considered

positive or negative according as the directions of rotation


given by ABC, A'B'C' are positive or negative. Then,

applying the convention of

see that

if

cos

is

and

to figures 16

17,

positive, the directions of rotation

we

ABC,

have the same sign, and that if cos0 is negative,


they have opposite signs. That is, the areas have the
is positive, and opposite signs if cosO
same sign if cos

A'B'C'

is

negative.

Hence the equation A A'B'C' = cos

A ABC

is

true for the signs as well as the magnitudes of the areas.


18.
a',

B',

//

A,

B,

C', ... N'

then

C,

area A'B'C'

'points and
any given plane,

N are any coplanar

...

are their projections on


.

N'

area ABC

...

= cos 0,

where 6 is the angle between the phmes.


Let O be any point of the plane ABC ...
N'.
projection on the plane A'B'C'
N = A CAB + A OBC +
Then area ABC
.

N,

and O' be

its

A ONA,
A O'N'A'.
N' = a O'A'B' + A O'B'C' +
area A'B'C'
and
But ao'a'b' = cosO AGAB, etc., and therefore the result
follows.

. .

DI RECTION -COSIN ES

^17-21]

19

area of any plane curve and A is the


19. If Aq
area of its projection on any given plane, A = cosO.Ao,
where
is the angle between the planes.
is the

For Aq is the limit, as n tends to infinity, of tho area of


an inscribed n-gon, and A is the limit of the area of the
projection of the

areas

is

cos

?i-fon,

and,

by

18,

the ratio of these

6.

Ex, 1. AA' is a diaineter of a given circle, and P is a plane through


AA' making an angle 6 with the plane of the circle. If B is any
point on the circle and B' is its projection on the plane P, the
perpendiculars from B and B' to AA' are in the constant ratio 1 cos ^,
and the projection is therefore a curve such that its ordinate to AA' is
:

that
in a constant ratio to the corresponding ordinate of the circle
is, the projection is an ellipse whose major axis is AA' and whose
The minor axis is
auxiliary circle is equal to the given circle.
cos^. AA'; therefore if AA' = 2a and cosd = b/a, the minor axis is-2ft.
By 19, the area of the ellipse = cos 0. ira? = Trab.
;

Ex. 2. Find the area of the section of the cylinder 16.r- + 9// = 144
Ans. Mir,
by a plane whose normal makes an angle of 60 with OZ.

DIRECTION-COSINES.
20. If a, /3, y are the angles thata given directed line
makes with the positive directions X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ of the

coordinate axes, cos a, cos

/3,

cos

are the direction-cosines

of the lin3.

AZ

A2

21. Direction-cosines referred to rectangular axes.


Let A'OA be the line through O which has direction-cosines

cos a, cos/3, cosy.

Let

P,

(,/',

y, s)

be any point on A'OA,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

20

and OP have measure


r

is

%.

In

r.

Draw PN

negative.

18,

is

[cii. ii.

positive

in

fig. 19,

perpendicular to the plane XOY,

and NM in the plane XOY, perpendicular to OX. Then the


measures of OM, MN, NP are x, y, z respectively. Since
OM is the projection of OP on OX,
(1)
X = T cos a, and similarly, '^ = r cos /3, 2; = r cos y
Again the projection af OP on any line is equal to the sum
of the projections of OM, MN, NP, and therefore, projecting

on OP, we obtain

= cos a + cos |8 + cos y


= cosot., y/r = cosl3, 5;/r = cosy; therefore
1 = cos^a + cos^/3 + cos^y
7^

But

a;/r

(2)

2;

2/

a;

(3)

the formula in three dimensions which corresponds to


cos2^ + sin2^ = l in plane trigonometry.

This

is

Cor.

we

By

1.

substituting for cos

obtain r^ = x- + y- + z^, (cf


.

cos

oc,

/3,

cos

in (2) or (8),

6, Cor.).

If (x, y, z) is any point on the line through O


Cor. 2.
whose direction-cosines are cos oc, cos ,8, cos y, we have,
by (IX
_i^ = _J^=_^_ (^r)
cosy'
cos a cos^

Cor.

3.

(x-^, 2/1, Sj)

If {x, y, z) is any point on the line through


whose direction-cosines are cos a, cos /3, cosy, by

changing the origin we obtain

x x^_y y-i _ z z-i


cos^ cosy
cos a
Ex.1.

Prove that

sin'rx-l-sin2^

+ sin2y = 2.

the point (^1, 1/1, Zy), prove that the projection of


on a line whose direction-cosines are l^, mj, n^ is li-Vi + m^i/^ + niZ^.

Ex.

2.

If

is

The projection

of

OP = projn.

of OM-|-projn. of

+ projn.

of

OP

MN
NP,

(figs. 18, 19),

= l^.Vi + m^r/i + niZi.


Ex.

3.

If P,

projection of

PQ

are the points

on a

line

(.v^, ?/,, z{), (.g,

?/.,>

^2)' pi'^^'*?

whose direction-cosines are

?i(,y2-.ri)-f-?Wi(?/2-2/i)

+ iC52-i)-

(Change the origin to P and apply Ex.

2.)

I^,

m^,

^^at the
'>iy

is

DIRECTION-COSINES

^^21,22]

Ex.

The

4.

pi'ojections of a line on the axes are 2, 3, 6.

the length of the line

21

What

is

Ans.

7.

OA, OB, OC, whose measures are


Find tlie area of the triangle ABC.
the
normal from
direction
of
to tlie plane
Let tlic positive
denote the
have direction-cosines cosrx, cos^, cosy, and let
on the
is the projection of
area ABC. Then since
plane makes intercepts

Ex.

5.

b, c,

on the axes OX, OY, OZ.

'/,

ABC

AOBC

A = y>r,

plane YOZ, coscx..


Therefore, since

and

A ABC

siinilarly,

cos'^a. + cos2/5 4- cos-'y = 1

A=i

cos^. A = ira, cosy .A = ^('b.


{ b-c"-

+ c-a^ + a^b'^}K

Ex. 6. Find the areas of the projections of the cnrve x^+i/'^ + z'^ = 2r'>,
that the
,v + 2i/ + 2z = 9 on the coordinate planes, and having given
curve

plane, find its area.

is

(Cf. Ex. 2,

i^

If a,

22.

Ans. 167r/3, 327r/3, 327r/3

10.)

IGtt.

are given proportionals to the direction-

h,

of a line, the

cosines

actual direction-cosines are found

from the relations


cos

+1
_ cos /3 _ cos y _ y/cos^a + cos-^ -f cos'^y _
~~1j
~
c
N/a2 + 6Hc~JaF++7^

OC

it

If

is

the point

directed line
positive

and

OP

(a, h, c)

and the direction-cosines of the

are cos a, cos/3, cosy, then, since

ecjual to sja^

OP

Ja^ + b'^ + c^-'

-,

direction-cosines of

is

1)~

_
The

OP

+ + c^,
b

o
cosp>J(r-

PO

are

((,

+ b^ + c^

Ex. 1. Find the direction-cosines of a line that makes equal angles


with the axes.
Ans. cosa. = cos j8 = cos y= l/v3 (whence the acute angles wliicli
'the line makes with the axes are equal to 54 44').
;

Ex.

2.

cosines of
,

^'"'-

Ex.
of

PQ

P and Q are
OP, OQ, PO.

,3

7'

7'

-6.
"7

'

(2,

3,

_3_ j-4
r,N/2'

-6),

J^.

5V2' V2'

(3,

-4,

5).

Find the direction-

-2 -3
7

'

'

"f

are (,',, ?/,, z^\ (,.,, i/.,, z.^ the direction-cosines


are proportional to x.^-,i\^ .'/>~.'/ii ^i~-\3.

If P,

CUOEDINATE GEOMETRY

22

Ex.

-^,

0,

..

V2
Ex.

5.

(I, 0, n),

Ex.
(3,

.5,

6.

7),

\'2

If P, Q, R, S are the points (3,


find the jjrojection of RS on PQ.

(-1,

(4, 6, 3),

is

the

= cos

cos 6

as in

{5

(/.

cos

cjL

-f cos /3 cos

ft'

cosy',

j8',

+ cos y cos y'.

is (x, y, z)

r cos Q = x cos OL-\-y cos

(3'

therefore
Co?'. 1.

|_cos

We

6 = cos

is r,

+ z cos y'.

x = rcosrx, y = r cos /3,

But

f..

2, 3),

op and OQ have

//

lines.

cos/3,

and the measure of OP


projecting OP and OM, MN, NP on OQ, we obtain
If,

2, 4),

Ans. -

cosy; cos (/.', cos


angle that OP makes with OQ,

direction-cosines cos a,

and

4, 5),

If P, Q, R, S are the 2X)ints (2, 3, -1), (3, 5, -3), (1,


prove by projections that PQ is at right angles to RS.

The angle between two

23.

ii.

Q are (2, 3, 5), (- 1, 3, 2), find the direction-cosines of PQ.

If P,

4.

Ans.

[ch.

= r cosy

a cos rx' + cos /3 cos /5' + cos y cos y'.

have the identity

(This identit}^
shall frequently

mn m'n)- + (i^r n'lf + (/7.' Vnif.


is

hnd

known
it

as

Lagranges

identity.

advantageous to apply

We

it.)

Hence

= (cos-a + cos^^ + cos^y )(cos2a' + cos- (3' + cos-y')


(cos a cos OL + cos ft cos ft' + cos y cos y')^,
= (cos ft COS y' cos y cos |8')^ + (cos y cos a' cos a. cos y')^
cos ft cos a')-.
4- (cos a cos
ft'

sin'^0

Cor.

2.

If

is

an angle between the

direction-cosines are proportional to a,


^
cos 6 = -y
\la~

and
(7or.

sni

.3.

h,

lines

a', h',

wl

c,

-h(a.a'-j-hh'-}-cc')'

+ h^ + c^\la"" + 6'- +
,

-^

',

c''2

If the lines are at right angles,

cosa cosa' + cos/3 cos,/3' + cosy cosy' = 0, or aa' + hV + cc

= 0.

ANGLE BETWEKN TWO LINES

23]
Cut.

cos

the lines are parallel,

If

4.

y cos y cos ^' = 0,

cos

/3

23

y c<j.s a' cos (x cos y' = 0,

cos

and
cos a cos ^' cos y3 cos rx' = 0,
whence cos a = cos a', cos ,8 = cos /3', and cos y = cosy'
evident from the definition of direction-cosines); or
(t

_ _

b'

c'

Ex.

P,

If

1.

are

/>

-6),

(2, 3,

-4,

(3,

the angle that

5), iiiid

makes with OQ.

A vs. cos^ =
^,

Ex.

R are
PQR.

P, Q,

2.

of the triangle

(2, 3, n),

(-1,3,

2), (3, 5,

2).

9^^,

^,,^^^

(as is

OP

-18v'2
^

^^^.,^

v/3

3"

3'
Ex.

Find the angles between the

3.

are proportional to
Ans.

(i)

cos-i

(i) 2, 3,

-^,
.'iVoS

3, 4, 5

lines

Find the angles

whose direction-

(ii) 2, 3,

1,

2, 1.

(ii) 90.

Ex. 4. The lines whose direction-cosines are proportional to 2, 1, 1


\^3-l, -\/3-l
4, -V3-1, Vs - 1 are inclined to one another
at an angle 7r/3.
4,

Ex. 5. If ?i, w^i, Hi l-i, m.2, '>h ^3) 3' "3 '^^^ ^.he dii-ection -cosines
of three mutually perpendicular lines, the line whose direction-cosines
are proportional" to li
ra^, n^ + ihj. + n.^ makes equal
li + l^, 111^ + 7)12
!

angles with them.

Ex.

Find the angle Ijetween two diagonals

6.

of a cube.

Ans. cos-* 1/3.

Ex.

7.

(5, 8, 0),

Ex.

Prove by direction-cosines
(2,-1, 6) are colli near.

8.

a cube

line

makes angles
cos^o. -I-

9.

shew that

(3, 2, 4), (4, 5, 2),

with the four diagonals of

cos^^ -\- cos-y -t- cos'^S = 4/3.

If the edges of a rectangular parallelepiped are ,


tlie

angles between

tlie

If a variable line in

10.

6,

c,

four diagonals are given by

\a;i

Ex.

y, S

the points

prove that

Ex.

., /i,

tliat

+ + c^)

two adjacent positions has

direction-

m, H /-f-S/, i.-|-8i, n + hi, sliew that the small angle, 86,


between the two positions is given by W' = U'^ + (^m^ -'r ^n'^.
We have 172 = 1 and ^{l + Uf=\, therefore ^{Uf= -22181.

cosines

I,

But

co8e^2l(l + Sl) = l+2l8l.

Therefore

That

is,

since

si

^^= -21 81 = ^2 (8lf.

n^

sin

~ = ~,

8&^ = 2{8lf.

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

24

[ch.

ii,

Ex. 11. Lines OA, OB ;iie drawn from O witli direction-cowines


propurtional to (1, --2, -1), (.3, -2, .3).
Find the direction-cosines of
the normal to tlie ijlaiie AOB.

,43-2
\/29

Prove that the thiee


cosines proportional fo (1, - 1, ]),
Ex.

12.

Ex.

13.

cosines

-3,

(2,

0), (1, 0,

\/29

n/29

diawn from

lines

with directionlie in one plane.

.3)

Prove that the three lines drawn from O with directionL^, m.2, 112
)!, n^
^3, m^, n^, are coplanar if

^1,

^1,

Wlj,

111

Ex. 14. Find the direction-cosines of the axis of the right circular
cone which passes through the lines drawn from O with directioncosines proportional to (3, 6, 2), (2, 2, 1), (-1, 2, 2), and prove
that the cone also passes through the cooixlinate axes.
Ans. I/V3, l/v/3, 1/^3-

with direction-cosines proportional


Lines are drawn from
15.
Prove that the axis of the right circular
to (1, 2, 2), (2, 3, 6), (3, 4, 12).

Ex.

cone through them has direction-cosines -'[j-J'i,


the semivertical angle of the cone is cos~^ l/VS24.

Distance of a point from

distance' of P,

from

(', y', z')

oc,

1/^3, and that

To find

line.

line through A, {a,

tlte

ivhose direction-cosines are cos

l/'v/3,

cos

/3,

cos y.

from P to the

Let PN, the perpendicular

line,

measure S. Then AN is the projection of AP on the


and its measure is, (Ex. 3, 21),
('

ike
h, c),

have
line,

a) cos iL-\-{y' h) cos /3 + (s' c) cos y.

But

PN'-

= AP'-AN-,

therefore
<52

={{jc'- af + (y' ~ bf + {z'-

{X

<( )

cos

(JL

-f

)'

( //'

} (

cos-a + cos-/3 + cosV)

h) cos 8 + (Z C) COS y }

2,

which, by Lagrange's identity, gives


8^

_ 6) cos y - r' - r) cos ft ^


+ {(z c) cos a d) cos y
+ (:/ a) cos ft if h cos a
(

iy'

(,''

Cor.

If

{,<:',

y',z') is

any point on the

cos

oc

y'

'.

line,

<)

(),

and

cos

ft

cos y'

(Cf.i:}21,Cor. 3.)

Ex.

Find the distance of (-1, 2, 5) fioiu


whose directioi'i-cosines are proportional tn

tlif

1.

f))

(3, 4,

AXES)

DlUl<:(TlC)N-CO,SlNKS-(()J5l.l(ilIE

5524,25]

2,

25
tluougii

line

-3,

(J.

Ex. 2. Find tlic distance of A, (1, -2, 3) from the line,


through P, (2, -3, ;">), which makes equal angles with the axes.
,,,.

Ex.

PQ,

V?.
iShew

3.

the equation to the Vight ciicnlar cone whose


whose axis has direction-cosines cosfx., cos fS,

tliat

vci'tex is at the origin,

cosy, and whose seniivertical angle


(>/

cos

y z cos (3)" + {z cos

is 0, is

- x cos y)'^ -f {.v cos

a.

f3

- .y cos

r/,)'^

= sin-'^(.i;-'4-.yHs-).
Ex.
is

Find the equation to

4.

PQ

P, axis

A ns.

(//

(Ex.

2),

and

tlie

right circular cone whose vertex


is 30.

seniivertical angle

- z + 8)- + (z - .v - 3)-' + (.r -// - 5)-

= 3{(.r-2)^ + (.y + 3)H(--5)n.


Find the equation to the right circular cone whose vertex
axis PQ, and which passes through A (Ex. 2).

Ex.
is

P,

5.

m>/-z+8y+{z-.v-:iy+{.v-//-5y}

A71S.

= 7{(.r-2f + {^ + Sy + {z-5f}.
axis of a right cone, vertex O, makes equal angles with
the coordinate axes, and the cone passes througli the line drawn from
with direction-cosines proportional to (1, - 2, 2). Find the equation
A vs. 4.v' + 4f + 4 -:' + 9yr -I- %zx -t- 9,ct/ = 0.
to the cone.

Ex.

6.

The

Ex. 7. Find the e(|iiatiiin


whose axis passes through
portional to (2,

- 3,

Ans. 9(2y-|-5 -

*25.

7)2

+ 4(,j -

YOZ, ZOX, XOY


throuo-h

cosy.

+ (3.r + 2// - 7)'^ =

3..;)-'

'J'ake

the plane

P,

XOY

'J'hen,

20),

(lio'

1('iiio-

A,

/x,

O whose
(.,

measure of OP be
in-M.

and has direction-cosines pro-

3)

2,

96.

Direction-cosines referred to oblique axes.

X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ,

line

to the right circular cylinder of radius 2


(I,

(i).

in

()])li([U('.

axes,

rtispectively.

directiou-cosinos

any

y, z)

point

and

since the

NM

pi-ojcciion

cos a, cos

on A'OA, and

parallel to

of

OP

Let

the angles

Let A'OA be the


are

Di-aw PN parallel to

r.

N,

I'

1h'

OY
is

OZ

let

to

meet

to meet
eipial

fj,

the

OX

to the

26

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

sum

OP

in turn,

r cos

we

cL

obtain

= x-{-y cos v + s cos

fx,

+ + cos A,
=
fx
r cos y xcos + ycosX + z,
r = x cos a + cos |8 + s cos y

r cos

/3

ii.

OM, MN, NP, projecting on OX,

of the projections of

OY. OZ,

[en.

.^!

cos

(2)

2:

?/

J/

(3)

(4)

1/

(z

Fio. 2U.

Therefore, eliminating
satisfied

r,

x,

y, z,

cos

cos

cost/, cos/x,

1,

1,

COS)/,

(3,

the relation

line

=0,

cosX, cos/3
1,

cosy

cosy,

cos A,

yd,

cos a, cos

we have

any

of

by the direction-cosines

which may be written,

2 sin- A cos' a- 22 (cos A - cos ^ cos i/)cos ^ cos y


= 1 _ cos^ A cos'V cos- v + 2 cos A cos
Cor.

1.

Multiply

(1), (2), (3)

by

x, y,

/m.

cos

z respectively,

i/.

and

add, then
X-

+ y- + z- + 2 !/s cos A + 2sa- cos + Ixy cos


= r(x cos a -f cos ,8 + z cos y),
/a

i;

2/

= r^[by(4)]
Got.

2.

If P,

2(.r,

are

(.r^,

^1,51),

(A)
Ci'o, y... s.,),

PQ"

- .r^y^ + 2S(y, - .j,)(-2 - %)co X.

is

given by

THE AN(JLE

r]

Ex.

If P,

1.

OX,

angles to

If P, (.V,

2.

phme XOY,
*26.

OP

+ y cos +
I'

3^

cos

--

0.

//,

any point on the normal

z) is

7/,

are given proportionals

I),

((.,

tlirougli

j+ycos v + s cos/x = 0=.};cos v+// + i cos

It'

27

tm tlu; plane through O at right


on OX is zero, and therefore

jjoiiit

the projection of
.r

Ex.

J'.KTWEKN 'I'WO I>INKS

any

z) is

I/,

{.>;

to the

A.

the direction-

fco

cosines of a line, the actual direction-cosines are given


cos

by

_ cos (8 _ cos y

(X.

+ S sin-X cos-a 22(cos A cos

_+

{ 1

cos y)^

jj.

/j.

projecting on OQ,

we

lines.

r cos Q = x cos a' + y cos

and

(.5),

1,

cos

cosi^,

COS

cos a', cos

direction-

with OP,

+ z cos y

,8'

(5
(1),

we have
I',

cos/x, cos

1,

cosX, cos

/3

(cos

(cos

/3

=0,

or

cosy

1,

cos

/3',

a cos a') 2
X

(9

r between equations

x, y, z^

cosX,

JUL,

ang-Je

obtain

Therefore eliminating
of 25,

oq has

II"

and makes an

cosines cos a', cos/3', cosy',

2(sin'^X cos

(5

0,2

The angle between two

*27.

cos r)cos

22(cos X cos /x cos v)hc]^


cos^X cos" cos^i^ + 2 cos X cos cos vy
2 sin'-^X a^ 22(cos X cos ^ cos v)hcY
2 sin- A

(2), (:i)

/x

cos

y',

X cos /x cos

cos y' -f- cos

j8'

i^)

cos y)

= cos 0( 1 cos- X cos-y(x cos- r + 2 cos X cos jm cos v).


The

Cor.

between

angles

cosines are proportional to a,


cos

the lines whose

b, c

a', b', c

direction-

are given

by

2(aa' sin'^X) ^{be -f 6'c)(cos X cos u cos


+
= =-5^
Y
2a-sin-X 226c(cos X cos cos
X 2a"^sin2X 22//c''(co8 X cos cos v) }

i^)}

^^

^^

i^) }

/x

Ex. 1. If A = /x = v = 7r/3, find the angles between the lines


direction-coaines are proportional to
(i)

Am.

(i)

cos-'

2, 3,

",_
7n/10

4;
;

/x

3, 4,
(ii)

5;

7r/2.

(ii)

2, 3,

1,

-2,

1.

whose

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.

2,

tional to

Ex.

/,

Prove that the lines whose direction-cosines are proporm, n m-n, n-l, l-m are at right angles if A = /x=i/.
;

The edges OA, OB,

3.

[cH. n.

OC

of a tetrahedron are of lengths

b, c, and the angles BOG, COA, AOB are A, /x, v


find the volivme.
Take OA, OB, OC as axes, and draw CN at right angles to the
plane AOB. Then if CN is of length p, and V denotes the volume,
((.,

V= CN are 0,

and

p,
0,

sin^v cos^Z.

.-.

/)

cosZ.OCN,

= c'cos /.OCN.
therefore,

by

Bat the

direction-cosines of

25,

OCN = 1 cos^A - cos^/li - cos-v + 2 cos A cos fx cos v,

aba
=

- cos-A - cos^/jt - cos-V-l- 2 cos A cos [M cos v}'-.

{1

DIRECTION-RATIOS.
28.

Let

OL

be drawn from

in the

given directed line PQ and of unit

same direction as a
Then the co-

lengtli.

ordinates of L evidently depend only on

PQ, and

when

tiie

direction of

They

given, determine that direction.

are

therefore called the direction-ratios of PQ.

If

axes are rectangular

tlie

same as

tlie

direction-ratios are the

the direction-cosines.

29. // P, (x, y, z) is any point on a given line A'OA


whose direction-ratios are I, m, n, and the measure of OP
is r,

then

=^

'',

In hg.

21,

arc parallel to

is

positive, in

OZ

KH,

NM

tig.

22 r

is

negative.

are parallel to OY.

LK,

Then

PN

since

LKH cut x'OX, A'OA proportionally,


OP:OL = OIVI:OH,
CM, OH are directed segments.

the parallel planes PNM,

where OP, OL,

DIKKCTIOX

28-30]

Iv'ATIOS

2!)

But the measures ol" OM ami OH are ,/ and / i-espce(ively,


and tliereTore l = .i'!i: Similarly. m = ylr, n =zji'.
ir P, (.', y, z) is

Coi'. 1.

whose

directicni-ratios are

/,

any point on
m, ii,

'j=l^^.
Cor.
(,'',

If

2.

(,',

any point on

y, s) is

Cor.

8.

P,

Ii'

is r,

are

(.v^,

1.

z^),

Ibzli

(Cf.

(.'.,,

^2-%

from

21

{<

(
,

'or. 3.)

and

Co),

i/o,

PQ

tlie

are

Find the direction -ratios of the lines bisecting the angles


whose direction-ratios are /,, '/,, n-^ I.,, 7u.,, )i.,.
L' are (?i, m^, i), {I2, '2 '^2)) then OL and OL' are the lines
with the given direction-ratios, and OL iind OL' are of unit

l)et\veen the lines


If L,

throuoli

n,

the direction-ratios of

^2-^1

Ex.

y^,

2.)

line

tlie

m,

I,

^lZ^==yiZ]L=i:Z.

measure of PQ

21,Cor.

(Cr.

wliose direction-ratios are

:')

?/',

liie line tlii-oui;Ii

length.
-1

r^i

and

niid-point,

Tlie

OM =cos

..
M,

LL

of

where L

'

1
T
has
coordinates,
i.

LOL'= ^,

m,!
+ mo

^1+^0
- '

-,

'

therefore the direction-ratios of

OM

are

M + 'j

m^

2 cos 612"

+ m.,

2 cos ^/2'

7ii+v.2

2 cos Sh'

Similarly, the direction-ratios of the other bisector are

Ex.

v.+Ti.)

~,

-,

2.

OX, OY,

OZ

0X1, OYi, OZj

are given rectangular axes


bisect the angles

OX.,, OY.,, OZ,, bisect the angles

Prove that

.1

^,

^^-4

etc.

YOZ, ZOX,

XOY

Y,OZ,, ZiOX,, XjOYj.

YiOZi = zlZiOX, =_ XiOYi = 7r/3, and that


L Y.,OZ. = L ZpX., = L X.,OY2 = cos-i 5/6.

Ex. 3. A, B, C, are the points (1. 2, 3), (3, 5, -3), (-2, 6. 15),
and the axes are rectangular.
Find the direction -cosines of the
interior bisector of the angle

*30.

The

(25, Cor.

1,

direction-ratios of

it is

Avx. 1/n'18^2, 67/5\'T82, 6/5N'r82.

any

line satisfy tl\e equation

(A)),

P-\-m'-{-n- +

which

BAG.

2mv

cos

X + 2}) I cof^ jut.-{-2lm cosr=l,

convenient to write, ^(^,

on, 1?)

= !.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

30

*31.

Project OL,

ni, n.

I,

21 and 22), on the axes and on

(figs.

and we obtain, as

in 25

cosa =

),

+ mcos + wcoSya

^,

cos

B = l cos + m + 71 cos \ =k
2

?)m

cos

y = l cos ij.-\-m cos \-\-n = ^

J/

To find

the angles

m!

V,

we

on OL,

(Cf. 21 (3).)

between the lines whose direction-

O which

has direction-ratios

Then projecting OL'

n, make an angle Q with OL.

m',

'

n'.

Let OL', the unit ray from


V,

= ^ cos a + m cos ^ + n cos y.

ni,

I,

j/

fc

obtain,

cos

/'

cos

a + m' cos /3 + n

= W + mm' + nn

cos y,

-f {nin + ^jm*-) cos X


cos
+ {n\^ + "ill) cos /x + (^7)i' +
'

l^'ni)

9^

may

V cos

Ex.

cos

1.

rx',

If

^')^

a + -^i' cos j8 +

cos a'

cos

/3',

+ w cos

i'

^1

\/5'

VS

'

^8'

'J? '

cos

y=

+ n cos y' = 0,

cos y' are the direction-cosines of OL'.

A = /x = = 7r/3,

the origin to the point

-L
Ans
^
" Vs'

3771

be written in the forms,

or

where

I/,

If the lines are at right angles,

Cor.

which

itself,

(2), (3), (4),

=-x

*32.

ii.

jind the direction-cosines of the line whose

2'o

direction-ratios are

ratios are

[ch.

(1, 2,

J?
2\/5'

find the direction-nitios of the line joining


- 1). Find also the direction-coaines.
?

^5

^
2v/.f)"

DIKECTlUN-ltATlUS

31,32]

31

Ex. 2. Sliew that the direction-ratios of a nonual to the plane


are given by

cos

Ex.

XOY,

I'

cos

A - cos /x

cos

)Li

cos v

A s 1 - cos'-'A cos'^ix

where
3.

- cos A

cos''^i'

sin'-^i'

sinvA-

XOY

+ 2 cos A cos n cos v.

Prove that the lines which bisect the angles YOZ, ZOX,
have direction-cosines

internally,

cos /.-f cosy

^^^A

and that the angles between them


oos-i (
\

^^^A

2'

2 cos A/2

g^
'

'

ai^e

+ cosA-fcos/x-f-cosj^Y
4 cos

JU./2

cos i/2

^^^

[CH.

CHAPTER

IT).

III

THE PLANE.
33.

Let ABC,

OC on

(fig. 23),

a given plane,

the axes, measured by

make

intercepts OA,

and

let ON, the


normal from O to the plane, have direction- cosines cos a,
cos 0, cos y, and have measure p, (p is a positive number).

OB,

a, b, c

Equation to a plane, (i) To find the equation


plane ABC in terins of cos ., cos B, cos y, p.

to

the

Fio. 23.

Let

P, {x,

parallel to

II,

OZ

z)

to

be any point on the plane.

meet the plane

XOY

in K,

and

Draw PK

KM

parallel

Then the measures of CM, MK, KP


are x, y, z respectively, and since ON is the projection oi'
OP on ON, and therefore equal to the sum of the projections
of CM, MK, KP on ON,
to

OY

to

meet OX

in M.

p = X cos OC + 2/ cos ft + z cos y.


This ecjuation, satisfied

b}^

the coordinates of every point

on the plane, represents the plane.

THE EQUATION TO A PLANE

33-35]

To find

(ii)

the

equation

32

in terms of

to the j^lane

a, h,c.

ON = projection of OA on ON = OA cos fx
p = a cos OL. Similarly, h cos /3 = cos y =2^.

.-.

c;

Hence, by

the equation to the plane

(i),

X cosoL.y cos ^

;:;

cos

y_

V
^

^.e.

is
.
'

+ ^h + -=1.
G
'

Ex. Find the intercepts made on the coordinate axes by the plane
A'+2y 2^ = 9. Find also the direction-cosines of the normal to the
A, is. 9, 9/2, -9/2
I, % - .
plane if the axes are rectangular.
;

General equation to a plane.

34.

TJte

of the fird degree in x, y, z represents

For

A:

+ B^ + C: + D =
X
- D/A

general equation

a plane.

can bo written
y

- D/B

- D/C

and therefore represents a plane making intercepts


D/B, D/C on the axes.
If A:e-|-B7/-f

35.

D/A,

Cs + D = 0and_29 = a:;cosrx-f .|/cos/3 + 2;cosy

represent the same plane,

y_ p
-A ~~-3 ~ -C ~D"

cosa._cos /3_cos

'

therefore the direction-cosines of the normal to the plane

Ax-\-By

+ Cz+D =

proportional to A, B, C.

are

axes are rectangular, each of the ratios in

But p

is

a positive

number
D

p = -j=-
^
J + B-' + C2
^

therefore

If

is

B = -p

negative,

B.C.

and

we must change
c

cos

1)

A-

y ^ -7

the

= -7==^^===,.

is

positive,

-A
-

cosoc=-

fi:'

COS

if

If

B--^-i-

the sign of

C2

.^

n/a'^

,-

+ B- + C-.

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

34

[en. in.

If the axes are rectangular, the angle between the

Cor.

P^*^^

ax-\-hij

+ cz + d = Q,

a'x

+ h'y + cz+d' =

(aa' + bb' -{-cc')


IS

Ex.

cos

Ja^ + 62 + c2 Va'2 ^ 5'2

If the axes are rectangular, find the angle

1.

3.^

(ii)

Ans.

_j_

(i)

7r/3,

(ii)

+ 4^-52 = 9,

2.x

between the

+ 6t/ + 6z = 7.

7r/2.

Ex. 2. If the axes are rectangular, find the distance of the origin
Ans. 2.
from the plane 6x-Zi/ + 2z-U = 0.

Ex. 3. Shew that the equations bi/ + cz + d=0, cz + ax + d=0,


ax + bi/ + d = represent planes parallel to OX, OY, OZ respectively.
Find the equations to the planes through the points (2, 3, 1), (4, - 5, 3)
parallel to the coordinate axes.

Ans.

Ex.

?/

+ 4s-7 = 0, x-z-l=0,

to 3^; + 4?/

Ex.

4.r+;/-ll=0.

Find the equation to the plane through

4.

-52 = 0.

5.

parallel to

Ans.

207

and P

is

parallel

+ 4j/- 52 + 4 = 0.

Prove that the equation to the plane through


ax + hy-\-cz = is ax + by->ircz = aa. + hl3 + cy.

Ex. 6. If the axes are rectangular


find the equation to the plane through
Ans.

(1, 2, 3)

3j?

the point

at right angles to

(.,

(2, 3,

f3,

y)

-1),

OP.

+ 3^-2=14.

Prove that the equation 2x'^-Qf-\'2z^ + \Sijz + 2zx-\-xij^0


represents a pair of planes, and find the angle between them.
Ex.

7.

Ans. cos-i 16/21.

Ex.

8.

Prove that the equation


ax''-

+ hy- +

represents a pair of planes

cz"-

if

+ 2/^2 + 2gzx + 2hx^ =

ahc-\-2fgh-ap-hg'^-ch- = 0.

Prove that the angle between the planes

is

^^-^''+^'+^'~^'~^'^~''^^"
tan-'f
V

a-^b + c

^
)

variable plane is at a constant distance p from the origin


Ex. 9.
and meets the axes, which are rectangular, in A, B, C. Through A,

Shew that
B, C planes are drawn parallel to the coordinate planes.
the locus of their point of intersection is given by x-'^+y-^+z-'^=p-K
36.

Plane through three given points.

The general

equation to a plane contains three arbitrary constants, and


therefore a plane can be found to satisfy three conditions

which each involve one relation between the constants;

DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A

35-37]

a plane can be found to pass

e.g.

tli

PI^^^NE

35

rough any three nou-

col linear points.

To find

the equation to the

{x. y. z.^, {x.

plane

tltrougli {x^

y^

z^)

1/3, z.,).

Let the equation to the plane be ax + by + cz + d = 0.

+ + cz^ + = 0,
+ by + cz2 + d = 0,
ax^-\-by.^ + cz^ + d = 0.

Then

ax^^

cZ

hy.^^

ax.2^

Therefore, eliminating a,

Ex.

Find the

1.

2.,-

Ex.

z,

^1,

Z.,

(juation to the plane

tluongh the three points

+ 3^-3^ =

Shew that the four points


are coplanar.

2.

(3, 3, 0)

obtain the required

(-2,2,-1).

(1,2,1),

(1, 1,0),

Ans.

we

d,

b, c,

equation,

1,0),

(0,

(2,

1,

-1), (1,1,1),

Distance from a point to a plane. To find


tlie point P, (.v/, //', z) from the plane

37.

the

distance of

p = XQOS a.+ 7/cos/3 + scosy.


Suppose that p

a positive number so that cos a, cos

is

/3,

normal from the origin


to the plane.
Change the origin to {x', y', z), and the
equation to the plane becomes
cos

are the direction-cosines of

tlie

p {x + .'/) cos a + (7/ + y') cos /3 + (c -f z) cos y,


X cos . + cos /8 + cos y,

or

p'

where

p' = p x cos

CL

Hence the distance


ph
P

is

foi-e

p' or

(',

y,

z'),

cos y.

the

GoscL y' cos

/3

new

origin,

from the

s' cos y.

on the same side of the plane as the original

origin O, cos

the normal

y' cos ^ z

of

p =px
If

5;

1/

oc,

cos ^, cos

from
^9

a?'

the
cos

new

?/'

are

still

the direction-cosines of

origin, P, to the plane,

cos

2:'

cos

is

and thereIf P

positive.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

36

and O are on opposite

are the direction-cosines of the normal


P,

and therefore ^y or
Hence,

negative.

if

pX
is

positive

if

{x,

y',

j9

cos

a?'

cos CLy' cos

z)

from

i/'

is

The distance

/3

of {x,

.
II

the axes are rectangular,

is

{x\

if

If

is

side of the

is

any point

origin.

0,

given by

positive the positive sign

z)

y',

z) from the plane

y',

J.

is

^ / cos y

z' cos

ax-\-hy-^cz-\-d =
,,

cosy

the plane to

any point on the same

on the side of the plane remote from the


1.

cos

iii.

is positive,

plane as the origin, and negative

Cor.

[en.

sides of the plane, cos a, cos^,

ax' -\-h\i' -{-cz' -{-d

to be taken, as

is

=^.

gives

it

a positive value for the perpendicular from the origin.


Cor.
is

If

2.

positive

if

is

{x\

positive, the expression

y',

of the plane ax-\-hy-{-cz-\-d

on opposite

= 0,

y', z'\

Ans.

2.

is x'

cos

a.

?/'

cos

(i

they are

if

OP

on the

+ z' cos y,

Find the distances of the points (2, 3, -5), (3, 4, 7) from


+ 2y -22 = 9. Are the points on the same side of the plane ?
4, No.
.v

Find the locus of a point whose distance


7 times its distance from the plane 2.r
3_y - G^ = 2.

Ex.
is

3,

and negative

sliew that the projection of

p = .r cos ot, + _y cos 13 -hz cos y


and deduce the resiilts of 37.
Ex.

-{-hy \- cz \-

sides.

Ex. 1. If P is (,)/,
normal to the plane

the plane

ax

z) and the origin are on the same side

3.

from the origin

A m.

3j;2

+ 8/ + 35^2 - 36^2 -Mzx-\-\ 2xy - Sx - 1 2^ + 244- + 4 = 0.

Find the locus


distances from the planes
Ex.

4.

of a point the,

x+y + z = Q,

sum

of the squares of

x z = 0, x-2y + z = 0,

whose

is 9.

Ans. x''+y'^ + z^ = 9.

Ex. 5. The sum of the squares of the distances of a point from the
planes x+y+z = 0, x-2// + z =
is equal to the square of its distance'
from the plane x = z. Prove that the equation to the locus of the point
is i/^ + 2xz = 0.
'By turning the axes of x and z in their plane through
angles of 45, prove that the locus is a right circular cone whose semi-""'
vertical angle is 45.

BISECTORS OF ANGLES

.^37,38]

BETWEEN

TI.ANES

3?

Planes bisecting the angles between given planes.


38.
To find the 'planes bisecting the angles between the given
ax-\-by-\-cz-\-d

planes

= Q, ax + b'y + c'z + d' = 0,

the

axes

being rectangidar.

We

can always write the equations so that d and

Then

positive.

tlie

d' are

equation

ax + by-\-cz + d _ ax -\-b'y-\-c'z-\- d'


represents the locus of points equidistant from the given
planes,

and since the expressions


ax -\-by + cz-\-d,

ax + b'y + c'z + d'

have the same sign, the points are on the


origin side of both planes or on the non-origin side of both.
in the equation

The

locus

between

is

plane

the

therefore

given

the

that

bisecting

which contains the

planes

angle
origin.

Similarly,

ax + by + cz + d_

ax + b'y + c'z + d'

Ja^ + b'- + c^~

Va'2

+ 6'2 + c'2

represents the plane bisecting the other angle between the

given planes.
Ex. 1. Shew that the origin lies in the acute angle between the
Find the 'planes bisecting
planes x + 2j/ + 2s = 9, 4x - Zy + I2z {- \3 = 0.
the angles between them, and point out which bisects the acute angle.
A71S.

Acute,

*Ex.

2.

(^i, >/i,

h),

25.v

Shew
(^2.

>/>,

'\7,>/

+ 62z-78 =

that the plane


h) in the ratio

cu-

obtuse, .r+35j/-

+ b// + cs + d=0

102-156 = 0.

divides the join of

aA'2 + b^2 + ^^2 + d'


Mli, A22+a) lies on the plane
A+ 1 A + 1 /
\ A+ 1
A (ax.^ + %2 +
+ f^) +
+ k'/\ +czi + d=0.]

[The point f^fdj^J,

^^-2

if

'^*'i

planes 2i = ax+b>/ + cz + d=0,


= a'.'- + b'j/ + c'z + d' = 0, u + Xv=0, u-Xr = divide any transversal
harmonically.
Let P,{xi,^i,Zy) be on the plane 2 = 0, then ?<, = rt,r, + /;//, + eri+f/ = 0.
Let Q, (.i'2, i/o, ^2) be on the plane i' = 0, then v.^ = a'x\2 + b'i/.2 + c'z^ + d' =
The planes uXv=0 divide PQ in the ratios

*Ex.

3.

Hence

shew

i.e.

divide

PQ

iiarmonically.

that

the

COOKDINATE GEOMETRY

38

*Ex.

[ch.

iii.

Q are any four collinear points, the anharmonic


the range APBQ, is defined to be

If A, P, B,

4,

ratio, or cross-ratio of

AP^AQ
PB

QB

AP.QB
^'

AQ

PB'

line cut any


transversal in a range of constant cross-ratio.
If ?t = 0, v =
are two planes through the line, the equations to the
four given planes can be written, u + XrV = 0, r=l, 2, 3, 4. Let A, B,
planes u-irXiV = 0, u + k^v^O
^^^^
(xi, ?/i, ^j), (^2, y2) ^2) li^ ^"
^i^ on
respectively.
Then ?ij + Ai?'i = and w, + -^s^'a = ^- I^ P)
the planes u + \.^v = 0, u + kiV = 0, then by Ex. 2,

Prove that four given planes that pass through one

AQ _ M^ + XjVi
U1 + X2V1
PB~~w^+V^' QB~ u^+X^2

AP_
and therefore

AP.QB Jk,-X,){X,-Xi)

AQ.PB
This constant cross-ratio

*Ex.

5.

DA

CD,

P, Q, R,

of a

skew

is

ai^e

{\,-X,){X,~\,)-

called the cross-ratio of the four planes.

four coplanar points on the sides AB,


Prove that

BC,

quadrilateral.

AP BQ CR DS

PBQCRDSA"

THE STRAIGHT
The equations

39.
first

LINE.

Every equation

to a line.

Two

degree represents a plane.

of the

equations of the

first

degree are satisfied by the coordinates of any point on the

which they represent, and


two equations together represent that line.

line of intersection of the planes

therefore the

Thus ax + hy + cz-\-d = 0,

a'x

+ b'y + c'z + d'^O

represent a

straight line.
40.

Symmetrical form of equations.

Tlie equations to

a straight line can be found in a more symmetrical form.


If the line passes

through a given point

direction-ratios

m,

1=

where

PQ

I,

xx

Q, (x, y, z) is

is r,

m = -v
r

y'

P, (x', y', z')

and has

n,
'>

any point on

(21, Cor. 3; 29,

Cor.

n=
it,

3).

z'
;

and the measure of

And

therefore the

THE EQUATIONS TO A LINE

30,40]

coordinates of any point on the line

~ n

the eciuations

sati.sl'y

x x'_y y'_z z'

30

^~

''

Tliese c(jiiations enable us to express the coordinates of a

variable point on the line in terms of one parameter

x'^x

y = y' + mr,

-\-lr,

for

r,

= z' + nr.

Conversely, im^ equations of the form

xa_yh_zc

passing through the point

represent a

strai<j^ht line

and having

direction-ratios proportional to

2.r

Ex. 1. Find where the


+ 4y - 2 + 1 = 0.

Ex.

Find the points

2.

the .face

Ex.

Ex.

which

in

meets the phine

^,

the line ''!i^

n.^-5/+.' = 0.

^;j

4.

line .^^='i!!^

where the

to the point

Find the distance

xi/ + z = 5 measured parallel

II

Ans.

-3

^,_

= ^-^

_ 3^

l^^^ ^^f^^^

,^

from the point

meets the plane

36 (rectangular axes).

^=-^ =

1.

^ j^^

-2, 3) from the plane

of the point (1,


to the line

^^^

==.^LL^ = lzl cuts

If the axes are rectangular, find the distance

3.

(3, 4, 5)

line '!lz^^}Lzji^^_JL_

(a, h, c)

in, n.

I,

-,

Ex. 5. Shew that if the axes are rectangulai', the equations to the
perpendicular from the point (a, (3, y) to the plane ax + b>/ + cz + d-=0

he

are '^LL^ =,-LZjl ^^JZJ and deduce the perpendicular distance of the

a
point

(fx.,

ft,

y) from the plane.

Ex. 6. If the axes are rectangular, the equations to the


through (f^, [i, y) at right angles to the lines

_y _z

^-ol

are

m^n^-m^yii

X_

.y

_ y-ft _
niL^

nJi

__f_

z-y
liVio

f-^iih

axes are rectangular, shew that the equations to


planes through the lines which bisect the angles between

Ex.

7.

If the

.r/^i

= 7//mi = 2/?i,

and

.v/l2=ylni2

= z/n2,

and at right angles to the plane containing them, are


((',

line

l.,).v + (')ni m.,)i/ + {ni 7i2)z=0.

tlie

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

40

[ch.

iii.

through the origin makes angles a., (3, y with its


Ex. 8.
The
projections on the coordinate planes, which are rectangular.
distances of any point (.r, i/, z) from the line and its projections are
that
Prove
d, a, h, c.
line

c^2

41.
(x.^,
x.^

= (2 _

,.2)

cos^o.

+ {- y"-) cos'^fS + (c2 - s2) cos^y.

Line through two points.

2/2,

Xj^,

2;,),

If p,

PQ

the direction-ratios of

y.2~2/i>

% %'
x x-^

are

are (x^,'yi,

^^^ therefore the equations

8, the coordinates of a variable point of the


terms of one parameter, A, are

Ex.

^^ x+1

'

Find the point where the

1.

cuts the plane

2a'

+ ?/-s = 3.

'

PQ

line in

x+1

"

line joining (2,

I, 3), (4,

Ans.

'

Ex. 2. Prove that the line joining the points (4, 5, meets the surface 2.^- + 3y- - 4s- = 1 in coincident points.
42. Direction-ratios

to

_ y yi _ zZi

By

'*^~'x+i

z^),

are proportional to

2), (

-2, 5)

(0, 4, 1).

1, 5,

3)

from equations. The planes through

the origin parallel to

ax + by + cz + d = 0,
are given

afx

+ h'y + c's

-\-(l'

by
ax + hy + cz --= 0,

ax + //// + c'z = 0.

Hence the equations


ax -\- 1)1/ + cz =

= a'x + h'y + c'z

together represent the straight line through the origin


parallel to the line given

by

ax + by + cz -\-d =

= a/x + //// + c'z + d'.

They may be written

and therefore the direction-ratios of the two lines are


Again the second'
proportional to he b'c, ca' c'a, ah' a'b.
line

meets the plane z =

in the point

bd'-b 'd

f
\ah'

a'b'

da'-d'a
ah'

a'b'

\.
J

^5

THE EQUATIONS TO A LINE

41,42]

4l

therefore the equations to the second line in the .synnnetriciil

form are

ti
bdv ha

i
da

ab'

a'b

bcb'c
Ex.

The
an

1.

ca'

a'b
ca

z
ab'

to
o a line througli
through (,

equationifi

XOY

plane

v
da

>

iib'

'

a'b'
to the

parallel

6, c)

-ct_y-h _z-c
(1)

'

since the direction-ratios are I, m, 0.


Again the line lies in the plane
= c, and therefore its ecjuations can be written

m{.r-a)^l{,,-h\

and

(1) is to

Ex.

be considered

Find the equations

2.

'^~

The equations are


to the plane

on

it

XOY,

are equal to

Ex.
to

OZ

tlie

as

3.

= r,

(2)
(2).

to the line joining (2,

=1^^ = "-^^.
is

symmetrical form of

4, 3), (

Tlierefore the line

evident, since the ^-coordinates of


also be written

- 3,

is

5, 3).

parallel

two points

The equations can

3.

The equations

are

-'Izl!:

to the straight line

JLlk =iZ^

or .>;=,'-^
y

through

(c<,

6, c)

jmrallel

= h.

Ex.
planes

Prove that the equations to the

4.

4.;-t-4//-.5.-

= 12,

line of intersection of the

8.>.--f-12^-1.32=.32 can

be written

.v-\_i/~2_z
2

Ex.

~4'

Shew that the line 2j';-t-2^-2-6 = = 2.r-f 3y-3-8 is


^=0, and find the coordinates of the point where

5.

parallel to the plane


it

meets the plane

Ex.

.v

= 0.

Avs.

Prove that the

6.

2,i,- -t- .3^?/

(0, 2,

-2)

lines

- 45 = = 3.*- - 4//

z,

bx - ?/

3j -fl 2

= =x

7y -h 5r

are parallel.

Ex.

Find the anglf between the

7.

x-^ll/-\-z

= 0=.v+y-z,

(rectangular axes).

Ex.

8.

parallel to
.

lines

.--|-2y-l-2

= = 8.*--f 12// + r)-,


Ana. cos~'8'N'4()f).

Find the equations to the line through the point


the line x - y 2: = 5, 3,'; +y + z Q.

x-\

-\-

y-2

:-3

(1, 2,

3)

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

Constants in the equations to a

43.

[ch. hi.

The equations

line.

xa_yh_zc
may

~ n

x=y+a

be written

m"^

(1)

'111
,

of the

one

n ^

-^

which are

x = t^ij + 3\

form

(2)

= Cs + dJ'

2/

and therefore the general equations to a straight

line con-

The equations (1) represent


the planes passing through the line and parallel to OZ and
OX respectively, and by a choice of such planes to define any
tain four arbitrary constants.

given line
is

equations can be put in the form

its

the form with

smallest possible

tlie

number

(2),

which

of arbitrary

constants.
Ex.
r
line

Prove that the symmetrical foiiii of tlie equations


'^'-^
,7
J
= - = '^~'^
,v = av + o, z = ci/ + a is

1.

Ex.

Prove that the

2.

x = ay-^h,
are perpendicular

if

Ex. 3. Find c/, b,


through the points
given points and
Alls.

a=

l,

lines

= cij + d, x = a'i/ + h\
aa' + cc' + 1=0.
z

(9, 8,

= c'i/ + d',

.v = ca/ + b, z = ci/ + d may pass


-4), (5, 4, -6), and hence shew that the
10) are collinear.

d, so that the line

c,

2,

(3,

= 1, c=

to tlie

.'/

given 1by

1,

d=

2.

Ex. 4. Prove that the line x=pz + q, y = rz + s, intersects the conic


2=0, a.v^ + b?/'^=l, if aq^ + bs^ = l.
Hence shew that the coordinates of any point on a line which
intersects the conic and passes through the point (a, /?, y) satisfy the
equation a(yx a.zy + b {yy (^zf {z- y)-.
Ex. 5. Prove that a line which passes through the point
and intersects the parabola ;/ = 0, z'^ = Aax, lies on the surface

Ex.

6.

Find the equations

(i)'^=-?^ = i:i^,

to the planes

(ii)2..

(i)
(ii)

f)//

4.-

+ 1 = 0,

17^-25i = 0,

2^

- 5.^ + 2 = 0,

rK-17.(,-

ft,

through the lines

+ %-5.-4 = = 3.t-4y-|-5.-6,

parallel to tlie coordinate axes.

Ans.

(rx,

2.r

- _y - 1 =

+ 34 = 0, S.r-y-

10 = 0.'

y)

THE PLANE AND THE

43,44]

.STKAKlllT LINE

*Ex. 7. If the axes are oblique the distance of the point


from the plane a.v + b^ + cz+d=0 is given by

dr (cu;'

bi/'

+ c/ + c/)( 1 - cos^A - cos^/a - cos'^i/ + 2 cos A cos


{

*Ex.
is

Sa^sin^V

z')

cos v)

- 226c(cos A - cos /a cos v) } ^

The distance

8.

/I.

4^
(.*', _y',

of

/) from

y',

(.r',

the line xla=ylb=zlc

given by
..,

S(fc

~"

- cy)^ sin-A + 2^(r-.r - az)(ai/ - ht) (cos /x cos v - cos


a^

*Ex.

are

0, 0,

A)

1/

to tho

-^,
sin V

A = 1 - cos^A - cos^/x - cos^v + 2 cos A cos /x cos v.


angles that OX, OY, OZ make with the planes YOZ, ZOX,

where
If the

XOY

ju,

Prove that the direction-cosines of the normal

9.

OXY

plane

+ 6- + c- + 26ccos A + 2crtcos + 2a6cos

are

., f3,

y,

prove that
sinoL
cosec

sin /?

cosec

sin

cosec

/x

i'

If the angles between the planes ZOX, XOY, etc., are A, 3, C,


prove that
^^^^ ^ _ ^^jg
^^g j, = gj /x sin v cos A,

^
A_sin B

^j^

,..^

sin

44.

sin

sin

sin

sin

/x

The plane and the straight

C
i'

Let the equations

line.

ax + hy + ez + d = 0, ^^11^ = ^^-11^? = ?^^ represent a given


plane

and

straight
(oL

where r

Their point of intersection

line.

+ lr,

13

given by

is

r(al + hm + en) + mx. +

But
(a,

7"

/3,

is

+ mr, y + 7ir),
6/3

+ cy\-d = 0.

proportional to the distance of the point from

is

y).

al

Therefore the hne

+ hm-\-cn =

is

parallel to the plane

if

and aa + ^jS + cy + f/H-O.

If the axes are rectangular, the direction-cosines of the

normal to the plane and of the line are proportional to


and therefore if the line is normal to
a, h, c;
m., n;
/,
the plane,

_m _n

a
Cor.

al

plane are

and

The conditions that


afX

(
tlie

line

+ hm -{-cn=0

+ 6/3 + cy-f = 0.
(^

should

lie

in

the

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

44

Ex.

1.

Prove that the

X3

?/ 4
-_ =/__

line

[ch.

" 5

=!

iii.

parallel to the

is

plane Ax + Ai/ -bz = 0.

Ex.

2.

Prove that the planes 2^-3^-72=0, 3a-- 14y-13s = 0,


pass through one line.

31?/ 33j =

8.r

Ex.

3.

Find the equation

to the line joining

(.3,

4,

to the plane

1), (2,

through

(2, -.3, 1)

normal

(axes rectangular).

1, 5),

Ans. .r+5j/-6s + 19 = 0.

Ex. 4. Find the equation to


-1, 0), (.3, -4, 5) parallel to the

(2,

Ans. 29x - 27^

the
line

plane through
2x=3i/ = 4z.

points

- 22s = 85.

Prove that the join of (2, 3, 4), (3, 4,


plane through (-2, -.3, 6), (4, 0, -3), (0, -1,
Ex.

the

5.

.5)

normal to the
the axes being

is

2),

rectangular.

Ex.

6.

Find the distance

of the point

9'_9
~'

point of intersection of the line

1, 5, 10) from

2
w+1 1-
=^U
=

and the plane

,v-^ + z = t), (rectangular axes)r


Ex.

(-

7.

1, 0, 1)

Ans. 13.

Find the equations to the planes through the point


and the lines

4x'-3?/+l=0 = i/-4z + l3',


and shew that the equations
which intersects the two given

8.

Find the equation

2x-i/-2 = 0=z-5,

to the line through the given point


lines can

x=)/ Ex.

the

be written

=z 2.

to the plane

x-fj-_>/-

f3

through the

_ z-y

line

EXAMPLES

44]

Ex.

45

The axes being rectangular,

11.

equations to the

find tlie

perpendicular from the origin to the line


.V

-2//

+ 3s + 4 = 0,

2.V

'Si/

+ 4z + 5 = 0.

Find also the coordinates of tlie foot of the perpendicular.


(The perpendicular is the line of intersection of the phuu; through
the origin and the line and the plane through the origin perpendicular
to the line.)

,v

Ex.

'

-1
.3

The equations

12.

-4\

/2
VS'

3 /

'

AB

to

referred to rectangular axes are

="^=5- Through a point P, (1, 2, 5) PN is drawn perpendicular


I
to AB, and PQ is drawn parallel to the plane 3.^ + 4?/ + 52 =
to meet
AB in Q. Find the equations to PN and PQ and the coordinates of
N and

Q.

.v-l _ 7/-2 _z-5

J.

\49'

Ex.

49 /

'

OP

to

-9

/
V

'

ABC

is

'

/'

'

y\ z) a plane

P, {x\

meet the axes (rectangular)

the area of the triangle

q\

'

Through a point

13.

angles to

49

~^~^T3~

'

-78 156\.

/52

.r-l_y-2_2-5

-3"T76"~T9

-, where

is

drawn

is

at right

Prove that

in A, B, C.

the measure of

OP.

2, >_?/'/

Ex. 14. The axes are rectangular and the plane .v/a + 7/jb + z/c=\
meets them in A, B, C.
Prove that the equations to BO are
-={ =

that the equation to the plane through

OX

at right

angles to BC is bi/ = cz that the three planes through OX, OY, OZ,
at right angles to BC, CA, AB respectively, pass through the line
a.v=b>/ = cc
and that the coordinates of the orthocentre of the
triangle ABC are
;

~^
rt"'-

Ex.
(a'u,

}/(^,

15.
Zq)

+ 6~- + c~"'

b~^

a~-

If the axes are rectangular,


line

where
Ex.

hv
nQ

16.

a~- + b"- + c~-'

the distance of the point

from the

u = a.v + by + cz + d=0,
is .riven

c~^

+ b~'^ + c~'^

= a'x -\-b'y-\-c'z-\-d' =

/ {a'^ta - av^f + {h'Up - bv^f + {c\i^ - cv^

= axQ + bi/Q + czQ + d, and

VQ

a'.V(,

b'i/(j

+ c'zQ + d'.

Find the equation to the plane through the

u = ax+ by 'rcz + dO^


parallel to the line

'V

line

= a'x + h'y + c'z + d' = 0,

x/l=y/m = zln.

Ans, u {a'l + b'm + c'n) = v{al-\- bm

y)

fY

+ en).

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

46

Ex.

Find the equation

17.

to the plane

ax + hi/ + cz=Q = ax + h'y + c'z,


Ans.

X,
be'

clx

b'c,

III.

lines

+ [iy + yz = = a.'x + [i'y + y'z

y,

Py'-(^'y^

[CH.

through the

ah

ca! c'a,

ah'

ycL'-y'cL,

cLp'-a.'^

Ex. 18. Prove that the plane through the point


x=pi/ + q = rz + s is given by

(a,

y) and the

/5,

line

rz+s
ry + s

pf3 + q,
1,

|1,

Ex.

The

19.

x-cx._y

2'.

i:

given

distance

of

the

point

(^,

rj,

()

from the

line

measured parallel to the plane ax+b>/ + cz = 0,

is

11

b}'
^^o

_ {a'' + h^ + c-):i{m{y-0-n{(i-'q)f-{^{c,.-^){bn-cm))
{al + hm-\-c.n)"

Deduce the perpendicular distance


*Ex.
normal

If the axes are oblique, the line


20.
to the plane a.r
+ cz + o?=0, if

'Ta

3<^

21.

Shew

from the

line.

y-B

'-

+%

9<^

*Ex.

of the point

''

.^'(cos/xcos

XOY
I'

'"

S(^

= "r- = -r-

(See 31.)

that the equation to the plane through

right angles to the plane

z-

"'

OZ

at

is

-cos A)=j/(cos vcos A-cos/x).

that the planes through OX, OY, OZ, at right


angles to the planes YOZ, ZOX, XOY, pass through the line

*Ex.

22.

x{coii

*Ex.
planes

ji

23.

Shew

cos

1'

- cos

YOZ, ZOX,

XOY in
cos

*Ex.

24.

Shew

A - cos /x) = ^(cos A cos ji - cos

A) =y(cos v cos

lines

normal to OX, OY,


which lie in the plane

The planes through

cos

OZ

i').

cut the

cos V

fj,

that the line in Ex.

is

at riijht anE^les to the

plane in Ex. 23.


If P is the point (.', y', z') and the perpendiculars
25.
to the coordinate planes are^^, jo.2, p^, prove that

*Ex.

Pi sin

A _ p., sin

fi

y'

_p3 sin v _

from

z'

Deduce that the planes bisecting the interior angles between the
coordinate planes pass through the line
sin

sin

/x

sin v

THE INTERSECTION OF THREE PLANES

44.45]

*Ex. 26. Shew that the squares of the distances of P,


fi'oiii the coordinate axes are
i/"-

*Ex.

sin- V

+ /- sin^/i, + 2// (cos k - cos /x cos


X

_
A

sin
IS

.r

45.

cos

-X + a + v
2^

1/

sin

normal

to

if

cos

?/, 2')

etc.

i-),

Trove that the equation to the plane through

27.

47
(.*',

sin v

//,

A-u +

i/

The intersection of three

z cos

1-

X + U.-V
^-

= ^0.

Before proceeding

planes.

to the general discussion of the intersection of three given

phines

we

will consider three typical numerical cases.

Solving the equations

we

2x- y+ z=

3,

x-S]/ + 2z=

1,

= !, y = 2,

= o,

and hence the three planes


represented by the given equations pass through the point
obtain

(1, 2, 8).

Let us

now attempt

to solve the equations

(i)

Eliminate z from

we

get

5x y

(iii)

x+ y-

(ii)

4r

Whence

2x-4>y + 2z = 5,

(ii)

and

subtracting,

?/

.x +

= 8,
= 7.

then from

(iii),

-2 =1

4v - 2 ?/ =
.y

(i)

and

and

(ii),

7.

= Q.

Similarly, eliminating y from


and (iii), we get

(i)

and

(ii),

then from

(ii)

Gx-2z = 9, Q>x-2z = \b,


whence

There

are, therefore,

x+

no

a)

= G, are

= 6.

finite

satisfy all the given equations.


.

values of

x,

The equations

limiting forms of ?

+ ? = 6,

y, z,
.

'j^,

a-

+ =
^',

which
.

(i,

2/

= 6,

as

/.

tends to infinity, and hence we may say that any point


whose coordinates satisfy the three given equations is at an

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

48

We

infinite distance.

[cii.

in.

easily find that the fines of inter-

section of

any two

and

evident that no two of the planes are parallel, so

of the planes are parallel to the line

12
it is

3'

that the three planes form a triangular prism.

Thus

if

we

are given the three equations to the faces of a triangular

we attempt

prism, and

to solve them,

doxical equation of the form k =


different

from

we

obtain a para-

where k

(),

is

a number

zero.

Consider, in the third place, the equations


(i)

12- y + 2z = S5,
Sx-^

(ii)

Eliminating z between

and

(iii),

we

y-\-

x + ly^

(iii)

(i)

and

tions

lie

or the
line,

(i)

we

is,

lie

= 0,

oy + 2z + 7

upon a straight

the three planes intersect in a straight

line.

Examine the nature of the intersection of the sets of planes


2.r-5^+ ? = 3,
x+ 9/ + 4z = 5,
.v + S^ + Q2 = l

1.

(i)

(vi)

y = 7,

of the planes 2x

points of the three planes

Ans.

(v)

5y + 2z + 7^ 0.

upon both

(vii)

;iv)

(ii)

eliminate x in any waj^ between the

get

+ 4^ + 6e = 5,
y+ 2 = 6,
.r + 23/ + 32 = 6,
2jf + 33/ + 42 = 6,
"ix- ?/+ 2 = 4,
3.r- ?/+ 2 = 5,

(ii)
(iii)

and then between

points whose coordinates satisfy the given equa-

common

that

Ex.

if

we

all

(ii),

2x-y^7.

6a;-3?/-21,

Thus

7,

0.

obtain

Similarly,

equations,

z^
0-

+ 5f/ + 9z=\0,
+ 3v + 4j = 20,
3.r + 4^ + 5i = 2,
3.r + 4^ + 5i = 20,
bx^-1y-\-1z = Q,
2.r + 4y+ 2+10 = 0,

3,r

6.v

.v+

2.r

Planes form prism

(ii)

+ 3i/ + 5z = 5
x- y-V 2 = 2
5a;-t-42/ + 32-h 18 =
.?;-|-2y + 32 = 2
3.^ + 4^-22 + 3 = 0;
6A--2?/ + 2e + 9 = 0.

3.v

planes pass through line

3.r-5_,y

z_^

2"~'l~~T'
(iii)

planes intersect at

(1, 2, 3)
./

(v) planes

form prism;

(vi)

(i^^)

planes pass through line

+ 10 _ ;/-8_2.

~'-2~i'

planes intersect at

planes parallel, third intersects them.

(1,

-1, 1);

(vii)

two

THE INTERSECTION OF THREE PLANES

45]

Ex.
.r+

49

Prove that the three phines 2j: + 7/ + z = S, .v-9/ + 2z = 4,


a trianguhar prism, and tind the area of a normal section

2.

= 2, form

At>s. s^S/\H.

of tlie i)rism.

Wc

shall

now

consider the

;cnercil chho.

Let the equations to the planes be


u^

= a^x + bJ^y + c^z + (l^ =

{),

(1)

U2 = a.^+b2y + c^z + cL = 0,

(2)

u.^

= a.^x + h^y + c^i + d., =

Solving the e(|uations

X
&1.

-y

(1), (2), (8),

we
^

(3)

obtain

-1

COOEDINATE CJEOMETKY

50

and

by

]\ence,

two or more

If

are parallel.

(5),

[ch. hi.

of the

quantities A^, A^, A. are different from zero, no two of


the given planes are parallel, and the planes therefore form

a triangular prism.
quantities

If

different

is

one

from

the three

of

say,

a^

onljr,

zero, the planes

u-^

= 0,

u^ =

meets them in parallel


be parallel, and if so, ^3 =
We have then a limiting case of a triangular prism
lines.
when one of the edges is at an infinite distance. Thus, if

may

A=
one

and

\b^, c^,

d.^\^0, the three planes are parallel to

line.

be noted that in this case

It is to

AjU^ + A.,u.2 + A3W3

that

is,

= 6p
!

Co,

d-i |:f

0,

three planes are parallel to one line their

when

equations can be combined so as to form a paradoxical


equation 7c = 0, where k is a quantity different from zero,

Conversely,

if

three

numbers
lu^

where k

is

m, v can be found

I,

and is not zero, then the


and if no two of them
form a triangular prism. For

independent of

x, y, z,

three planes are parallel to one


are parallel,
a^l
c-J.

+ a.^m + a^n = 0,
+ c^m + c^n = 0,

Therefore

la^, 62.^31

line,

bj.

dj,

+ b^m + b.^n = 0,
+ d.^m + d^n^O.

and

\b^, c,, d.^\=l=0.

Suppose now that A = 0, |6j, c^,d.^\ =


one of the common minors of A and 6^
|

and A^=^0,

(A^ is

As

in the

Cg, d^\).

last case, the three planes are parallel to

since |6^,

c,,

^^1

= 0,

cut the plane YOZ,

one

line.

But

the three lines in which the planes

viz.,

x = 0,

b^y

x = 0,

b2y

03

are concurrent.

= 0,

Their

+ c.j,z-]-d^ = 0;
+ C2Z-{-d.2 = 0;

b.^y-}-c^z+d^

common

y
c^d^

and since

so that

+ mu.-^ + nu.^ = k,

c^d^

A^=/=0, it is at

point
^

^
d.^b.^

d.Jb.^

is

given by x = 0,

^\
\'

a finite distance.

Hence, since the

THE INTERSECTION OF THREE PLANES

45]

51

three planes are parallel to one line and pass tlirou^^h a

point in the plane YOZ, they pass through one


It

now

follows

that \a^,

and

d.^\

c.,,

\a^,

line.
b^,

the

d^\,

remaining two determinants in (4), are zero. For since


the planes pass through one line, their lines of hitersection

with the plane ZOX,


2/

= 0,

a^x

Therefore

are concurrent.
!!, 62, (^3l

Again,

viz.,

y = 0,

+ c^z + d^ = ();
y = 0, a.^x +

a.^a;

+ c^s +

c?.^

+ d^ =

c.^z

= 0, and

similarly,

{a^,

c^,

d.^\

{ciy,

c^,

d._^\

is

not zero, the lines

= 0.
K,

\a^,

if

(any one of the

d.^\

= 0,

common

minors),

and cu/l^- a/l^,

of intersection of the given planes with the planes

and XOY are concurrent.

The points

ZOX

of concurrence are

given by
^
z=

c^do

Cod^

'

dju

d.^a^

a./^

ax^

y
0,
h./l^

h^d^

d.,a^

d^a.^

ajj^

h^a^

he
and since d.^a^ d^a^^O, they are not coincident.
planes have therefore two common points and thus pass
through one line. It follows then that \a^, 63, c^\ and
'J'

h^, C2, d.^\

are both zero.

If,

therefore,

any two

\b^,c^,d^\,

of the determinants

\a^,b2,d^\,

ctp 02,(^3!,

|ai, ^g'^sl

common minors

not zero, the


remaining two determinants are zero,* and the three planes

are zero, and one of their

have a
*This

line of intersection at a finite distance.


is

easilyproved algebraically.

then, since

and

h^
I

Therefore, since

/ji

A=0,

|&i, Cg,

A)

A,

(mIj - a^d^

_
~

If

A = a,A, + a.Ao + aA3 = 0,


c, cZg = c^i A, + (LA., + d^i = 0,
A,

^^

is

ra^di

A,

- ajdj

a^do - a^di

+ ?>oA2 + 6;, A. _ C1A1 + C0A3 + C3 A3


,

-jctj, 62,^3!

2^A = 0.
|i, ^o,

2ciAi = 0,
(^31

and

!!, Co, (/3I

and k^i-O,
|a,,

c.,,

^31 = 0.

_
"

ds\-0, and Aj

^ 0,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

52

The

[cn.

III.

conditions for a line of intersection are often written

in the form,
0,

^1'

^3

^3

the notation signifying that any

two

of the four third-order

They may

determinants are zero.

be obtained as

also

Any plane through the line of


= is given by \u^-\-\u.2 = 0.
= pass through one line,
u., = 0,
and Ug =
\u^ + \c/it.2 =

follows.

= 0,
Ui = 0,
11^

intersection of

^(-2

If

the planes

'?<'o

must, for some values of

\,

Xo,

represent the same plane,

and therefore
\u.^

or

Conversely,

if A^, A.,,

+ XoUo + Ag-Jtg = 0.

A3 can be found so that

\u^ + Ao-^'o = A3U3

then

and therefore the plane


of intersection of u^

ti.^

and

=
u.,

passes through the

= 0.

A^'?t^ +
+ A3U3 = 0, we have
=
a3A3
^^A^ + ^^A.. + 63A3 = 0,
f^Ao
+
0,
+
a^Ai
and
d{\^
+ dn\2 + d^\=^0.
c^Ai + c^Ag + t'sAg^O,

efficients in-

A2'?<'.2

Therefore, eliminating A^, Ao, A3,

we

line

Considering the co-

obtain
0.

LINE INTERSECTING

45,4G]

Ex. 5. The planes


through one line

jKiss

TWO GIVEN LINES

+ %+,7-^ = 0,
A = , k,

/LV

.(-

if

!/:

y;

+ b>/ + fz = 0, gx+fy + cz=0

=0, and the

</

5:i

direction-ratios

^-^

of the line satisfy the equations

3a

3c

36

Ex, 6. If the axes are rectangular, the equations to the


through the line of intersection of two of the given planes
ar.v

+ b,^/ + CrZ + d,=^0,

r=I,

2,

jjlanes

3,

perpendicular to the third, are

+ h^y + r, + di)(aoa3 + Kh, + c.jC^) - {a.^.v + b.^ + c^z + d^)

(!.'

y.{a^ai

that the three planes pass through one

Shew
Ex.

+ bjbi + c^c^=0.,

etc.

line.

The plane -+"t + - = 1 meets the axes OX, OY, OZ, which

7.

Prove that the planes through the axes


are rectangular, in A, B, C.
pass
and the internal bisectors of the angles of the triangle
through the line
^

ABC

.'/

a s'V' + c2
46.

any

u^

For

two given

+ \v^ = 0,

the third line lies in

therefore

it

is

c\/a^

1.

The equations

lines.

lines,

w^

+ h^

u^ =

t'^

Ug =

to

= u,

+ X^-o^O.

the plane u^-^\{V^

= 0,

and

coplanar with u^z=() = v.^, and similarly

coplanar with
Ex.

+ d^

Line intersecting two given

line intersecting

are

is

b slc^

u.^

it

= = v.^.

Find the equations

to the straight line

drawn from the

origin to intersect the lines


3.r

+ 2y + 4j-5 = = 2.);-3y + 4i + l,
= .3.t--4j/ + 2-3.

2.v-4j/ + 2 + 6 =

Ex.
,f+//

2.

Find the equations to the line that intersects the lines


2.r+4^-2 = 4, and passes
2.';-.y-s = 2; x-y-z^?,,

+ = l,
.j

through the point

(1, 1,1).

x-\ y-\ ^z-\


1

Find the equations to the line drawn parallel to 5='y=i


so as to meet the lines 2 = 5.J7-6 = 4y + 3, 2 = 2.r-4 = 3_y + r).
Ex.

Am.

3.

44;

= n,i; + 1693,

lL-

= ll.y + 34r,.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

64

Ex.
lines

[ch. Hi.

Find the surface generated by a line which intersects the


.r + 32 a, y-\-z=a, and is parallel to the plane A-+y = 0.

4.

y=za

Ans. (.r+y)(?/ + 2)==2a(j + a').

Ex.

Find the surface generated by a straight line which intersects


.v-i/ = z, x-+?/ = 2a, and the parabola ?/ = 0,
x+y=z =

5.

the lines

x'^=2az.

Ans.

x^-

y^ = 2az.

variable line intersects OX, and the curve oj = i/,y'^ = cz,


and is parallel to the plane YOZ. Prove that it generates the
paraboloid xy = cz.

Ex.

6.

Ex. 7. Prove that the locus of a variable line which intersects the
three given lines _^y = m.>-", z = c y mx, z= -c y = z, mx= -c ; is the
surface y^ -^ m^x-=^z'^ c^.
;

Lines intersecting three given

47.

tions

u^ =

given

three

to

= v.^, and

are

u^

If the equa-

lines.

u^ =

= = v^,

= V2,

the three planes

u^-\v^ = 0,

(1)

have a

lines

(2) ii.2-X.-^^

= 0,

(3)

U3-X3V3 =

line of intersection, that line is coplanar

of the three given lines,

and therefore

with each

intersects all three.

There are two independent conditions for a


which may be written,

line of inter-

section, ( 45),

A(A \

\,)

= 0,

M\

(4)

\,.,

\,)

(5)

and (5), any two of


\,
the equations (1), (2), (3) represent a line which intersects
Suppose that (1) and (2) are taken,
the three given lines.
then eliminating Xg between (4) and (5), we obtain
If

Xg be chosen to satisfy (4)

X.,,

0(Ai, A,)

An

number

infinite

satisfy (6),

and therefore an

infinite

be found to intersect three given


X^, X^

between

(6)

of values of X^, Xo can be found to

(1), (2), (6)

we

number

lines.

of lines can

we

If

eliminate

obtain
<^)

h:^-I)=
This equation

on any

line

therefore

Hence the
surfaceT^

is satisfied

which

by the coordinates

represents a surface generated


lines

of

any point
and

intersects the three given lines,

by such

which intersect three given

lines lie

lines.

on a

LINES INTERSECTING THREE GIVEN LINES

47]

55

It is to be noted that if X^, A2, X3 satisfy (4)

and (o),
form u^ \i\-i-k{ii^ \v2) = 0, and therefore

(3) is of the

that

(1),

(2),

(8),

are

(5)

(4),

The

independent equations.

equivalent to four

really
ecjuation

to

the surface

is

by eliminating A^, A2, A3 between these four


equations, and this can be done in only one way.
Hence
obtained

the surface

V^

V^

Ex.

1.

t'3

given by

also

is

by

or

>

Find the locus oi

y = h, z= c\

^) = 0,

fA'

= c x= a
;

which intersect the three

lines

.v

lines

= ,?/= 6.

If the three planes

i/-h + \^{z + c) = 0,

have a

(1)

AiA.A, +

meets the three given

it

"^'^^^

i.e.

.v- a + X3Q/ + b) =

z-c + X.,{.v + a)=0,

intersection,

of

line

0,

X,,-b + X,c
1,
-c + X.,(t

1,

A3,

0,

l=0

and

0,

1,

X.,,

{-2)

lines.

That

-a + X^b
X^X.X^^a-'IcXiX-i +

^bXs-a^O.

Therefore the coordinates of any point on a line which meets the


three given lines satisfy
7/-b + Xi{z + c) = 0,

z-c+X2(-v + a)=0,

,;- + A3(y +

?;)

= 0,

Therefore eliminating A,, A2, A3, we obtain

where AiA2/\3+l=0.
the locus of the lines,

viz.

z-c ^-ct_..
+ c .v + a .y + &
a>/z + bzx + c.iy + abc = 0.
>/-b
z

or

(Shew that the same


Ex,
//=1,
lies

result

is

obtained from

(2).)

through a point P and the tliree given lines


x=-l; x=l, i/= -\ pass through one line, P

If the planes

2,

i=-I

on the

= l,

Hwii-AGQ yz

+ zx+.vi/ + \=0.

Prove that all lines which intersect the lines y = mx,z = c


-mx, z= -c and the x axis, lie on the surface m.vz = cy.

Ex.

y=

'

3.

Ex. 4. Prove that the locus of lines which intersect the three
.?- _y = l, 2 =
y-z-l., x =
is
i .r=l, _v =
;

5.

A ns.

)/-

-\-z'- iyz

- 'izx - 2.ry = 1

Find the locus

of the straight lines

= 3z

4 y + 3^ ==

2, 4)/

36.1-2

lines

.r^

Ex.

x + 2 = 0,

+ 16/ - 9^2 = 1 44.

?/

which meet the

= 3, 2x + z = 0.

lines

COORDINATP] GEOMETRY

56

[CH.

111.

Ex. 6. Shew that the equations to any line which intersects the
three given lines .y = &, 2= -c, z = c, .v=-a; x = a, y= -h may be
written ?/-6 + A(e+r') = 0, (,fc--a) + /x(2/ + Z>) = 0, where A and /x are
connected by the equation A/xc - /x6 + a = 0. Hence shew that the two
lines

which intersect the three given

lines

and

also -=^^^
c

= 7-{a+

rrs;

b)

+ c__z-b x c_y_z a
c~h b-c c-a 6 a c'

.V

i/

Ex. 7. Shew that the two lines that can be drawn to intersect the
four given lines
_?/

= l,s=-l;

are given

48.

by

= l,

Coplanar

3
?/

= l,,v=-l; x = \,y\; x = Q^y-\-z =


+ l = 0; z-\-2x+\=0, y -z-% = 0.
To find the condition that two given

lines.

lines should be coplanar.

Let their equations

Ije

y-

The equation

(2)

ni'

//

.(1)

to a plane througli the lirst line

is

a{x-cj.) + h{y-l3) + c{z-y) = 0,

(3)

+ hm + ch =

(4)

where

al

If it contains the line (2),

,,(a-a') + /H/3-/3') + fKy-y') = 0,

and

(d'

+ bm' +

Therefore eliminating

a,

h,

c)-)!

(5)

(6)

between

(4),

(5),

(6),

we

obtain the required condition,

y = 0.

a a,

.(7)

111,

I,

The elimination

of a,

A,

Ijctwcen

(8), (4), ((i)

e([uation to the plane containiiig the linos,


.r.

(x.,

yft, z y

I,

on,

r,

m,

n'

gives

th(>

viz.,

= 0.

.(S)

COPLANAR LINES

57

Generally, the equation (8) represents the plane through

the line (1) parallel to the line (2), and (7) is the condition
that this plane should contain the point (a', ^', y) on (2).
Ex.
(jl'

Ex.

Deduce the

1.

+ 1'/,

etc.,

result (7) by equating tlie coordinates


of variable points on the given lines.

Prove that the

2.

lines

Prove that the

3,

^6464

a.

X b+c_
li-

/Ivw.

Ex.

2//

4.

coplanar

Ex.

= .v +

5.

if

lines

!/

+5

b _z - h c

'IT
1^

fi+7

the equation to the plane in which they

tiiid

x-a-\-d _i/-a _z-a-d

are coplanar, and

+ lr, etc.,

''-^=^ = 1^ 'lZ^=''LZ^ z-4

are coplanar.

Ex.

cL

lie.

z.

Prove that the lines .v = a>/ + b = cz + d,


(y - c){af3 - b(jL) - {ft. - a)(c8 - dy) = 0.

Prove that the

.v

= a.7/ + ft=y: +

lines

"-

ax + bij + cz + f/=

^,

= ax +

//_>/

+ c'z + d'

+ h(i + cy + d ^au^ + b' f^ + c'y + d'


a'i + b'm + c'n
+ cn
Ex. 6. Prove that the lines ax+b>/ + cz + d = = ax + b'^ + c'z + d'
CLX + ^i/ + yz + 8=0 = ol'x + (3'// + y'z + S' are coplanar if
are coplanar

^^'^

if

al + bin

'^'1

b'.

d,

,1',

are points on the axes


shew tliat
C,
B, B'
A, A'
B'CA, BC'A'
tiie lines of intersection of the planes A'BC, AB'C
CAB, CA'B' are coplanar.

Ex.

7.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

58

[CH.

III.

Suppose that X, fx, v are the direction-cosines of such a


then l\ + mfx + nv = and U\ + m'lj. + nv =

line,

X
inn'

mn

1^

nl'

n'l

Im' l'm

Therefore the projection

= A(a-a') + /x(/3-/3')-t-Ky-y'), (21, Ex. 8),


_ (a- a.')(mn - m'n) + (/3 B') {nV- n'l) + (y y'Xlm'- I'm)
\l^{inn' tn'nf
ol-ol', 13-^',
y -^ Jl,{mn' m'nf-

SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO LINKS

49]

Ex.

3.

that the shortest distance between the lines

Shew

.c-l

_
~2~~

is -r_,

>

and that

59

its

y-2

.-3.

a?-2^;y-4^ g-5

4'

equations are

vG
n.v + 2//-1z + G = 0,

Ex.

4.

7.1-

+.?/- 5^ + 7

Find the shortest distance between the

g-3

.r-3 _y-8

"~3~~"-l ~

lines

+3 ~'y + 7 _ 5-6
-3
2 " 4

.r

= 0.

'

Let the s.d.


The following method of solution may be adopted
meet the lines in P and P' I'espectively. Then the coordinates of P
and P' may be written (3 + 3r, 8-r, 3 + r), (-3-3/, -7 + 2/, G + 4;-'),
where r is proportional to the distance of P from the point (3, 8, 3)
and / to the distance of P' from ( - 3, - 7, C). Whence the directioncosines of PP' are proportional to 6 + 3/- + 3/, 15 -r- 2/, -3 + r -4/.
:

Since PP'

is

we have

at right angles to both lines,

+ 3?- + 3/)-(15-?--2/) + (-3 + r-4r') = 0,


-3(6 + 3r + 3r') + 2(15-r-2r') + 4(-3 + ;--4/) = 0.
3(6

Whence, solving

for r

and

?',

we

get

Therefore P and P' are the points


and the equations to PP' are

?-

= r' = 0.
(-3,-7,

(3, 8, 3),

6),

PP' = 3V30,

r-3_ ?/-8 _2;-3


^"~'~5~~^-^r
Ex.

5=

Find the same

results for the lines

.r-3 _.?/-5 _5-7.


"'

6.

6a.-

Ans. -IL:,
v^342

Ex.

7.

'

r+l^ + l _2 + l
?/

~ -6

~"

(-],-!,-]).

(3,5,7),

Find the length and equations of the


3a'

drawn

'J-^-JI^='J^^-,

Ans.2'j29,

Ex.

-2 ~

lO.v

line

s.d.

between

- 9y + 5^ = = X + ?/ - 2,

+ 8j/ + 3s-]3 = = + 2^ + 2-3.


.>:

- 29y + 1 fii = = 13,); + 82y + 55^-109.


with direction-cosines propnitioiial to

2,

7,

-5

is

to intersect the lines

.r-5_ ?/-7 _g + 2
"
3 ~'^1'"
I

Find the coordinates of the


intercepted on

it.

'

r + 3_y-3^2-G

-3

~'

jioints of intersection

Am.

(2, 8,

and the length

-3),

(0, 1, 2),

n/78.

^^^-

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

60

Ex.

Find the

8.

between the axis of

s.d.

ax + 6y +c^ + f^ = 0,

{ax +

%+

C2

line

OZ

parallel to

is

to this plane

is

equal to the

s.d.)

{ad - a'df + {hd - b'df

\l

>/

line

= 0.

c'd

cd'

Ex.

rf'

111.

+ rf) = c {a!x + h'y + cz + d!\

and the perpendicular from the origin


Ans.

and

[CH.

and the

ax + h'y + dz +

(The plane passing through the


c'

If the axes are rectangular, the s.d.


b\ z=a.'x + (i' is
7/ = a'z
;

9.

= az + b, z = oiX+l3

between the

lines

{0L-a.'){b-b') + {a.'fS-OLl3'){a-a')
\a?a."^{a

Ex.

- a')- + (a. - ol')- + {aa.

Prove that the

10.

between the

s.d.

a'a!)'^)'^

lines

ax \-bi/-\-cz + d==0 = a'x + b'y + dz + d',

+ fiy-\-yz + ^ = Q = a!x + (i'y + y'z + h'

aJC

where
Ex.

A = bd - b'c,
Shew

11.

r,

h,

c,

'/,

b\

d,

d'

13,

y,

^',

P',

Y,

S'

etc.,

A'

cos

meets the

cos

o-j

first

= (3y' - (3'y,

that the

x-x-^ _y-y-^

s.d.

z-z^

line at a point

v(.r,-.r.,)(cosoci-cos^cosa.,)
sin2

etc.

between the

cos yj

/?!

{2(BC'-B'C)2}

x-

x^_^

cos a2

'

lines

_ y - y^ _z-Zi
cos

/iJ.,

cos

whose distance from

^^^^^^,^

-^

^^^ ^

y.,
(/,,

_?/j,

2,) is

j^ ,^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ j.^^^_

Ex.

12.

Shew

Ex.

13.

Shew

that the s.d. between any two opposite edges of


the tetrahedron formed by the planes ?/ + 2 = 0, 2+.r=0, .v + ?/ = 0,
x-\-y-\-z = a is 2al\'^, and that the three lines of shortest distance
intersect at the point x=y = z = a.
that the

s.d.

between the

line

ax ^hy^rCz^-d=Q = a'x + b'y + dz + d


and the
origin

s-axis

meets the ^-axis at a point whose distance from the

is

(l b'

{{bd

Ex.

Shew

14.

y/b + z/c =

1,

b'c) + {ca' - da) {ad' - a'd)


b'c)~ + {cd da)''\

- d'b) {hd -

that the ecpiation to the plane containing the line


and parallel to the line x/a-zlc=], y =
is

x = 0;

xja-ylb-zjc-\-\=0, and

if 2n? is

the

s.d.

prove that

-ji

= ^i + jT^-\2'

A CLASS OF PROBLEMS

50]
Ex.

15.

Two
.)

straight lines
fjL

_>/

- fi _'z - y

-<<-'

_i/-/3'

cut by a third who.se direction-cosines arc. A,


length intercepted on the third line is given by

;iic

a.

- a.',

/3

/3',

m,

I,

y - y'
n

\-^\

fx,

v.

Show

tli;it

the

I,

vi,

^',

m\

n'

A,

/7,

j
j

m',

I',

n'
I

and deduce the length

*Ex.
.r/a

of the s.D.

The axes

16.

+ ?//6+2/c=l.

ABC has equation


OABC has two pairs

are oblique and the plane


if the tetrahedron

Prove that

of opposite edges at right angles,

= ^_?/^=S!!^'
^

/),

and that

the equations to the four perpendiculars are

= 2a
^
oy

'deb

3<i)

cos

I',

-^ = 2a cos

u, etc.,

oz

..w^.
id

'ddi

'd4i

9(/>

_>,^=
= v^^.
a~=b-7^
c-^
7

Ox

d>/

oz

Hence shew that the perpendiculars pass through the point given by

^=

7^ = Ihck. -^ 2cak,
ox

'

oz

o>j

'iabk.

Prove also that the eq^ nations to the

b~

OC

of AB and
are -^ = 2abk, a7^ =
and that the
da
oz
01/
passes through the point of concurrence of the perpendiculars.

s.D.

50.

Problems relating to two non-intersecting

When two
S3^stems of

non-intersecting lines are given,

tlie

s.D.

lines.

following

coordinate axe.s allow their equations to be

Avritten in simple forms,

and are therefore

of use in problems

relating to the lines.

I.

and

Rectangular

Let AB, A'B', (tig. 25), be the lines,


be the shortest distance between
Take the axis of s along cC, and O the mid-point

let CC',

them.

axes.

length

2c,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

62

Draw OP, OQ
POQ as the plane

[en. in.

of CC' as origin.

parallel to AB, A'b',

take the plane

= 0.

As

OP and

take the bisectors of the angles between


if

the angle between the given lines

to the planes POZ,

QOZ

and
and y-axes

Then

OQ.

2a, the equations

is

y^xtaua.,

are

x-

y= a^tanoc;

and

hence the equations to AB and A'b' are

y = x tan
These

may

X
cos

OL,

= c;

z=

y=-.x tan a,

c.

be written in the symmetrical forms

y
sin

_z c_

'

cos

_z + c

2/

sinoc

P and P' are variable points on two given non-intersecting


and A'B', and Q is a variable point so that QP, QP' are at
right angles to one another and at right angles to AB and A'B'
respectively.
Find the locus of Q.
"Take as the equations to AB, A'B', y = inx^ z = c
i/= mx, z= -c.
Then the coordinates of P, P' are a, met., c /3, -mfS,'-c, where a. and
Ex.

lines

1.

AB

fi

Let

are variables.

^^^^'

be

(^,

rj,

PQ

then since

C),

is

perpendicular

(^-0L)+m(7;-m(x.) = 0;

since

P'Q

since

PQ

is

(1)

perpendicular to A'B',
($-f3)-vii,j + mP) = 0;

is

(^"-'^)a'-/^) + (>/-'-)(>/ +

To

find the equation to the locus

between

(1), (2), (3).

The

is

result

easily

found to be

a hyperboloid.
II.

(2)

2:)erpendicular to P'Q,
'/3)

(1+m-J^
^^

Axes partly rectangular.

axes of X and

y,

+ (t-c)(f+c)=0

we have
r->=

If

to eliminate

>>

1-m-

(3)
a.

and

j3

which represents

we take OP and OQ

as

instead of the bisectors of the angles

between them, we have a system of axes in which the


angles ZOX, YOZ are right angles and the angle XOY is the
angle between the lines.
The equations to AB, A'B' referred
to this system are
y = 0^ z = c;

x = 0,

z=

c.

Ex. 2. P, P' are variable points on two given non-intersecting


and PP' is of constant length 2L Find the surface generated
by PP'.
Take as the equations to the lines 7/ = 0, z = c x = Q, z= -c then
P and P' are (a., 0, c), (0, (3, - c), where a. and fS are variables. The
lines

equations to PP' are

.v

y~f3

+c

WORKED EXAMPI.ES

50]

C,?,

Q, Q' arc the projections of P, P' on tlie plane OXY,


OQ=r^, OQ' = /J and QQ"- = o(.- + /i--2r/./ic(.s f), wlieie
If

PQ = Q'P'=-r,
is

the angle

'Therefore

l)et\veon the lines.

PP'2 = a.2 + /3^-2(xj8cos^ + 4c2 = 4F

(2)

to the locus of PP' we have to eliniinate


the et^uations (1) and (2). From (1),

To obtain the equation


OL

and

/:>

between

and therefore the surface

is

+r

z-c

'

given by

2aycos^ _F

y'l

.y2

Ex. 3. Find the surface generated by a straight line which intertwo given lines and is parallel to a given plane.
If the axes be chosen as in Ex. 2, and the given plane be

sects

Lv +

my + )is^O,

III.
is

'

Ix

the locus

is

71XU

+ n = 0.

+ c z-c
^

Axes oblique. li" a point on each of the given lines


and a rectangulai- system is not necessary, the Hne

specitied

joining the given points may be taken as s-axis, its midpoint as origin, and the parallels through the origin to the

given lines as x- and

y-sixes.

are then

q^^,.

where

y^Q^

2c is the distance

The equations

to the lines

.^^q ,2;=_c;

between the given

points.

Ex. 4. AP, A'P' are two given lines, A and A' being fixed, and
P and P' variable points such that AP.A'P' is constant. Find the
locus of PP'.
Take AA' as z-axis, etc. Then P, P' are (., 0, c), (0, fS, - c), where
The equations to PP' are
a/iJ = constant = 4F, say.

X _9/ 0L~

and eliminating

a.

Ex.
(iii)

5.

_z

-\-

2c'

between these and


c-xy + k"{z'^ - c'^) = (i.

and

equation to the locus,

f^

-/3"

/3

a.(i

= AP, we

obtain the

Find the locus of PP' when (i) AP + A'P', (ii) AP A'P',


Find also the locus of the mid-point
is constant.

AP2-i-A'P'2

of PP'.

Ex. 6. Find the locus of the mid-points of lines wliose extremities


are on two given lines and which are parallel to a given plane.

Find the locus of a straight


7.
and makes a right angle with one

Ex.
lines

Ex.

8.

Find the

line that intersects

two given

of them.

locus of a point which

is

equidistant from two

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.

9.

[cii. III.

that the locus of the niid-points of lines of constant

Shew

which have their extremities on two given lines is an ellipse


whose centime l)isect,s the s.d.. and whose axes are equally inclined to

lengtii

the

lines.

point moves so that the line joining the feet of the


10.
perpendiculars from it to two given lines subtends a right angle at
hyperbolic
the mid-point of their s.d. Shew that its locus is a

Ex,

cylinder.

Ex.

Prove that the locus of a line which meets the


and the circle .''-^+y- = a'-, s = is

11.

lines

y= mx, z~ c;

THE VOLUME OF A TETRAHEDRON.


51. 'To find the
vertices, the

If A, B,

volume in terms of

the coordinates of the

axes being rectangular.

are {x^, y^,

equation to the plane

ABC

-%),

(^'o

2/2.

is

x,

y>

s,),
z,

1
1

Vv

{x

2/2'

02,

2/3'

^3'

2/3.

= 0,

^3).

the

or

TITK V()LlT^[H

51]

Hence, using the


cosy. A, equation (1)

OF A TETRAHEDKON

.similar

may

expressions

for

cos/3.A and

be written

2A{x cos oL-\-y cos j3+z cos y)

Now

65

2i>A,

by

(2).

the absohite measure

oi" J^^A is the volume of the


OABC, and we can introduce positive and
negative volume by defining the volume OABC to be ijjA
which is positive or negative according as the direction of
rotation determined by ABC is positive or negative for the

tetrahedron

plane ABC, {p
Vol.

Vol.

OB AC

is

positive as in 37).

We may then

OABC = Vol. OCAB = Vol. OBCA =


x.

write

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Agam,

since

[CH.

III.

THE VOLUME OF A TETRAHEDRON

51]

67

the coordinates of A, are given by

^=^,
C,

B.

and

therefoi'e the vohiiiie

-JjAi/D
1

Bi/Di,

A2/D^,

wiiere Ai

Di

is

,.

da^

etc.

given by

Ci/Di,

11

__i

|A,.

6DiD.D,D.,

etc.
1

B,
etc.

6D1D2D3D;
(C. Smith, Algebra, p. 544.)

"Ex.

OABC

The lengths of the edges OA, OB, OC of a tetrahedron


find
v
are , 6, c, and the angles BOG, COA, AOB are A,
9.

ft.,

the volume.

Suppose that the direction-cosines of OA, OB, OC, referred to


rectangular axe.s through O, are I,, m,, n, I,, m.,, n, ^3, m,, n, then
;

the coordinates of

Therefore

are

l,a,

m,a, n,a,

etc.

[CH.

CHAPTER

IV.

IV.

CHANGE OF AXES.
52.

OX, OY,

axes through a
of O^,

O)],

OZ O^, Ot], O^ are two sets of rectangular


common origin O, and the direction-cosines

O^, referred to OX, OY, OZ, are

%. P, any
OX, OY, OZ and ^,

Zg,

mg,

l-^^,

on-^, n-^^; l^,

w^,

n^',

point, has coordinates x, y, z referred to


37,

^ referred to Of,
Z

Orj,

O^.

We

have to

A.V

fK

-^^^e-^

express

and

x, y,

z in terms of

^,

],

and the

direction-cosines,

vice-versa.

In the accompanying figure, ON, NM, MP represent f,


^,
and OK, KL, LP represent x, y, z. Projecting OP and ON,
NM, MP on OX, OY, OZ in turn, we obtain
tj,

(1)

52,53]

THREK rERPENDICULAB LINKS

And projecting; OP and OK, KL, LP on


we obtain
c=^,^,,;
+ ,n,y + ;/^:,l

O^,

Or],

69

O^

in (nrn

(2)

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

70

From

the second and third equations of

and each

^iHrn^HV
h>

(b),

[cii.

we

derive

IV.

rHKEE PEliPENDICULAR LINES


the direction of rotation given
direction of rotation for the plane

O^,

O*;,

O^ can be brought by

by LMN is the positive


LMN, the system of axes

rotation about

cidence with the system OX, OY, OZ.

into coin-

If the direction of

negative, and O^, O;; arc brouglit to coincide

rotation

is

with OX,

OY

respectively, then

Now

71

Vol.

OLMN:

h,

O^

coincides with OZ'.

COOEDINATE GEOMETEY

72
54.

Section of a surface by a given plane.

[CH.

The

IV.

follow-

ing method of transformation can be applied with advantage


when the section of a given surface by a given plane
passing through the origin is to be considered.

Let the equation to the plane be lx + my-\-nz = 0, where

+ m^ + n'^=l,

and n is positive.
Take as O^, the new axis of z, the normal to the plane
which passes through O and makes an acute angle with
OZ. Then the equations to O^, referred to OX, OY, OZ, are
x/l = y/m = z/n.
Take as Otj, the new y-axis, the line in
the plane ZO^ which is at right angles to O^ and makes an
acute angle with OZ.
Then choose 08, the new -axis, at
right angles to Oij and O^, and so that the system O^, Oij, O^
can be brought to coincidence with OX, OY, OZ. The given
l^

plane
it is

is ^0)j,

and since O^

at right angles to

Hence O^

lies in

is

at right angles to

OZ which

lies

the plane XOY, and therefore

of intersection of the given plane

equation to the plane

^0>] is xll

are the, direction-cosines of

= y/7n',

therefore

+ 'nv =
m\ lju = 0,

Am

whence - =

{),

is

0>;,

the line

and the plane XOY.

O;/,

l\-\-mfx

O^ and

in the plane ^O)].

The

if \, fx,

A USEFUL TRANS FOiUlATION

54]

But

makes an acute angle with OZ, and tlierci'ore v is


and therefore the negative sign must be taken in

Oi]

positive,

the ambiguity.

In

nin

s/l--\-m^

And

since

O^ is

sJl-'

rrr-,

at right angles to O?;

lv

n\,

7>l
Jl'^

+ nir'

Hence we have the scheme

-,

+ mand

the direction-cosines of O^^ are

nfx-niv,

ni\

lii;

Jl^^

+ m^

0.

O^',

by 53

(e>.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

74

[ch. iv.

Ex. 2. All plane sections of a surface represented by an equation


of the second degree are conies.
Take coordinate axes so that a plane section is s = ; the equation to
the surface is, after transformation, of the form
ax"-

The

+ hi/ +
.:

The

cz"^

+ 2/}/s + 'igzx + 2hxy + 'S.ux + 2vy + 2wz + d=0.

by the plane

section

= 0,

XOY

is

ax- + Ihxy +

surfaces represented

the conic whose equations are

hf + 2?<.r + 2v?/ + f/ = 0.

by equations

of the second degree are the

conicoids.

Ex.

All parallel plane sections of a conicoid are similar and

3.

similarly situated conies.


Take the coordinate plane z = parallel to a system of parallel
plane sections. The equations to the sections by the planes 0=^,
2

^-'

are then,

= k,

ax' + 2hxy + by^ + 2x (gk + u) + 2 y {fk + v) + cl^ + 2 -A- + cZ = 0,

= k',

ax"^

Hence the

+ 2kxy + bf + 2x{gk' + u) + 2y{fk' + v) + ck"^ + 2ivk' + d=0.


sections are similar

and similarly situated

conies.

the conditions that the section of the surface


ax' + 'hif'-\-cz- = \ by the plane lx+my + nz=p should be (i) a parabola,
(ii) an ellipse, (iii) a hyperbola.
(It is sufficient to examine the section by the plane lx + my+nz = 0,
which, by Ex. 3, is a similar conic. The equation to the projection of
this section on the plane 2=0 is obtained by eliminating z between
the equations lx + my + nz = Q, ax^ + by'^ + cz^ = l, and the projection is a
conic of the same species.)
A71S. For a parabola P/a + m^/b + 7i^/c = 0, etc.

Ex.

Ex.

4.

Find

Find the condition that the section

5.

of ax- + by^ = 2z

by

should be a rectangular hyperbola.


(Since rectangular hyperbolas do not, in general, project into
rectangular hyperbolas, it will, in this case, be necessary to examine
by the
the actual section of the surface by the plane (x + my + nz=0

lv+my + nz=^p

method

Ans. {a

of 54.)

+ b)n^ + am' + bl' = 0.

Find the conditions that the section of ax''- + by^+cz^ = l by


Ix + my -hnz=p should be a circle.
Am. 1 = 0, m^c-a) = 7i\a-b); or m=0, n'{a-b) = P{b-c); or
Ex.

6.

n=-Oj\b-c) = m'^{c-a).
Ex.

7.

If lx + my =

is

a circular section of

+ By^ + Cz" + 2 Dxy = 1


(B -C)^2_2D^m + (A-C)m2 = 0.
A;(;2

prove that

Ex.
lx

8.

Prove that the eccentricity of the section of xy=z by


{P + m- + n^ = l\ is given by

+ 'iny^nz = 0,

2
-^

= 1-

Explain the result when = 0.

Ini

EXAMPLES OF PLANE SECTIONS


Ex.

Shew

9.

a.r2

75

that

if

+ Ifyz + 'igzx + ^hxy + 2 M.r + 2 y^ + "twz + o?

by"-

czr'

be trausforTued by change of coordinates from one set of rectangular


axes to another with the same origin, the expressions a + 6 + c,
iC--\-v''--\-v?' remain unaltered in value.

Ex. 10. Two sets of rectangular axes tlirough a common origin O


meet a sfihere whose centre is O in P, Q, R P', Q', R'. Prove that
Vol. OPQR'= Vol. OP'Q'R.
;

Ex. 11. The equations, referred to rectangular axes, of three


uiutually perpendicular planes, are ^v - ^r'' - "' r.'/ - 'i;-2 = 0, ;=!, 2, 3.
if (^, ?/, C) is at a distance d from each of them,

Prove that

+ I2 + I3

I1

mj^

Hi

Ex.

12,

+ jUo + mg

+ %2 + '^3
prove that the

If the axes of x, y, z are rectangular,

substitutions

\/3

Ve'

^/2

2S

\/3

\'6'

._ J
\/3

,.

V2

Ve

give a transformation to another set of rectangular axes in which the


becomes the plane ^ = 0, and hence prove that
plane .r + ?/ + ^ =
the section of the surface yz-Vzx-\-xy-\-d'- = Q by the plane .r + v/ + i =
is

a circle of radius n/2

*55,
are

If

a.

OX, OY, OZ are rectangular axes, and O^, 0>/, O^


axes whose direction-cosines, referred to

oblique

OX, OY, OZ, are

m^, n^

l^,

jecting on OX, OY,

OZ

O^,

I.,,

O//,

ii\, n.^, l^,

m^, n^, then pro-

O^, as in 52,

we

y = m^i+m.2r, + m^^,^

z= n^^+

n^ti+

rj

^cos

cos
jy

(a)

i?3^.J

= l^x + m^y + n ^z^


r + ^ cos
+ + ^cosX =l^x-\^cos ^ + COS X + ^= l^x-\-m^y+n^z,]

^+

obtain

/n

^/

(B)

where the angles


(b)

>/0^,

^^O^,

^Or are

can also be deduced from (a)

tj, 77ij, -jjp etc.,

i-

and adding.

X,

bj'-

X,

jj.,

v.

The equations

multiplying in turn by

Again, from

(a),

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

?e

By means

and

of (a)

[ch. iv.

we can transform from

(c)

rect-

angular to oblique axes and vice versa.


Since

Cor.
vice

versa,

x,

z are linear functions of

y,

any equation

the degree of

^,

>;,

and

unaltered by

is

transformation from rectangular to oblique axes or from

The transformation from one


another can be performed, by introducing a set of rectangular axes, in the above two steps,

oblique to rectangular axes.


set of oblique axes to

most general case the degree of the

and hence

in this

equation

unaltered by the transformation.

Ex.

is

The equation

1.

,t'''

+ 4(v/- +

=2

i,")

is transformed by change
being oblique, and having

from rectangular axes, the new axes


direction-cosines proportional to

2,1,1;

Shew

that the

4,

\/3-l, -\/3-l

new equation

is .v^

4,

?/'^

-VS- 1,

Ex. 2. If P, Q, R are (^^, rjr, C\ r='\, 2,


oblique axes through an origin O, prove that
1.

Vol.

OPQR =

3,

1,

Cs

Vsi

is,

cos

V,

COS

jjL,

(Use

* Examples
1.

The gnomon

2.

Find the equations to the

v/S-

1.

+ z^ = l.
referred to a set of

COST,

cos

jU,

1,

cos

cos A,

55 (b)

T
;

51,

cf.

Ex.

9.)

I.

meridian at an elevation A
(equal to the latitude), and the sun is due east at an elevation a.
Find the angle 6 that the shadow makes with the N. and S. line of
the dial.
j^.

of a sundial

?/

+1

both the lines 's""^'^^^^' 4


section

with the second

is

>

in the

line

through

(1,

1,

I) M'hich

x = 2?/ = Sz, and shew that

meets

its inter-

/15
line is

15

5 \
52 2b/

\2b

r,

= 1, 2, 3;
3. If OA, OB, OC have direction-ratios I,., Wr, r,
bisect the angles BOO, COA, AOB, the planes
and OA', OB',
AOA', BOB', COC pass through the line
z
^
_
)/
_
m^ + m^ + m^ n^ + + n^
li + li + lz
'

OC

n.^^

a given point and PM, PN are the perpendiculars from P


OP makes angles B, a., /3, y with the
to the planes ZOX, XOY.
aud the (rectangular) coordinate planes. Prove tliat
planes
4.

is

OMN

coscc''^

= cosec" a. + cosec-/3 + cosec-v.

EXAMPLES

cii. IV.]

Shew

5.

iiif =

sin

at the

same angle
(.(//

circle

.v-

section

i/'^

= c\

new

lines

dbcoso.

is

cos

oL-az sin

.)(.;,*

sin a.

z=/i,

a//

cos

a.)

= 0.

which meets OX and the


so that the distance between the points of
line

v c^ + h^.

If three rectangular axes

7.

into

is

meet the
^

._
.

Find the Uk'US of a straight

6.

77

I.

that the locus of linos which

positions,

to the old are

li,

and the

Wp

be rotated about the line -.=- = -

direction-cosines of the

n^, etc.;

then

new axes

referred

if

l^=+ (m^n^ - wi3?i2), A ('3 + ?^') = m("i + h) = ^'{^2 + '"1)


also

the angle through which the system

is

if

rotated,

is

8. If the shortest distances between lines 1, 2, 3 are parallel to


lines 4, 5, 6, then the shortest distances between the lines 4, 5, G are
parallel to the lines 1, 2, 3.

Any

9.

thi'ee

non-intersecting lines can be

parallelepiped, and if the lines are


the leni^ths of the edges are
/^2-/^3,

72-73

I,,

ruo,

^3,

WI3,

n.^

a.3>

made

= -'^ =
^

"'

'

the edges of a

, r=l,

2,

3,

''''

etc.

h,

Consider the case where the denominator

"2,

is zero.

OC are edges of a parallelepiped and R is the corner


OP and RQ are perpendiculars to the plane ABC.
opposite to O.
Compare the lengths of OP and RQ. If the figure is rectangular and
O is taken as origin, and the plane ABC is given by lx + 7)i^ + 7iz=p,
OA, OB,

10.

PQ

has direction-cosines proportional to /~^-3/, ?>i~i-3wi,

?t~^

3h,

and PQ2 = OR--9.0P^.

OR

are edges.
is the diagonal of the cube of which OP, OQ,
the diagonal of the parallelepiped of which OQ, OR, OS are
Find the coordinates
are formed similarly.
edges, and OV and
is the diagonal of the parallelepiped of which
(.f "U, V, W, and if
witli OS and that
coincides
shew
that
edges,
are
OU, OV,
o r = 5 OS.
11.

OU

OS

is

OW

OW

OT

OT

12. Find the equations to the straight line through the origin
which, meets at right angles the line whose equations are
{b

+ c)x+{c + a)i/+(a + b)z = k = (b-c).T + {c-a)>/ + {a-b)z,

and find the coordinates of the points

of section.

Find the locus of a point which moves


distances from two given lines is constant.
13.

so that the ratio of its

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

78

14.

x^ +

i/'^

[ch. iv.

+ z = and

intersects the circles


line is parallel to the plane i/
find the surface it generates.
;
z=0 ; x^+z'^ a% 7/

a'^,

Find the equation to the surface generated by a straight line


which is parallel to the line ?/ m.r;, z = ')ix, and intersects the ellipse
15.

A->2+//62=l,

= 0.

plane triangle, sides a, b, c, is placed so that the mid-points


Shew that the lengths
of the sides are on the axes (rectangular).
intercepted on the axes are given by
16.

and that the coordinates


{/,

m,

of the vertices are {-I, m, n),

{I,

-in, n),

7i).

Lines are drawn to meet two given lines and touch the right
cylinder whose axis is the s.d. (length 2c), and radius c.
Find the surface generated.
17.

circular

18. The section of ax^+h/ + cz' = \ by the plane Lv + m7/


Prove that
a parabola of latus rectum 2L.

19.
circles

A
.r

20.

whose

x=y

is

and the
moves so as to intersect the line z=0,
y2 + 2^ = J'^
y = 0, z'-\-x' = r'^. Prove that the equation to

line

= 0,

the locus

+ nz=p

{,^^yf{f^^{x-yf\ = r\x-y)\

is

Prove that

1-

^=

represents a pair of planes

y-z z-x x-y

line of intersection is equally inclined to the axes.

21. Find the surface generated by a straight line which revolves


about a given straight line at a constant distance from it and makes
a given angle with it.
22. Shew that x'+y"^ + z'^- 3xy - '3zx - 3yz = 1 represents a surface of
revolution about the line x=y=z, and find the equations to the
generating curve.

Lj, L^, Lg are three given straight lines and the directions of
Find the locus of the line joining the
at right angles.
feet of the perpendiculars from any point on L3 to Lj and Lg.
23.

Li

and L2 are

of diameters of the ellipse z = c,_x^-/a^+y^/P-=l are


the corresponding ends of the conjugates of parallel
diameters of the ellipse .r>2 + ^2/^2 = j z=-c. Find the equation to
the surface generated by the joining lines.
24.

The ends

joined to

BQ

are
and B are two points on a given plane and AP,
25.
Shew that for all
lines in given directions at right angles to AB.
is constant, and that all such
lines PQ, parallel to the plane,
lines lie on a conicoid.

two

AP BQ
:

26.

AC

The vertex

])ass

of a triangle

through given points

that the locus of

BC

is

ABC

lies

B and C

a conicoid.

on a given line AB and


on given planes shew

lie

EXAMPLES

cii. IV.]

79

I.

Prove that the equation to the two i)Ianes inclined at an angle

27.

to the .ry/-plane

28.

line

line y = 0, z cos fS = .v s'm


- iz.v tan (3 -=f tan^oc.

and containing the


(.' -

+//-')

tan'/i

moves so as

i'^

meet the

to

lines

cos

and B and pass throiigh the curve

a.

'-l

[3, is

in

isino.

= k^, .v = 0.

Prove that the locus


a curve of the third degree, two of whose
i/z

of the mid-point of AB is
asymptotes are parallel to the given lines.

29. Ciiven two non-intersecting lines whose directions are at I'ight


angles and wliose s.d. is AB, and a circle whose centre
is on AB
and plane parallel to the lines. Shew that the locus of a variable line
given
lines
and circle is a surface wliose sections
which intersects the
by planes parallel to the lines are ellipses whose centres lie on AB,
and that the section by the plane through C, another point of AB, is
are harmonic conjugates with respect to A and B.
a circle, if C,

If the

30.

axes are rectangular the locus of the centre of a circle of

radius a which always intersects them

is

-1/^-z^+yJa^- z^ -o:^ + zslcfi x^ 2/^ = 0^.

.V sjd^

line is drawn to meet ?/=.rtana., z = c;


31.
so that the length intercepted on it is constant.
tions may be written in the form

y=

-.rtana, z -c,

Shew

that

its efjua-

x ksin d cot CL _9/ - k cos ^tan a._z


kcosB
X-sin^
c'
'vhere k is a constant
.ocus of the line.
32.

which

Deduce the equation

and 6 a parameter.

to the

Find the equation to the surface generated by a straight line


parallel to the plane 2 =
and intersects the line .v=i/=z, and

is

the curve

.v

+ 2i/ = 4z,

x-+y'^ = a^.

Thi'ough a fixed line L, which lies in the .?v/-plane but does not
pass through the origin, is drawn a plane which intersects the planes
x=0 and j/ = in lines M and N respectively. Through and a fixed
point A, and through N and another fixed point B, planes are drawn.
33.

Find the locus of their

line of intersection.

34. The axes are rectangular and a point P moves on the fixed
plane xja + i/jhJrzIc^^. The yjlane through P perpendicular to OP
meets the axes in A, B, C. The planes through A, B, C paialiel to
YOZ, ZOX, XOY intersect in Q. Shew that the locus of Q is

X-

ax

z-

by

cz

AB and CD are
tludugh AB cuts CD in
35.

locus of
36.
,r

= 0,

given
P,

and

non-intersecting lines.
Any plane
PQ is normal to it at P. Find the

PQ.

Find the equation to a plane which touches each of the


.?/--!-

2'-^

= a2

planes are theie

?/

= 0,

s^-F.f-

= 6-

= 0,

.r--|-,v-

circles

= c^. How many

such

37. Find the locus of the position of the eye at which two given
non-intersecting lines appear to cut at right angles.

COOKDINATE GEOMETRY

so

[ch. iv.

38. Four given points of a variable line lie on the faces of a


Shew that any other point of the line describes
tiuadrilateral prism.
is parallel to the edges of the prism.

a line which

locus of the harmonic conjugates of P with respect to the


in which any secant through P cuts a pair of planes is
the ])olar of P with respect to the planes. Prove that the equation

The

39.

two points

to the polar of

(.rj,

^j, z{)

with respect to

t(,

= 0, v = 0, is + - =0, where

the result of substituting ^i, 2/ii h foi" ^; ^i ^ ^^ "> ^^^- Shew


i
also that the polars of P with respect to the pairs of planes that form
a trihedral angle cut those planes in three coplanar lines.
is

Any

40.

hedron

A A',

meets the faces BCD, CDA, DAB, ABC of a tetraProve that the mid-points of
in A', B', C, D'.

line

ABCD

BB',

CC, DD'

are coplanar.

41. If the axes are rectangular, and X, jx, v are the angles between
the lines of intersection of the planes a^r + 6^_y + c^s 0, r=\, 2, 3,

prove that

rt3,

_ (2a,2 1a^
~
.

42.

2a3^) -(1

63 j

C3

- co s^ A - cos'^x - cos^i/ +
sin X sin [x sin v

The equations x = Xz +

ij.,

i/

2 cos

A cos /x cos v)

= {X^-2Xix)z + [ji(X^- [i), where X

Find the locus of


are parameters, determine a system of lines.
those which intersect the 2-axis. Prove that two lines of the system
pass through any given point unless the given point lies on a certain
curve, when an infinite number of lines pass through it, and find the
equations to the curve.

and

jx

^56

CHAPTER

V,

THE SPHERE.
Equation to a sphere.

56.

the axes are rectangular

li'

the square of the distance between the points

P, (x^, y^, z^
and Q, (.'^2, y.,, z.^ is given by {x^-Xif + iy^-yif + iz.i-z^f,
and therefore the equation to tlie spliere whose centre is
P and whose radius is of length r, is

(x

Any

- x^f + (y - y,f + {z- z^f = r\

equation of the form


ax^ -\-(n/ + az"- +

2ux + 2ry + 2wz + r/ =

can be written

and therefore represents a sphere whose centre


(

and radius

,
)

a/

Ex. 1. Find the equation


and radius 5.
Ex.

2.

Find the

centime
.r'^

Ex.

3.

Shew
(.'

>/'

to the sphere

4.

and radius of

//-

centi'e is (2, -.3, 4)

spliere given

A n-i.

1 1,

by

(1

2,

.3),

5.

that the equation

Find the equation

7 {.'-

tlie

+ z" - 2.r + 4// - 6j =

- -^iX^' - ^^2) + 0/ - .yi)0/ - .V2)

(0,
.1 s.

whose

Am. j;"+f + z--4.>- + Cyi/-8z + 4 = 0.

represents the sphere on the join of

Ex.

is

"Ju^+v'^ + w' ad

0,

0),

+ z-)-\

(0,
5,?,'

1,

(^

(.<,, ;/,,

to the sphei'e

(-1,

-]),

- 25 y -

=--

0.

2,

- h )(-' - -j) =

z^), {x.,,

through
0),

(1,

>/.,,

z.>)

tlie
2,

as diameter.

points
;?)

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.

(a., 13,

- a'^)=z{a:^ + /8H y^ - -).

y{x^ +;/ + z""

A ns.
Ex.

and

Find the equation to the sphere which passes through the


y) and the circle z = 0, x'^ + if = ar.

5.

point

[CH.

Find the equations to the spheres through the


2x + ^ij + Az = b;
^;2+3/2 + 5- = 9,

6.

the origin,

(i)

A ns.

5 {.v^

(i)

the point

(ii)

circle

(1, 2, 3).

+f + z^)-l8x- 27y - 36^ =

3{.v^-+f + z^)-2x -3^- 4:Z- 22 = 0.

(ii)

Ex. 7. The plane ABC, whose equation is .v/a + i//b + zlc = l, meets
Find equations to determine the circumcircle of
the axes in A, B, C.
the triangle ABC, and obtain the coordinates of its centre.
Ans.

.v/a

+ i//b + z/c = l,

a(6-2 + c--)

x^ + i/^ + z"^

-ax~bi/-cz=0

+ a-^)
2(a-2 + 6-2 + c-2)'

2(a-2 + 6-^ + c-2)'

*Ex. 8. If the axes are oblique,


whose centre is (.v^, i/i, Zj), and radius

*Ex.

2{a--^

find the equation to the sphere


r.

2{.v - .ri)2+ 22(3/ -.Vi)(s - ^i) cos A =

Ans.

+ b-^l
+ b-'- + c--^y

c(a-^-

6(c-2

?-2.

Prove that the necessary and sufhcient conditions that

9.

the equation
a

j;2

+ %2 + c -2 ^ 2fi/z + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2 ux + 2 vy + 2wz-\-d = 0,

referred to oblique axes, should represent a sphere, are

^ = ^ =
-b-c--~
~~
cos A
cos u cos V
^^

Prove that the radius


a,

a cos

V,

acosju,,

a cos

V,

a,

57.

a cos
a cos

a cos A,

u,

Q,

1 /
is

V,

S\^

-^-

M'hen

/x,

A,

cos

a,

to

cos/x,

w,

and A;

1,

COSVj

I',

1,

cos A,

COSjU.

COS

A
1

Tangents and tangent planes. If p, (a-^, y^, z^ and


z.^ are points on the sphere x^ + y'^-\-z^ = a", then

(a,'2, i/o,

and therefore

- x.^{x^ + + (1/, - y.;){y, + ?/,) + {z, - z.^{z^ + ^2) = 0.


Now tlie direction-cosines of PQ are proportional to
Xy x^, y^ y^, ^x z.2\ and if M is the mid-point of PQ and
O is the origin, the direction-cosines of DM are proportional
Therefore PQ is at right angles
to
+ y^+yy, +
.x'.,)

(a^i

Xy^

x.^,

z-i

z,^.

THE RADICAL PLANE

^57,58]
to

Suppose

OM.

OM

tluit

meets

8:5

sphere in A and

tlie

tliat

PQ moves parallel to itself with its mid-point, M, on OA.


Then when M is at A, PQ is a tangent to the sphere at A,
and hence a tanoent at A is at right angles to OA, and the
locus of the tangents at A is the plane through A at right
angles to OA. This plane is the tangent plane at A. The
equation to the tangent plane at A, (a,

(3,

y), is

(.r-a)a+(^-/3)i8 + (0-y)y = O,
x(X

or
Ex.

+ y(3 + zy =

j3''

+ y- = a-.

Find the equation to the tangent plane at

1.

{n cos 6 sin
to the sphere x^

Ans.

(jJ'

^'cos

i/'^

a sin 6 sin

(f>,

a cos

cj>,

<^)

+ = n^.
z'^

Mn

sin (f}+i/ sin

f/i

+ ^ cos

(/>

Find the equation to the tangent plane at


sphere .v'^ + 7/^+z'^ + 2^ix + '2v^ + 2ivz+d=0.
Ex.

2.

xx

Ans.

+i/i/'

+ zz' + u(x +

.v')

(r', i/,

/) to

tlie

+ v(;!^+^') + t(;(z + z') + d=0.

Ex. 3. Find the condition that the plane lx + m}/ + nz=p should
touch the sphere x^ + i/^ + z- + 2ux + 2vi/ + 2wz + d = 0.

A ns.

{ul

+ vm^-wn+pf = (P + m^ + n^) (u"^ +

v'^

+ \o^ - d).

Ex. 4. Find the equations to the spheres which .pass through the
nrcle .^2+^2+2:2=5^ x + 2y + 'Az = 2, and touch the plane 4?;+ 3y= 15.
A ns.

,r2

+y2 + j2 -j- 2.v + 4^ + 62 - 1 1 = 0,


+ bf + 5^2 _ 4.^; - 8 y - 1 2z - 1 .3 = 0.

5x-2

Ex.

at

5.

Pl'ove that the tangent planes to the spheres

+ 2ux+2vy \-2icz-\-d = 0,

x"^

+y'^ -\- z"^

,r2

+y2 + ^2 + 2?j.r + 2v^y 4- 2W]Z + f/j =

any common point are at right angles


2uU]^

*58.

if

+ 2vv^-ir2ivw^=d+d^.

Radical plane of two spheres.


// cmy secant
O meets a given spliere in P and Q,

through a given "point

OP OQ
.

is

constant.

The equations

to the line through O, (a, B, y),

direction-cosines are

I,

m,

n, are

X-CL^ y-fi ^Z-y


m
n
I

whose

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

84

The point on
coordinates

whose distance from O is r, has


lies on the sphere

this line,

a.-i-lr,

[ch. v.

^ + mr, y + nr, and

F(xyz) = a(x^ + if + s^) + 9 ux + 2vy + 2ivz + d =

,..+r(/* +

if

|+|) + F(rx,/?,y) =

This equation gives the lengths of

OP OQ

OP and OQ, and hence

given by F(a, ^, y)/a, which


secants throng] O.
is

0.

is

the same for

all

The measure

Definition.

OP OQ

of

the power of

is

with respect to the sphere.


If

Si

= x^ + 2/- + s' + 2u^x + 2v^y + 2iv^z + d^ = 0,

S^

= x^ + 2/H ^- + Sugo; + 2v^/ + 2w.,s + d^^ =

are the equations to

two

spheres, the locus of points

powers with respect to the spheres are equal

whose

the plane

is

given by
S^

= S.,

or 2(u-^ -u^)x

This plane
It

+ 2(v^ -Vz)y + ^^^i - w.^^ + d^- 4 = 0.

called the radical plane of the

is

evidently at right angles to

is

two

spheres.

line joining

the

radical planes of three spheres taken two by

tivo

the

centres.
Tlie

'pass

through one

line.

(The equations to the

line are 51

= 80 = 83.)

The radical planes of four splieres taken two hy


pass through one point.
(The point is given by 81 = 8.2 = 83 = 84.)
equations

Tlie

2/2

(Take the

to

any two

02 4. 2 A^a;

spheres can he

+ d = 0,

x^

?/2

The equation

a;

tlie

form

+ + 2\x + cZ = 0.
z^

line joining the centres

radical plane as

put in

tu'o

as

a;-axis

and the

= 0.)

x^-\-y'^

+ z^-\-2\x + d^0,

where X is a paratwo of which

meter, represents a system of spheres any

have the same radical plane.


coaxal.

The spheres are

said to be

EXAMPLES

58]

85

II.

Prove that the uieiubers of tlie coaxal system intersect one


Ex.
another, touch one another, or do not intersect one another, according
1.

as

d=

0.

Ex. 2. 81iw tliat the centres of the two spliures of the system
which have zero-iadiiis are at the points ( y,Ul, 0, 0). (These are the
limiting-points of the s3'steni.)

Ex.
and

Shew

3.

that the equation

.v-

7/'

+ z- +

2iJ.//

+ 2vz-d=0,

whore

a system of spheres passing through


the Umiting points of the system x^ + i/" + z^ + 2\x + d=0, and cutting
every number of that system at right angles.

[J.

Ex.

V are parameters, represents

The

4.

locus of points

whose powers with respect to two

given spheres are in a constant ratio


two given spheres.

Ex.

is

a sphere coaxal with the

Shew

5.

great circles

all

that the spheres which cut two given spheres along


pass through two fixed points.

* Examples II.

sphere of constant radius r passes through the origin, O, and


1.
Prove that the locus of the
cuts the axes (rectangular) in A, B, C.
foot of the perpendicular from O to the plane ABC is given by
(,,;2

+^2 + 22)2(.,;-2 +_^-2 + ^-2) ^ 4,.2.

a variable point on a given line and A, B, C are its


Shew that the sphere OABC passes through
projections on the axes.
fixed
circle.
a
2.

3.

is

plane passes through a fixed point {, h, c) and cuts the axes


Shew that the locus of the centre of the sphere OABC is

in A, B, C.

the three diagonals of an octahedron mteisect at right


angles, the feet of the perpendiculars from the point of intersection
If , .
f,
to the faces of the octahedron lie on a spheie.
6, /?
y
are the measures of the segments of the diagonals, the centie (^, )/, {)
of the sphere is given by
4.

If

2^
-i

+ a.-i

2r/

6-1

+ ^-1

2t
c-i

+ y-i

(aoL)-i

+ (6/:J)-i + (t7)->'

Prove that the points


the diagonals being taken as coordinate axes.
where the perpendiculars meet the opposite faces also lie on the sphere.
5. Prove that the locus of the centies of spheres which pass
through a given point and touch a given plane is a conicoid.

6. Find the locus of the centres of spheres that pass through a


given point and intercept a fixed length on a given straight line.
7. Find the locus of the centres of spheres of constant radius
which pass through a given point and touch a given line.

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

86

[ch. v.

8. Prove tbat the centres of spheres which touch the lines y = mx,
sc; y WW, 3= c, lie upon the conicoid 7Ha;^ + c0(l + i^) = O.
9. If the opposite edges of a tetrahedron are at right angles the
centre of gravity is the mid-point of the line joining the point of
concurrence of the perpendiculars and the centre of the circumscribing
sphere.

10. If the opposite edges of a tetrahedron are at right angles the


mid-points of the edges and the feet of the perpendiculars lie upon
a sphei-e whose centre is the centre of gravity of the tetrahedron.
11. The sum of the squares of the intercepts made by a given
sphere on any three mutually perpendicular lines through a fixed
point is constant.
12. With any point P of a given plane as centre a sphei'e is
described whose radius is equal to the tangent from P to a given
Pi'ove that all such spheres pass through two fixed points.
sphere.

13.

k = [x = v = 7rj3, the plane and

If

surface given

by

yz + zx -j- .?_?/ -I- a^ 0,

X + + z = 0,
?/

intersect in a circle of radius a.


14.

If r is the radius of the circle


.^.2^^2^22-j-2Mj;-f-2i;i/-h2<';2-f-(i?^0,

lx-^my-\-nz = %

prove that
{i-^

-h

d) {V- -f Hi2 + ,^2) = {jnw

- nvf -f {mi - Iwf -f {Iv - muf.

15. Prove that the equations to the spheres that pass through the
points (4, 1, 0), (2,-3, 4), (1, 0, 0), and touch the plane 2.r-f 2^-5 = 11,
are
s2-6.r-f2y- 45-1- 5 = 0,

r2+.y2 +
1 6.;2

+ mf + 16^2 - 102.r + 50y - 49^ -h 86 = 0.

a sphere, which lies


16. Prove that the equation to
OXYZ and touches the coordinate planes, is of the form

in the octant

^2+y2 + 22_2X(.r-H^ + 2) + 2A2 = 0.

two spheres can be drawn through a given


positions of
point to touch the coordinate planes, and find for what
(ii) coincident.
real
(i)
the point the spheres are
in general

Prove that

17.

constant

is
(

a point on

= .). On AB

parallel to

OZ.

Prove

OX

OAB

OY

is
so that the angle
on
as diameter a circle is described whose plane is
varies the circle generates the cone
that as

and

AB

2.r//-s2sin 2a. =0.


18.

POP'

is

a variable diameter of the ellipse ^=0,

x-la'^+y^/h" = l,
as diameter.

and a circle is described in the plane PP'ZZ' on PP'


Prove that as PP' varies, the circle generates the surface
(,,;2

^ yj + ^2) (,^,2/2 + _y2//,2) ^

.,.2

_y2_

EXAMPLES

v.]

cii.

19. Prove that the equation


tetrahedron wliose sides are

f+f=o,

be

gr+y^ + z^

x y

a^ + ^a +

c''^

circuniscrilMiig

the

^+U^=i,
b
c

variable phine is parallel to the given plane .rla+ylb+zjc = 0,


lies on the
meets the axes in A, B, C. Prove that the circle

20.

and

the spliere

U^=o,
a b

^+^=0,
c

ja

to

87

II.

ABC

21. Find the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which passes
through the origin O and meets the axes in A, B, C, so that the
volume of the tetrahedron OABC is constant.
22. A sphere of constant radius k passes through the origin and
meets the axes in A, B, C. Prove that the centroid of the triangle
ABC lies on the sphere Q{x''+y^ + z-) = Ak'K
23. The tangents drawn from a point P to a sphere are all equal to
the distance of P from a fixed tangent plane to the sphere. Prove
that the locus of P is a paraboloid of revolution.

Prove that the

24.

circles

+ >/ + 2- - + 3y + 43-5 = 0,
;f2+y- + i''^-3.r- 4^ + 52 -6 = 0,

x"

2,;

He on the same sphere, and find


25.

its

Find the conditions that the

should

lie

+1=

equation.
circles

^^+y^ + ^ + 2w.r + 2yy + 2w2 + c?=0,


x^ -if.y'i j^ z^ -\-2u'x+'2,v'y +

5 // + Gi

x-\-2y-lz =

'2,w'z-{-

d'

=0,

lx-\-my-\-nz=p
I'x

+ m'y-^-n'z^}/

on the same sphere.

OC

are mutually perpendicular lines through the


26. OA, OB,
origin, and their direction-cosines are ^,, m^, ,
l.^-, ni.,, n.^
^3, );;, n-^.
= (^
= h,
If
]irove that the equation to the spliere
c,
;

OA
OABC
.1'-

OB

OC =

is

+y- + 2- - X {idi + bl.^ + f^j) - y {am^ + bm^ + cwij) - i ( Hj + bn.^ + cn-^ = 0.

CHAPTER VI
THE CONE.

A cone is a surface generated


59. Equation to a cone.
by a straight line which passes through a fixed point and
If the given point O, say, be
intersects a given curve.
chosen as origin, the equation to the cone is homogeneous.
For if P, {x', y', z') is any point on the cone, x', y', z satisfy

And since any point on OP is on the


and has coordinates Qzx ky', kz'\ the equation is also
satisfied by hx, ky', kz' for all values of k, and therefore
must be homogeneous.
the

equation.

cone,

If x/l

Cor.

= y/in = z/n

a generator of the cone re-

is

presented by the homogeneous equation f(x, y, z) = 0, then


= 0. Conversely, if the direction-ratios of a
f{l, m, 71)

which always passes through a fixed point


homogeneous equation, the line is a generator of
a cone whose vertex is at the point.
straight line

satisfy a

Ex.

The

1.

line

generator of the cone

Ex.

xjl^ylm^zln, where
'ix^-\-iy'^-bz'^

'2l'-

+ Zm'^-bn^ = 0^

is

= 0.

Lines drawn through the point (a., /i, y) whose directiongenerate the cone
al'^ + bm'^ + cn^ =

2.

ratios satisfy

Ex.
vertex

3.
is

Shew that the equation to the right circular cone whose


O, axis OZ, and semi-vertical angle rx., is .*- + ?/- = ,:- tan-oc.

Ex. 4. Tlie general equation to the cone of the second degree


which passes through the axes is f>/z+ffz.>; + h.n/ = 0.

The general equation


a.v^

and

this

1, 0,

0;

is

0, 1,

to the cone of the second degree

+ hf + cz^

to be Satisfied

0;

0, 0, 1.

-1-

2/;i/2

by the

is

+ Igzx + ^lixji = 0,

direction-ratios of the axes,

i.e.

by

EQUATION TO A CONE

59]

89

cone of the second degree can be found to pass through


Ex. 5.
any five concurrent lines.

Ex. 6. A cone of the second degree can be found to pass through


any two sets of rectangular axes through the same origin.
Take one set as coordinate axes, and let the direction-cosines of the
others be ly, wij, n^
l.,, m.^, n^
l^, m-^, n^.
The equation to a cone
containing the coordinate axes isfyz+yzx + hxy^O. If this cone also
contains the first two axes of the second set,
;

+ f/n./o + hl^m., = 0.

fm.^n^

Therefore, since m-^n^

+ vi.^n.j.-\-m^n^=Q,

etc.,

fm^n.^ +gn-jl^ + hl^m^ =


so that the cone contains the

remaining

axis.

Ex. 7. The equation to the cone whose vertex is the origin


and which passes through the curve of intersection of the plane
lx + m// + nz = p and the sui-faee ax'' + bf/" + cz'^l is
ax^ +

bf + ez^=={

^-''

'''''^

+ "' y.

Find the equations to the cones with vertex at the origin


Ex. 8.
which pass through the curves given by
(i)
(i i)

(iii)

Alls,

(i)

(ii)
(iii)

x^+y^+z^ + 2ax + b = 0,
ax'^

h-ip'

= 22,

lx+mi/ + nz=p

Ix + my +

x-la-+f/b' + z'^/c- =

1,

nz=p

x^!r^ + >fi(^

= ii.

{x-+y^+z'^)p- + -2<ipx{lx + mi/ + nz) + b{lx + mij-\-nzf=0

+ by-)p = 2z{lx + my + nz)


42%r2/a^ +yVb-' + z'h-) = (.r^/oc^ +y'l(^'f.

{iuf^

xia+ylb + ZjC=l meets tlie coordinate axes in


Prove that the equation to the cone generated by lines
drawn from O to meet the circle ABC is
Ex.

9.

Tlie plane

A, B, C.

-(^:)--(;>")-:'(^^)Ex. 10. Find the equation to the cone who.se vertex is the origin
and base the circle, x=n, _?/- + .;- = ?/', and shew that the section of the
cone by a plane parallel to the plane XOY is a hyperbola.
Ans. a^(y^-hz^) = b'.i-^.

Ex.
origin

11.

Shew

that the equation to the cone whose vertex

and base the curve

= i;

f(x,

y) =

is/("

]=().

is

the

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

90
60.

We

Angle between

find

it

lines in

which a plane cuts a

convenient to introduce

notation, to whicli

we

[CH. VI.

liere

the

cone.

following

shall adhere throughout the book.

D=

C(j[uafcioii

hiu'

AND PLANE

LINES OF SECTION OF CONE

G0]

Therefore

(8).

+ cv" 2fv'W

cu'^

if

they are

ly,

m^, n^;

I.;,,

91
in.^, );,;

+ aw^ 2gwu

/i^n2 +h''^h

~ 2 {hw- + CUV fmu <jvw)

h'^h-k'^i

^
2{{h'ufi

^^

(4^

+ cuv...f-{hw\..){enr...))^-

_ ljm.2 l^n^i
~ 2wP
From

the symmetry, eacli of the expressions in (4)

is

seen to be equal to

av^

But

if

2uP

+ bu^-2huv~

+2'yP

the angle between the lines,

is

cos
l-J^^

sin

+ m^m.^ +

ii^n^

(}

I^iriiyn.^ iu.^n-J^}-

cos 6

"

(a + b + o){u' +
Ex.

2x-

sin 6

+ w^) -f{^i, V, lu) 2 (u- + v^ + iv'-f P

Find

1.

the e<]uati()ns to the lines


cuts the cone Ax'-if + Zz'' = 0.

+ ?/-2 =

Ans.

V-

-^=1 = '-;
-1

2'

which the

in

phme

-l^JL^l.
-2
1

Ex. 2. Find the angles between the lines of section of the following planes and cones
:

6.f

(i)

(ii)
(iii)

A)is.

Ex.
i/z

(i)

3.

10//

3.i-+.?/

v-

Iz

% +z =

cos"'

= 0,

+ 5s=0,

-,

(ii)

0,

108./. ^

- 2Qif -

3j?2

C0S-1-,

- 5^/2 - Iz^ + 36^s - iOzx - 2xf/ = 0,


(iii)

Prove

+ zx + x// =

72-

Qyz-2zx-{-bxi/ = 0;

that the ]jlanc


in 2)erpendiiMilar lines

cos~'

'

ax + hi/ + ci =
if

cuts

the

cone

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

92
61.

Condition of tangency of plane and cone.

or

Aii;-

then sin

+ Bv--{-Civ^+2Fuiv +

= 0, and

-=-=

2GiVii

Equation

the normal through

i.e.

If

+ 2HiLV = 0,

p = 0,
.(1)

therefore the lines of section coincide, or

the plane touches the cone.


line

[ch. vi.

(1)

shews that the

to the plane, is a

generator of the cone


Ax^-]-By'

Similarly, since

+ Cz'' + 2Fijz + 2Gzx + 2Hxy = 0.


we have BC F2 = aD, and

.........(2)

the corre-

sponding equations at the head of paragraph 60, it follows


that a normal through the origin to a tangent plane to the
cone (2) is a generator of the cone
ax^

+ hif + cz^ + 2fyz + -Igzx + 2hxy = 0,

The two cones are therefore such


i.e, of the given cone.
that each is the locus of the normals drawn through the
orio-in to the tangent planes to the other, and they are on
that account said to be reciprocal.
Ex.

1.

Prove that the cones ax^ + hy'^->rCZ- = Q) and ~+""^

+ 7=^

are reciprocal.

Ex. 2. Prove that tangent planes to the cone h/z + mz.v+n.v?/ =


are at right angles to generators of the cone
P.v"

Ex.

3.

+ my + nh^ - 2??i?y/2 - 2?.- r - 2lm.ri/ = 0.

Prove that perpendiculars drawn from the origin to tangent

planes to the cone

lie

on the cone

19,''

.3.r- + 4/ + 5^2 + 2^2 + 4,nr + e.r// =


+ 11//- + 3z^ + 6i/z - lOzx - 26.v/ = 0.

Ex. 4. Shew that the general equation to a cone which touches


+ ch^-2bci/z-2caz.v-2abx?/ = 0.
the coordinate planes is ah;'^ +

bY

62. Condition that the cone has three mutually perpendicular generators. The condition that the plane should
cut the cone in perpendicular generators is

{a
If also the

+ h + c)(u^- + V" + tu-)=f(u,

normal to the plane


/(u,

and therefore

V,

a-{-h

lies

w) = 0,
+ = 0.
<;

V,

w)

(1)

on the cone, we have

TANGENCY OF PLANK

!561-G3J

In this case the cone


generators,

viz.,

ANJ) (X)NK

93

three mutually perpendicular

lias

the normal to the plane and the two per-

pendicular lines in which the plane cuts the cone.

= 0,

If (i-j-b-\-c

the cone has an infinite

nnitnally perpendicular generators.

any plane whose normal

be

and therefore

(1),

number of sets of
ux + vy + wz =

if

on the cone, then

w) = 0,

+ c)(ii' + v- iv^) =f(u,


a+h + c = 0.

(a-\-h

-\-

since

Hence, by

lies

V,

f{u,

For

w),

v,

the plane cuts the cone in perpendicular

Thus any plane through the origin which

generators.

is

normal to a generator of the cone cuts the cone in perpen-

two generators

dicular lines, or there are

of the cone at

right angles to one another, and at right angles to

any

given generator.
Ex.

If a right circular cone has three

1.

generator.^, the senii-veitical angle is

Ex.
which
x;'^

i/-

tan~V2.

mutually perpendicular
(Cf. Ex. 3, 59.)

Shew

2.

passes

+ z- = 3(i',

that the cone whose vertex is at the origin and


through the curve of intersection of the sphere
and any plane at a distance a from the origin, has

three mutually perpendicular generators.

Ex. 3. Prove that the cone a.v^ + bi/^+.cz' + 2fi/z + 2gz.r+2/Lrt/ =


has three mutually perpendicular tangent planes if
.

be

Ex.

If

4.

"^=1=1

+ ca + a6 =/2 + 5^H A".

represent one of a set of three mutually per-

pendicular generators of the cone 5?/^-8i.r-3.ry = 0, find the equations


to the other two.

A ns. X =y= z.
Ex.

(6
in

Ax =

= 2O2.

(6

/.r

- c)x- + ic- a)f + {a -

perpendicular lines

63.

5 ?/

Prove that the plane

5.

c) l-

/5,

-I-

if

+ {c- (t)m- + (a - h))f- + ^fmn + 2rinl + 2hhn = 0.

Equation to cone with given conic for base.

find the equdtkni to the cove


(a,

2 = cuts the cone


+ ^fiiz 4- 'liizx + ^lixy =

+ w?/

h) z^

y)

and

J{x, y)

'icitose

vertex

Is

the

base the eovic

= ax' + 2hxy + hy'' + 2f/x -f 2/// + c = 0,

To

_^)o?7?/

= 0.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

94

The equations

to

any

through

line

x a.

t/

-ir=m
and the hne meets the plane
{Ui

This point

is

/3

vl

^, y) are

='->'

= in
my,

on the given conic

the point
0).

if

Zy, ^ my) = 0,

/(rx

/3)-y(^^+^^^)+yV(^>

/(a,

i.e. if

ly,

(rx,

[cii.

^>0-o,

(1)

where (p{x; y) = ax^ + 2hxy + by^. If we eliminate I and on


between the equations to the line and (1), we obtain the
equation to the locus of lines which pass through (a, ^, y)
and

intersect the conic,

i.e.

the equation to the cone.

The

result is

i.e.

{z-yfM> ^)-y(^-y){^^^^^+r^%)

+ y'^<p{x-cx,y-8) = 0.
This equation

The

may

be transformed as follows

coefficient of y^ is

/(rx, /3)

+ Or-a)^+(2/-^j^ + </>(a3-a, y-^)


=f(cx.+^^^^,

and the

coefficient of

5;y

B+y^)=f(x,y);
is

(^-^x)g+(2/-/3)|^+2/(a,/3).

made homogeneous by means


which is equated to unity after
have, by Euler's theorem,

If f{x, y) be

variable
Wft

Therefore the coefficient of

sy

becomes

of

an auxiliary

ditlerentiation,

CONE WITH GIVEN BASE

G3|

Hence the equation

It is to

we

of zy,

be noted

to the cone

is

by equating

tliat

95

to zero the coefficient

obtain the equation to the polar of (a,

/3,

0) with

respect to the given conic.

(The above method is given by de Longclianq^s,


Problemes de Geometrie Analytique, vol. iii.)
Ex.

Find the equation

1.

and base

Am.

(i)

(i)

(ii)

whose vortex

to the cone

is (fx,

/i,

= ^ax^ 2 = 0.
+ 6/3-- 1) - 2iy(aou; + 6/:??/ - 1) + 7- (.;- + ?>/-- 1) =
^2(/i2 - 4a.) - 2iy /iy - 2c< (.^ + (x) + y-'O/- - \ax) = 0.
ax' + by'^==l,

= 0;

y)

(ii) y'-

,-:''(aM.-

Ex. 2. Find the hieus of points from which three mutually perpendicular lines can be drawn to intersect the conic s = 0, axP'-\-h}i- = \.
(If (a., /3, y)is on the locus, the cone, Ex.
perpendicular generators.)xhxs.

.r2

1 (i),

has three mutually

+ %- + o-(a + i) = l.

Shew that the locus of points from which three mutually


perpendicular lines can be drawn to intersect a given circle is a
Ex.

3.

surface of revolution.

Ex.

4.

c(me has as base the ciixle

and passes through the fixed point (0,


section of the cone by the plane ZOX
prove that the vertex

lies

on a fixed

0,
is

= 0,

,7;-+y-

+ 2a.'r+2% = 0,

on the

If the
s-axis.
a rectangular hyperbola,-

c)

circle.

Prove that the locus of points from which three mutually


perpendicular planes can be drawn to touch the ellipse x''la^-\-i/'llfi=\.,

Ex,

= 0,

5.

is

the sphere x^

\- f/"^

+ z^ = a^ + U^.
*Examples

III.

Shew that

the bisectors of the angles between the lines in which


the plane iix-\-v)i + %oz = cuts the cone ax'^ + hy'^-\-cz'^ = lie on the cone
1.

w{a-h)

v{c-a)

%t{h-c)
^

^^^

If

[Five concurrent lines are necessary to determine a cone of the second


degree, and the form of the given result shews that the I'equired cone
is to pass through the coordinate axes and the two bisectors.
Assume,
tlierefore, that tlie reriuired equation is

fyz+gzx + hxi/=^0

The given cone

is

The necessary and


contain

the bisectors

.r2 4- 6?/

+ cs^ =

sufficient conditions

may be

stated,

(i)

(1)

(2)

that the coiio (1) slmuld


the ])Iane vx+v^-^vz = ()

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

96

[ch. vi.

must cut the cone (1) in perpendicular lines (ii) the lines of section
of the plane and the cones (1) and (2) must be harmonically conjugate.
;

''^''^

W'

fino+gvm + huv = Q)

(3)

Again, four lines are harmonically conjugate if their projections on


any plane are harmonically conjugate, and the equations to the proare obtained by eliminating z between the equations
jections on z =
to the plane and cones, and hence they are
x\aiiP'

+ CM^) + 2cuvxy +y\bw'^ + cv^) = 0,

gu3? + xy {fn +gv- wh) Vfvy'^ = 0,


Therefore the condition

(ii)

/:

(cf.

and

(4),

we

./-

2,^2

,;2

p. 55.)

(4)

/^ 1

ff

w{a-b)J

v{c-a)

that the bisectors in Ex. 1 also

Shew

obtain

u{b-c)
2.

toh)

Smith, Conic Sections,

afvw + hgivu + chuv =

i.e.

(3)

gives

fv{aw- + cu'^)+gu{biv- + cv^) = cuv{fu +gv -

From

=
= 0.

lie

on the cone

_ (6 - c) m2 + (c - a) y2 + (a - 6) w2 J = 0.

cones pass through the curves ?/ = 0, s- = 4,r; .r = 0,


they have a common vertex the plane 2 = meets them
Shew tliat the
in two conies that intersect in four concyclic points.
vertex lies on the surface z\xla+y/b) = A{x-+y'^).

z^

3. Two
= 4:bi/, and

4.

Planes through

OX

and

OY

5.

Any

plane whose normal

lies

Shew that
a..
+ z'')=.rh/''t?in'^a..

include an angle

their line of intersection lies on the cone z^(x^+y'^

on the cone

+ c).r2 + (r + a)f + (a + b)z'' =


= l in a rectangular
ax^ + by'^ +
(b

cuts the surface


6.

ez'^

Find the angle between the

x + y + z^O,
7.

b-c

is -n-/2 if

a + 6 + c = 0, but

Shew

two

ca

lines given

by

ayz + bzx + cxy =

7r/3 if l/rt

+ l/?) + l/c = 0.

that the plane ax + by-{-cz = Q cuts the cone


jiz

in

hyperbola

by

+ -^ + ab = 0.

Shew that the angle between the


X +y + z = 0,

8.

lines given

+ z.v+xy =

lines inclined at an angle

r {(ff2 + ?)2^p2)(a2 + fc2^c2_25^_2m-2ff6)}n


J'
bc + ca + ab
L
and by considering the value of this expression when a + b + c = 0,
shew that the cone is of revolution, and that its axis is . = ?/ = and
^^j^_l

,-

vertical angle tan~^2\/2.

EXAMPLES

CH. VI.]

The axes being

9.

ITI.

97

rectangular, prove that the cone

contains an infinite number of sets of three generators mutually


inclined at an angle 7r/3.

a line is drawn to meet three fixed


10. Through a fixed point
If PQ PR is constant, ))rove that the
intersecting planes in P, Q, R.
locus of the line is a cone whose vertex is O.
:

The vertex

11.

curve

F{i/, z)

w = 0, F

b, e) and the ?/5-plane cuts it in the


that the >v-plane cuts it in the curve

of a cone is (a,

= 0, x = 0.
5

Shew
=0-

12. OP and OQ are two straight lines that remain at right angles
and move so that the plane OPQ always passes through the s-axis.
If OP describes the cone F(v//a', zIx)=0, prove that OQ describes the

cone

Prove that

13.

cone
14.

if

a.r2

9\

'%

-^

(-!-)}=

+ 6y- + ce- + 2?.r + 2i'y + 2iys + r?=0

represents a

u-la-\-v^lb+w^lG = d.

Prove that

if

F {xi/z) = ax- + hif + cz^ + ifyz + 2gzx + 2hxi/ + 2ux+ 2 yy + 2 wz + o? =


represents a cone, the coordinates of the vertex satisfy the equations
Fa;=0, F^ = 0, Fj=0, F( = 0, where t is used to make F(x, t/, z) homogeneous and is equated to unity after diflerentiation.
15.

Prove that the equations

2/ - %yz - Azx - Sxij + 6,r - 4// - ^z + 5=0,


2,i'

+ 2y + 2Gj - 1 7 = 0,

represent cones %hose vertices are (-7/6,

1/3, 5/6), (2, 2, 1).

2,*,-2

+ 2 y 2 + 7^2 _ 1 0//,s - 1 Ozx +

Find the conditions that the lines of section of the plane


and the cones fyz+gzx + Ax//=^0, o.r- + %- + 0*^ = 0,
lv-\-mji + nz =
16.

should be coincident.
(hfi + c-ni^
\

fmn

+ an" am^ + hl-

cl-

gnl

him

\
'

17. Find the equations to the planes through the 2-axis and the
z) = 'd, and
lines of section of the plane %x^v]i-{-wz = ^ and cone/(.r,
(The axes may be
prove that the plane touches the cone if P = 0.
_?/,

oblique.)
18. Prove that the equation to the cone through the coordinate
and the
axes and the lines of section of the cone ll.v--5y- + s- =
14?/2-30z.r+3.r?/ = 0,
and that the other
is
plane 7.r-5_y + s =
common generators of the two cones lie in the plane H.)' + 7// + 7i= 0,
B.G.

CJ

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

98

Prove that the common generators of the cones

19.

(62c2

- a*) :p2 + (c-2a2 _ li)y2 + (2ft2 _ ^4) ^2 = 0,


ax

lie in

[en. vi,

by

cz

'

the planes
{he

a^)x + (m h''-)y + {ah c^)z^ 0.

Prove that the equation to the cone through the coordinate


axes and the lines in which the plane lx+my-\-nz=0 cuts the cone
is
cuv^ + 63/2 + C22 + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy =
20.

+ cm? - ifmn)yz + i(c^2 + ^,^2 _ 2(ji?) 3.^ + n {am^ + i^^ - ^hlm)xy = 0.


21. Prove that the equation s/fx+s/gy + 'Jhz^O i^epresents a cone

l{hn^

that touches the coordinate planes, and that the equation to the
reciprocal cone is fyz+gzx + hxy = 0.
22. Prove that the equation to the planes through the origin
perpendicular to the lines of section of the plane lx+my + nz = and
the cone ax'^ + hy"^ + 0*2 = is
sfi{hi^

+ cm"^) +^2 (0^2 + an^^ + z^ {am- + bP) - 2amnyz - 2bnlzx - 2clmxy = 0.

64)

CHAPTER

VII.

THE CENTRAL CONICOIDS.


64.

We

The

iocus of the equation

have shewn in 9 that the equation

the surface generated by the variable elhpse

(1) represents

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

100

[en. VII.

along Z'OZ and passes in turn through

whose centre moves


every point between (0, 0, c) and (0, 0, -\-c). The surface
The section,
is the ellipsoid, and is represented in lig., 29.
by any plane parallel to a coordinate plane is an ellipse.
Similarly, we might shew that the surface represented
by equation (2) is generated by a variable ellipse
,

a"

whose centre moves on Z'OZ, passing


every point on
sheet,

and

is

it.

The surface

is

represented in hg. 30.

in

Tlie section

plane parallel to one of the coordinate planes


is

by any

YOZ or ZOX,

a hyperbola.

The surface given by e(|uation (3) is also generated by a


whose centre moves on Z'OZ. The ellipse
given by

variable ellipse
is

turn tlirough

the hyperboloid of one

a-

Ir

c^

DIAMETERS AND DIAMETRAL PLANES

64,65]

lOl

imaginary if c</.;<c; hence no part of tlio


between the planes z=+c.
The surface is the hyperboloid of two sheets, and is

and

is

surface

lies

by any plane parallel


YOZ, ZOX is a hyperbola.
If (x, y', z) is any point on one of these surfaces,
{ X, y', z) is also on it; hence the origin bisects all
chords of the surface which pass through it. The origin is
the only point which possesses this property, and is called
represented in

iig.

The

31.

section

to one of the coordinate planes

'

The

the centre.
65.

surfaces are called the central conicoids.

Diametral planes and conjugate diameters.

An

equation of the form


ax'-\-hy''--\-cz^

represents a central conicoid.


parallel to

the points

OX

are y =

\z =

ix,

The equations
and

it

+ ^^d-t^, .

to

any

line

meets the surface in

.),

and hence the plane YOZ

bisects all chords parallel to OX.


chord of the conicoid which passes through the centre
is a diameter, and the plane wdiich bisects a system of
Thus YOZ is the
parallel chords is a diametral plane.
diametral plane which bisects chords parallel to OX, or

Any

shortly,

is

the diametral plane

diametral planes ZOX,

XOY

of

OX.

Similarly,

bisect chords parallel to

the

OY

and OZ respectively. The three diametral planes YOZ,


ZOX, XOY are such that each bisects chords parallel to the

They are called


The diameters X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ
are such that the plane through any two bisects chords
They are called conjugate diameters.
parallel to the third.
line

of intersection of

the other two.

conjugate diametral planes.

If the

ZOX,

axes are rectangular, the diametral planes YOZ,


are at right angles to the chords which they

XOY

Diametral planes which are at right angles to the


bisect.
chords which they bisect are principal planes. The lines of
intersection of principal planes are principal axes.
if

Hence

the axes are rectangulai- the e(iuation (ix'-\-hy"-^cz' =

'\.

COORDINATE GEOMETER

lOiJ

represents a central conicoid referred to

[ch.

its

vu

principal axes

as coordinate axes.

66.

a given

line through

central conicoid axr-\-hy'^-\-cz^


lengths of
If

I,

'point A, (a,

y) meets

|8,

in P and Q;

to

AP and AQ.

m, n are the

direction-ratios of a line through A, the

coordinates of the point on

it

whose distance from A

+ lr, ^+mr, y + Tir. If this point is on the


r\aP + hm- + cn^) + 2r(aoLl + b/Sm + cyn)
+ a2 + 6^2 + cy2-l =
are

find the

is

conicoid,

OL

(1)

equation gives two values of r which are the

This

measures of AP and AQ.


Ex.

1.

If

OD

If

DOD'

the diameter parallel to

is

APQ, AP.AQ OD^


:

is

constant.

Ex.

2.

any diameter

is

are the diameters parallel to

Ex.
is

If

3.

AD

of the conicoid

and AD',

-^+
OR"

AD, AD' meet the conicoid again

OR

in

and
,

is

OR

"

E and

E',

constant.

Tangents and tangent planes.

67.

If

aa^

and OR'

constant.

b(3''

-r-^+xp?
^^

+ cy^ = 1

the point A, (a, 3, y) is on the conicoid one of the values


of r given by the equation (1) of 66 is zero, and A coincides with one of the points P or Q, say P.
;

the two values


and Q coincide
the line

APQ

A, (a,

y)

j8,

+ b/Sm + cyn = 0,

aoil

If, also,

is

by the equation are

of r given

should be a tangent at

we

eliminate

I,

m,

all

(2)

(3)

and

(3),

we

obtain

the tangent lines through

y), viz.,
(.K

or

'V-;

+ cyn =

between

the eijuation to the locus of


ft,

A, is

aa.l-{-bl3m
If

i.e.

/3,

,^_a._y-^_z^-y
~ m ~ n "'
I

line

((/.,

zero,

y) on the surface, and


Hence, if
is a tangent to the conicoid at A.
a point on the surface, the condition that Llie
at the point (a,

- a)aoc + {!/-fi)b(3 + {:- y)cy = 0,


aoLX + bfty + eyz = 1

THE TANGENT PLANE

65-68]

Hence the tangent

line.s

acjLX

which
68.

at (a,

/3,

lie

y)

103

in the

phme

+ h^ij + cyz = 1

the tangent plane at (a, ^, y).

is

To find

the condition that the

plane Ix + my + nz = p

should touch the conicoid ax^ + hy'^ + cz^ =


If the point of contact is (a,

(3,

l.

the given plane

y),

is

by the two equations

represented

aoLX-hh0y + cyz=l,
lx

a= a^)

Therefore

and, since (a, 0, y)

+ my + nz=p.
p = -r-y

0})

on the

is

I-

y = cp

conicoid,

VI'

n^

+ =P'
-+-r
^
c
a
Cor.
Ix -\-my

The two tangent planes which are


are given by

parallel

to

+ nz =

lx-{-inii

+ nz= +-

Ex. 1, Find the locus of tlie point of intersection of three mutually


perpendicular tangent planes to a central conicoid.
If the axes are rectangular and
l^x

r=l,
+ mrV + n^^-. J^L+V^+'ll,
c
'a

2, 3,

represent three mutually perpendicular tangent planes, squaring and


adding, we obtain

'''^^ + ^ =

Hence the common point


with the conicoid.

111

a + b + c-

of the planes lies

on a sphere concentric

(It is called the director sphere.)

Ex. 2. Prove that the equation to the two tangent planes to the
conicoid ax^ + hif + cz^ l which pass through the line

= Ix + my \-nz p = 0,

(Use the condition that

i(

u'

+ A' =

= l'x +

')n\i/

+ n'z-p' = 0,

is

should be a tangent plane.)

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

104

Ex.

Find the equations to

3.

which pass through the


Ans. 2x-12i/ + 9z =

^,

line

a-

tlie

[ch. vii.

tangent jjlanes to

+ 9^-3^ = = 3.1"-% + 62 -5.

4x+6i/ + Sz = d.

Ex. 4. A pair of perpendicular tangent planes to the ellipsoid


whose equation, referred to rectangular axes, is x--ja'^+^'-^/b'^ + z^Jc'^ = ],
passes through the fixed point (0, 0, /c). Shew that their line of intersection lies on the cone
x^ (Z>2 + 6-2

- F) +f (c- + cj? - F) + (^ - /)'(- + &'^) = 0.

Ex. 5. Tangent planes are drawn to the conicoid a.v^ + hy" + C4r=\
through the point (a., jB, y). Prove that the perpendiculars to them
='
"
from the origin generate the cone {cL.r + Py + yzf -+-- +

Prove that the reciprocal


{ax'-

of this cone

the cone

is

+ hi/^-cz'^){aa:^ + b^- + cf-\)-{acLX+bl^ij + cyzf=0,

and hence shew that the tangent planes envelope the cone
{ax'^

69.

+ hf + cz^ - l)(rtrx- + ?)/i2 + cy2- l)-(f/a..i' + ?^/5^ + C7S- 1)2 = 0.


The polar

plane.

We now

proceed to define the

polar of a point with respect to a conicoid, and to find its


equation.
If any secant, APQ, through a given point A,
Definition.
meets a conicoid in P and Q, then the locns of R, the harmonic conjugate of A with respect to P and Q, is the polar

of

A with

Let

A,

APQ have
APQ are

respect to the conicoid.

(tig.

(^, y), (^,


^), and
Then the equations

82) be the points (a,

direction-ratios

I,

in, n.

^^

,j_^

._^

ni

;;,

let

to

POLAk

TiTE

,i^(;!),7o]

and, as in

()(), ')\,

'i\,,

I'J.AKE

the nioayures

105

AP and AQ,

oi"

arc the

roots of

+ cn-) + 2r(aa.l-\-b^iiL + cyii)

r\alr-{-h))r

in

Let p be the measure of AR.


harmonic progression,

?!V?^

aoC'

^ ~ r^ + 9'2 ~

And from

Then, since AP, AR,

+ hl^' + cy'^- l
+ b/3m + cyn

AQ

are

'

aoil

the equations to the line

^-(A=lp,

^-y = Vp,

= Wp,

,y-/3

therefore

(^-a). + (,;-/3)6/3 + (^-y)6-y=-(aa2 + ?^/32 + cy2-l).

Hence

tlie

locus of

(^,

axjLV

which

is

Cor.

^) is

>/,

the plane given

called the polar plane of (a,


If

is

tangent plane at

by

+ h^y + cyz = 1
(3,

y).

on the surface, the polar plane of A

is

the

A.

The student cannot have failed to notice the similarity between the
equations to corresponding loci in the plane and in space. There is a
close analogy between the equations to the line and the plane, tlie
circle and the sphere, the ellipse and the ellipsoid, the tangent or
polar and the tangent plane or polar plane. Examples of this
analogy will constantly I'ccur, and it is well to note these and make
use of the analogy as an aid to remember useful results.

Polar

70.
(a,

/5,

of (^'

lines.

It is evident that if the polar plane of

y) passes through (, >/, ^), then the polar plane


'/'
D passes through (a, /3, y). Hence if the polar

plane of any point

a line

oii

AB

passes through a line PQ,

then the polar plane of any point on

PQ

passes through

that point on AB, and therefore passes through AB.


lines

AB and PQ

The

are then said to be polar lines with respect

to the conicoid.

The polar plane


the line

of

((jl

+ It,

y + nr), any

point on

x L_y p_z y
in

is

^i-vir,

acLV +

l>fil/

+ (y'.

-\-

(1)

f{(iI.r-\-bmy

+ cnz)=^0,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

loe

and, evidently, for

all

aoLx + hjBy

This

values of

passes through the line

r,

+ cy,i; - 1 = = alx + bmy + cnz.

therefore the polar of the line

is

[ch. vii.

(1).

'"'e any points, the polar


Ex. 1. If P, {.i\, yi, Zi), Q, (a-2, ?/2,
with respect to ax' + bf + cz^=\ is given by

of

'--a)

PQ

axx^ + %i/i + c^Jj = 1 ,

axx.^

+ hyt/^ + ^^^2 = 1
PQ

are on the conicoid the polar of


intersection of the tangent planes at P and Q.)

(Hence
Ex.

of the

Ex.

if

aiid

Prove that the polar of a given line


2.
two tangent planes through the line.

Find the equations

3.

Ex.
point

?/

+l

= 22

_ 25^2 + 2*2 = 1. Prove that it meets


P and Q, and verify that the tangent

y) at right angles

(i,

ax^-\-hy'^ + cz^ = \

Ans.

Ex.

line.

+1

Find the locus of straight

4.
(oL,

the chord of contact

2.^2

the conicoid in two real points


planes at P and Q pas& through the given
,

the line of

to the polar of the line

-2.K=25?/-1
with respect to the conicoid

is

is

drawn through a

fixed
polars with respect to

lines

their

to

(rectangular axes).

2^^fJ-M=0.
x-a.\h cj
Prove that

5.

polars with respect to

lines

through

(ol, (i,

~TJ + ^ + ^'=^

y) at right angles to their

generate the cone

(_^-f3)(c^-yx) + {z-y){a.>/-f3x) = 0.

What
Ex.

6.

is

the peculiarity of the case

when

Find the conditions that the

x-a. _y-

''

should be polar with respect to the conicoid


Ans.

Ex.

:irtfx.rx'

7.

= l,

::Sa(x.7

= 0,

= hl

x - a! _y - fi' ^z - y'

z-y

13

^ m ^

lines

^aoLl'

= 0,

n'

+ by'^ + cz^=l.

ax'^

1aU' = 0.

Find the condition that the

line

^^=?l^ = ^-^J^ should


m

11

intersect the polar of the line 'Lz^. =-LlR. =zZSL with respect to the

conicoid

a.r''^

+ 6?/ +

c^-^

= l.

'""

'^

Ans. {aal' + hfim' + cy,-i'){(i(t^l + hft'm + ry'n)

= {(iW + bmm' + cnn'){(icLa! + hfifi' + cyy' - 1).


Ex.

8.

Prove that

if

AB

sects the ]}olar of AB.


(AB
respect to the conicoid.)

PQ

interintersects the polar of PQ, then


are then said to be conjugate with
and

PQ

SECTION WITH A (ilVEN CENTRE

.70,71]

Section with a given centre.

71.

If

(oc,

lo7
is

^, y)

the

mid-point of the chord wliose equations are

x-CL^y-l^^z-y

the equation (1) of

^G6

is

of the

n
form

.J.
'

r^

= k^,

and therefore

aod + b^m + cyn =

Hence

all

the plane

chords which are bisected at

(2)
(a,

y)

(3,

^^._^^^^^_^(^^_^y^^^(^_^^^^^()

This plane meets the surface in a conic of which


is

(oc, /3,

y)

the centre.

Compare the equation


mid-point

to the chord of the conic ax^ + by-

Find the equation to the plane which cuts


1.
a conic whose centre is at the point (2, 3, 4).

A )is:
Ex.

.r -h

conicoid

is

'[

whose

.v-

4i/'^

oz"^ = \

6^ - 1 02 -f 20 = 0.

The

2.

is (., /3).

Ex.
in

lie in

locus of the

centres of parallel plane sections of a

a diameter.

Ex. 3. The line joining a point P to the centre of a conicoid passes


through the centre of the section of tlie conicoid by the polar plane
of P.

Ex. 4. The centres of sections of a central


parallel to a given line lie on a fixed plane.

The

conicoid

that

are

centres of sections that pass through a given line

lie

Ex. 6. The centres of sections that pass through a given point


on a conicoid.

lie

Ex,

5.

on a conic.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

108

Ex. 7. Find the locus of centres


which touch a-r"- + ;8y- + y-- = l,

Ans.

(a.v-

+ %- + cs-)- = - + -^ +
,

"'*'""

.)so

b'l/'

of sections of ax'^

[cii. vii.

bi/'^

cz'^

=l

cV

Locus of mid-points of a system of parallel chords.


from equations (1) and (2) of 71 that the midpoints of chords which are parallel to a fixed line
72.

It follows

X_ y
lie in

alx + hiny + cnz =

the plane

This

is

_z
0.

therefore the diametral plane

parallel chords

which

bisects the

(fig. 34).

Compare the equation to the locus of the mid-points of parallel


chords of the ellipse ax'^ + bf = \.
Ex.
ax^ +

1.

bi/'^

Find the locus of the mid-points of chords of the conicoid


which pass through the point (/, g, h).

+ cz" = l

A vs. ax{x -/) -f lnj{y - g) + cz{z - h) = 0.


Ex. 2. Prove that the mid-points of chords of ax'^ + hy^^-cz'^=\
which are parallel to x=0 and touch x^ + + z^ = f- lie on the surface

bif\hx^ +

73.

point.

The

bf

-f-

cz-

- 6?--)

cz~{cx'^

+ bif- + cz' - cr-) ^ 0.

locus of the tangents

When

the secant APQ,

drawn from a given

(fig. 32),

becomes a tangent,

R coincide at the point of contact, and hence the points


of contact of all the tangents from A lie on the polar plane
of A, and therefore on the conic in which that plane cuts the
The locus of the tangents from A is therefore the
surface.
cone generated by lines which pass through A and intersect
P, Q,

THE ENVHLOIMN(J CONE

72,73]

109

A cuts the conicoid.


This cone is the enveloping cone whose vertex is A. We
may find its equation as follows If A is (a, ^, y), and the
line APQ, whose equations are
tlie

conic in -which the polar plane

ol'

x a.
I

y ^ _z y

~ n

meets the surface in coincident points, the equation (1) of


36 has equal roots, and therefore
{aP'

The

+ hiii^ + C71-) (<(.- + 6/3^ + cy2 1


= (r/rxZ + h^m + ey f

locus of

APQ

is

(1

therefore the cone whose equation

+ 6(//-^)Hc(s-y)-][arx-+6/3- + cy2_i]
= [aaix - a.) + 6/3 y - /3) + cy (s - y
S = ax- + bif + cz~-l, S^ = a(L- + 6/3- + t'y^ - 1
P = aoux,-\-h^ii + cyz l,

is

[a(a;-oc)3

If

and

may be written
(S-2p + Si)Si = (P-Si)2,

)]2.

this equation

{ax^+hif^-cz"-

-1

) (aa2

hj^^

i.e.

SSi

= P-,

or

+ cy-- 1 )=(oa; + h^y + cy^ - 1 f.

CoHipare the equation to the pair of tangents from the point


to the ellipse a.v^

(., /i)

+ bij~ = \.

Ex. 1. Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular tangent lines can be drawn to the surface ax'-\-by' + cz^=\.
Ans. a{h + c)x- + h{c + a)y^ + c{a + b)z^ = a + h + c.

Lines drawn from the centime of a central conicoid parallel


2.
to the generators of the enveloping cone whose vertex is A generate a
cone which intersects the conicoid in two conies whose planes are
parallel to the polar plane of A.

Ex.

Ex. 3. Through a fixed point {k^ 0, 0) pairs of perpendicular


tangent lines are drawn to the surface ax- + h'f- + cz^=\. Shew that
the plane through any pair touches the cone
(x -

Ex.
Ex.

5^

w-

The plane z^a meets any enveloping cone

4.

x^-\-y'^+z'^

kf

5.

x^ja? +y^jb'^

a'^

in a conic

Find

the

+ z^jc'' =\

Ans. x=-0,

which has a focus at the point

locus

of

-p^, + = l
"^.,

b--a~

casts a circular

c-

',

luminous point if the ellipsoid


shadow on the plane z=Q.

v^O, -,^,+~,= \,

'

of the sphere
(0, 0, a).

(i--b^

c^

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

110

[en. vii.

Ex. 6. If S = 0, ?f = 0, v = are the equations to a conicoid and two


prove that S + \nv=0 represents a conicoid which passes
through the conies in wliich the given planes cut the given conicoid,
planes,

and interpret the equation S + Xu'^ O.


Prove that if a straight line has three points on a conicoid,
7.
wholly on the conicoid.
(The equation (1), 66, is an identity.)
Ex.

it lies

conicoid passes through a given point A and touches a


Ex. 8.
given conicoid S at all points of the conic in which it is met by the
polar plane of A. Prove that all the tangents from A to S lie on it.
Hence find the equation to the enveloping cone of S whose vertex is A.

Ex.
x'^/a'^

The

9.

i/'^/b'^

Dla,

section of the enveloping cone of the ellijjsoid


vertex is P by the plane 5 =
is (i) a
a rectangular hyperbola. Find the locus of P.

+ z^/c^ = l whose

(ii)

Ans. (i)z=c, (ii)'^-f5 + ^-i.

which are parallel to


any chord and that M is
its mid-point.
Then if the line PQ moves parallel to itself
till it meets the surface in coincident points, it becomes a
tangent and M coincides with tlie point of contact. Therefore the point of contact of a tangent which is parallel
74.

The

a given

locus of the tangents

line.

Suppose

tliat

PQ

is

to a given line lies on the diametral plane

chords parallel to the


a conic,

line.

and the locus of the tangents

line is therefore the cylinder

which

bisects all

This plane cuts the surface in


parallel to the given

generated by the parallels to

the given line which pass tln-ough the conic.

TIIK KNVKI.()PTN(i CVLINI)l-:i{

S74,75]

Let (a,

/5,

a given

to

Then

y)

(fig.

35) be any point on a tan,cfent parallel

= yjin = zln.

line xll

since,

111

by 73

(1),

the line

x CL_ 2/_2: /S _z y

touches the surface


{al-

~ n

if

+ hm' + c n~){aa} + bj3" + cy'- - 1 = (aoil + h^m + cynf,


)

the locus of (a, ^, y)

is

given by

{aP+hm" + cn"){ax^ + h}f-\-cz- l) = {alx-\-hmy+cnzf.


This eijuation therefore represents the enveloping cylinder,

which

is

the locus of the tangents.

The enveloping cylinder may be considered to be a limiting case of


the enveloping cone whose vertex is the point P, {h\ mr, r) on the
By 73, the equation to
iine xjl=ylm = zjn^ as r tends to infinity.
the cone is

whence the equation to the cylinder can he at once deduced.


Ex.

1.

x-Ja- +ji//b^

Prove

that

the

+ z'^/C' = 1, whose

enveloping cylinders of the ellipsoid


generators are parallel to the lines

x_
3=0

meet the plane

_z

in circles.

Prove that the polar of a line AB is the line of intersection of the planes of contact of the enveloping cone whose vertex is
A and the enveloping cylinder whose generators are parallel to AB.
Ex.

75.

we

2.

In discussing the properties of the normals

Normals.

shall confine our attention to the

normals to the

the most familiar of the central conicoids.

ellipsoid,

Consider the ellipsoid whose equation, referred to rectIf the plane


is x-la'^ + y-ih'^-[-z^lc^=\.

angular axes,

p = x cos (f.-\-y cos


is

have, as in

,/3

+ z cos y,

whose point

a tangent plane

( 2?

of contact

>

0),

is

{x\ y\ z'\

6<S,

r)x'

cos oc ='^,

cos

r,

,o

= VV'
,y

'

cos

V^
y = -g"

.
-

we

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

112

that
at

^; ^> ^.
C"

y\ z) are

{x',

va.

the outward-drawn normal

the direction-cosmes of

IS,

[cii.

where p

is

the perpendicular

ft"'

The

from the centre to the tangent plane at the point.


equations to the normal at {x, y', z) are therefore

x-x

Ex.
shew that
1.

Putting

y-y _z-z'

_^^

X>x'

piL

HI

a-

6-

c-

normal at P meets the principal planes in Gj, Go, Gg,

If the

pQ^ pg^ pQ^ = ^2


.

for

.r

,.:=PG,=
Ex.

If

2.

A71S.

Ex.

3.

if it is

Ex.

4.

intersection

of

The normal

Find the locus

PQ

is

tincl

of

we obtain

etc.

the locus of P.

the

given ellipsoid and the

of

P,

and prove

XOY

in
at a variable point P meets the plane
and equal to AP. Prove that the
to

if

OR

OZ

is

drawn from the centre equal and

A P.

Ans.

a-.x^^

+ b^-f' + ch^^c*.

If the

The normals from a given

{x', y',

___

^-}]' _

X
if

point.

z) passes through a given ponit (a,

^-^'

and

normals at P and Q, points on the ellipsoid, intersect,


at right angles to its polar with respect to the ellipsoid.
5.

76.

at

gS.
;

Find the length of the normal chord through


equal to 4PG3, P lies on the cone

AQ is drawn parallel
Q is given by

Ex.

= ^i4m:^-

A, and
locus of

parallel to

PGiH PG,,2 + PG32 = F,

The curve

ellipsoid "|-I+|V|J

that

&2

in the equations to the normal,

each of these fractions

y
is

y-f
zf_

If
/3,

the normal
7),

then
(1)

'

equal to X,

^'-i^, V = -"^'^. ;s'=~^

(2)

normals

Tin-:

7r,,7G]

Therefore, since

y',

(.<,',

a^a-

z)

113

on the elhpsoid,

i.s

cV

h^^^

^'^^

(aHXy^^(6HA)2^(cHA)'^~'

A, to each of which
and therefore there are
six points on the eUipsoid the normals at which pass
through (rx., j8, y).

This equation gives six values of

corresponds a point

Ex.
(If

Prove

1.

(;',

c'),

'\j\

equation (3) gives at least two real values of A.

tliat

F(A) = (A + a-^)-(A+6'0"(A + c-^)--2a2oL2(A + 6''')2(A + c2)2, F(A)


when A= a'^ 6^ c^, and is positive when A= 00.)

is

negative

Ex. 2. Prove that four normals to the ellipsoid pass through any
point of the curve of intei-section of the ellipsoid and the conicoid
x\}fi

from equations

It follows

from (a,

/3,

+ (P) + 3/-(c;2 + a2) + ~i{a? +

lie

b^z{l3-y) = c''y{y-z),

Compare the equation


feet of the

normals

fi-cmi

= }Pc^ + c^d' + d'-U-.

normals
on the three cylinders

(1) that the feet of the

y) to the ellipsoid

c(ry(cL

IP')

^x{y-z)^(rz((x.-x),

x) = b^x(^ y).
hyperbola through the

to the rectangular

the jDoint

(a., (3)

to the ellipse '-r,+'jjl.

These cylinders have a common curve of intersection,

and equations
it

in

(2) express the coordinates of

terms of a parameter

The points

X.

any point on

w^here the curve

meets a given plane


ux-\-vy-\-tuz
.

are given

and as

by

lici^cL
.,

+,9

+d=

wc'-y
+-3-7-C

vly^B

+ = 0,
,

,
of

this determines three values of X, the plane

the curve in three points, and the curve

cubic cxirvc.

The

ellipsoid are

therefore the

normals from

feet of the

six points

of

is

meets

therefore a

'Vx, /3,

y) to the

intersection

of

the ellipsoid and a certain cubic curve.


If the

normal at

{x' , y', z')

has direction-cosines

I,

m,

7?,

passes through

(fx, /?,

y) and

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1.14

[ch. rii.

and therefore
I

'

This shews that the normal whose equations are

x a._y ^_ z y
is

771

a generator of the cone

six

Zy

y (3

X CL

Hence the

normals from

(oc, j8,

y)

lie

on a cone of the

second degree.
Ex.

3.

If

is

the point

(a.,

parallels through P to the axes,


polar plane, lie on the cone.

Ex.

4.

Shew

/?, y), prove that the line PO, the


and the pcipendicular from P to its

that the cubic curve

lies

on the cone.

Ex. 5. Prove that the feet of the six normals from (a,
the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and the cone

/5,

y)

lie

on

'

z
X
y
Ex. 6. The generators of the cone which contains the normals
from a given point to an ellijjsoid are at right angles to their polars
with respect to the ellipsoid.

Ex. 7. A is a fixed point and P a variable point such that its


Shew that the locus of P is the
polar plane is at right angles to AP.
cubic curve through the feet of the normals from A.

Ex. 8. If P, Q, R P', Q', R' are the feet of the six normals from
a point to the ellipsoid, and the plane PQR is given 'bylx+my-\-nz=p,
then the plane P'Q'R' is given by
;

a^l

(If P'Q'R' is

same

b^m

c-)i

given by l'x-\-m'y-\-n'zp\ equation (3) of 76

is

the

as

U2+A + /r + A + c2+I
Ex.

9.

PjKa^ + X^b-' + k^c'^ + X

If A, A' are the poles of the planes

PQR,

J-"^-)

P'Q'R',

AA'2 - OA2 - OA'2 = 2(2 + ^2 + C-").


77.

Conjugate

diameters

planes of the ellipsoid.

and conjugate

diametral

If the equation to tlie ellipsoid

CONJUGATE DIAMETERS

i76,77]
is

cc^i(A^

and
(v!}

+ y'^llr + 2rjc^=l,

tlie

65).

115

the axes are conjugate diameters

coordinate planes are conjugate diametral planes,


If P, (a\, 2/1, z{) is any point on the ellipsoid, the

OP

diametral plane of

has for

Let Q,
ellipsoid,

b-'

c--^

be any point on this plane and on the

(x.,, 1/2, z.^)

then

~a^^l)'
Hence,

0.

"*

"^

a^

equation, ( 72),

its

if

is

c'

'

on the diametral plane of OP, P

is

on the

diametral plane of OQ.


If the diametral planes of

intersect in

OP and OQ

the diameter OR,

(tig.

8G),

on the diametral planes of OP and


OQ, and therefore P and Q are on the
R

is

OR
OR is

diametral plane of

metral plane of

that

the

the dia-

is,

plane OPQ.

Thus the planes QOR, ROP, POQ are the


diametral planes of OP, OQ,

OR

respec-

and they are therefore conjugate


diametral planes, and OP, OQ, OR are conjugate diameters.
If R is (x.^, 2/;v S3), we have
tively,

^+

^ + ^-1,

a'.,-

a'

i^2
'

"T"

Ml T^

(A')
c-

'

0,

7,2
62

4.!n
^ M2
Ir ^ c'

dO

These correspond exactly


lUid

6^

.VS^l

a-

to ecjuations (a)

and

(u) of

53,

shew that
111

?!

b' c

'

b'

are the direction-cosines of three nuitually perpendicular

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

116

lines refei-red to rectangular axes.

we

[en. vri.

Therefore, as in 58,

deduce,

2/A + ^/222+2/3% = 0,
Z^X^

(c')
^1

+ Z.^X^+Z.^X^ = Q,

.(D')

+%'+v=c^i)
~

he

'

ca

2_ +(M3L_Mi)^

h'

the

axes

2/3'

rectangular, equations

etc., etc.;

(e')

+abc.

which the

to

"'

ah

be

If

'

ellipsoid

referred

is

are

on adding,

(c') give,

Op2 + oq2 + 0R2 = a- + 62 + c\

Hence the sum


semi-diameters

of the squares on

constant.

is

From

any three conjugate

the last equation

we

deduce that the volume of the parallelepiped which has


OP, OQ, OR for coterminous edges is constant and equal
Again,

to abc.

and

Ir, rtir, n,.,

if A^, Ag,

(r=l,

A3 are the areas QOR, ROP,

POQ

are the direction-cosine.s of the

2, 3),

normals to the planes QOR, ROP, POQ, projecting A^ on the


plane x = 0,

we

obtain

Thh

--

similarly.

by

(E'):

ahz.
n-,A

2b''

i=2,

cay^

hcx^
'"26^'

2a'

m.,A.,

_^ahz^.
l^pA.,:

26

bcXo

Therefore, squaring and adding,


A^-

+ A.3" + A.,- = ]

( b'C"

we

have,

by

+ c\t^ + (^"6-).

abzo

(C),

CONJUGATE DIAMETERS-EXAMPLES

77]

Ex.

c(iuatioii to the

Find the

1.

If the equation

lx + imj +

is

L t'2

Multiply by x\,

+ i^2 + '"'h ~Py

x.^,

PQR.

plane

nz=p, then
^^''3

lx\

ld'=p{xi+X2 + X2),

The required equation


.

>;(.fi+.f2

is

.r',)

+ mij^ + nzi=py

+ *"i/3 "* '*^3 ~ P-

and add

x^ respectively,

117

then by

(c')

and

(i/),

etc.

therefore

^{h+h + h) _-^_

y{>/i+y2+y'i)
I

a-

PQR

Shew

that the plane


at the centroid of the triangle

Ex.

Ex.

2,

x'l<x'

touches the ellipsoid :- +-^, + ""'

PQR.

Prove that the pole

3.

c-

b'^

of the plane

PQR

lies

=-

^"

''"

on the ellipsoid

+ ,y^/6- + z-lc" = 3.

Ex. 4. The loc-us of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre
to the plane thronii;h the extremities of three conjugate seaii-diauieters

Ex.

Prove that the sum of the squares of the projections of


(i) on any line, (ii) on any plane, is constant.

5.

OP, OQ, OR,


Ex.

that any two sets of conjugate diameters

Shew

6.

cone of the second degree.

(Cf. 59,

Ex.

lie

on a

6.)

Ex. 7. Shew that any two sets of conjugate diametral


iouch a cone of the second degree. (Apply 61, Ex. 4.)

planes

Ex. 8. If the axes are rectangular, find the locus of the equal
conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid x^la^+^fjb- + z'lc- = l.
If / is the length of one of the equal conjugate diameters,
;3r2

= a2 + 62 + c2,

P + m^ +

and

71-^

7,

r-

r^
~T,

a^

ru^

where I, m, n are the direction -cosines.


generator of the cone

x\y\z^
or

^J(22

Ex.

9.

Shew

V'

10.

diameters,

If A,

Therefore the diameter

is

Hx-'^+f + z^

- c2) +'|-^(262 _ c2 - a2) +^2(2c^ - ^ - ^')=0.

that the plane through a pair of equal conjugate

diameters touches the cone S-^jtt,-.^yy

Ex.

+ 7v+~.'
co^

//.,

I'

-n

'^

are the angles between a set of ecjual conjugate


3^(62_,.2\2

cosU + cosV + cosV = ^:^j^T-^--^z


Ex. 11. If OP, OQ, OR are equal conjugate diiimeters, and S is
the pole of the plane PQR, the tetrahedron SPQR has any pair of
opposite edges at right angles.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

118

[ch. vii.

OR

are conjugate diameters and Pi-, p.^, p-^;


Ex. 12. If OP, OQ,
are their projections on any two given lines, pyw^ +P-i!T2+p^Tr^
constant.

TTj, TTa, TTj

is

Ex.

13.

tlirough a given point, chords are drawn parallel to


of the squares of the ratios of the respective
is constant.

If,

OP, OQ, OR, the sum


chords to OP, OQ, OR
Ex.

The

14.

locus of the point of intersection of three tangent

planes to -2+'t2 +
-^^2

72

= 1>

which are

--2

.jjZ

^
y

planes of
+ yTs + = l, is a."
^
aJ It
theorem become when (x = ft = y
,

Ex.
Ex.

Shew

15.

8, 70,

parallel

^2

'vi2

5-2

=
+ ^, + yfj-'

/7-t,

a.-

to conjugate diametral
yi2

fj^

-^.
What
+ 7>,4/jy^

that conjugate diameters satisfy the condition of

for conjugate lines.

Since the plane POQ,

(fig. 36),

bisects all chords of the

conicoid which are parallel to OR, the line

OQ

ROQ which are parallel to

OR.

chords of the conic

OR

does this

bisects all chords of the conic

which are

bi.sects all

Similarly

parallel to

OQ

and therefore OR and OQ are conjugate diameters of the


ellipse ROQ.
But Q is any point on the ellipse therefore
OP and any pair of conjugate diameters of the ellipse in
which the diametral plane of OP cuts the ellipsoid are
;

conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid.


Ex.

16.

is

any point on the

ellipsoid "^

+ t2 + ^ = 1 and

2o(.

and

2/5

are the principal axes of the section of the ellipsoid hy the diametral
plane of OP. Prove that OP'^ = cfi + b'^ + c'- -a?- (3\ and" that a.fip = abc,
where p is the perpendicular from
to the tangent plane at P.

If 2a. and 2(3 are the principal axes of the section of the
17.
ellipsoid by the plane Lv + m?/
nz 0, prove that

Ex.

'y82 =

^Ex.
(^2)

18.

^/2> i-i)

ellipsoid

a^l^fiP + nf + T^

If P, (ri, //j, 2j) is a point on the ellipsoid and (^,, ?;,, t,),
are extremities of the principal axes of the section of the
of OP, prove that

by the diametral plane

(^.ti

_ C^)-ri + (,2 _ 2) ^ + (2 _.^,2) i. ^ 0.


^1

'/I

fl

PROPERTIES OF THE CONE

555577,78]

119

The equation of a
one sheet refeiTcd to three conjugate diameters as

Conjugate diameters of the hyperboloids.


liyperlioloitl

uf

coordinate axes

'

is

.-

= 1.
+ ^,-^
7-

Hence

it

appears that the

./-

and

i8-

in real points (0., 0, 0), (0, (3, 0), and that


the 5-axis does not intersect the surface. The 2-axis, however, inter-

//-axes

meet the surface

two sheets whose equation

sects the hyperboloid of

is

ij~^+-v = l

at the i)oints (0, 0, y), and these points are taken as tlie extremities
of the third of the three conjugate diameters.
Hence, if P, (.>'j, i/y, J,), Q, (.t^, >h, z^,), R? (-''3) .'h, h) ^''^ the extremities
of a set of conjugate semi-diameters of the hyperboloid of one sheet,

it

follows, as for the ellipsoid, that


<'i-

and

+ ^'2 - J'z = ^

therefore, that

if

OP--!-

and

Ai^ -f- Aj-

Similarly,

= - <^\

etc.

-f-

cV _

fjfiniy

one of a set of three conjugate diameters of the hyper-

if

0^

anot,

h^ + H" - ^'z

OQ- - OR- = ar + - c- Aj^ = |(6-c-

boloid of two sheets, -^-'73

two do

- Vi = ^^

^y-i

IJi

the axes are rectangular,

=
s

l,

intersects the surface, the other

c-

but they intersect the hyperboloid of one sheet,

and the points of intersection are taken as their extremities. Hence


if P, Q, R are the extremities, and the axes are rectangular, we have

Op2_OQ2-OR2 = 2_i2_c2
- K^ - A32 = |
_ ^2^2 - a%-').

and

Ai^

(ft'^c^

THE CONE.
78.

homogeneous

etj nation

of the form

ax^ -4- hy'^ + es^ =


represents a cone.

{x', y', z')

may consider
the centre.

If {x',

lies

also

y\ z) is any point on the cone,


on the cone, and therefore we

the cone as a central surface, the vertex being

The coordinate planes

are conjugate diametral

planes and the coordinate axes are conjugate diameters.

We

easily

find,

as

in

the case of

conicoids, the followino; results

the other central

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

120

The tangent plane

at

{x',

lx-\-iny-\-

The polar plane

section

equation

iiz^O touches the cone

of P, (a,

acLX

The

its

+ hyy' + czz 0.

axx

The plane

y\ z) has for

[ch. vii.

4-

/5,

y)

is

if

given by

h^y + cyz = 0.

whose centre

is

at (a, ^, y) has the equation

(-a)a+(2/-/3)6/5 + (s-yVy = 0.

The diametral plane

of the line x/l

alx + hmy

The

locus of the tangents

pair of tangent planes

= yini = zln

is

+cm = 0.

drawn from

whose

P, (a., ^,

y)

is

the

line of intersection is OP.

They are given by


(ax^

+ by^ + cs^) (axx? + b^- + cy-

The diametral plane

of

OP

is

=^

(aoLX

+ b^y + cyzf.

also the polar plane of

Let OP, OQ, OR, (tig. 37), any three


Conjugate diameters.
conjugate diameters of the cone, meet any plane in P, Q, R.
The plane meets the cone in a conic, and QR is the locus
of the harmonic conjugates of P with respect to the points
in

which any secant through P cuts the conic

polar of P with respect to the conic.


are the polars of
is

self-polar

Q and

R,

i.e.

Similarly,

QR

is

the

RP and PQ

and therefore the triangle PQR

with respect to the

conic.

Conversel}^

if

PQR

I'KorKirriEs of

78]

any

is

PQR

diameters of

OQR

cuts the cone, OP, OQ,

tlie

through the

line

For the polar plane of P passes


the vertex, and therefore

cone.

QR and through

the polar plane of

is

121

with respect to the conic in which


OR are conjugate

seli'-polar

triaiitj;le

the plane

the cone

P,

OP

or the diametral plane of

and similarl3^ ORP, OPQ arc the iiametral planes of


and OR.
Ex. 1. The locus of
conicoid ax^ + b>/- + cz"^l
Ex.

2.

iisymptotic lines
the "asymptotic cone

tlie
is

The hvperboloids
- xya^ .v^/a^' + fib"- - z^lc^ = 1,

Draw

have the same asymptotic cone.


the two hyperboioids.

a.v^

>/lb'^

+ bi/^ +

cz'^

4.

If a

+ z^lc^ = 1

is

parallel

plane through the origin cuts the cones


ax^ + by' + cz" = 0,

in lines

to the

= 0.

a figure shewing the cone and

Ex. 3. The section of a hyperl)oloid by a ])lane which


to a tangent plane of the asymptotic cone is a parabola.
Ex.

drawn from

OQ

which form a harmonic


by + cf3

clx^

/3_//"

+ yz^ =

pencil, it touches the cone

a(3 + ba.

cm + ay

For the following examples the axes are rectangular

Ex.5.

which

Planes

;^enerators toiicli

cut

u.v'

6.

perpendicular

^^

+ b~

7+(('''a

pairs of tangent planes to


which touch along perpendicular generatoi's lie on

Tile lines of intersection

+ by" + ci- =

the cone

.(i +

,),,2

of

+ ^2(, + )^. + ,.( + ^),2 = 0.

Perpendicular tangent planes to ax" + bi/- + cz'=^Q intersect


generators of the cone

Ex.
in

+ bif + cz^ =

.,

b+7'

Ex.

ax'^

^,.j

7.

a{b + c) .1- + b {<: + a)

f + c (a +

Z>)

-;-

= 0.

By- + Cs'' 2Fy- + 2G5a;+2H.rj/


If the cone Aa'-*
througli a set of conjugate diameters of the elli])soid

Ex.

8.

'-/'f'+.'/-/^-

+ ^Vc2= 1,

then

passes

A- + B^- + C.V- = 0.

three conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid meet the


director sphere in P, Q, R, the plane PQR touches the ellipsoid.

Ex.

9.

If

Find the equation to the normal plane {i.e. at right angles


Ex. 10.
to the tangent plane) of the cone a.ic^ -^-by"- -^ cz^ = <d which passes through
the generator

.r/^

=///?

= i/.

.^ ^ (/> -().> ^^

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

[CH. VII.

Ex. 11. Lines drawn through the origin at right angles to normal
planes of the cone ax^ + hy'^ + Gz^ O generate the cone

a{b-cf

h{c-af

X'

y^

c{a-bf _

Ex. 12. If the two cones ax^-^hf + cz^ = ^, aLx'^ + (iif+yz'^ = have
each sets of three mutually perpendicular generators, any two planes
which pass through their four common generators are at right angles.

THE PARABOLOIDS.
79.

The locus of the equation


9-;

X-

U> 5+'^The equation

(1) represents the surface generated

variable ellipse
^

unless k and

y-

(2)

+^ =
hc

x^
/^,

iP-

2/i'

a-

have the same

This ellipse
^

sign,

is

by the

imap-inary

hence the centre of the

ellipse lies

on

OZ

of the surface

if

c>0

by planes

and on OZ'

YOZ, ZOX are parabolas.


position of

surface

is

if

c<^0.

The

Fig. 38

shews the form and

the surface for a positive value of

the

sections

parallel to the coordinate planes

elliptic paraboloid.

c.

The

PKOPEHTIES OF THE PAKABOLOIDS

79,80]

The equation

(2) represents the surface generated

1h
n- = -

.r-

variable

hyperbola

ip-

real for all real values of

deoenerates into the two lines

z=

>

and

/j,

The

li'.

/i;

is

the hyperbola

()

r? = 0, = 0.

'Ihe sections

by the planes z = k,

by the

liyperbola

centre passes in turn

its

When

through every point on Z'Z.

of the surface

123

z=k

project on the

plane

= 0.
ZOX
and

XOY
X'

into conjugate hyperbolas

y^_ 0.

The

is

parallel to

YOZ,

the hyperbolic paraboloid,

39 shews the form and position of the surface for

a negative value of
80.

whose asymptotes are

by planes

The surface

are parabolas.
fig.

sections

c.

An

Conjugate diametral planes.

form

represents a paraboloid.

equation of the

+ hy' = 2z

Any

line in the plane

XOY which

passes through the origin meets the surface in

two

co-

XOY is tlie tangent


YOZ, ZOX bisect chords

incident points, and hence the plane

plane at the origin.


parallel to

The planes

OX and OY

respectivel}'.

parallel to the chords bisected

by the

Each

other.

is

therefore

Such pairs of

planes are called conjugate diametral planes of the paraboloid.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

124

Diameters.

81.

If

[ch. vii.

the point (a, ^, y), and the

is

equations to a line tlirough A are

the distances from


line

111

to

tlie

points of intersection of the

and the paraboloid are given by

r^al^ + 6m2) + 1r{a(d + h^m


If

= m = 0,

parallel

line

1? )

one value of r

to

the

is

+ aa^ + &/32 - 2y = 0.
infinite,

is

a point P whose

in

given by

~ 2 {aa.1 + b^m n)~


Such a

.( 1

meets the paraboloid in one

5;-axis

point at an infinite distance, and


distance from

. .

and therefore a

line is called a diameter,

2n

and P

is

the extremity of

the diameter.

Hence
a

+ hy'^ = 2z

ax'^

tangent

and

plane,

represents a paraboloid, referred to

two

conjugate diametral planes

through the point of contact, as coordinate planes. One


of the coordinate axes is the diameter through the point
of contact.

plane at

O
is

is

If tlie axes are rectangular, so that the tangent


is

at right angles to the diameter through O,

the vertex of the paraboloid, and the diameter through

the

The coordinate planes YOZ, ZOX are then

axis.

principal planes.

Ex.

What

82.

Tangent planes.

to the

surface

is

represented by the equation

We

aXJLX ~\-h^lj

+ my + nz=])

is

(rx, fS,

67, the equation


y) on the paraboloid,

=z+ y.

a tangent plane and (a,

poiiit of contact,

and therefore

= 2c2?

find, as in

tangent plane at the point

If lx

.>v/

tn

an

hn

- + -,-

+ 2/w=:0

V
^

/3,

y)

is

the

TANCJENT

5^81-83]

Hence

211(1 x

AND

Dl

AM KTKA L

+ my -\-nz)-{

\-

=0

IM.ANKS
the

is

the tangent pUine to the paraboloid which

plane

lx-i-i)iy

0(|nati()ii

to

parallel to the

+ nz = 0.

axes are rectangular and

If the

2nr{l.v

represent

we

is

125

+ m,y + n,z) +-^ + '-^ = 0,

tln-ee

mutually

2, 3),

tangent planes,

perpendicular

have, by addition,

(/

of intersection of three

and therefore the locus of the point

mutually perpendicular tangent planes

a plane at right

is

angles to the axis of the paraboloid.


Ex.
'

Ans.

'-

Shew

1.

-'^ = 2, and

that the plane 8x-6ij~z=-i) touches the paraboloid

lind the coordinates of the point of contact.

(8, 9, 5).

Two

Ex.

2.

+"-r

= 2i

tangent

perpendicuhir

planes

to

tlie

intersect in a straight line lying in tlie plane

.r

paraboloid

= 0.

Shew

that the line touches the parabola

x=0,
Ex.

3.

Shew

i/

= {a + b)(2z + a).

that the locus of the tangents from a point

+ iy- = 2j is given by
(cu-- + h>/- - 2z)(aaL- + hfi'- - 2y) = {a<x,v + hfij/ -z- yf.

(ol, (3,

y)

to the paraboloid .*-

Ex. 4. Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular tangents can be drawn to the paraboloid.

A ns. ah (.r^ f) - 2 (a + 6) ^ - 1 = 0.
83.

xll

Diametral planes.

= ylm = zjn,

If

line

op

has equations

the diametral plane of OP,

of the mid-points of chords parallel to OP,

alx + hiny n = 0.

Hence

all

i.e.

the locus

is

given by

diametral planes are parallel

to the axis of the paraboloid,

and conversely any plane


If OQ, whose

parallel to the axis is a diametral plane.

equations are x/r = y/m' = zln',

plane of OP,

aU' +

is parallel

hmm' =

to the diametral
(1)

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

126

Hence OP

parallel to the diametral plane of

is

diametral planes of

Equation (1)
al'x-\-hin'y

[ch. vii,

is

= 0,

OP and OQ

OQ, and the

are conjugate.

= 0,
= k, should be conjugate
ax^ + hy'^ = 2k Hence any plane

the condition that the lines alx-{-hmy

in

the plane

diameters of the conic

meets a pair of conjugate diametral planes of a paraboloid


in lines which are parallel to conjugate diameters of the
conic in which the plane meets the surface.
system of parallel plane

Ex. 1. The locus of the centres of a


sections of a paraboloid is a diameter.
Ex.
5j;-

The plane 3*' +4^ = 1 is a diametral plane of the pai^aboloid


Find the equations to the chord through (3, 4, 5) which

2.

+ 6y^ = 22.

it bisects.

Ex.

a;

Any

3.

-3

y-A z-b

diametral plane cuts the paraboloid in a parabola, and


it in equal parabolas.

parallel diametral planes cut

84.

xIf -5

The normals.

paraboloid,

referred

+ 12 = 20

represents an elliptic

rectangular axes, the normal

to

at

{x\ y\ z) has for equations

_ y y' _z z'
-1

XX

T~

^
If this

normal passes through a given point (a, ^,

^^ =
mi

Therefore

>

<^^.,

This equation gives


five points

'

^"/^
= /2_l\

X,

'
'

five values of A,

y),

say.

=y + N^>
,

and hence

there* are

on the paraboloid the normals at which pass

through a given point.


Ex.

1.

paraboloid

Piove that the


lie

feet of the

on a cubic curve.

normals from any point to the

EXAMPLES

^83,84]

Ex.

2.

Prove

Ex.

3.

Prove that the cubic curve

tliat

the noniijils

x-o,

IV.

127

fi-oin ((l, fi,

y) to

4.

Ex.

5.

lie

on this cone.

lies

In general three normals can be

to the paraboloid of revolution .>-+y'


the surface 21a(.v' i/-)-\-8{a-zf 0,

(., /i,

y) to

drawn from

= 2rt-,

paraboloid

z-y

i/-f3

Pi'ove that the perpendicular from


plane lies on the cone.

Ex.

tlie

two

its

polar

a given point

point lies on
three normals

l)ut if the

of

the

coincide.

Ex.

Shew

6.

to the pai'abolokl

that the feet of the normals from the point


.v- + i:f = 2az lie on the sphere

.^.2

('x, /i,

y)

+ y2 + ,^._,(^a + y)- ^(rx2 + [3^) = 0.

Shew

that the centre of the circle through the feet of the


Ex. 7.
three noi'mals from the point (a., (3, y) to the paralwloid .r'- + ?/- = 2s is
/a.

(3

\4'

4'

y + n\
2

* Examples IV.
1.

Two

asymptotic lines can be drawn from a point P

to a conicoid

+ cz^ = \, and they are at right angles if P lies on the cone


{b + c).t'2 + b%c + a)if + (? {'c + h)z^ = 0.
cuts the cone
2. The lines in which the plane ^.r + wi?/ + ws =
are conjugate diameters of the ellipse in which it
cu;'^-{-(3i/--\-yz'' =
Prove that the line y = =^ = - lies on
cuts the ellipsoid ^,+|n + Aj = l.
cuc'^+h/-

cfi

the cone

^^.,^^^.,

^ ^^2^

^,,

_^ j2(.y,,2

+ ^La'^.y^ + c^a.a^ + f3f')z^ = 0.

The normal at P meets tlie


are points on an ellipsoid.
meets the tangent plane at
the normal at
in R
tangent plane at
P in S. If the perpendiculars from the centre to the tangent planes
at P and
arepi, p-2, prove that PR QS =;'._, -.pi3.

P and

tangent planes at P and Q, points


passes through a fixed point A, (</., (3, 7), and is
Shew that the locus of the mid-])oii!l
parallel to the plane XOY.
of PQ is the conic in wliich the polar plane of A cuts the surface
4.

on

The

(u--

line of intersection of the

+ b>r + cz' = \,

a.v^

+ bjj^ +

cz"^

= z'y.

that the greatest value of the shortest distance between


the axis of .rand a normal to the ellipsoid .r''-la^+f-lb- + z^/c- = l is
5.

Shew

b-r.

have their centres on a


6. Plane sections of an ellipsoid wliich
given straight line are parallel to a fixed straiirht line mid touch
a parabolic cylinder.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

128

OP, OQ,

7.

OR

if

At

0"

0"

and R tangent lines are drawn parallel to OP, and p^, p^ are
distances from O. The perpendicular from O to the tangent

their

plane at right angles to

OP
J^'-

8.

[ch. vir.

are con j u i^ate diameters of an ellipsoid

is

Prove that

p.

+Pi- + p-r = - +

b''^

+ cK

Conjugate diameters of
a^x'^-^h^y'^\-c^z'^

in P, Q, R.

Shew

=l

meet

that the plane

ag.*^^

POR

+ ^2^^ + ^^2^^ 1

touches the conicoid

Co
tto
= / = Co
-^ =_-+_- + _^.

where

CTo

&.,

Oj

b.,

C^

6j

Cj

The

ellipsoid which has as conjugate diameters the three straight


lines that bisect jmirs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron touches the
9.

edges.
10. Shew that the projections of the normals to an ellipsoid at
P, Q, R, the extremities of conjugate diameters on the plane PQR,
are concurrent.

on the ellipsoid
11. If through a fixed poirit P, (a., f3, y)
+ iflb'^ + z^/c^=l perpendiculars are drawn to any three conjugate diameters, the plane thi'ough the feet of the perpendiculars
passes through the fixed point
.t^/a^

a^oL

c^y

b'^f3

Vc^+PTc^'

d^

b'^

+ c^'

aF+W+7^J'
any point P on the

ellipsoid
12. If perpendiculars be drawn fx"om
to any three conjugate diametral planes, the plane through the feet of
the perpendiculars meets the normal at P at a fixed point whose
distance from P is
979 ^

p{c^ + <'M^+aWy

where p

is

the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane

at P.
13. Find the locus of centres of sections of a conicoid that are at a
constant distance from the centre.
14.

Shew

that the ec^uations to the right circular cones that pass

through the axes (which are rectangular) -Ave yzzxxi/ = Qi.


Deduce that the lines through a given point P, whicli are perpendicular to their polars with respect to .v^/a^ + 7/^/b^ + z'^/c'^=\, lie
upon a right circular cone if P lies on one of the lines

(P - ,2)2,,.2^(e2 _

2)2_y2

= (2 _ 52)2,2.

Chords of a conicoid which are parallel to a given diameter and


are such that the normals at tlieir extremities intersect, lie in a fixed
15.

plane thi'ough the given diameter.

EXAMPLES

en. VII.]

IV.

129

16. The perpendiculars from the origin to the faces of the tetrahedron whose vertices are the feet of the four normals from a point to
the cone .r;2 + 6y^ + c- = 0, lie on the cone

a{b - cfx- + Z)(c P, Q,

17.

to

PQR,

planes

x'^/a.^

P'Q'R'

The normals

18.

b)-z-

= 0.

from a point
Prove that the poles of the

+ i/'jb'^+z^/c'^ = l.
on the surface

lie

at

c{a

R' are the feet of the six normals

P', Q',

the ellipsoid

a)'ij- -f

P and

T2~

^"I

(a'"--)

=0.

points of the ellipsoid

P',

meet the plane XOY in A and A' and make angles


Prove that PA cos 6'+ P' A' cos ^' = 0.

6^,

B'

with PP'.

19. The normals to x'^jd^ +y-lb'^ + z'~j(P' = \ at all jjoints of its intersection with lyz-\-mzx + nxy = intellect the line

a^x

Shew

20.

ch

6^y

l(a^-b^){c^'-a-^)

~ m{b'^-c^)(a^-b^) ~ n{c' - d'){b-^ - c^)'

that the points on an ellipsoid the normals at which


lie on tlie curve of intersection of the

intersect a given straight line


ellipsoid and a conicoid.

The normals to x^ja? +y'^lb^ + z'^lc^=\ at points of


21.
with xla+i/jb + z/c = l lie on the surface
,

its

intersection

ab xy -f be yz + cazx \
+ c(d'-b^)z)'

'\b{a^-c'-)2/

Prove that two normals to ax^ + by^ + cz^^l


+ nz=p, and that they are at right angles if

22.

lie

in

the plane

lx + my

+ c)P\='Z{a^-(b-c)-m-n-}.

abep'-^{a{b
23.

The

24.

If the feet of the six

sum of the sqiiares of whose normal


distances from the ellipsoid x-ja-+y^lb- + z^lc- = \ is constant, (=F), is
locus of a point, the

(a^-b^){c^-a^)

normals from

(Xr.yr

d^a.^fy^^

lorove that

If the feet of three

25.

,-1-1^-1-^=1
a^

b^

lie in

:r),

> = 1,

if

. .

6),

l,

lies

on the

line

to the ellipsoid

the feet of the other three

'

a(b-- C-) X = b(c-- a-)y = c (a- B.G.

y) are

f3,

the iioruials from

the plane --f'f + --1-1=0, and


^

2,

+ F-(3^fl'^ + c^y^fl^ = 0.

-+-y + - =
the plane
'
a b c

lie in

c^

(rx,

6-) z.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

130

[ch. vii.

tangent planes
26. If A, B are {a.,, (3^, y,), (ol^, /^g, 72). the pair of
at the points where AB cuts the conicoid S = CLv'^ + b7/^ + cz^-l=0 is
given by

S2Pi2-2PiP2Pi2 + SiP,- = 0,

and the pair

of tangent planes that intersect in

AB, by

S(SiS2-P^2)-S2Pi2 + 2PiP2Pi2-SiP22 = 0,
^1= a + bfi^^ + ey^^ - 1, etc.

<

where

P^=aa.iX + bf3ii/ + cyiZ-l, etc.;

Pi2= 00.^0.2 + bl3iP.2 + cyi72 If P,

27.

(.''1, i/i,

^i),

Q,

(^2,

3/2, --2),

R>

(-^s, 3/3> -^3)

of three conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipsoid

Op =
OPQR
,-

OQ = r2,

OR^rg,

pi'ove

are the extremities

^ + 'p + -^ =

l5

and

that the equation to the sphere

can be written

and prove that the locus of the centres of spheres through the origin
and the extremities of three equal conjugate semi-diameters is
1

2(a2r2 + by- + c%2) = (a2 + b^ + c^f.

CHAPTER

VIII.

THE AXES OF A PLANE SECTION OF A CONICOID.


85.

We

have proved,

section of a conicoid
sections are similar

is

( 54, Exs. 2, 3), that

every plane

a conic, and that parallel plane

and similarly situated

conies.

We now

proceed to find equations to determine the magnitudes and


directions of the axes of a given plane section of a given
conicoid.

General method for determining the axes.

If the lengths of

>

and o.^ r
the conic
has two diameters of length 2r, and they are ecjually
If r = a or /3, the two diameters of
inclined to the axes.
Hence to find the axes
length 2r coincide with an axis.
of the conic in which a given plane cuts a conicoid, we first
form the equation to a cone whose vertex is the centre, C,
of the conic and which has as generators the lines of
length r which can be drawn in the plane from C
The lines of section of this cone and the
to the conicoid.
the axes of a conic are 2. and

2/3,

,/3,

given plane are the semi-diameters of length r of the conic.


If 2)' is the length of an axis, these are coincident, or the
plane touches the cone, the generator of contact being the
axis.
The condition of tangency gives an equation which
the comparison of the equations of the given
plane and a tangent plane to the cone leads to the direction-

determines r

cosines of the generator of contact.


86.

Axes of the section of a central conicoid by a

plane through the centre.

Let the equations, referred to

rectangular axes, of the conicoid and plane be


a,r-

+ hjf -{.cz^=l,

Lv 4-

m y + = 0.
;

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

132

The centre
If

section.

the conicoid

of

A,

ix,

are

is

aX- + 6/x--|-cj/- =
,

also the centre

of

the

the direction-cosines of a semi-

diameter of the conicoid of length


Therefore
is on the conicoid.
.0

L^h. viii.

, 9

Hence the semi-diameters

r,

the point {\r,

fir,

vv)

^= X--\-fJ?-\-V^

of the conicoid of length r are

generators of the cone

a;>-l/r2)-h 2/^(6 -l/r2) + 02(c-l/7'2) = O

The

lines of section of the cone

(1)

and plane are the semi-

diameters of the conic of length r. Hence, if 7- is the


length of either semi-axis of the conic in which the plane
lx+my + nz = cuts the conicoid, the plane touches the
cone,

and therefore

ar2-l"^6r2-l"^cr2-l

'

or T\hd'^ + cam'^+ahv?-)-r''{{h + c)l^ + {c-\-a)m^ + {a-\-h)n^

The

roots of this quadratic in r- give the squares of the

semi-axes of the section.


If

2r

is

the length of an axis and

\,ij.,v

are the direction-

given plane touches the cone (1) along the


line xlX ylfJi zlv, and therefore is represented by the
cosines, the

equation

\x{a - l/r2) + fxy{h- l/r^) -f vz{c - l/r^) = 0.


Therefore

M^)^,(^f^^^(sf^

^3)

These determine the direction-cosines of the axis of


length

2r.

Since the extremities of the semi-diameters of length r of the


conicoid lie upon the sphere .v^+^'^ + 2' = 7-'\ the equation of the cone
through them may be obtained by making the equation to the conicoid
homogeneous by means of the equation to the sphere. Thus the cone is
^2 4-

which

is

another form of equation

(1).

7/2

4. r2

AXES OF CENTRAL SECTIONS

86]

133
conicoid

Ex. 1. Prove that the axes of the section of the


= lie on the cone
ax^ + bf + cz"-^! by the plane l.K + mi/ +

(From equations

we deduce that

(3)

Ex. 2. Prove that the cone of Ex. 1 passes through the normal to
the plane of section and the diameter to which the plane of section is
diametral plane. Prove also that the cone jmsses Uirough two sets of
conjugate diameters of the conicoid. (Cf. Ex. 6, ^ 77.)

Ex.

3.

of the axes of the conies given

Find the lengths

(ii)

A71S.

Ex.

-45

(i) -64,

4.

(ii)

3x + 4i/ + 5z=0.

'76.

3-08,

Prove that the equation of the conic


^.2

referred to

by

a;+y + z = Oi

+ 2/ + 622 = 1,
2x^+f-z^ = l,

(i) 3j;2

its

+ 2/ -222 = 1, 3x-2i/-z = 0,

principal axes,

is

approximately

l-70x^-l-71,f=l.

Ex.

5.

Prove that the lengths

ellipsoid of revolution
a,

'

ac{l^

and that the equations

+ 7/i2 + ,i2)5 {a2(^2 + ,,^2) + ^2,^2 yl^

_j/__2,
-l^O'

6.

the plane Lv+7n7/ + nz=0, are

to the axes are

m^
Ex.

of the axes of the section of the

2^+72=1, by

Prove that the area

X _ y _
nl~ mn ~~

z
-{1"^

+ m-)'

of the section of the ellipsoid

xya^+f/b'^ + zyc'^=l

by the plane lx + 7)u/ + nz =

is

^, where p

the centre to the tangent plane which

Ex.

7.

The

is

b+c

the perpendicular from

parallel to the given plane.

section of the conicoid ax'^ +

plane to the cone

is

is

bi/^

+ cz^ = l by

a tangent

-">

c+a a+h

a rectangular hyperbola.

Ex. 8. The section of a hyperboloid of one sheet by a tangent


plane to the asymptotic cone is two parallel straight lines. What is
the corresponding section of the hyperboloid of two sheets w^hich has
the same asymptotic cone ?
Ex. 9. Central sections of an elli])soid whose area
envelope a cone of the second degree.

is

constant

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

134

[ch. vni.

Ex. 10. If Ai, A2, A3 are the areas of three mutually perpendicular
central sections of an ellipsoid, Ar^ + A2~^ + A3-2 is constant.
Ex.

One

11.

of the axes of each section of the ellipsoid

by a tangent plane

What

y'- -\- z^

x"'

lies

2^ +

Prove that the axes

which pass

thi'oucrh the line

^{niz- nil) +

= -^ = -

'-

{nx -

lie

Iz)

on the cone

+ '^{kl - mx) = 0.

Axes of any section of a central

conicoid.

Let the

equations, referred to rectangular axes, of the conicoid

ax^ + hy'^ + cz^ =

plane be

Then
is

"^ ^

of sections of the conicoid

ax^ -{})}/ -\- cz^

plane

3^^

XOY

12.

87.

on the cone

the nature of the section of this cone by a plane parallel to


Sketch the form of the cone.
%

is

the plane

Ex.

to the cone

if

C, (a,

and

lx-\-my + nz =]i.

the centre of the section, the

is

y)

/3,

l,

by the equation

also represented

{x-a.)aa. + {y- ^)h^ + {z-y)cy = 0.

^ ^

Therefore

^^

Hence aHt/3Hcy'- =

The equation
through C
0.x-

or

^_y

= ^i^^!M!+^

p^^^ j)^^,^,^^ =g,

(1)

say,

to the conicoid referred to parallel axes

is

+ 6?/2 4. cz^ + 2 {aaux + h^y + cyz) + aa} + h^' + cy' -1 = 0,


ax^ + hy'^ + cz- + 2 {aoLX + h^y + cyz) k- = 0,
k^^l ,-

where

The equation
If A,

[JL,

tlrawn from

to the plane

is

IV
now

lx

+ 'my-\-i\z = 0.

are the direction-cosines of a line of length r

to the conicoid,

r\aX^ + hfi^ + cv') + 2r (aA + 1(3 fx + cyv) - /,- = 0.


If

the line lies in the given plane

= 0,
+ hjifi + cyv = 0.

l\-\-miL-\-'in'

and therefore, by

( 1 ),

(/(xX

AXES OF NON-CENTRAL SECTIONS

87]

Hence

r''(c(A'

hfi'^

ct-)

136

- 1<?{\^ + /x" + v') = 0,

and therefore the semi-diameters of


lie on the cone

tlie

section of length r

If r is the length of either semi-axis of the section, the

Therefore

plane touches the cone.

_4^ + ^+^ii_ =

(21

And, as in 86, the direction-cosines of the axis of


length 2r are given by

^(^-0

"^-^

'(^-^

111

,3,

Comparing these equations with equations

(2)

and

(8) of

86, we see that if a and /3 are the lengths of the semiaxes of the section by the plane lx + my-\-nz = 0, the
semi-axes of the section by the plane lx-\-my + nz=p are
/.a

and

Z-^,

or

^^rj^

1^^

and that the corresponding axes are parallel. We thus


have another proof for central surfaces of the proposition that parallel plane sections are similar and similarly
situated conies.

From

equations (4)

it

follows that

of the sections of a conicoid


parallel plane

if A,

\ are

the areas

by a given plane and the

through the centre, A = aJI^j, where

p, Pq are the perpendiculars from the centre to the given


Thus the area of the
plane and the parallel tangent plane.

section of the ellipsoid %i


lx

+ 'L + % = lhy

+ my+nz=2^

the plane

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1,36

[ch. viii.

The student should note that the equation to the cone through all
the lines of length r drawn from C to the conicoid would be obtained
by making the equation
ax^ + by"^ + cz^ + 2 {acuc + bfy + cyz) -k- =

homogeneous by means

of the equation x^
of the fourth degree, while for our purpose

f/^

+ z^ = r^.

It

would be

we

require a cone of the


second degree. The cone chosen passes through the lines of length r
lines
alone
need be considered.
which lie in the given plane, and these

Ex. 1, OP is a given semi-diameter of a conicoid and OA( = fj(.),


OB ( = /?), are the principal semi-axes of the section of the diametral
plane of OP. A plane parallel to AOB meets OP in C. Prove that
the principal a xes of the sectio n of the conicoid by this plane are

a.'Jl^OC'IOP\ /jVl-OC^/OP-, and deduce equations


(Take OP, OA, OB, as coordinate axes.)

(4), 87.

Ex. 2. Find the coordinates of the centre and the lengths of the
axes of the section of the ellipsoid Zx^ + Zy'^ + Qz'^ = \0 by the plane
x+i/-\-z^\.

\5'5 5/'

\l5'

If OP, OQ, OR are conjugate semi-diameters of an ellipsoid


Ex. 3.
prove that the area of the section of the ellipsoid by the plane PQR is

two-thirds the area of the parallel central section.

Ex. 4. Find the area of the


by the plane x/a + i//b + z/c = l.
Ans.

section of the ellipsoid 2 +

'jo

-^,

'^

c-

^(iV + c2a2 + a262)i


3V.3

Ex.
-2

Find the locus of the centres of sections

5.

+ r2+-^ = l whose

Ex.
X^
cut -a
(^

6.

y2

+ OA2

Prove

area

that

5^-1=0
^2

is

constant,

'\-f^At + 1 =0 which
""'

tangent planes to

^"

in ellipses of constant area

C-

^_.2

of contact on th- surface '

-2

of the ellipsoid

= 7rF).

+^ + 1-

'"

nB have

their points

7.4
'^
.

Ex. 7. Prove that the axes of the section whose centre is P are
the straight lines in which the plane of .section cuts the cone containing the normals from P.
Ex.
Ai/z

8.

Find the lengths

+ bzx-bxy^8 by

Ans.

Ex.

(i)

9,

2,

\/3

of the axes of the sections of the surface


the jjlanes {\)x+i/-z = Q, (ii) %r+y-z = 0.

(ii)

2, 2.

Prove that the axes of the section


/(.r,

;y,

z)

of

= a.v^ + hf^ + cz~ + %fy: + 2gzx + 2h.ry = 1

AXES OF SECTION OF PARABOLOID

88]

by the plane
i'*{M^...

l.v

+ m>/ + nz =

are given

13?

b,y

+ 2Fmn...)+r'^{f(l,m,7i)-(a + h + c)(l- + m'^ + n-)}

where A = bc -/-, etc.


Prove also that the axes are the

which the plane cuts the cone

lines in

(mz - HTj) ^^, + {nx -lz)^ + {^ - mx) ^_ = 0.

Ex.

Prove that the axes

10.

by the plane

lx + mi/

+ nz=p

are given

^1

ap^h--+p^

of the section of the cone

by

'2}-

=0

!i!

'

cp^-r-+p^

bpo^+p^

where ^o^ = ^ + '-^ + 788.

Axes of a given section of a paraboloid.

If the

equations to the plane and the paraboloid are

the centre of the section, (a,

aa._bl3

Whence

aa.-

+ b^-

(3,

y), is

given by

_l _ aoL^ -f &/3^ y
n

2y= -^

--

Changing the origin

to

(rx,

/3,

^=

-f^

say.

y) and proceeding as in

v, the direction-cosines of a semi 87, we find that X,


diameter of length r of the section, satisfy the equation
/ul,

The semi-diameters are therefore the

lines in

which the

plane cuts the cone


x" (an'-r'- -po')

Hence the lengths

+ irQmh^- -p)^^) - z^pi = 0.

of the axes are given

an^r^-p^^^bn^r--'p^-

by

]:>^-

or
dbn^'r'^

- n-r%^{(a

-\-

b) n-

+ am" + bl-} + p^^Q- + m--\-n~) = 0,

and the direction cosines by


\(aii^r^
I

p,^')_/uib}} -r- p,^") _


~

vp,^

COORDINATE GEOMETHY

138

Ex.

1.

2?;^+y2 = 2

[ch. viit.

Find the lengths of the axes of the section of the paraboloid


by the plane ^ + 23/ + 2=4.
Ans. 5-28, 1-68.

plane section through the vertex of the paraboloid of


Ex. 2.
revolution x'^+^'^ = 2az makes an angle 6 with the axis of the surface.
Prove that its principal axes are a cot ^cosec 0, n cot 0.

Ex. 3. Prove that the axes of the section of the paraboloid


by the plane l.v+mf/ + = are given by
ft6,.i 1 4ah-Hhn^n'^ - AaH'^m^P + vf- + n^) = 0.

Ex.
',+'{t,

As.

4.

= 2z

Find the locus


which are

x7/

= az

of the centres of sections of the paraboloid

of constant area ttP.

aV{;^4 + l){$4-^^)

=^.

Ex. 5. Given that the radius of curvature at a point P of a conic


whose centre is C is equal to CD^ /a.f3, where oc and (3 are the axes and
is the semi-diameter conjugate to CP, tind the radius of curvature
at the origin of the conic ax^ + bi/'^ = 2z, lx+my + nz = 0.

CD

Ans. {P + ni^f {am^ + hP)-^ (P + m^ + 2)-*.

Ex. 6. Planes are drawn thi'ough a fixed point (a., f3, y) so that
their sections of the paraboloid ax^ + bi/- = 2z are rectangular hyperbolas.

Prove that they touch the cone

(y-f3f ^{z-yy^Q_

(x--a.y
^

CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
89.

If

F = 0,

the equation to a conieoid, can be thrown

+ \uv = 0, where S^O is the equation to a


u = 0, v = represent planes, the common points

into the form S

sphere and

of the conieoid

and planes

lie

the sections of the conieoid


90.

The

on the sphere, and therefore

by the planes

circular sections of

tion, referred to

an

are circles.

ellipsoid.

The equa-

rectangular axes, of the ellipsoid,

a^

b-

can be written in the forms

e-

CIRCULAR SECTIONS

g 89-92]

139

Hence the planes

cut the ellipsoid in circles of radii

a'^b'^c, only the second


planes,

a, h, c respectively.

If

of these equations gives real

and therefore the only real central circular sections


through the mean axis, and are given

of the ellipsoid pass

by the equations

~c

Since parallel plane sections are similar and similarly


situated conies, the equations

91.

Any

not parallel

'^

give circular sections for

all

values of X and

jul.

hvo circtdar sections of an ellipsoid which are


lie on a sphere.

The equation

\a

/.'(^

+ 1^ + ?: - 1) +
J\a

represents a conicoid which passes through the sections,

and

if

k=

Ir,

the equation becomes

x~-^y- + z^

^-^

x+

^^

+ X^i 6- = 0,

which represents a sphere.


92.

Circular

method

of 90,

sections

of the

we deduce

hyperboloids.

sections of the hypei'boloids


/yi2

/ii2

ty2.

By

the

that the real central circular

r,^^

ny-

/^-^

COOEDINATE GEOMETEY

146

(i)

[ch. viii.

by

are given

y^^-^J^^+^^=Q,

The radius

ot*

(ii)

y'^fFyb''yw^^=o.

the central circular sections of the hyper-

boloid of one sheet

The planes given by

is a.

~c

do not meet the hyperboloid of two sheets in any real


Thej^ are the planes through the centre parallel
to systems of planes which cut the surface in real circles.
points.

Ex.

1.

Prove that the section of the hyperboloid


^ r

the plane -

si a-

+ ^^ + -

Ex. 2. Find the


a;2+2/ + 6s"" = 8.
Ex.

3,

real

is

central

5.

*-^

ci^

f^i

-'/s
f^i

s=l bv
^i

+ c^.

sections

the ellipsoid
Ans. x^--iz" = 0.

of

+ 35-5 = 0, 2^-32 + 7 =
which

in circles

lie

meet
on the sphere

+ 3^ + 322 + 4^ + 362- 110 = 0.

Ex.

2.r

Prove that the radius of the

cuts the ellipsoid

>

real if A^

circular

- .r^ + 3_y2 + 1 222 = 75


3.^2

4.

- c'^ = X

Prove that the planes

the hyperboloid

Ex.

-s/i'^

',

circle in whicli the

plane

+ r^+,= 1

is

h'SJl

5
r,-

Find the locus of the centres of spheres of constant radius

k which cut the ellipsoid -2+


Ans. W = 0, ,

/2+^~ ^

z^

.r;2

TV,-,-:;

^" ^ P^^'^ ^^ circles.

(Use

91.)

Jc^

7=1-7T,-

Ex. 6. Chords of the ellipse x-la-+^-lb- = l, 2 = 0, are drawn so as


to make equal angles with its axes, and on them as diameters circles
Prove that these
are described whose planes are parallel to OZ.
circles generate the ellipsoid 2b'iv" + 2a^i/'^ + {a^ + b''^)z" = 2a^b~.
93.

Circular

sections

of

any central

conicoid.

equation of the form


f(x, y, z)

= ax" -\- hf + cz^ + 2///c + 2r/c.r +

-21)

xy = 1

An

SECTIONS OF CENTRAL CONICOIDS

92,93]

represents a central conieoid.


f{x, y,

Hence

It

may

be written

^)-A(^- + 2/- + s2) + a(..^ + |/- + 5--^)


/(,c, y,

if

141

= 0.

z)-\{x'-^y^+Z') = Q

represents a pair of planes, these planes cut the conieoid in

For a pair

circles.

of planes

a \,

h,

h,

b-\,

9>

/>

f
c-X

This equation gives three values of


later,

mean
Ex.

145, that these are alv^ays


value gives real planes.
Find the

1.

It will be

A.

real,

proved

and that only the

real central circular sections of the conieoid


3.r2

+ 5/ + 3s2 + 2jP3 = 4.

The equation may be written


4. 5_y2 + 3^2 + 2xz - X(x^
+f + 22) + X{x" +f + Z')-A = 0.
+ 5i/^ + 3z^ + 2xz-X{x^+^^ + z^)=0 represents a pair of planes,
A3-lU2 + 38X-40 = 0, or A = 2, 4, or 5. For these values of A the
3.^.2

If 3x^

equation to the planes becomes


(.r

The

+ 2y- + 3/ = 0, (.v-zy-f = 0,

equations

Ex.

x'^-.vz

+ z^ = 0.
A=4

real circular sections correspond therefore to

Find the equations

2.

and

ha'-e

x-z+y = 0, x-z-y^^.
to the real

central

circular sections

of the conicoids,
142.r - lO.ry + 27 = 0,
+ 5/ + 222 -yz- 4z.v -xy + 4 = 0,
(iii) 6.-<^ + 1 3^2 + 622 - 10^2 + 4zx -I0xy = l.
{.v-2y-5z)(3.i'-4y + z) = 0,
{.v+y + z){2x-y + 2z) = 0,
2{.v + zf - 1 Oy{x + z) + dy- = 0.
(i)

5?/2

- 8^2 + 18^2 -

(ii) 2j72

Atis.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Ex.

3.

Find the equations to the circular sections of the conieoid

Ans. - + T + - = A,

ax + hu
+ cz==ii.
"^

142

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

Ex.

[en. viii.

Find the conditions that the equations

4.

/(.r,

i/,z)\^

Ix + m^ + nz

should determine a circle.


The equation /(.r, y, z)-k{x^+f+z^)=^0 is to represent two planes,
one of which is the given plane. Therefore

- k{x- +y' + z') = {U + my + j)|(a

f{x, y, z)

Whence, comparing
,

- A) | + (6

coefficients of yz^ zx, xy,

- A)| + (c - A)| |.

we obtain

_ i?i2 + cm- 2finu _ d- + a?i- - ^goil _ am^ + bP - 2hlm

("We assume here that I, m, n are all different from zero. If 1 = 0,


the conditions become (A a), gr = /i = 0, (c-a)m'^-2fmn + {b-a)n'^ = 0.)
94.

Circular sections of the paraboloids.

ax^ + hy" = 2z

may

The equation

be written in the forms,

-^-y\a-h)-az'- =

(),

ax" + 62/2 - (0 vT.2 + 0.7/2 + 0.^2 + 2s) =

0.

afx^ + y^^ + z^

Hence if a^^^^O, x\a b) = bz^ represents real planes


which meet the paraboloid in circles, and the systems of
circular sections are given by

xja b + z\/b = \,
If,

however, a or

those given

by ax^ + by- = 0.
0-a;2

is

ijL.

the only real planes are

The equation

+ 0-2/2 + 0.;2H 20 =

the limiting form of


hx^ +

as

xJa b Zsfb =

b is negative,

k,

hf^lc{z +

^J^

tends to zero, and therefore the sphere containing

the circular sections

is

in this case of infinite radius,

circular sections are circles of infinite radius,

They

lines.

i.e.

and the
straight

are the straight lines in which the plane

cuts the surface, ( 79).


Ex.
Ans.

Ex.

1,

Find the

circular se^-'-'ons of the paraboloid

.7;-

+ 10j2 = 2y.

y3z = \.
2.

Find the radius

cuts the paraboloid

53.i'-

of the oircle in

+ 4y" = 8z.

which the plane 7.i- + 2z =


A m. r- = ^^Y.

r-)

UMBILICS

94,951
95.

The

Umbilics.

centres of a

143
series of parallel plane

upon a diameter of the conicoid


and the tangent plane at an extremity of the diameter is
If, therefore, P and P' (fig. 40)
parallel to the plane sections.
are the extremities of the diameter which passes through
the centres of a system of circular sections of an ellipsoid,
the tangent planes at P and P' are the limiting positions
of the cutting planes, and P and P' may be regarded as
sections of a conicoid

lie

circular sections of zero radius.

circular section of zero

Pig. 40.

radius

called

is

an

It is evident

umbilic.

from the form

of the hyperboloid of one sheet that the smallest closed

section

is

the principal elliptic section and that

tlio

surface

has therefore no real umbilics.

To find
If P,
is

(^,

umbilics of the ellipsoid

the

^)

}],

is

-2

+ ^ + -2 = l-

an umbilic, the diametral plane of OP

a central circular section.

represent the same plane.

Therefore the equations

Hence

since

^+M=i,

and therefore

+ ,,,/,72irp
>7

= 0,

^=

+ejb^'^'

These give the coordinates of the four umbilics.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

144

The

unibilics of the hyperboloid of

a^

Bx.

1.

two sheets

cr

by

are real and given

i=

h"

[ch. viii.

'

Ja^ + c^

'Jo?

Prove that the umbilics


A'2

+y'^

+ c^

of the ellipsoid lie on the sphere

+ z^ = d^

Ir' -\-

C^.

Ex. 2. Prove that the perpendicular distance from the centre to


the tangent plane at an unibilic of the ellipsoid is acjb.

Ex.
(g

3.

Prove that the central circular sections of the conicoid


z"- = 1
are at right angl es and t hat the umbilics

- 6) A-^ + ay"^ + {a + b)

are given

by

x=

^+^

-\/

= o,

2- J-JLzJL-.
9^2

Ex.

4.

Prove that the umbilics

0/2

a+o + a

of the conicoid -^--t

^2
-\

ao
z;

=l

are the extremities of the equal conjugate diameters of the ellipse

a+b

Ex.

a>b,

5.

a-

Prove that the umbilics of

are (o,

b\.'d^-,

the paraboloid

a-

62^

b'^

Ex. 6. Deduce the coordinates


from the result of Ex. 4, 92.

of the umbilics of the elli

* Examples V.
1.

Prove that

if

Aj,

fx^, Vj

Ag,

v^ are

/X2,

the direction-cosines of the

axes of any plane section of the ellipsoid "^+|2+^^ = 1,

2.

If Ai, ^2, A3; 81, 82? S3

ellipsoids

^ + 1-2+^2 =

^^

-"2

3i'6

the areas of the sections of the

^+^=

1' ^^y

^^^'^^

conjugate diametral

planes of the former,


A,^

A2^
"^

8l2
3.

If Aj, A2,

832

A3^

a252,2/^2

S32 -o,2/32.y2\,2

/32

^2

2X

+ ,,2/

A3 are the areas of the sections of the ellipsoid


a^

b^

c^

EXAMPLES

^95]

by the diametral planes


diameters of lengths r,, r.,,

r.^,

Through a given point

4.

mutually perpendicular semi-

three

of

145

V.

(r^, /?,

y) planes are

drawn

that the

sum

of the ratios of the areas of the sections

Prove that the areas of the sections

5.

the ellipsoid

^+l2 + ^i=^

= ^ = f are^i^,

,1

r,

11
,

the plane

^"^^, where

Ix

which
^i, r^

-f

and

least area

through the fixed

are the axes of the section

line

by

?'2

-^-1
+ my

nz

^
0.

Prove that the systems of circular sections

6.

B'^

of greatest

pass

Shew

by these planes

2~7^~72"
a?

to the areas of the parallel diametral planes is 3

of

parallel to

conjugate diametral planes of the ellipsoid "-2+'/2+'2^^-

tliree

ax^ + bi/'^

+ cz^ = 0,

of the cone

a>b>c,

are given by x'\la-bz\Jb-c===k, and that these also give circular


sections of the cone (a + /i.).6'2 + (6 + ju,)?/2 + (c + |u,)22 = 0.
7. Any tangent plane to a cone cuts the cyclic planes in lines
equally inclined to the generator of contact.

Any pair

o f tan gent plan es to the cone ax^-\-by^+cz^^Q cuts the


in lines which lie upon a right
planes x\Ja- bz\'b-c =
circular tone whose axis is at right angles to the ))lane of contact.
8.

cyclic

The plane

9.

'

-+/ + - = 1
a

cuts a series of central conicoids whose

principal planes are the coordinate planes in rectangular hyperbolas.


Shew that the pole of the plane with respect to the conicoids lies on a
cone whose section by the given plane is a circle.

OP, OQ, OR are conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid, axes


and S is the foot of the perpendicular from O to the plane PQR.
that the cone whose vertex is S and ba.se is the section of the
ellipsoid by the diametral plane parallel to the plane PQR has
10.

a, b,

c,

Shew

constant volume irabcj^slz.


11.

If

two cones have the same systems of circular sections, their


planes touch them along perpendicular generators.

common tangent

?-2

12.

The normals

tfi

to the ellipsoid '-2+"r2 +

z"^

~i

=^

'*^

central circular section are parallel to a plane that


'

with the section.


b\Ufi-l)^-\-c'

*''

points of a

makes an angle

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

146
13.
6i,

d-i

[ch. viii.

If rj, 7-2 are the axes of a central section of an ellipsoid, and


the angles between the section and the circular sections,

sin^,.sin^2-^.(^.~;^.)'
where a and

are the greatest and

Through a

14.

the hyperboloid

fixed point

which

^ + p- i = l

are

least axes of the ellipsoid.


is

the pole of a circular section of

drawn planes cutting the

surface

Shew that the centres of these hyperbolas


in rectangular hyperbolas.
lie on a fixed circle whose plane is parallel to one system of circular
sections.
The

15.

locus of the centres of sections of the cone ax^ + bi/^ + cz^=0,


sum of the squares of their axes is constant, ( = F), is

such that the


the conicoid

The area

16.

Shew

constant.

of a central section of the ellipsoid

that the axes of the section

lie

-2+f2
on the cone

+^= ^

^^

y'^^(c!^z_a^-^lY^^
a*

c2

62

?/

where p is the distance from the centre


any of the planes of section.
17.

Prove that the tangents at the vertices to the parabolic sections

cf the conicoid ax'^ +

bi/'''

+ cz^ = l

are parallel to generators of the cone

z^

ifi

.r2

18.

of a tangent plane parallel to

Prove that the normals to central sections of the ellipsoid


,.2

,,2

-2

=
+ Ir + ^
a^
c-f,

which are

of given eccentricity

a26V(e2 -

e,

lie

l,

on the cone

+y2 + 22)(^2^2 + 52_^2 + ^2^2)


= (1 - e2){a2(i2 + c2).r2 + 52(c2 + a^y/ + c2(a2 + ly^yf

2)2(.r2

Find the locus of the centres of sections of eccentricity


19.

Prove that the normal at any point P of an

e.

ellipsoid is
/ji*Z

of

some plane section

and P

is

where p
at P.

the point

is

(.r',

of the ellipsoid.
?/,

z'\

an axis

/ji/2

If the ellipsoid is -2'^'p +

shew that the length

of the axis

^2

~2~^

is

the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane

EXAMPLES

cii. viii.J

20.
x'^la'^

The normal

V.

1-17

section of an enveloping cylinder of the ellipsoid

+ i/jl)^+z-jc^=]

contact of

tlie

has a given area ttR Prove that the plane of


cylinder and ellipsoid touches the cone
y-

x^

21.

z^

Prove that the locus of the

paraboloid

,r-

+ %"-' = 25
ah{:lz

foci of parabolic sections of the

is

- hf){ax'^ + hi/'^) = a^.i- + 6-/.

a.v'

Prove that the equation to a conicoid referred to the tangent


plane and normal at an uinbilic as .r_y-plane and i-axis is
22.

a (.i'2 +3/2) + cz^ + 9,fyz + 2gzx + ^ivz = 0.


If a variable sphere be described to touch a given conicoid at an
umbilic, it meets the conicoid in a circle whose plane moves parallel
to itself as the radius of the sphere varies.
23.

If

through the centre of the ellipsoid

'\+p + ^ = l

pei'-

pendicular is drawn to any central section and lengths equal to the


axes of the section are marked off along the perpendiculai', the locus
of their extremities is given by

wherer^ = x^ + 7/^ + z\
24.

(The locus

is

the Wave Swface.)

Prove that the asymptotes of sections

of the conicoid

+ bf- + cz- = \
x = k, = lie on

a.v^

which pass through the

line

7/

{ax(.v- k) + bfr-+cz'^{a(x -

the surface

hy + hr} = 0.

If the section of the cone whose vertex is P, (a, /3, y) and base
is a circle, then P lies on the
ax^ + bi/^ = \, by the plane x =
conic = 0, ax'^-bz^ = 'l, and the section of the cone by the plane
25.

= 0,

,?/

(a
is

also a circle.

- b) yx - 2aa.z

[cn. IX

CHAPTER

IX.

GENERATING

LINES.

In cones and cylinders we have


96. Ruled surfaces.
examples of surfaces which are generated by a moving

Such surfaces are

straight line.
shall

now prove

called ruled surfaces.

We

that the hyperboloid of one sheet and the

hyperbolic paraboloid are ruled surfaces.

The equation |^ + p-^ = l. which represents a hyperboloid of one sheet,

Whence

it

may

be written,

appears that the hyperboloid

straight lines

is

the locus of the

whose equations are

^r^'+l) H4(-f)^

<^>

It is obviously
ix are variable parameters.
so that the equations
impossible to assign values to X and
Hence the
(1) become identical with the equations (2).

where X and

ij.

equations give two distinct systems of

lines,

no member of

As X
one coinciding with any member of the other.
assumes in turn all real values the line given by the
equations (1) moves so as to completely generate the hyperboloid.

Similarly,

moves, as

jn

the line given by the equations (2)

varies, so as to generate the hyperboloid.

hyperboloid of one sheet

is

The

therefore a ruled surface and

GENERATING LINES

96]

149

can be generated in two ways by the motion of a straight


line.

(See

tig.

41.)

In like manner the equation

which represents a liyperbolic paraboloid,

may

be written

Fig. 41.

Whence

it

is

evident that the paraboloid

either of the variable lines given

fx

The hyperbolic paraboloid

is

the locus of

by

(I

is

therefore a ruled surface

COUKDiJNATE GEOMETRY

150

[cu. ix.

and can be generated in two ways by the motion of a


straight

(See

line.

fig.

42.)

The generating

1.

CP,

CQ are

any conjugate diameters

x^la^+fl = \,

are

- + r = 0.

parallel to one of the fixed planes

Ex.

lines

of the eUipse

= c.

\
C'P', C'Q' are the conjugate diameters of the ellipse x"-\a^Ar}hV^
and CQ. Prove that the
-c, drawn in the same directions as

CP

i=

" =1 ^^ generated by either PQ' or P'Q.


+t^ ^
on the parabola ^ = 0, cx"^ = 2a\ is (2a?H 0, ^c',n'\
A point, "

hyperboloid

Ex.

2.

^^2

jft,"

and a point, "," on the parabola x=Q, af= -^hh, is (0, 26^, -2ch^).
Find the locus of the lines joining the points for which, (i) m=?,
(ii)

n.

Ans. -^

Section of a ruled surface by the tangent plane at


Since a hyperboloid of one sheet or a liyperbolic
paraboloid is generated completely by each of two systems
97.

a point.

of straight lines, there pass through


of the surface,

two generating

lines,

any point

meets the surface at P

in,

coincident points, and therefore the lines

lie

Each

of

these

P, (fig.

43),

one from each system.


at least,

two

in the tangent

g96,97]

SECTION OF CONICOID BY TANGENT PLANE

plane at

P.

throut^li

the generators which pass throu<;li

The tangent plane at P

is

151

therefore the plane


P.

But any

a conic, and therefore the


section of the surface by the tangent plane at P is the
conic composed of the two generating lines through P.
plane section of the surface

It follows

that

if

is

a straight line AB

lies

wholly on the

must belong to one of the systems of generating


For AB meets any generating line PQ in some point
lines.
But
P, and AB and PQ both lie in the tangent plane at P.

conicoid

it

the section of the surface by the tangent plane at P consists of the two generators through P, and therefore AB

must be one of the generators.


Again any plane through a generating line is the tangent
plane *at some point of the generating line. For the locus
of points common to the surface and plane is a conic, and
the generating line is obviously part of the locus. The
locus must therefore consist of two straight lines, or the
plane must pass through the given generating line and a
second generating line which meets it. It is therefore the
tangent plane at the point of intersection.
The intersection of a cone or cylinder with a tangent
plane consists of two coincident generators.
conicoids can therefore be divided into

two

The ruled

classes according

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

152

as

tlie

[en. ix.

generators in which any tangent plane meets them

are distinct or coincident.

If the generators are distinct

the tangent planes at different points of a given generator


are different, (see

If the generators are coincident,

fig. 43).

the same plane touches the surface at

all

points of a given

generator.
98.

//'

three points of

a straight line

lie

on a conicoid

the straight line lies wholly on the conicoid.

The coordinates of any point on the hne through (a, /3, y),
whose direction-ratios are I, m, n, are a + Zr, (B+mr, y-\-nr.
The condition that this point should lie on the conicoid
F{x, y, 0) = O may be written, since F{x, y, z)
second degree, in the form
Ar- + 2Br + C
three points

If

equation

A = B = C = 0.
values of

r,

of the

= 0.

lie

on the conicoid, this


of r, and therefore

by three values

satisfied

is

the line

of

is

The equation is therefore satisfied by all


and every point of the line lies on the

conicoid.
99.

To find

the conditions that

a given

straight line

shoidd he a generator of a given conicoid.


Let the equations to the conicoid and line be
ax}-\-hy"-\-cz^
oi

(*-

r^(al-

ni

The point on the


the conicoid

l,

_ y ^ _z y
line,

{oL

+ lr,

^-\-mr,

y + '/tr),

on

lies

if

+ hm^ + en-)

-f-

2r(acx.l

+ h(im + cyn

+ oo- + h^- + c'y- -1=0.


If this equation is

the

conicoid,

and

an identity, the

is

line lies

wholly on

a generator of the conicoid.

The

required conditions are tlierefore


aoc2

+ 6/3- +(y

=1,

acd + h^m + cyii^O,


al^

+hm^ +c2 =0

(1)
(2)

(3)

97-99]

THE

GENE11AT(,)R.S

THROUGH A POINT

153

Equation (1) is the condition that (a, 0, y) .sliould lie


on the surface equation (2) shews that a generatin^r line
must lie in the tangent plane at any point (a, 0, y) on
and from (3) it follows that the parallels througli the
it
;

centre to the generating lines generate the asymptotic cone

The

equations

tliree

(1),

any

shew^ that through

(2), (3)

y) of a central conicoid two straight lines can


be drawn to lie wholly on the conicoid, the direction-ratios
By
of these lines being given by equations (2) and (3).
point (a,

/3,

we have

Lagrange's identity,

(aP + 6m2)(aa2
whence, by

bjS")

- {acd + h^mf = ab{a.m - 01f

(1), (2), (3),

-cn'^ = ah(a.m-/3lf

The values

of

have opposite

signs,

the quantities

a, h, c

(4)

are therefore real only

if

ah and

which can only be the case if two of


are positive and one is negative. The

only ruled central conicoid is therefore the hyperboloid of


one sheet. From equations (2) and (4) we deduce the
direction-ratios of the generators through (a, 0,y),

Similarly, the conditions that the line

x OL_ y
~~
I

_
y
~ n

should be a generator of the paraboloid


a2-f?;/3-

ax'~

-^hif = 1z are,

= 2y,

(1)

Md-\-h0m-n^K)

(2)

oP-^Ur^^

(3)

Equation (3) is satisfied by


a and h have opposite signs.

real values of

vi

only

if

The only ruled paraboloid

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

154
is

The

therefore the liyperbolic paraboloid.

of the generating lines through


I

(oc, /3,

[ch. ix.

direction-ratios

y) are given by

7)1

The following examples should be solved

in

two ways, (i) by


by means of the

factoi'ising the equation to the surface as in 96, (ii)


conditions in 99.

Ex.

Find the equations

1.

^+^-:^=l

to the generating lines of the hyperboloid

which pass through the points

(2, 3,

-4),

(2,

-1,

*).

____^__^, _________

Ans.

z-^

2 _ y + _g-f
x-2 _
^
3~6~10*
0~3~"4'

rEx.

2.

t/-^l

Find the equations to the generating lines of the hyperboloid


= Q which pass through the point (-1, 0, 3).

yz-\-'izx+Zx(/ + Q
|>.-

+ 2^.r+3^^ + 6^(3/ + 2)(0 + 3) + (2.- + .3^)(.i- 1).]

x+\ y 2-3

Ex.

3.

^+"y^-^ = l which
Ans.

a sin

a.

of the hyperboloid

pass through the point (a cos a, 6 sin

II -h sin a.
x a cos OL ='^,
=

Find the equations to the generators

-b cos a

a.,

0).

Find the equations to the generating lines of the paraboloid


{x-\-i/+z){c-\-y z) = hz which pass through the point (1, 1, 1).
Ex.

4.

x-\ y-\ 2-1

x\ y-\ 2-1

THE SYSTEMS OF GENERATING


100.

We

shall call the

LINES.

systems of generating lines of the

hyperboloid of one sheet which are given by the equations

?+? = x(l+f> ?-?=l(l-f);

(1)

?_?=^(i+a
5+=='(i-f)
bJ
\
bJ
a c
a c

(2)

'

jji\

the X-system and //-system, respectively.

THE SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS

99-102]
101.

same system

N^o ttvo generators of the

For the equations

(1)

+ -c = 0,

'^-^ = 0,

which are obviously

intersect.

and

a^o '^V^bJ' a
lead to

155

h)

1-^ = 0,

+ b = 0,

X\

5-

inconsistent.

are any points on any generator of the


Otherwise, if P and
)a-system and tlie generators of the A-systeui through P and
intersect at R, then the plane PQR meets the hyperboloid in the sides
of a triangle.
This is impossible, since no plane section of a conicoid
is of higher degree than the second.

102.

Any

generator of the X-syste7n intersects

rator of the jUL-system.


From the equations (1) and

"

JUL

gene-

(2),

^_ iV
b
a c _a c_

^+!
\

any

i+fb

\/U

Whence, adding and subtracting numerators and denominators,

X _\-\- fl
a 1+X//'

?/_! A./"
l+A/z'

_\

JUL

+ X/i'

These determine the point of intersection.

The equations

^^^(l+!)+^{^^xO-f)}=
^^''0+!)+'|^^K^-!)}="

(>

both reduce to

l(\

+ fi) + l{l-\fJi)-l{\-/ui) = l+\fi,

k = l/k' = \/jUL.

But equation

(5)

(5) represents the

tangent

plane at the point of intersection of the generators.

Hence

ii"

the plane through two intersecting generators

plane at their
If,

common

in equation (3),

point.

is

(Cf.

is

the tangent

97.)

given, the equation represents

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

156

a given plane through the generator.


equation (5)
through a generating line

reduces

to

if
is

/x

A//i;.

[ch. ix.

But the equation


Hence any plane

a tangent plane.

Discuss the intersection of the A-generator through P with


the /Lt-generator through P' when P and P' are the extremities of a
diameter of the principal elliptic section.

Ex.

To find the locus of


Perpendicular generators.
perpendicular generators.
The direction-cosines of the X- and //-generators are
103.

the points of intersection of

given by, (42),

_^m/b_ n/c

Ija

l/a

_mlb _

n/c

The condition that the generators should be


angles

a'-^(X2_ I)(;x2

which

at right

is

may

_ l) + 46-^X// -c2(A'2 + l)(/>t- + 1) = 0,

be written

a\\ + juy+h%l-\fJif + c\\-/jif = {a'^ + -c^)(l+\fjif,


and shews that their point of intersection

+
+ X/X

,{\
(ctC
I 1

lies

hil-\^)

/ji)
'

+ X//

c(X-//)\
'

XjUL J

on the director sphere


x^-

The

locus

is

+ y^-\-z^- = a^ + h^~-c^

therefore the curve of intersection of the

hyperboloid and the director sphere.


Or if PQ, PR are perpendicular generators and PN is normal at P,
by 102 the planes PQR, PNQ, PNR are mutually perpendicular
tangent planes, and therefore P lies on the director sphere.
104.

The projections of the generators of a hyperboloid

on a principcd plane are tangents

to

the section of the

hyperboloid by the principal plane.

The

XOY

projections of the X-

are given

by

and //-generators on the plane

whicli

SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS

TTTE

102-104]

may

Whence

ir>7

be written

tlie

envelope of the projections

,=0,

the ellipse

is

^:=i-f-:.
0^
a-

Similarly, the projections on the planes YOZ,

ZOX

touch

the corresponding principal sections.

The above equations to the projections are identical if


Hence equal values of the parameters give two
generators wdiich project into the same tangent to the
= 0, x'^la"-\-y^/b^=l. The point of intersection, P,
ellipse
of the generators given hy \ = = t k, hy 102,
X = ^.

iix

i.e. is

fore

(a cos a, h sin a,

the

point

eccentric angle

where

= tan

(^^

j-

is

there-

whose
on the
a, and the generators project into the
principal

elliptic

section

is

tangent
z=

0),

.,

-cosa+|sina=l,

i),

(%.

44).

From 103, the direction- cosines of the A-generator are


proportional to
2X
X'-
h
^"x-^+i
or, since

X'+l

X = tanf^-^j, a sin a, -6cos.; -c.

Therefore the equations to the X-generator through P are


a;

acosa_ y ^sina _ z
~ h cos a, c
sin a.
rt

Similarly, the equations to the />t-generator are

x a cos a _ y 6sinoc _ z
h cos (x c
a sin a
Ex. Prove that the generators given hy X = t, ix= - Ijt are parallel,
and that they meet the principal elliptic section in the extremities of
a diameter.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

158
105.

Let P and Q,

(fig. 44),

[en. IX.

be the points on the principal

whose eccentric angles are a. and /3. Then


A-generator through P intersects the /z-generator

elliptic section

the

through

at the point, R,

a
X = tan

where

X+M
l+A/x

Whence

Now

and

2;

.4

'l

'i+Am'

x_rx^

+ A/x/'

tan(^j-2^

the coordinates of R are

the coordinates of any point on the hyperboloid

can be expressed in the form

a cos Q sec
therefore

if

is

h sin

(p,

the point

;+a
0:

or

0-\.(p

Similarly,

it

may

"

sec 0,

and

tan

= /3^

= ^--^-

0-(p = oL.

be shewn that the //-generator tlirough

P intersects the A-generator through

0, 0,"

at the point "0,

<p."

Suppose now that P remains fixed while Q varies, so that


is constant and (3 variable.
R then moves along a fixed

EXAMTLES ON THE TfVPERBOLOID

105]

159

generator of the A-system, and in any position

</)

(/..

on a generator of the A-systeni


is
constant.
Similarly, by supposing Q to remain fixed and
P to vary, we can prove that for points on a given generator

Hence

for points

of the //-system

Ex.

1.

0=0, Ex.

If

is

" $,

is

(fig. 44),

(ji,"

cos ^-f-"^ sin ^ = cose/),

2.

The equations

x a cos

3.

If {a cos 9 sec

shew that the equations

and deduce that 6-4> = ol,

to

</>

__y

- 6 sin ^ sec

b co9.{d

(f>

4>)

generating line

</>"

are

+f

are

(fi

_z-c, tan

h sin 6 sec 0, c tan 0)

c/),

PQ

+ = fS.

to the generating lines through " 0,

sec

asin(6'0)
Ex.

constant.

is

a point on

the

-+f = A 1+1), ^-^=^


bj
a c
\
bJ a c X\ 1-f),
prove
that tan llx = _Z_ and hence shew that for points
of a given
"^
^
^
2
1+A'
generator of the A-system 6 cfiis constant.

Ex.

4.

Prove that the equations

;y_cos^sin0

0_sin^cos0

a~ cos {6+'(f>y 6~cosY^+0)'

c~cos(B+~(f))

i'_cos{d-<f))

determine a hyperboloid of one sheet, that


a given generator of one system, and that
on a given generator of the other system.

(The equation

to the surface

is

is
(ft

constant for points on


constant for points

is

'^--r~ = \.j

Ex. 5. Find the locus of R if P and Q are the extremities of


conjugate diameters of the principal elliptic section.

We

have 0-(j) = a.,


of the planes z= r.
Ex.

6.

+ = rx.-^, whence 0= i-, "nd R


<)i

lies in

one

Prove also that R P- + RQ- = a- + 6- + 2cK

If A and A' are the extremities of the major axis of tlie


principal elliptic section, and any generator meets two generators of
the same svstem throui^li A and A' respectively in P and P', prove
that AP. A'P' = ?;- + r2.

Ex.

7.

Ex.

8.

Prove

also that the planes APP', A'PP' cut either of the

real central circular sections in perpendicular lines.

Ex.
lateral

9.

If four generators of the liyperboloid

whose vertices are "

6r, 4'r"

r=l,

2, 3, 4,

form a skew quadriprove that

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

160

Ex.

[CH. IX.

Interpret the equation

10.

P, {x\ y\ z') is a point on the hypeiboloid.


[The equation represents the pair of planes through the origin and

where

the generators that intersect at {x\

y', 2').]

Ex. 11. Prove that the generators through any point P on a


hyperboloid are parallel to the asymptotes of the section of the hyperboloid by any plane which is parallel to the tangent plane at P.

i^

Ex. 12. Prove that the angle between the generators through
given by
^(,.2_,,2_52 ,2)

where p
P and

at

is

the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane


P from the centre.

r is the distance of

Ex. 13. All parallelepipeds which have six of their edges along
generators of a given hyperboloid have the same volume.
If PQRS is one face of the parallelepiped and P, P'
Q, Q' R, R'
S, S' are opposite corners, we may have the edges PS, RP', S'R' along
generators of one system and the edges SR, P'S', R'P along generators
The tangent planes at S and S' are therefore
of the other system.
PSR, P'S'R', and are parallel, and therefore SS' is a diameter.
Let P, S, R be (.rj, y^, z{),
Similarly, PP' and RR' are diameters.
Then the volume of the parallelepiped is
{x^, y^, z^), (x^, ys, 23).
tetrahedron
OPSR, (O is the centre).
of
the
twelve times the volume
Denoting it by V, we have
;

V=2

-2abc\/-l

.2abc'J

6'

V-

b'

sj-c^

-\
^OC^X^

2^1^3

^^
/>-.

But

ana, since R' and


plane at R,

Therefore

7^

^2

^2

0/
,

,V1

^2

/^

^X.,X^

-)-

q1

^1

V-_2__2

lL = l

>

or

V-^3
^ a-

'

are on the tangent plane at P, and

V - 2a6cV^f - Af=Aabc.
(

_|

'

S on

the tangent

TIIK

106]

GENERATORS OF THE PAKABOLOID

161

Find the Inous of the corners Q and Q' wliicli arc not
Ex. 14.
the given hvpcrlidloid.
Since QS and PR bi.sect one another, Q is the point
('
'i

and hence

lies

-' +

'':!
.

y - y2 +
1

The systems

106.

- ~2 + h\

^1

on the liyperboloid

a-

paraboloid.

.'/s

oii

We

generators

of

shall

t-

CI-'

now

of the

the

state

hyperbolic

results

for

the

hyperbolic paraboloid -^ j^ = 2z correspond! no- to those

which we have proved for the hyperboloid.


as an exercise for the student.
The point of intersection of the generators

Their proof

is left

= 2A,
5-f
a

2 + = ,f
a f \

5 + 1 = 2;,.

=
?-f
a b

^'

(1)

(2)

fi

by
^ = /x + X,
The

z^2\fx.

direction-cosines of the generators are given


I

and

= t^-\

_m_

by

_ m _n

lience the locus of the points of intersection of perpen-

dicular generators

is

the curve of intersection of the surface

and the plane 2z + c(r-b^ = 0.

The plane

=
?_^_2X + 7ii?
+ f-.^|
A}
b
{a
a

passes through the generator (1) and

is

tangent plane at

the point of intersection of that generator and the generator


of the //-system given

The

by

//

= \/k.

projections of the generators on the planes YOZ,

envelope the principal sections whose equations are

^ = 0, 2r --^
B.G.

- 2^^--

//

= 0.

"

= 2^3;.

ZOX

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

162

Any

point on the second parabola

[cii.

{2am,

is

and

2m2),

0,

ix
if

= = m,

the generators of the X- and /^[-systems corresponding to these vakies project into the tangent to the

jUL

parabola at

Any

''

in."

point on the surface

X = ar cos
and the equations

given by

is

y = br sin

0,

2z = r^ cos 20,

6,

to the generators through "

'

+6

Ex.
(x,

1/,

1.

z) is

Ex.

"

are

^-o" cos 20

n
x ar cos 6n _y or smd
_
I.

r,

'^

7^(cos0

+ sin0)

Shew that the angle between the generating lines through


given by
^

Prove that the equations

2.
4A'

= a(]

+cos2^),

^ = & cosh

(^

cos

^,

= csinh c^cos ^

determine a hyperbolic paraboloid, and that the angle between the


generators through "^, <^" is given by
,

sec

Ex.

3.

{(&'

Vr=-^

+ c2)2 + a cos" 6 + 2a2(62 + c2)cos2^ cosh 2(/)


6--c- + rt-cos-^
7-r

^;r

Prove that the equations


2A'

= e-*,

y/

= 6e*cosh^,

= ee*sinh^

determine a hypei'bolic paraboloid, and that d-+<^


points of a given generator of one system, and $-<j>
given generator of the other.

is
is

constant for
constant for a

Ex. 4. Planes are drawn through the origin, O, and the generators
through any point P of the paraboloid given by x^ y^ az. Prove

them

that the angle between

Ex.

5.

Find the locus

the paiuboloid

A ns.

.r^

'-y-fy"^^

+ ?/2 + 2z^

-,

is

tan"^, where

of the perpendiculars
'^^

^^

.tv/

= 0.

is

the length of OP.

from the vertex of

generators of one system.

Ex. 6. The points of intersection of generators of xi/ az which are


inclined at a constant angle (x. lie on the curve of intersection of the
paraboloid and the hyperboloid .r-'+//--/- tan'-^a. + ((- = 0.

106-109]

107.

THROUGH THREE GIVEN LINES

CONICOID

Conicoids through three given

The

lines.

1G3

o-eneral

e(|uation to a coiiicoid,

ux^ + bf- + cz- + 2fijz + -luzx + 2Ilv7J

contains nine constants,


ten coefficients a,

viz.,

b, c, ...

+ 2ux + 2 r^ + 2ivz -\-d = 0,


any nine

the ratios of

of the

Hence, since these

to the tenth.

by nine equations involving them, a

coni-

coid can be found to pass througli nine given points.

But

are determined

we have proved

that

if

on a given conicoid, the

three points of a straight line

lie

a generator of the conicoid.

line is

Therefore a conicoid can be found to pass through any


three given non-intersecting lines.
108.

The general equation

given lines

'2t

to a conicoid through the

= = v, u 0 = v,

+ pvv' = 0,

\uu' + iiuv' 4- wii


since this equation

when

u'

and

is

v'

satisfied

O, and

constants, viz. the ratios of X,


109. To find the equation
given non-intersecting lines.

two

is

when u =
contains

lu,

to

and v = 0, or

three

disposable

p.

to the coiiicoid

through three

If the

planes

three lines are not parallel to the same plane,


line parallel to the other two

drawn through each

form a parallelepiped,

(fig.

45).

If

the

centre

of

the

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

164

parallelepiped

is

[ch. ix.

taken as origin, and the axes are parallel

to the edges, the equations to the given lines are of the

form,
(1) y

where

= h, z=c;

(2) z

= c,x= a;

(S)

x = a,

y=

b,

The general equation


and (2) is

2a, 2b, 2c are the edges;

conicoid through the lines (1)

to a

{y-b){z-c) + My-b)(x + a)

+ ju(z + c){z-c) + i'(z + c)(x + a) = 0.


y= b meets the surface we have
+ 2z(av-b)-fJLC^ + 2c(av + b)-4^ab\r=0,

Where x = a,
jULz'^

and

if

x = a, y =

a generator, this equation must be

is

satisfied for all values of

= 0,

1'

z.

b
-,

Therefore

and the equation to the surface

= c{av-\-b)_c
2ab

is

ayz + bzx + cxy + abc = 0.


iz

The origin evidently bisects all chords of the surface


which pass through it, and therefore the surface is a
central surface, and is therefore a hyperboloid of one sheet.
(Cf.

47, Ex.

1.)

same plane, let any


which meets them be taken as 2^-axis. If the lines are
AjBp A^B.^, A3B3, (tig. 40), and the 0-axis meets them in
If the tliree lines are parallel to the

line

LINES

109-111]

Cp

Co,

WHICH MEKT FOUR GIVEN

LINKS

Kjr,

take A^B^ as aj-axis and the parallel to A^Bg


Then the c([uations may be written

C.5,

through Cj as y-axis.

= 0,

(1) y

= 0;

The equation

x = 0, z = (jl;

(2)

to a conicoid

\x{lx-\-my)-\-iJix{z

(3) lx

through the

+ my:==0,

lines (2)

= ji.

and

(.'])

is

^)

+ v{z-cL){lx + my) + p{z-cj.){z-(i) = Q.


If

2/

= 0,

is

a generator, the equation

VKx- - X (jufi

must be

+ d(jL) + /5a/5 =

satisfied for all values of x,

X=p

= 0,

///3

and therefore

+ 2'/a = ();

and hence the equation to the surface


z{lx{a.- ^) I3m.y}

is

-\-a.j3mij

= 0.

Since the terms of second degree are the piwluct of linear


factors, the equation represents a hy})erbolic paraboloid.
110.
If A, B,

The straight

lines

which meet four given

lines

are three given non-intersecting lines, an infinite

number

of straight lines can be drawn to meet A, B, and C.


For a conicoid can be drawn through A, B, C, and A, B, C
are generators of one system, say the X-system, and hence
all the generators of the //-system will intersect A, B, and C.
A fourth line, D, wdiich does not meet A, B, and C, meets
the conicoid in general in two points P and Q, and the
generators of the //-system through P and Q are the only
lines which intersect the four given lines A, B, C, D.
If,
however, D is a generator of the conicoid through A, B,
and C, it belongs to the X-sj^stem, and therefore all the
generators of the //-system meet all the four lines.
111. // three straight lines can be drawn to meet four
given non-intersecting lines A, B, C, D, tlien A, B, C, D are

generators of a conicoid.
If the three lines are

through

A, B,

P, Q,

in three points,

Hence D meets the conicoid


of intersection of D and P,
o-enerator.

each meets the conicoid

R,

and

is

therefore a generator.

in three points, viz, the points

Q,

and therefore D

is

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

166

[cii. ix.

are points on X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ.


C,
B, B'
Ex. 1. A, A'
Prove that BC','cA', AB' are generators of one system, and that
B'C, C'A, A'B are generators of the other system, of a hyperboloid.
;

are pairs of opposite vertices of a skew


Ex. 2. A, A' B, B' C,
are
hexagon' drawn on a hyperboloid. Prove that A A', BB',
;

CC

concurrent.

Ex. 3. The altitudes of a tetrahedron are generators of a hyperboloid of one sheet.


Let A, B, C, D be the vertices. Then the planes through DA,
perpendicular to the plane DBC, through DB, perpendicular to tha
plane DCA, and through DC, perpendicular to the plane DAB, pass
through one line, ( 4.5, Ex. 6, or 44, Ex. 22). That line is therefore
coplanar with the altitudes from A, B, C, and it meets the altitude
from D in D, and therefore it meets all the four altitudes. The corresponding lines through A, B, C also meet all the four altitudes,
which are therefore generators of a hyperboloid.
Ex. 4. Prove that the perpendiculars to the faces of the tetrahedron
through their orthocentres are generators of the opposite system.
Ex. 5. Prove that the lines joining A, B, C, D to the centres of
the circles inscribed in the triangles BCD, CDA, DAB, ABC are
generators of a hyperboloid.
112. The equation to a hyperboloid when two intersecting generators are coordinate axes. If two intersecting generators are taken as ic-axis and i/-axis, the

equation to the surface must be satisfied by

when

2/

= = 0,

and by

2;

Suppose that
aa;- -f hij-

all

values of y

all

values of x

when z=x = ^.

it is

+ cz^ + "Ijijz + Igzx -f ^]iX'y + 2ua; + "ivy -f Iwz = 0.

Then we must have


a = u = 0, and

= = 0,
t)

and therefore the equation takes the form


cz^ -f Ifyz

+ Igzx -f Ihxy + Iwz = 0.

Suppose now that the

line joining the point of intersection

of the generators to the centre is taken as 0-axis.

Then,

since the generators through opposite ends of a diameter

are

parallel,

the

lines

y=-'^,

generators, the centre being

z = 1y\

(0, 0, y).

f=9 = ^, y=-w/c,
and the

e(juation reduces to
cz"

a;

= 0,

Whence

+ 2hxy + 2wz = 0.

= 2y

are

i:;.^

PROPERTIES OF A GENERATOR

112, 113]

Ex. 1. Prove that (j/ + m:)(:+)i.r) + h =


which passes through OX and OY.

represents a paraboloid

Ex. 2. The generators through a variable point P of a


meet the generators through a fixed point O in Q and R.
constant, find

is

Take

OQ

tlie

and

The eqnation

centre as 2-axis.

It

may be

OR

locus of P.
as .v- and

written

z(rz

and hence the systems

,v/-axes,

to the

167

and the

h\-|)f'rlMil()id

If

line joining

hyperboloid

OQ OR
:

to the

is

+ 2io) + 2Li-i/ = 0,

of generating lines are given

= 2/iXx,
z = 2kfjif/,
z

by

X(cz + 2iv) + 7/ = 0;
fi(cz

+ 2w) + .v = 0.

OX

belongs to the X-system and corresponds to A =


OY belongs to
the /x-systeni and corresponds to /x = 0. If P is {$, r/, C), the generators
through P correspond to
;

A = C2/^^',

Where

ix^C!2/nj.

a generator of the /x-system meets

OX,

y = 0,

z=Oj x=-2wiJ.,
therefore
OQ = - 2wfi = - wC/ht}.
Similarly,
OR = - 2wX=^ - wl/hi
and P tlierefore lies on. the plane x = h).
[OQ and OR may be found more easily by considering
])Iane PQR is the tangent plane at P whose equation (see

that the
!^

134)

is

h^r + h'^>i + (r(+ v)z + (rC= 0.]


Ex.

3.

Find the locus of P

OQ"- + OR"-

if (i)

OQ OR = F,

(ii)

OQ- + OR-' =

/!-2.

on a cone whose vertex


is O and whose section by a plane parallel to OXY is an ellipse whose
equal conjugate diameters are parallel to OX and OY.
Ex.

4.

If

Ex.

5.

Shew

is

constant,

lies

that the projections of the generators of one system

on the tangent plane at any point envelope a conic.


Take the generators in the given tangent plane as OX and OY, and
the normal at O as OZ. The plane z = Xii is a tangent plane, (97),
and the projection on OXY of the second generator in which it meets
of a hyperboloid

the surface has equations


z

Whence

cX-y + 2\{(]x + fi/ + w) + 2hx = 0.

= 0,

the envelope of the projections


z

= 0,

is

the conic

{gx +/}/ + wf = 2<r>i

*113. Properties of a given generating line. If wc


have a system of rectangular axes in which tlie .j'-axis is
a generator and tlie 2;-axis is the normal at the origin,
the equation to the hyperboloid

or

is

of the form,

+ 2/2/s 2gzx + 2hxy + 2ivz = 0,


y{hy + 2hx) + z(cz-{- 2gx + 2/)/ + 2v') = 0.
hif + cz^

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

168

The systems

The
/x

(ex.,

().

0,

of generating lines are given

by

+ 2gx + 2fy + 2w) =


= // (C0 + 2gx + 2fy + 2t(0, z + /u{by + 2hx) = 0.

\y = z,
?/

[ch. ix.

a;-axis

{hy-\-

2hx) + A (cz

belongs to the //-system and corresponds to

The generator
0) is given by

of the A-system through the point

-/la
gcL

+w

The tangent plane at (a, 0, 0) is the plane through


generator and OX. Its equation is therefore \y = z,
or

+ iv) 0.

licxy -\-z{goL

Let

P, (a,

0,

P',

0),

(ol,

Then the tangent planes

0) be points

0,

at P

and

(]t"+g')0L0L 4- wg{(jL
^... If

Therefore

if

[a.

+ -~l^[a.
is

this

on the

.'C-axis.

are at right angles

P'

if

+ a') + w^ = 0,

+^^ = ^-^-^

the point

{-j^^^,

0, o),

(1)

CP

CP'

is

constant for all pairs of perpendicular tangent


through OX. C is called the central point of the generator
OX. If the origin is taken at the central point, the equation (1) must take the form aa' = constant, and therefore
planes

g = ^, and aa'=

when OX

is

'W-/h^.

The equation

a generator and

is

to

the

the normal at O, and the axes are rectangular,


by^

cz'^

conicoid

the central point,


is

OZ

is

therefore

+ 2fyz + 2h xy 4- 2wz = 0.

Ex. 1. Find the locus of the normals to a conicoid at points of a


given generator.
Taking axes as above, the equations to the normal at (ol, 0, 0) are
'^~"'

=^ = i.
hcL

The

locus of the normals

is

therefore the hj'perbolic

It has

OX and OZ as generators,

to

paraboloid whose equation is hxz


and its vertex at the origin,

vn/.

Ex. 2. The anharuionic ratio of four tangent planes through the


same generator is the anharuionic ratio of their points of contact.
The tangent plane at (a.,., 0, 0) is /icLr^ + wz = 0, whence, by 38, Ex. 4,
the anharmonic ratio of the planes is
(..-a..)(fJL,-CX4)'

CENTRAL POINT AND PARAMETER

113,114]

160

Ex. 3. Four fixed generators of the same system meet any generator
of the opposite system in a range of constant anharmonic ratio.
Ex. 4. Find the locus of the perpendiculars from a point on a
hyperboloid to the generators of one system.
Take O, the point, as origin, and a generator through O as OX.
Take the normal at O as OZ, then XOY is the tangent plane at O.
The equation to the liyperboloid is
6y- + cz-

The systems

+ Ifiiz + Igzx + 'Hixy + 2 wz = 0.


by

of generators are given

{by + 2ha;) + X{cz + 2gx+2f9/ + 2w) =

X.i/=z,

y = ix(cz + 2gx + 2fi/ + 2w),


The

+ /x(ft?/ + 2h.v) = 0.

locus of the perpendiculars to the generators of the A-system

is

the cubic cone


x{cz^ + 2fyz + 6y2)

*114.

- 2 {f + z'^){h>/ +gz) = 0.

The central point and parameter

Taking the axes indicated


conicoid

is

.,

hy^

5:^

of distribution.

the equation to the

>

to

the

system of generators to which

belongs are
z-\-X{2hx + hy) = 0,

y = \{1fij + cz + '2w),

OX

Ho

.0
a
zlixy + ^%vz = 0.
+ 2tyz + o?
+ cz'9,0^'

The equations

OX

in

being

given

by X = 0.

The

direction-cosines

of

generator of this system are proportional to

6cX2-2/X + l,

-2chX\

2//X(2/A-l),

and therefore the shortest distance between


and OX has direction-cosines proportional tc

2/X-l,

0,

Hence

this generator

c\.

the limiting position of the shortest distance, as X

tends to zero,

is

parallel to OY.

the generator

is

given by

Again, any plane through

y{2fX -l) + c\z + 2ic\ - k { -IhXx + hXy + z]=


This plane meets
s.D. if

t.e. It

OX where

x = iv/hk.

It contains the

(2/x_i)(2/X-] -WX)4-c-X(eX-/.-) = 0,

T-,
k=-1-4A

(c

0.

6)X

squares and higlier powers of X being rejected.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

116

Therefore the

,s.D.

OX where

meets

w{c b)\

Since x tends to zero with

the limiting position of the

X,

of a given generator is

Hence the central point

OY.

s.D. is

[en. ix.

the point of intersection of the generator and the shortest


it and a consecutive generator of the
same system.
The equation y = \(2fy-{-cz + 2w) represents the plane

distance between

through the X-generator parallel to OX.


shortest distance, S, is given by

rejecting

Therefore the

X", etc.

Again,

is

if

the angle between the generator and OX,

&cX^"-jA+l
^^"^

J\hcX^ - 2/X + 1 f -fid'k-'X' + 4A^-X^( 2/X -if

whence,

if

X"

and higher powers be

rejected,

e = 2h\.
limit of the ratio S/6, as X tends to zero, is called

The

the parameter of distribution of the generator OX.


it

by

we have

2^,

Cor.

A and
Ex.

If

is

2w\

the central point and the tangent planes at

A' are at right angles,


If the generator "

1.

^"

given
by
"

and

is
.

OA' = p^.

cf>

G-

h sin

i>
]-

asincp

the angle between the generators "(^" and "<^i," prove that

o/j

r^ y-bcoscp
=
-c
cos

-.

''

OA

of the hyperboloicl

0^

a^

x a

IS

Denoting

_ a-6'"sin-((^

that
and deduce .1
^.

dO
-jj-

c^,)

+ aV-(sin c^ - sin </)x)^ + 6V(cos 4> - cos (fnY

+
= (a-b^
..

b^c^-s'w^ + c-a^cos^)^
.

..

,! >

r,

,
,

EXAMPLES ON THE CENTRAL

114]

Ex. 2.
t/j " and

"

Prove that the shortest distance,


(/>! " is given by
2abcsii\'

POINT, ETC.

171

between the generators

8,

^J'

(iVsin-^'^ + c^a^cos^'^ + a^i^cos^^'^j^


and deduce that

-rj
'

Ex.

3.

' V

(a^b-

Prove that the parameter of distribution for the generator


a&c(a^s in^(^ + 6-cos'-(^ + c-)

^'^

rt'^6-

Ex.

+ h\^ sin2<^ + c^a'- cos^c/)) ^

If

4.

+ //-^c-sin-^ + chi-cos^4>'

the distance of any generator of the hyperboloid

is

b^

a'^

from the centre, and/)


Ex.

is its

c'

parameter of distribution, D-p = abc.

Find the coordinates of the central point of the generator

5.

Tlie equation to the plane through the generator "</>"


the generator " ip" is

- sin ^

'

'

- '

-^^

cos

+ -f cos

])arallel to

+sin ^ ^^' = 0.

Whence
and

the direction-cosines of the s.d. between the generator " (f>


a consecutive generator of the same system are proportional to

-1 sm d),
^
a
<

The coordinates

of

any

point, O,

a (cos ^ - it sin

<^),

1
-
c

/L

7 cos (h,
^'
b

on the generator are

b{sm

cfi

+ k cos

(ji),

ck.

the central point the normal at O is perpendicular to the


S.D. between the generator and a consecutive generator of the same
system. Hence we find
c\b^ - a"^)sin <^ cos <^
If

is

k:

and the coordinates

V
a3(i2 + c-)cos^

"

a%''-

+ 6"^c- sin-(^ + c-d- cos^<f>

of the central point are given

^
7)^(c2

by

+ a"-)sin<j!)

c3(6--a=^)sin

^cos^
1

a^lfi

Ex.

6.

6-'c''^

sin'''^

+ c'd- cos^(f>

Find the locus of the central points

of the generators of

the hyperboloid.

The equation
by eliminating

to a surface containing the central points is obtained


between the equations for the coordinates. It is

cf)

^6

7,6

^G

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

172

Ex.
^'-^
a 6

of the paraboloid "-i-'4

For the generator

7.

= 2A,
'

- + T=v,

a6(aH6H 4A2)^

given by
is

and that the central point

-%\

is

2(a2-62)A2\

of the systems of generators lie

Prove also that the central points

p =

= 25

prove that the parameter of distribution

f ^a^X

the planes

[ch. ix.

on

0.

Ex. 8, If G is a given generator of a hyperboloid, prove that the


tangent plane at the central point of G is perpendicular to the tangent
plane to the asymptotic cone whose generator of contact is parallel

toG.

pair of planes through a given generator of a hyperEx. 9.


boloid touch the surface at points A and B,,and contain the normals
at points A' and B' of the generator. If Q is the angle between them,
.

AB.A'B'
ar"

,.

^ ^
prove that tan''t7= ad'

Ex. 10. If the tangent plane at a point P of a generator, central


point O, makes an angle Q with the tangent plane at O, ptan ^ = OP,
where p is the pai-ameter of distribution.

* Examples VI.
1.

Prove that the

+ ??e+p = 0, r.r-t-m'y + '2+^' = is a


+ 27'^ = 1 if aP + b7n'^ + cn'^ = p'^,
all' + hmm' + cnn'=pp'.

line ?.r+}?i?/

generator of the hyperboloid


al'"

+ b7n'^ + cn"^=p"^, and


2.

Shew

.r^/a +3/^/6

that the equations

(A + l).r+^y+X

v/-A:-t-A + l=0,

represent for different values of A generators of one system of the


hyperboloid ijz + zx-\-xy-\-\=0, and find the equations to generators
of the other system.

at
^.2

3.

Tangent planes

to

planes to

^2

j,2

'-7j+'p-^ = l, which are parallel to tangent

hhh'^
c2_;,2

c^ahf

a^h"^

+ c2_a2 + a2 + t2

".

cut the surface in perpendicular generators.


4.

drawn

shortest distances between generators of the same system


at the ends of diameters of the principal elliptic section of the

The

hyperboloid

'\+'r2~\^^

^^ ^^ ^^'

c.r>i

__

surfaces whose equations are

ahz

EXAMPLES

CH. IX.

173

VI.

perpendicular
5. Shew that the shortest distance of any two
members of that system of generators of the paraboloid _i/{a.r + hi/) = :,
which is perpendicular to the y-axis, lies in the plane a-z = h.
6.

Prove that any point on the

on the surface

lies

7/z

.ri/

+ + z = 0,
f/

determine the other system of lines which

and
on

+ z.v +

lines

find equations to
the surface.

lies

three of four
7. The four conicoids, each of which passes through
given non-intersecting lines, have two common generators.
8.

Prove that the equation


u

to the conicoid

through the

lines

u'=0 = v',

= = v,

Am + /x y + A'?i' + ii'v' =

= lu + mv + I'u' + m'v'
lu + viv
AVT/aV ~ I'u' + m'v'
Xu + fxv _

^^

9.

ABC, A'B'C are two

given triangles.

P moves

so that the lines

through P which meet the pairs of corresponding sides AB, A'B'


BC, B'C CA, C'A' are coplanar. Prove that the locus of P is the
hyperboloid through AA', BB', and
;

CC

If from a fixed point on a hyperboloid lines are drawn to


intersect the diagonals of the quadrilaterals formed by two fixed and
two variable generators, these lines are coplanar.
10.

11.

Through a variable generator


x + i/ = 2':/A
X- - ?/ = A,

of the paraboloid

.i^-f = 2z a plane is drawn making a constant


=
Find the locus of the jwint at which

angle a. with the plane


it touches the paraboloid.

.?/.

12. Prove that the locus of the line of intersection of two perpendicular planes which pass through two fixed non-intersecting lines is
a hyperboloid whose central circular sections are perpendicular to the
lines and have their diameters equal to their shortest distance.

13.

Prove that

the points where

if

the generators of

it is

^i+%-^2 =

met by a tangent

'^

^ drawn through

to

they form a skew quadrilateral with two opposite angles right angles,
and the other diagonal of which is a generator of the cylinder
a^
14.

The normals

b^

to ^,+-'f.^-^o = l
c
ha^

at points of a generator

meet

at points lying on a straight line, and for different


the plane ^ =
generators of the same system this line touches ^ fixed conic.

COOEDTNATE GEOMETRY

174

[ch. ix.

Prove that the generators of ax- + hy"- -\-d- = \ through

Id.

(^2) y%-> -2) li in

{x^ , y,

^j),

the jilanes

{ax^x^ + hy^i/o + cz^z^ - \){ax" + bf + cz^-\)


= 2 {axx-i + hyy^ + czz^ - l)(axx.^ + byy.^ + czz., - 1

).

16.

^^

The generators through points on the


^"^^1 tli^t the eccentric

~2+'f2"~;;2=^'

principal elliptic section

angle of the one

is

eccentric angle of the other, intersect on the curves given

^-

(l-3^)

b_t(l-f)

+ ^2

.'/-

'

+ ^2

double the

by

--ct.

'

17. The planes of triangles which have a fixed centre of gravity


and have their vertices on three given straight lines which are parallel
to the same plane, touch a cone of the second degree, and their sides

are generators of three paraboloids.


18.

The cubic curve

meets the conicoid

ax''-

''~A-(x'

^"A-/^'

+ by'^ + cz'=\

^~A-y

in six points,

and the normals

at

these points are generators of the hyperboloid


ayzifi -y) + bzx{y - a.) + cxy{a. -/3) + x{b - c) +y{c - a) + z{a -b) = 0.
19. Prove that the locus of a point whose distances from two given
lines are in a constant ratio is a hyperboloid of one sheet, and that
the projections of the lines on the tangent plane at the point where
it meets the shortest distance form a harmonic
generators through the point.

20.

pencil

The generators through P on the hyperboloid

meet the plane

in

A and

B.

PA PB

If

is

with the

'--^+-^^_l^

=i

constant, find the

locus of P.
21.

median of the triangle PAB in the last example is


the fixed plane a.x + /3y + yz = 0, shew that P lies on the

If the

jiarallel to
"^^f^^

z{a.x + fiy) + y(c^

+ z^) = 0.

A and B

are the extremities of conjugate diameters of the


principal elliptic section, prove that the median through P of
the triangle PAB lies on the cone
22.

If

2x^

23.

Ki-r

and B are the extremities

section of the hyperboloid 2 +

of the axes of the principal elliptic

a2~~2~^'

^"^^^ "^

^'^

^^^y ^"^^ "^ ^^^ plane

are generators of the same system, Gj passing


through A and G., through B. Two hyperboloids are drawn, one
through T, G,, OZ, the other through T, G., OZ. Shew that he
other common generators of these hyperboloids lie on tlie<^urface
of the section.

G,,

G.,

a-

6-

.?('-^_.!/V---^=o.
bj
c\a
a h
c
'

EXAMPLES

en. IX.
24.

Prove that the

Vr.

17.'',

between the generator

.shortest distances

y _z
'hc

and the other generators

of the

same system, meet the generators

in

points lying in the plane

25.

If the generators

through P, a point on the hyperboloid


rt/

b^

c^

O, meet the plane = in A and B, and the volume of


the tetrahedron OAPB is constant and equal to ahcjQ, P lies on one
of the planes z= c.

whose centre

is

,?

fcH. X.

CHAPTER

X.

CONFOGAL CONICOIDS.
115.

Confocal conicoids are conicoids whose principal


same foci. Thus the equation

sections have the

represents, for

any value

of A, a conicoid confocal with

x^

z^
+ if
72 + ^ =

since the sections of the conicoids

XOY

are confocal conies.

assigned to

and

by the planes YOZ, ZOX,

Again,

arbitrary values are

if

in the equation

_j
b

1'

it

being constants,

we

=1

obtain the equations to a

system of confocal conicoids.

If this

chosen to represent a confocal

is

form of equation be

called the primary semi-

axis.

The

sections of the paraboloids

by the planes YOZ, ZOX,

consist of confocal parabolas,

and

hence the paraboloids are confocal.

Through
116. The three confocals through a point.
any point there pasn three conicoids cov focal ivith a given
ellipsoid,
an ellipsioid, a hyperholoid of one sheet, and a

hyperhoJoid of two

xjwefs.

115,11(5]

The

THE CONFOC'ALS THllOUGH A POINT

equiition

v+

,.>"

conicoid coufocal with the elHpsoid

con focal passes throngli

((/-,

/3,

\=1

'^

represents

'p,

+ ^,= i-

It"

any
the

y),

a'-X^b'^-X^c'-X
or

177

'

/(X) = (a2-X)(?y2-X)(c2-A)-a-(//^-X)((;2-\)

- /3-(c' - X)(rt- - X) - yH<-*' - \){h'' - X) = 0.


This cubic equation in X gives the parameters of three

>6>

pass through

wliich

confocals

(a,

/?,

When
X=

oc

a^,

6-,

C',

/(X)is

-,

-,

+,

-,

c.

Hence the equation


such that

^^2

f{X)

of

^ > > > >


is

00
+.

has three real roots

6-^

X,

Therefore the confocal


hj'perboloid

Suppose that

y).

(^

X,

X,

Xo, X3

X,.

a hyperboloid of two sheets, a

one sheet, or an

ellipsoid,

according as

X = X^, X.,, or X3.


As X tends to c^ the confocal ellipsoid tends to coincide
with that part of the plane XOY enclosed within the ellipse
2;

= 0, -^2 +

1^2

~
2

^^^^^

'

^^^

confocal hyperboloid of

one sheet tends to coincide with that part of the plane

which

lies

As X tends to 6- the conellipse.


one sheet tends to coincide with that

without the

focal hyperboloid of

part of the plane

ZOX which

of the hyperbola

y = 0,

lies

^ +

-^

.2

between the

~^

tAvo branches

^"^^^ ^^^^

hyperboloid of two sheets tends to coincide with

confocal
tlie

two

portions of the plane which are enclosed by the two branches


If X = a^, the confocal is imaginary.
and hyperbola are called the focal conies.

of the hyperbola.

above

ellipse

Ex. 1. Three paraboloids confocal with a given paraboloid


through a given point, two elliptic and one hyperbolic.

B.Cx.

The

pas.*?

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

178

Ex.

[ch. x,

Prove that the equation to the confocal through the point


whose eccentric angle is a. is

2.

of the focal ellipse

^^
(2

yl

_ ^2) cos^o.

{a?

!!

- 6-) sin-cx.

c^

- a? sin'^^o. - &- cos%

Ex. 3. Prove that the equation to the confocal


is
of circular sections parallel to the plane

^1

which has a system

x=y

^ (62 - c^){d^ - Ifi)


- a^){a? - 62) +
:

{c^

X3 are the roots

oi

y^ _
c2-A~(a2-X)(62-X)(c2-X)

-\

a'-\

- d^ - 62'

-{X-\^){X-XX\-\).

f(X)^

A2,

2c2

= 0,

Therefore
1

- e^){c^ - d^)

Since X^,

Elliptic coordinates.

117.

of the equation /(X)

2 (6^

^ -(X-Xi)(X-X o)(X-X3)
~ {d'-\){W-\){c'--Xy'
Hence, by the rule for partial fractions,

{a^-\){a^-\){d'~\,)
(62-a2)(c2_a2)

j-\^){W-\^)(h''-\^)

'

(c2_6'^)(ft2_52^

(c^-X,)(c^-X,)(c^-X3)
2 ^

These express the coordinates a, j8, y of a point P, in


terms of the parameters of the confocals of a given conicoid
that pass through P and if the parameters are given, and
;

the octant in which P

lies is

uniquely

Hence

determined.

elliptic coordinates of

conicoid
Ex.
x'^/d^

1.

x'-ja^

If aj,

i/'^jb'^

y'^jh'^

a.^,

+ z^/c" = I

known, the position


X^,

Xo,

Xg

are

is

the

P with reference to the fundamental

+ z^lc^ =

primary semi-axes of the confocals to


which pass through a point (a., /3, y),

a^ are the

'(62_a2)(c2-a2)'

of P

called

(c2-62)(a2-62)

^^ (c^-r<Har)(c2-a2 + a..,2)(^2_t,24.^^2)
"^
(a2-c.2)(62-c2)

PROFEUTIES OF CONFOCALS

117-119]

Ex.

What

2.

represented by the equation.s

are

loci

179
in

elliptic
'

coordinates,
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

Ex.

+ A2 + A3 = constant,
A2A3+A3Ai + AiA2 = constant,
A1A2A3 = constant
Ai

+ y = 25 which

focal to

the parameters of the paraboloids con-

If Ai, Ao, A3 are

3.

pass througli the point

2_ 0<-Ai)(a-A.,)(a-A3)

b-a

(a., /?, y),

prove that

oo_ {b-X,)(b-\,)(b-X,
)
-'

'^-

^3i

_ A; + Ao + A3 - 6
Confocals cut at right angles. The tangent planes
two confocals at any common point are at right angles.
Let (ct'p 7/p 0j) be a point common to the confocals to
118.

to

V"

CU"

-5
a/

z'~

= 1,
+ C"
+ f^
0^

are
whose parameters
^

A,i

and

_^4.^^+,^ =

Then

X.,.
-

Therefore, subtracting,

(a2-Ai)(a2-X,)

and
{x^,

tliis
2/1,

Cor.

z^) to

(6^-Ai)(6-'-A,)^(c2-Ai)(c2_^^)'

condition

the

119.

that

the

tangent planes at

the confocals should be at right angles.

The tangent planes


which pass through

focals

focdl

is

'

it

at a point to the three con-

are mutuall}' perpendicular.

Confocal touching given plane. One conicoid cona given coniroid imiclirs; a given plane.

iritli

For the condition that the plane

lx

+ my + nz = p

touch the conicoid


X-

?/-

z-

-.+-.r^
roe^-X
a2_X + h~-\
,

viz.,

?)-

= l,

'

'

= (r(2-X)?- + (/r-X)?- + (('--X)>r,

determines one value of

X,

should

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

180

[ch. x.

given plane and the parallel tangent plane to a conicoid


Ex. 1.
are at distances p and jOq from the centre. Piove that the parameter
of the confocal conicoid which touches the plane \'s,p^ 'p'':

Ex. 2. Prove that the perpendiculars fr'ora the origin to the tangent
planes to the ellipsoid which touch it along its curve of intersection
with the confocal whose parameter is A lie on the cone

f,a_A^62_x"^c2-A~

touching given

Confocals

120.

Two

line.

conicoids

confocal with a given conicoid touch a given line

and

the

tangent 'planes at the points of contact are at right angles.

The condition that the

line

=
-,

^=

'^

^ should

touch the conicoid

aA + /;2-A
r^

'

'

62-A

'

+ -r^ = X

c'-A/Va^-A

'

c^-A

^^-A

^m

yn Y
_(
-\a^-\'^W-\^c^-\)'
fd

{(Bn

yni f _

(6'^-A)(c2-A)
gives

two values

l^

a^-A

m~

'

n^

^'-^-A

'

c'-X

of A.

Let the equations to the two confocals be


x"

a-

= 1,
'

a'-\^b-'-\^c'-X^
and

let

the line touch the

first

at

+ ,2_x^-l

^^
'

P, (x-^, y^, z^)

second at Q, (x.^, t/o, s.,)- Then, since PQ


planes to the confocals at P and Q,

62_x^

(1)

//--Ai '^c^-Ai

lies in

and the

the tangent

and ^^2_^+i,2_^+,,_^^-i-

Therefore, subtracting,

(a^^-\){a^-\.y
whicli

is

y^y^

(/>2-Ai)(/j-^-A,)

'

.,

.T%

=0,

{c'-X.Xc^-X,)'

the condition that the tangent planes should be at

right angles.

PKUPKirriES OV CONFOCALS

120-1:^2]

181

Parameters of confocals through a point on a


//' P
point on a rentrai cou'u-oid, Hit
i^ n
'parameters of the two confocals of the conicoid which
pass through P are equal to the squares of the semi-axes
of the central section of the conicoid which is i^arallel to
the tangent plane at P, and the normals to the confocals
121.

conicoid.

at P are parallel to the axes.

Let

P, Cr,

y,

on the conicoid '

z, ) lie

4- tt,

+ -9 = 1

Then

the parameters of the confocals through P are gixcn by the

equation
J

^i

= = J- 4-

Zl

c^((r - A
(b'- - X)
a^a' - A):+..7#-.x+->74^
'

But the squares


conicoid

= 0.

'

of the semi-axes of the section of the

by the plane

-V+

X2

"1

^^^

^^'^

given by, (86),

0,2
^2
^2
a\a'--o^'-y{-r'-ycHc'-r^)

Therefore the values of A are the values of r'-. Again,


direction-cosines of the semi-axis of length r are

the

^i^^enby

,,

,,^

^1

Ih

^2-^2

h~-r-

and therefore the axis is parallel


to the con focal whose parameter

c^-r^to the
is

normal at

equal to

(a-j,

y^,

%)

7^-.

122. Locus of poles of plane with respect to confocals.


The locus of the poles of a given plane tvith respect to the
conicoids confocal ivith a given conicoid is the normal
to the plane at the point of contact with that confocal
ivhicJi touchrs

it.

Let a confocal be represented by

y
a-- A
and the given plane by

'

b'^-X
Ix

^2
'

c2-A

+ iiu/-}- nz-

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

182

Then,

if (^,

^) is

t],

[ch. x.

the pole of the plane with respect to

the confocal,

1=

m = b--\
'^

^
a^-\
.,

^ a"

Whence

1?

= ^.
c^-A

= b^=^ c".

Therefore the locus of

(^,

angles to the given plane.

i,)

?/,

is

a straight line at right

Again, the pole of the

with respect to that confocal which touches


of contact.

which

is

Hence the point

of contact is

it is

jjlane

the point

on the

locus,

therefore the normal to the plane at the point of

contact.
123.

Normals to the three confocals through a

Tltree conicoids confocal ivith

pass tJirougJi a

fjiveji

point

P,

point.

a given conicoid

a7id PQ, PR, PS,

fJte

normcds

at P to the confoccds, meet the polar plane of P with respect


to the

given conicoid in Q,

PQ = \/Pv

R, S.

To prove that

PR = \Jp,,

PS=^\,/p,,

perpendicidars from the centre to


the tangent planes at P to the confocals, and Xp Xg, Xg are

where
the

p^, p^, p.^ are the

parameters of

tJte

confocals.

AXES OF ENVELOPING CONE

122-125]

If the coordiiicates of P,

toPQare

^_oc
a-

Hence,

if

PQ =

/',

is

a^ \}

on

,^2

tlie

z-y

Ir"

I?

_ x^y + 6- V^ +

6-^

- AJ +

K>+^>

b'^

Ai

<'-^

V^

^ c^ - Ai = 1

are

and therefore

P,

p^

0^^
'^

the equations

,_

Ki+i^^x,)'

polar plane of

y),

/5,

Ai

the coordinates of

-0+^)But Q

47), are (a,

(fif^.

y-/3

183

c^

Rearranging, this becomes

Therefore r = Xjp^.
124.
the

Similarly,

The tetrahedron PQRS

PR = Ao/po and PS = \j2h'

is sclf-'polar tvith respect to

given conicoid.

Substituting

J^,
Cfc2-Ai

J?!^,

for

jy^r,

_!Z_.

the coordinates of

Whence the

6^-Ai c^-Ai

Q become

plane of
polar
^

Q with

respect to the conicoid

IS

given by

-^^-^+^^,-^+-^- = 1,

and therefore is the tangent plane at P to the con focal


whose parameter is A^, or is the plane PRS. Similarly, the
polar planes of R and S are the planes PQS, PQR, and, by
hypothesis, the polar plane of P
125.

Axes of enveloping

three co7(focals through

cone ivhose vertex is

is

the plane QRS.

cone.

P are

The normals to the


enveloping

the axes of the

P.

Since the tetrahedron

PQRS is self-polar with respect to


QRS is self-polar with respect

the conicoid, the triangle

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

184

common

to the

section of

by the plane QRS.

and enveloping cone


PQ, PR, PS are

conicoid

tlie

Therefore,

[ch. x.

( 78),

conjugate diameters of the cone, and being mutually perpendicular, are the principal axes.

its

To find

Equation to enveloping cone.

126.

tion to

tlie

enveloping cone tvhose vertex

the

equa-

P referred

is

to

principcd axes.

The equation

will

be of the form Ax"-\-By'^-^Cz^ = Q.

Since the tangent planes at P to the confocals are the


coordinate planes, C, the centre of the given conicoid,
i'Pi, P-z,

jh)' ^^^^ ^^^^

PC

equations to

are

'/Pi

is

= ?//p2 = ^//'s-

But the centre of the section of the cone or conicoid by


QRS lies on PC, and therefore its coordinates
are of the form kp.^, kp^, k}^^, and the equation to the plane
the plane

QRS

is,

( 71),

(x - kp^)A-p^

By

+ (y - kp.^Bp.^ +{z- kp.^) C% = 0.

123, the plane

QRS makes

\Jp-^ on the axes, and therefore

and the equation

127.

its

intercepts \Jpi, Xjlhy

equation

is

also

to the cone is

Equation to conicoid.

given conicoid referred

to

tJie

To find the equation to the


normals to the confocals

through P as coordinate axes.

The equation

will be of the

form

tj^t^t^kimj^'Mj^p^^i^
A;^

The centre
The equations

A3

X2

V Aj

A2

A3

C, {p^, p^, p^) bisects all

to the chord parallel to

"

"

chords through

OX
^~

(1)

are

^'

it.

185

and hence the equation obtained by


p3 for

substitutino;

^j^

+ v,

y).^,

X, y, 2, in (1), viz.,

takes the form Lr- +

M = 0.

and the equation

Therefore

X2

Xi

Xg

to the conicoid

is

^^-U, +

vx;+x;+x3Ax;+x:+x3

x,

x3

v-

of the confocal hyperbok)ids

are the parameters


Ex. 1. If A and
through a point P on the ellipsoid
[j.

prove that the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane
at

to the ellipsoid is

-^

Prove also that the perpendiculars

to

the tangent planes to the hyperboloids are

Ex.

2.

a(a-/a)
If Ai,

A.J,

'

M/^-A)

A3 are the parameters of the three confocals to

that pass through P, prove that the perpendicular.s from the centre to
the tangent plane at P are

v^
Ex. 3. If i, ^1,
confocals to

Ci

A,)(&'^-A,)(c''^-A,)

(Ao-Ai)(A3-Ai)
a.^,

b.,,
2

c^;

a^,

^, + |> + ^, =

a.-

b-^,

c^

are the axes of the

~2

,,2

fs^

which pass through a point {x, 1/, 2), and Px, p-i, Px '^^'*^ the perpendiculai-s from the centre to the tangent planes to the confocals at the
point, prove that

^+f +

z^

= a^ + b^ + e^,

l+^+^=1,
aJ

a..

ai^-u."

If

d^f^r

Pi'

"/-oC^

a.;--a.-

{a^- -a:-){a^^-a:^){a^--a:^)

Cj
.,,
If a,, ^i, Cj
6.2,
4.
03, 63, C3 are the axes of the
confocals to a given conicoid through P, show that the equations,
referred to the normals at P to the confocals, of the cones with P
as vertex and the focal conies as ba.ses, are

Ex.

61-

h.,-

b.f

Cj-

c.r

C3-

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

186

Ex.

Prove

that the direction-cosines of


generators of the cones satisfy the equations
5.

m^

l^

[ch. x.

the

common

four

n^

(The intercepts on these generators by the ellipsoid are called the


through the jjoint P.)

bifocal chords of the ellipsoid

Ex.

Prove that the

8.

bifocal chords of the ellipsoid

d^

thi'ough a point

P on

c2

b'^

the surface

on a right circular cone whose

lie

the normal at P and who sesemi -vertical angle is cos~^--=4=i,


vAjAj
where Aj, Ao are the parameters of the confocals through P.

axis

is

Ex.

If the plane

7.

plane at

P meets one

through the centre parallel to the tangent


through P in F, then

of the bifocal chords

PF = a.
Ex. 8. P is any j^oint on the curve of intersection of an ellipsoid
and a given confocal and r is the length of the central radius of the
If p is
ellipsoid which is parallel to the tangent to the curve at P.
the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane to the ellipsoid
at P, prove that pr

is

constant.

CORRESPONDING POINTS.
128.

Two

points,

P, {x,

y,

z)

and

Q,

a-

p^

y-

(^,

>;,

situated

^),

respectively on the conicoids

a^

b^

are said to correspond

If P and

are

cr

when

!^=1,

1=1, -=y.

a.'

13'

^'

any points on an

Q' a/re the corresponding points

ellipsoid

and

on a confocal

P'

and

ellipsoid,

PQ' = p'Q.

Let P and Q,

(,>',

y, z), (^,

i?,

^) lie

on the ellipsoid

a^^W^c^~
and

let P'

and

Q', {x', y', z), (^',

i{,

'

^')

points on the confocal


q&

nfl

^'i

be the corresponding

CORRESPONDING POINTS

128,129]

i=-jJ==,

^ = ^-^-,

Then
Therefore

etc.

a-.

Vet-

and

18?

lience

\((-

0-

c^

a^

6^

c-/

which proves the proposition.


Ex. 1. If P is a point on an ellipsoid and P' is the corresponding
point on a confocal whose parameter is A, OP-'-OP'- = A, where O is
the centre.
Ex.

R' are

Q',

P,

Q, R.

Ex.

Prove that OP', OQ', OR' are mutually perpendicular.


P", Q",

If

3.

ellipsoid,

Ex.

OR are conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid, and


the points of a concentric sphere corresponding to

OP, OQ,

2.

P',

OP", OQ",

An

4.

any confocal

R" are the corresponding points on a coaxal


are conjugate diameters.

OR"

umbilic on an ellipsoid corresponds to an umbilic on

ellipsoid.

Ex. 5. P and Q are any points on a generator of a hyj^erboloid


P' and Q' are the corresponding points on a second hyperboloid.
Prove that P' and Q' lie on a generator, and that PQ = P'Q'.

and

THE FOCI OF CONICOIDS.


*129. ^(I) The locus of a point such that the square on
its distance from a given point is in a constant ratio
to the rectangle

planes

is

contained by

its

distances

from two

fixed

a conicoid.

The equation

to the locus is of the

form

(x-a.f + (y-^y~ + (z-yf

= Jr(lx + my + nz+j'^W^' + '"'// +


which represents a

'''

'^

+p')'

conicoid.

a point ivhose distance from a fixed


in a constant ratio to its distance, measured

^(11) TJie locus of

point

is

parallel to

a given

'plane,

from a given

line, is

a conicoid.

iThat a conicoid could be generated by the method (I) was


pointed out by f>alinon. The method (II) is due to IMacCullagh.

first

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

188

[ch. x.

Choose rectangular axes so that the given plane is the


-plane and the point of intersection of the given line
and given plane is the origin. Let the fixed point be
a;?/

(a, B, y)

and the fixed

plane through

given

(^,

in

line

distance of

(^,

t},

is

have equations y = ^^=

^) parallel to

>/,

point

the

the given plane

line

^)

-,

from the

the .^^/-plane meets the

O, and therefore the

line

measured

to the locus is

(..-a)H(3/-/3)H(.-y)-^ = /4(--'7/ +
which represents a
In

(I) the

parallel to

given by

Hence the equation

and

The

(2/-'fy}'

conicoid.

is of the form X^ uv
form A0 (it^+i'-) = 0, where

equation to the locus

in (II) of the

and u = (), v =

represent planes.

In either case,

if

S=

()

the equation to the locus, the equation S X^^O re-

is

In

presents a pair of planes.

(I)

the planes are

real,

in

they are imaginary, but the line of intersection, u = 0,


f = 0, is real in both cases. These suggest the following
(II)

definition of the foci

If S =

and

directrices of a conicoid

a conicoid and A, a, ^, y can


represents two
S \<p =
planes, real or imaginary, (a, /3, y) is a focus, and tlie
he

found

line

is the

equation

to

so that the equation

of intersection

of the 'planes is the corresponding

directrix.

we shall call (a, (3, y) a focus of


they are imaginary, a focus of the

If the planes are real

the

first

species,

if

second species.

Lemma.
the

If

equations

the equation

(x,y,

^=0, ^=0,

throwjh their line of intersection.

2)

^=0

represents a pair of planes,

represent

three

planes passing

If F(.r,

AND DIRECTRICES

FOCI

129,130]
z)

//,

= iiv,

where ii^a.v + l)j/

7:^=av + au,
ox

then

whence the proposition

is

p^-

oy

il',

uv-\-ou, ^^ = cv + cu,

'

oz

evident.

*130. Foci of ellipsoid


foci of

189

+ cz + d and v = a'.v + b'j/ + c'z +

and paraboloids.

To

'find the

ellipsoid

tJie

Tlie e(|iiation

'^^

is

+ ^^, + ~-l-K^-o.f-\{y-^f-\{z-yr = ^

to represent a pair of planes,

...(1)

and hence, by our lemma,

the equations

represent three planes through

The three planes pass


(i)X

= ~, a = 0;

The

line

(i)y=

the line of intersection.

througli one line

or (ii)X

if

= ^2' ^ = ^'^

= ^,, y = 0.

^^ (iii)X

is,

z=

ti

'

,....

or (in ) X
^

./

or(ii)2;

a^oL
rt-

= ^

7, ,

C-

'-,,

T-5

(r

r^,

IrR

y = jT,
''

b~

TV

C"

But tlie line is the line of intersection of the planes given


by equation (1), and therefore the coordinates of any point
on the line satisfy equation (1). Therefore, substituting
from the equations to the line in equation (1), we obtain
(i)

ft-

(ii)

-,

//-

^c^ = l,
o

and

in this case,

a = 0:

ft-

= 0.;

Tp^-f^^,
c- a^ b- = l,

.,

|8

-^. + p^=l,
6-

y' = 0.

?>-

(iii)

ft-- c-

c-

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

190

Hence,

(i)

there

is

an

number

infinite

[ch. x.

of imaginary foci

in the 2/2;-plane lying on the imaginary ellipse

-^

^ = 0.

?^-i

a^

and the corresponding


(ii)

There

is

an

a^

b"

c^

'

directrices are imaginary.

infinite

number

of real foci in the 0a;-plane

lying on the hyperbola

y = 0,

p p

and the corresponding


(iii)

There

is

an

=1

(the focal hyperbola),

directrices are real.

infinite

number

of real foci in the xy-p\ane

lying on the ellipse


z

= 0,

"2

and the corresponding

The

2"l"

/2_

^-^'

(the focal ellipse),

directrices are real

directrix corresponding to a point (a, 0, y) on the

focal hyperbola has equations


'^'^-

and therefore, since

-^

rr,

_ ~ ^"7

ij^

= 1,

the directrices corresponding to points on the focal hyperbola

lie

on the hyperbolic cylinder


x%a^-b-')

z%-c'-) _

Similarly, the directrices corresponding to foci which

on the focal ellipse

lie

on the

x\a^ C-)

elliptic

i/^(/j-

C-) _ -

""

a'^

cylinder

6^

"

lie

FOCI OF ELLIPSOID

130]

If (a, 0, y) is a point

19i

on the focal hyperbola,

s-A(/>-^i + |^ + ^;-l-p{(-^-.)Hr + (^-y)^}.

where the equations to the directrix corresponding to


x = ^, s=^. But the equations to the planes
through the line = f, 3 = ^, parallel to the real circular

(a, 0, y) are

sections, are

Therefore any point on the focal hyperbola


the

first species,

and the

is

square on wliose distance from a focus of the


is

proportional to the rectangle under

the

a focus of

ellipsoid is the locus of a point the

its

two planes through the corresponding

first species

distances from

directrix parallel

to the real circular sections.


If (a,

/3,

0)

is

a point on the focal

r(JL

.,2

w'here
{(*.,

/3,

the

through

P,

c""

})-

equations to the

0) are
i:x',

x = ^, y = vy', z')

ellipse.

directrix

Now

parallel to

corresponding to

the equation to a plane

a real circular section

is

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

19?!

[ch. x.

and hence this plane meets the directrix x = ^, y =


P', whose coordinates are

ri

in the

point

The distance
measured

PP'

is

the distance of P from the directrix,

parallel to the plane.

Hence any point on the

It is

given by

focal ellipse is a focus of the

second species, and the ellipsoid

is

the locus of a point

whose distance from a focus of the second species is proportional to its distance, measured parallel to a real circular
section, from the corresponding directrix.
By the same methods, we find that the points on the
parabolas
(i)

= 0,

^%=-2z + a;

are foci of the paraboloid


called

the

(u)

y = 0,

+ ^ = 2z.

focal parabolas.

.---

= -20 + 6

These parabolas are

The corresponding

directrices

generate the cylinders

(i)^./ = 2. + a,
It (0,

,8,

y)

is

(ii)^-^..2 = 2. + 6.

any point on the

focal parabola in the

yz--p\iine,

a-h{
ah
If

((X,

$;a!-plane,

0,

y)

is

6/3

a bJ

any point on

1,
,

cr
tlie

'

,,
'

focal parabola in the

FOCI OF PARABOLOIDS

130]

a/
Whence the

(ta

\"-^

193

species of the foci can be determined

if

the

and relative magnitudes of a and b are given.


Cor.
All confocal conicoids have the same focal conies.

signs

Ex.
conies

Ex.

1.
is

Fi'ove that the product of


unity.

Find the equations

2.

Ex. 3. If
intersects the

is

tlie

eccentricities of the foca!

to the focal conies of the hyperboloid

a point on a focal conic, the corresponding directrix

normal at P to the

conic.

Ex. 4. If P is a point on a focal conic the section of the conicoid


by the phane through P at right angles to the tangent at P to the
conic has a focus at P.

Ex. 5. If P is any point on the directrix of a conicoid which


corresponds to a focus S, the polar plane of P passes through S and
is at right angles to SP.
Ex. 6. The polar plane of any point A cuts the directrix corresponding to a focus S at the point P. Prove that AS is at right
angles to SP.
Ex. 7. If the normal and tangent plane at any point P of a
is
conicoid meet a principal plane in the point N and the line QR,
the polar of N with respect to the focal conic that lies in the principal
plane.

QR

Ex. 8. Prove that the real foci of a cone


through the vertex (the focal lines).

lie

upon two straight

lines

Ex. 9. Prove that the focal lines of a cone are normal to the cyclic
planes of the reciprocal cone.
Ex.

The enveloping cones with vertex P of a system of conhave the same focal lines, and the focal lines are the

10.

focal conicoids

generators of

through

the confocal

hyperboloid of

one sheet that passes

P.

* Examples VII.
enveloping cone of an ellipsoid has three mutually
perpendicular generators the plane of contact envelopes a confocal.
1.

If

the

2. The locus of the polars of a given line with respect to a system


of confocals is a hyperbolic paraboloid.
3. Through a straight line in one of the principal planes, tangent
Prove that the points of
planes are drawn to a system of confocals.
contact lie in a plane and that the normals at these points pas.s
tlirough a fixed point in the principal plane.
E.G.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

194
4.

Shew

confocals

[ch. x.

that the locus of the centres of the sections of a system of


is a straight line.

by a given plane

If PQ is perpendicular to its polar with respect to an ellipsoid,


perpendicular to its polars with respect to all confocal ellipsoids.

5.
it is

6. Any tangent plane to a cone makes equal angles with the planes
through the generator of contact and the focal lines.

7. Through any tangent to a conicoid two planes are drawn to


touch a confocal. Prove that they are equally inclined to the tangent
plane to the conicoid that contains the tangent.
8. The locus of the intersection of three mutually perpendicular
planes each of which touches a confocal is a sj^here.
9.

The sum

the focal lines

of the angles that


constant.

any generator

of a cone

makes with

is

10. The four planes through two generators OP and OQ of a cone


and the focal lines touch a right circular cone whose axis is the line
of intersection of the tangent planes which touch the cone along OP
and OQ.
11. The planes which bisect the angles between two tangent planes
to a cone also bisect the angles between the planes containing their
line of intersection and the focal lines.
12.
ellipse

conicoid of revolution
foci are S and S'.

whose

enveloping cone whose vertex

is

formed by the revolution of an


Prove that the focal lines of the
P are PS and PS'.
is

The

feet of the normals to a system of confocals which are


parallel to a fixed line lie on a rectangular hyperbola one of whose
asymptotes is parallel to the line.
13.

tangent plane to the ellipsoid .v-Ja- + i/-/h'^ + z-/c'^ = 1 intersects


14.
the two confocals whose parameters are A and jtx. Prove that the
enveloping cones to the confocals along the curvges of section have a
common section which lies on the conicoid

15. The three principal planes intercept on any normal to a confocal


of the ellipsoid x-/a^ + 7/^/6" + z-/c^='[, two segments whose ratio is
constant.
Also the normals to the confocals Avhich lie in a given
plane Lv+mi/ + nz=0 are parallel to the line

Ix

_ my _

nz

16. The cone that contains the normals fi'om P to a conicoid


contains the normals from P to all the confocals, and its equation
referred to the normals to the confocals through P as coordinate

^^^^^^

P,iX,-\,)
^

(C

P-2(^,-^,)
1/

P.JK-X,)
z

EXAMPLES

CH. X.J

VII.

195

17. Normals are drawn from a point in one of the principal planes
Prove that they lie in the |)rincipal \A:ine or
to a system of confocals.
in a plane at right angles to it, that the tangent planes at the feet of
those in the principal plane touch a parabolic cylinder, and that the
tangent planes at the feet of the others pass through a stiuight line

lying in the principal plane.


18. If tangent planes are drawn through a fixed line to a system of
confocals the normals at the points of contact generate a hyperbolic
paraboloid.
Shew that the paraboloid degenerates into a plane when
the given line is a normal to one of the surfaces of the system.
19. From any two fixed points on the same normal to an ellij
perpendiculars are drawn to their respective polar planes with regard
Prove that the perpendiculars intersect and
to any confocal ellipsoid.
that the locus of their intersection as the confocal varies is a cubic
curve whose projection on any principal plane is a rectangular
hyperbola.

Find the parabola which

20.

confocals .

r-

and prove that

4./

+ -^

r-

is

its directrix lies in

(62

the envelope of the normals to the

1 which lie in the plane Ix + my + nz =p,


the plane

_ (p^xll + (c^ - d^)y\m + (a2 - W)zln = 0.

21. If A, jLt, V are the direction-cosines of the normal to a system of


parallel tangent planes to a system of confocal conicoids, express the
coordinates of any point of the locus of their points of contact in

the form

where

x^Xit^a'lt), y = ii{t + lt\

system.

z^v{t + c^/t),

are the principal axes of a particular confocal of the


Deduce that the locus is a rectangular hyperbola.

a, b,

22. If A, /x, V are the parameters of the confocals of an ellipsoid,


axes a, b, c, through a point P, the perpendicular from P to its polar
plane is of length
Xixv{h'^c^lj.v(a'^

- A) + c^ahX{b^ - /^) + (i"b-Xii{c^ - v) }~ -.

23. Through a given line tangent planes are drawn to two confocals
and touch them in A, A' B, B' respectively. Shew that the lines
AB, AB' are equally inclined to the normal at A and are coplanar
;

with

it.

24. If P and Q are points on two confocals such that the tangent
planes at P and Q are at riglit angles, the plane through the centre
and the line of intersection of the tangent planes bisects PQ. Hence
shew that if a conicoid touches each of three given confocals at two

points

it

has a fixed director sphere.

[CH. XI.

CHAPTER XL
THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE.
131.

certain

In Chapter VII. we have found the equations to


loci, (tangent planes, polar planes, etc.) connected

with the conicoid, when the eonicoid is represented by


an equation referred to conjugate diametral planes as
coordinate planes.

We

equations to these loci

shall in this chapter first find the

when

by the general equation


discuss
planes,

the

the conicoid

is

represented

and then
and principal

of the second degree,

determination of

the centre

and the transformation of the equation when the

principal planes are taken as coordinate planes.

Constants in

132.

equation of second degree.

general equation of the second degree


F{x, y, z)

or

may

The

be written

= ax" + by- + cz- + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy

f{x, y, z)

+ 2ux + 2vy + 2wz+d = 0,


+ 2ux + 2vy + 2ivz -\-d = 0.

It contains nine disposable constants,

and therefore a

conicoid can be found to satisfy nine conditions which each

involve one relation between the constants

e.g. a conicoid
can be found to pass through nine given points no four
of which are coplanar, or to pass through six given points
and touch the plane XOY at the origin, or to pass through

three given non-intersecting

lines.

conicoid is to pass through a given conic.


disposable constants will its equation contain ? Is the
same when the conicoid is to pass through a given circle ?

Ex.

1.

How many
number the

CONSTANTS IN EQUATION

g 131-133]

Ex.

(li

where

a, b,

Ex.

through

Tliu equation to a conicoid

2.

c,

197

conic

= 0,

to a conicoid that touches the plane 2 =

+ my + nz=p
z{lv + my + m -p) + {kx + fxzf + ( A.y + vzf = 0,

A,

Ex,

4.

/x,

is

+ z{(Lv + bf/ + ci + d) = 0,

an umbilic at the origin and touclies the plane

where

= 0,

</)

are disposable constants.

The equation

3.

tlie

l.v

at

is

v are disposable constants.

Find the equation

to the conicoid which passes through


the circle .r-4-y- = 2a.i-, ^ = 0, and the points {b, 0, c), (0, b, c), and
has the 2-axis as a generator.
.1

m. c{x- + i/^ - 2cuv) - byz + (2a - b)zx=0.

133.

Points of intersection of line and conicoid.

straight line through A, (a, ^, y),


direction-ratios are I, m, n, are
ei

[nations to

tlic

x-(x. _

and the point on


coordinates

OL

this line

+ lr,

y-^ _z-y

The
whose

~ n

^^
'

whose distance from A

jS+jnr, y-\-nr.

It lies

is

r has

on the conicoid

F{x,y,z) = 0,
F(a.

if

that

is, if

F(a,

(3,

1^

+ lr,

jS+mr, y + iir) = 0;

y) + r(^^ + m|^ + 7.|^)

+ ry(/,,

m, .0 = 0.

(?^

Hence the straight line meets the conicoid in two points


and the measures of AP and AQ are the roots of

iind Q,

the equation
If

(2).

(i)F(./3,y) = 0.
(iii) f(l,

/,|+| + |I = 0.

(ii)

m,n) = 0,

equation (2) is satisfied by all values of r, or every point


on the line lies on the conicoid. The conditions (ii) and (iii)
I :m
7?, and therefoi-e through
any point on a conicoid two straight lines can be drawn to
lie wholly on the conicoid.
They are parallel to the lines
in which the plane
aP
3F ^
3F
dy
da.
dp

give two sets of values for

"^

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

198

[ch. xi.

They may be real,


cuts the cone f{x, y, z) = 0, (cf 60).
imaginary, or coincident, as in the cases of the hyperboloid
.

of one sheet, the ellipsoid,

The

134.

and the cone, respectively.


If F(a,

tang-ent plane.

and one root of equation


with P or with Q. If also

conicoid,

,9F

3F

/3,

3F

y) =

a
A

0,

(2) is zero.

on the

is

coincides

,_,

^3^+^3^ + ^'9^ = ^'

(^)

both roots of equation (2) are zero, and P and

coincide

which lies on the conicoid. The line is therefore a


tangent Hue to the surface at A. If we eliminate I, m,, n
between the equations to the line and equation (3), we
at A,

drawn

obtain the equation to the locus of the tangent lines

through A in

The equation

all possible directions.

is

(.-a)3^+(,-^)| + (.-y)| = 0.
and hence the locus is a plane, the tangent plane at
above equation may be written
3F

9F

BF

^SF

SF

A.

The

3F

...

now, F{x,

If,

tion of

y, z)

be made homogeneous by the introduct, which is -equated to unity

an auxiliary variable

after differentiation, equation (4)

3F

3F

9F

^3F

3F

,3F
,

is

equivalent to
,

= 2F(a,

/?,

y,

t),

DF

,9F
,

(Euler's Theorem),

= 0.
Ex.

1.

Find the equations

Ans.

(i)

to the tangent planes at

(,r',

y\

z')

on

= cz, (ii) x- + ^yz = a?.


xlx'+yly'-zlz' = \, (ii) xx' +yz' \-zy' = a^.
(i)

.v)/

Ex. 2. The bisectors of the angles between the lines


tangent plane to z'^ = Axy meets the planes = 0, ,y = 0, lie
x+y + z=0, x+y-z=0.
,r;

in

which any

in the planes

i<,i^

THE

133, 134]

Ex.

PLANE

Tx\.NGENT

199

Find the equation to the tangent plane at

3.

(1, 2,

3) on the

liyperboloid
zx - 1 6.r - 6.r - // + 4; - 2 = 0,

x"- + 8^2 + ^2 _ o,yr + 1

and the equations

to the

.r-2y + 5 = 0;
3.i'-2y+l=0.
Ans.

?/

two generators through the


equation

the

(ii)

(i)

point.

and 4.r-3y + 2 = 0,

(i)

Ex. 4. Find the condition that the plane lx-^m})-\-nz-{-p =


touch the conicoid F(.c. y, i) =
If the point of contact is

(a., /?,

represent the same plane.

y),

should

then

Therefore

3F aP 3F 3F
9oL
-7-

3y = 3<
,
-i-=
= 3^
=-2a,
4-

m.

11

say.
""

+ hl3+gy + u+ IX = 0,
koL+bf^ + fy+ v + mX = 0,
go. +f(3 + cy + w + nk = 0,
7i.ciL+v(3 + wy + d+ pX = 0.
la. + mf3 + ny+p = 0,

Hence

aa.

And

since the point of contact

eliminating

a., (3,

y, A,

must

we obtain

lie in the given plane.


Therefore
the required condition, viz.

a,

h,

jr,

h,

b,

f,

V,

in

g,

f\

c,

u\

u,

V,

ti>,

d,

I,

?H,

n,

27,

~Q.

Ex.

5.

Prove that Lv + 7711/ + nz =p touches

Ex.

6.

Prove that

x>j

= cz\i dm + np = 0.

lx+my + 7iz=p touches /(.r, y, z) = \


A^-+B??i2 + Cji2-f-2Fi?i + 2G?i^ + 2H^?H=j92D,

where

a,

h,

^>-^

^ /

and

A = ^3-,

8=^^7-1

if

etc.

Ex. 7. If the axes are rectangular, prove that the locus of


the feet of the perpendiculars from the origin to tangent planes to
f\r,y,z) =

A.r2

is

+ B/ + C- + 2Fy^ + 2G--.r- + 2H.y/ = D (.f- +

Ex. 8. Prove that the locus of the point


mutually perpendicular tangent planes to /"(.r,

?/2

+ ^2)2.

of intersection of three
//,

D(.r2+/ + ^-) = A + B + C.

z)=\

is

the sphere

(Cf. G8,

Ex.

1.)

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

200
Ex.

Prove that the plane 2j/-22 = l

9.

surface

Ex.
at

[ch. xi.

a tangent plane to the

-^2^'jy2^2z^-9i/z + 5zx-6.vi/ + 5.v-l4i/ + lOz + 6 = 0.

Prove also that the


planes

is

lines of intei'section of the given plane

+ 3 = 0, 2x-2z+l=0

2.?;

lie

two conicoids have a


of the generator.

comnion generator, they touch

If

10.

two points

If the generator

6/+
6'_y2

taken as

is

C2^+
c'z'^

2fi/z

the equations to the conicoids are

.r-axis,

+ 2gzx

and the

on the surface.

+2h.vi/ +2vi/

+2wz =0,

+ 2fyz + 2g'zx + 2Kxy + 2v'9/ + 2w'z 0,

The tangent planes

at

(a., 0,

0) are

y{hoL + v) + z(goL + w) = 0,

They are coincident

y{k'a.

+ v') + z(g'o. + w') = 0.

if

hcL
h'a.

+ v _ goL + w
g'a. + w'

+ v'

This equation gives two values of

a..

at three points of a common


generatoi', they touch at all points of the generator, and the generator
has the same central point and parameter of distribution for both

Ex.

If

11.

two conicoids touch

surfaces.

Ex.

12.

Tangent planes

parallel to the given plane


ajc

+ [iy + yz =

drawn to conicoids that pass through the lines .r = 0, ,y =


x = c. Shew that the points of contact lie on the paraboloid
are

= 0,

X (ot,r + (iy + y: ) = c (our + Py).


Ex.

13.

If a conicoid passes

through the origin, and the tangent

= 0, the equation to the surface


ax"- + 6/ + cz^ + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2'2 = 0.

plane at the origin

is

taken as

is

of a
Ex. 14. If a set of I'ectangular axes through a fixed point
conicoid meet the conicoid in P, Q, R, the plane PQR meets the
in a fixed point.
normal at

Ex.15.

If

Ur

= arX+hry + CrZ + dr,

prove that the tangent planes at


(i)
(ii)

are given by

(i)

(ii)

where
Ex.

16.

(.r',

y', z')

= l,

2, 3,

to the conicoids

Aitti2+V2^ + ^3%^=1'
AjWi^ + AgWa^

= 2X3^3

X.^^^^n^-{-X2U.iU2^X:iU^^(^

+ X2U2U2' = Xsi'ih +
/ = a,.v' + 6^?/ + Cr^ + dr.

Aii?(i'

'\,

'":\)i

Prove that
n^U2 + AiV,2 + 2\2ViV2 +

=
= 0,

A3?'.;-

represents a conicoid touching the planes i


of intersection with the line i'i = 0=V2.

?f^

at their points

THK POLAR PLANE

135]

The polar

135.

plane.

A with

if R is the harmonic conjugate


P and Q, the locus of R is the

to

respect

20 i

any secant through a meets

Q and

the conicoid in P and


of

If

polar of A.
If

is

(a,

j8,

y) and the equations to the secant are

X CL _ 1l ^ _ Zy

then

i\,

the measures of

i\,

AP and AQ,

are the roots of

the equation

Hence

if

is (^,

_
^

^)

>;,

2i\r,

r]

is p,

2F(a, ^, y)

9F
ap'
^3^ + ^"3^ + ^'3y
,3F

n+7\,~
"

^cL = lp,

and

and the measure of AR

^ = mp,

^y = np.

Therefore

(f-a)3^+(,-/3)|+(f-y)|=-2F(a,Ay),
and the equation to the locus of
becomes

3F

9F

^3^ + 2/3^ +

3F

(^,

the polar plane,

^),

>/,

,3F

%+%
,

= 2F(a,

/3,

y, t)-2F(cjL,

(3,

t),

y,

= 0.
Ex.

1.

Find the equations to the 'pohir of

^^^^^=trJ[
I

with respect to the conicoid F{x,

y, z)

= 0.

(Cf. 70.)

9F, 3F, 3F. 3F ^ ,9F, 3F


3F ^
^^. ^9^+yg^+-3^4-^3^=o, z3^+.t^+^=o.
.

Ex.

2.

Prove that the


.

lines

v-a. _ y- P _z-y
n
I
m

.r
'

- a.' _if - ft' _z - y'


I'

m'

n'

COOEDINATE GJEOMETKV

SoS-

are polar with respect to the conicoid

^,3F

,3F
,

,3F

op

ooL

Ex.

3.

Any

3F

F(.v, y, z)

,,3F

oy

ol

set of rectangular axes

[ch. xi.

if

3F

,3F

om

on

through a fixed point

meets

a given conicoid in six points. Prove that the sum of the squares of
the ratios of the distances of the points from the polar plane of O to

their distances from

O as

(Take

Ex.

4.

origin,

constant.

is

and use

54,

Ex.

9.)

Prove that
AiMj^

+ AaWa^ + A3%2 + A^

V=

represents a conicoid with respect to which the tetrahedron whose


faces are i = 0, U2 = 0, u^ = 0, u^ = is self -conjugate.

Ex. 5. Find the equation to the conicoid with respect to which


the tetrahedron formed by the coordinate planes and the plane

a
self-conjugate, and
(0, -b,0), (0,0, -c).
is

a,

0,

0),

"(5+^+3 -(^f+^ ')'=

"

Ex.

which passes through the points

All conicoids which touch a given cone at its points


by a given plane have a common self-conjugate teti^ahedi'on.

6.

section

136.

The enveloping

cone.

of

The equations

x 0L_y ^_s y
I

~ n

equation (2) of 133 has equal roots.


The condition for equal roots is
represent a tangent

if

Therefore the equation to the locus of the tangents

drawn from a given point


4.F(a, ^,

But

y)f{x-CL,

F{oL

(oc, /3,

y)

is

y-/3,z-y)

+ x-Oi, ^ + tj-l3,

=f{x-OL,y-^,Z-y)

y-\-Z-y)

S 136-138]

ENVELOPING

Therefore the

(JUNE

e(|iuition to

AND CYLINDER

2o;i

the locus becomes

4F(a,^, y)F(,f,2/,0)

OF

3F

3F

,SF\2

Ex. 1. If a cone envelope a sphere, the section of the cone l\y any
tangent plane to the sphere is a conic which has a focus at the point
of contact.

Ex. 2. The tangent plane to a conicoicl at an unibilic meets any


enveloping cone in a conic of which the mnbilic is a focus.
Ex.

Find the locus of a luminous point which moves so that

3.

the sphere

.^.2

casts a parabolic

Ans.

137.

+fJrz^-iaz =

shadow on the plane

= 0.

= 2a.
The enveloping

From the condition


we see that (a, /3,

cylinder.

equal roots used in the last paragraph

any point on a tangent drawn


-=
I

lies

for
y),

parallel to the fixed line

! = -,
m n'

on the cylinder given by

3F
3F\2
A^F
m, n)^ = [l:^ + m:^y^n-)

A^,
^^n
^F(x, y, z)f{l,

Ex. A cylinder whose generators make an angle a. with the 2-axis


envelopes the sphere .v^ + i!f + z^ = 2az. Prove that the eccentricity of
its section by the plane s =
is sin a..
138.

The

locus of the chords

a given point.

If

(ex.,

/3,

y), the

which are bisected at


given point,

is

the mid-

chord whose equations are

pcjint of the

a^-a _ y ^ _ z--y

~ n

'

the equation

F(a,

/3,

y) + r (/

=
^^ + mf. + nf) + r\f{l, m, n)

takes the form r- = k^, and therefore

;3F

3F

SF

.-,,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

204

Hence

[ch. xi.

chords which are bisected at (a,

all

(3,

y)

in

lie

by

the plane given

(--)g+(!/-/3)|+(-y)|=o.
The
which

is

y)

of centres of sections of
a>/z

cf.\hz

c^)-'^

+ (i\cx + azf + yXaij + hxf = 4 {ai/z + bzx + cxyf.

The diametral

139.

+ hzx + cxy + ahc

.r2/a.2+//i8H 22/7^=1-

which touch

A ns.

Equation (1) of 138 shews


chords drawn parallel to a fixed

plane.

that the mid-points of

all

line

_z

X _y

T
lie

this plane is a conic of

the centre.

Find the locus

Ex.

by

section of the conicoid


(rx, /3,

on the diametral plane whose equation


,

3F
^x

3F
dy

3F

is

dz

Ex. 1. Find the central circular sections and unibilics of


following surfaces
4i/z

(ii)

7/2

(iii)

Ans.

(i)

-2

(iii)

circles
lie

2.

*V.3'1

%v+y - s = 0, x + 2// - 2j =
X _ji _

Ex.

+ bzx - 5x1/ + 8 = 0,

- yz 2zx xi/ 4: = 0.

x+i/-z = 0, x-i/ + z =
1

(ii)

x-\-z

= 0,

x+y-\-z =

^ Q^

^2

?/2

^ ^2

>3"

-2

2
;

X _y _

2\/3

\J2

the umbilics are imaginary.

Prove that the umbilics


^

the

x^+y2+2 = 0,

(i)

of conicoids that pass


j;

= 0,

yH ^2 ^

through the

^^2

on two equal hyperbolas in the ^A-plane.


140.

The principal planes.

at right angles to the chords

diametral plane which

which

it

is

bisects is a principal

THE PRINCIPAL PLANES

138-140]

plane.

If the axes are rectangular, the diametral

whose equation

is

x(al + hm

plane

is
l

or

205

+ m~dy\-n
=0,
dz

dx

+ fjn) + y (Id + bm +fn) + z {gl +fm + en)


+ id + vm + wn = 0,

at right angles to the line

x^y_^z_
I
m n

al+htn+gn _ hi + bm +fn _ gl +fm + en


I
n
m

if

If each of these ratios is equal to A, then

{a \)l + hni-\-gn

= 0,

+ {b-X)m+fn = 0,
gl+fm + {c-X)n = 0.

ld

Therefore A

or

is

(1)

a root of the equation

g =0,

-A,

h,

h,

b-\,

0,

f>

c-A

\^-X\a+b + c) + \{bc + ca + ab -f -g'^-h'')-D = 0,

where D

((,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

206

Find the

Ex.

(ii)

(i)

(ii)

Condition for two zero-roots.

141.

U.v^+Uf + 8z^ - 4i/z - 4sx - 8x^ + 18x - I8i/ + 5 = 0,


3a'2 + 5?y2 + 3s2 _ 2i/z + 2zx - 2x1/ + 2.r + 12j/ + 10^ + 20 = 0.
A = 6, 12, 18; x+9/ + 2z=0, x+^-z=0, x-7/+l=0;
A = 2, 3, 6; x-z-2 = 0, a;+i/ + z + 4 = 0, x-2i/ + z~l=0.

(i)

Jns.

jDrinciiml planes of the conicoids

[ch. xi.

BC-F- = aD = 0,

CA-G" = 6d = 0,

If

d = 0, then

AB-H2 = cD = 0,

and therefore A, B, C have the same sign. Therefore if


D = and A + B + C = 0, A = B = C = 0, and tlieref ore we have
Hence if the discriminating cubic has
also F = G = H = 0.

two

zero-roots, all the six quantities A, B, C,

zero and f{x, y, z)


142.

is

a,

Case of one zero-root.

has one zero-root,

th-e

If the discriminating cubic

corresponding principal plane either

may be any plane at


X = 0, the equations (1),

at an infinite distance or

For

to a fixed line.

G, H, are

F,

perfect square.

if

is

right angles

140, give

_n
G~y~C'
I

_'}n

= = -= = -=,
Vb Vc

or

v/a

(8141).
^^
^

These determine a fixed direction, since

The corresponding

all zero.
(2),

A, B,

are not

by

140,

the equation
s/Ax 4- VB (/

+ ^/Cz

= 0,

-\

\/Au + \/Bv-}-Vci^^O, or

and

is

may

be any plane at right angles to the fixed line

at

an

infinite distance if

TaTJI^Jo
In the
is in

principal plane has,

first

.'^

,-

,-

Va^^ + n/Bi; + Vcio = 0.

case the conicoid

is

a paraboloid whose axis

the fixed direction, in the second, an elliptic or hyper-

bolic cylinder or pair of intersecting planes


line of intersection is

in, tlie

fixed direction.

whose axis or

INDETERMINATE PRINCIPAL PLANES

141-143J

Ex.

1.

+ 207/ + 1 8r - 1 '2yz + 1 ^2xi/ + 22.f + 6^ - 2i - 2 = 0,


+ 26/ + 10^2 + Ayz + 1420; + 6.ry - 8a- - 18i/ - 10.- + 4 = 0.
^- + 2^ + 32 + 1 = 0, .r + 4y-32 + l=0, the plane
A. = 14, 26,

(i)

2.v-^

(ii)

5.r2

Ans.

(i)

at infinity
(ii)

A=14,

right angles to

27,

2x-y + Zz = \,

0;

+ fvy + 2==2,

.r

any

i)lane at

-^=| = ^.

Ex 2. Verify that the principal planes


mutually at right angles.
143.

207

Find the principal planes of the surfaces

in

Exs. 140, 142 are

If the discriminatinoCase of two zero-roots.


two zero-roots the equations (1), 140, when

cubic has

X = 0,

all

reduce to

Jat -\-slbm-\- sjcn = 0,


and

therefore the directions of the normals to

principal planes are indeterminate.

two

of the

These planes, however,

must be at right angles to the plane Jax + Jby + -</cz = 0,


and they may be at an infinite distance, (if ul + vm-\-wn^O),
or at any distance from the origin, (if ul + V7n + wn = 0).
In the first case the surface is a parabolic cylinder and the
axes oi normal sections are parallel to the plane

J ax + Jby + Jcz =

in the second the surface is a pair of planes parallel to

Jax + Jbij + Jcz = 0.


Ex.

1,

For the surfaces


2.v -iy-2z + 3=0,
2zx-2xy-2x + 2y-2z-S = 0,
The determinate principal plane is x-y + z = 0.
x-y + z = 0, x + 2y + z = 0, x-z =

(i) .r2
(ii)

A = 3,

+ 2/2 + 22

2yz + 2zx - Ixy -

x'^+y^+z'^-2yz +

0, 0.

If

are taken as coordinate planes the equations transform into


3^2 = 2v/6>7-3,

and

3^2_2v/3^-3 = 0.

If one of the principal planes of the cone whose vertex is


base the parabola y^- 4ax, 2 = is parallel to the fixed phme

Ex.

2.

lx+my + nz = 0,
the locus of

is

the straight line

V m

m\l

vJ

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

208

[CH. XI.

THE DISCRIMINATING CUBIC.


144.

All the roots of the discriminating cubic are

The equation may be

real.

written,

^(X)^(X-a){{\-b){\-c)-f}
-{(X-b)g^ + Qi-c)h^ + 2fgh}=-.0.

We may

assume (X>?>>c.

Consider

y = ^|r{\)^(\-b){X-c)-f\
Corresponding values of A and y are

00

+ G0,
Y

c,

-f,

b,

-f,

+ 00

+00.

THE DISCKIMINATING CUBIC

144,145]

209

when
A

= a,

^ - {{(x-b)[f + (oi-c)h-2j{fj.-b){a.-c)gh}
= {iJs/cL b llJcL Cf,

where Jcl h, Jo. c are

real

wlien

= (gJb^+JiJc-^f,
where Jb ^, Vc /3 are

real.

Hence from the graph we


has three real roots,

The above proof


equation

= 0,
and /=

\p-(\)

have b = c,

see that the equation 0(X) = O

X^, A2, A3,

fails

if

such that

and

the roots of the

(3,

In that

are equal.

case,

however,

we

and therefore the cubic becomes

{X-b){{\-a){\-b)-g^-h^]=0,
tlie

roots of

which are

easily seen to be all real.

The factors of f{x,

145.

y,

2)-\(x^ + y'' + s^).

If

is

root of the discriminating cubic,

(M- + by' + C2- + 2fyz + 2gzx


is

the product of

two factors

+ 2hxy - A

of the f i^m

(x.x

+ ^/H 5^)
+ Py + ys. Only
(a.'^

one of the three roots leads to real values of a,

/3,

y.

For

(a-X)x' + {b-\)y^-{-(c-\)z^ + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy

and therefore

where
* ax-

tv

is

of tlie

and v are

form

linear functions of x, y,

+ by- + cz" + '2fyz + ^gzx + 'ihxy

= 1 Uhx + by +M + (C.r- - 2Gr.a: + A:^)


\\^{hx + by+f^^ + \{^z-G.vr^^
if

A=

and therefore Qr=-kC.


B.C.

z,

with

real

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

210

Reference to the graphs shews that the signs

coefficients.

of 6

[en. xi.

and V'(A) for A = Xi,

X2, A3 are as follows:

b-X,

x/.(A),

-,

+,

,
+,

+.

A = Ai,
\ = \,
A = A3,

X(x^ + y^ + z^) takes the forms


- Lht^ - M^^ Lhi^ - Mh", Lhi'- + Mhj^,

Hence /(;,
according

y, z)

A = Ai,

as

or

Ag,

correspond

coefficients

The

A3.

therefore

with real

factors

the

to

mean

root,

A^.

(Cf.93.)

To find

146. Conditions for equal roots.

the

tions that the discrimhiating ctchic shoidd have,


roots equal,

The cubic

(ii) tliree

a \,

h,

h,

h-\,

f
c-A

f>

fj>

Therefore, as in 141,

(6-A)(c-A)-/-,
have the same
If

is

two

roots equal.

is

(p(\)=

(i)

condi(i)

if

is

a root of the cubic,

(c-A)(a-A)-^^

{a-X){h-X)-h^

sign.

a repeated root, 0(A) =

and

-^^(b-\)(c-X)-P
+ {c-X){a-X)-g~ + (a-X)ih-X)-h^ = 0,
and therefore

and hence,

(b-X)(c-X)=P, (c-X){a-X) = g\\


(a-A)(6-A) = ^^
J
(corresponding to F = G = H = 0), we have

{a-X)f=gh,

{b-X)g = hf,

,^s

also

{c-X)h=fg

Any one of the three sets of conditions,


(c-A)(a-A)=/, (a-X)(h-X) = h:\ (a-X)f=gh,
(a-X)(b-X) = h\ {h-X)ic-X)=f, (b-X)g = hf,
{h-X)(c-X)^f\ (c-X)ia-X) = g'\ {c-X)h=fg,

(b)

(a')
(p/)

(r')

THE PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS

145,146]

both necessary and

is

For

sufficient.

211

if (a') is

given, substi-

tuting for a X from the third equation in the

we

obtain

whence

(6

Therefore,
A,

= hf,

(j,.x)g

the repeated root,

is

not equal to

a, h

or

If

(a),

X = b or

X = c, then

<;

If

c.

/, g, h is zero,
and we have

(i^
--Ai;

f^

one of the three quantities

If /,

from

c,

ff-

G H
-X = -. = - = ^
F

or

two,

X)(c A)=/'-.

none of the three quantities

if

first

{c-\)h=f<j,

/, g,

It,

zero, then,

is

X = b, then h = 0, and

= 0, and
{a-c){h-c) = h\

Therefore

must be

if

zero,

one of the three quantities

is zero,

anotlier

and we have

X = ,

g = h = 0,

{h-a){c-a)=p;\

or

\ = h,

(c-h)(a-b) = g'-},

or

X = c,

h=f = 0,
f=g = 0,

(2)

{a-c){b-c) = h\)

(1) and (2) give the conditions for a pair


and the value of the roots in each case.

The equations
of ec[ual roots
(ii)

If the three roots are equal to X,

X also

satisfies

the

equation

^=
But,

by

0,

or

(a-X) + (6-X) + (<-X) = 0.

(A),

{(a-\) + {b-\) + (c-\)]^

= (rt-X)H(6-X)- + (c-X)H2/- + 2fr + 2A2.


Therefore \ = a = b = c, and
this case

must be a sphere.

/= g h = 0.

Tlie conicoid in

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

212

The principal

147.

tions determined

al

We

directions.

[ch. xi.

shall call the direc-

by the equations

+ h.in + gii _
~ Id + hm +fn _ gl +fin + cn _

2/

J/

'

dl_dm _c)n _

^^

Tr 2^i~27i~^'

the principal directions.

// X
I,

m.;

a root of the discriminating cubic giving values


of the direction-cosines of a principal direction,

is

\ =f{l, m,

t or

148.

n).

X=

do
din dn
dt
dm
dn

= - = rr- = lTTTt:
= '^'
sr
(^
21
2{l'"-\-m^-\-n")
2m 2n

The principal

directions

,.,

5-:

'tn,

corres2Mnding

distinct roots of the discriminating cubic are

n).

'

to

two

at right

angles.
If

\,

X.,

are the roots, and

l^,

m^,

n-^;

l.^,

m.,,

n.-,

are the

corresponding direction-cosines, then

^k\ = ^'
But

etc.;

%\ = ^'

etc.

l^^+,n,^+n,^^l,^
+ m.:^
+ n.,^,
^dt^
^dm^
^dn^
^dl^
"dm^^
^dn^

and therefore

which proves the proposition.


149. Cases of equal roots,

of the discriminating cubic,

(i)

If X^, A^, A3 are the roots

and Ao^A^, there

principal direction corresponding to A^

is

a definite

but the equations

dl2_d7no_dno_^

...

^^

2t^^2^,^2^~^'reduce to a single equation which


direction-cosines of

any

is

satisfied

by the

direction at right angles to the

principal direction corresponding to A,.

INDETERMINATE PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS

147-149]

21:}

Suppose that we have


A.,
-

= A3^0, and
3^

\.,
-

'

= a-'4 = 0-^ = c--^}'-.


/

1^

(J

Then the equations

gl,+fm2 + {c-\.,)n,=^0
all

become

And

ry/iZ.,

since the

sum

+ hfm.^ +fgn.^ = 0.

of the roots of the cubic

a A,^ -

'-

is

a + ^ + c,

It

and hence the equation


{a-X^}l^ + hm^+gn^

may

be written

The three

e(iuations corresponding to X^ therefore give

which determine a

definite principal direction.

equation corresponding to
directions given

by gh hf:fg,
:

l.^

The

m.y

should be at right

v.,

angles.
If

we have
X, = X3 = a,

r/=.0,

/i

= 0, and {b-a)(c-a)^f,

the equations corresponding to Xo and A^ are

(b-a)m,+fn.-, = 0,

If

X.,

= X.^ = 0,

he

=p

ca

D = 0,

then

- g",

<ih

and the equations corresponding to


s/cilo

A.,

'^

//

and

+ Jbm., 4- s/cv = 0,

Ja

Jb

single

the condition that the

is

sjc

Aj are

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

^i4

and

the discriminating cubic has three equal roots,

If

(ii)

any

[ch. Xi.

direction

and the equations

]i

reduce to

The reason

is

For X = a = h c,

a principal direction.

is

f=g = = 0,

obvious.

_^i^

on

The

for principal directions

_ '^
n
surface

is

a sphere, and any

plane through the centre bisects chords at right angles


to

it.

To sum
roots,

up,

if

are

there

the discriminating
three mutually

cubic

has distinct

perpendicular

principal

has two or three repeated roots, three


mutually perpendicular directions can be chosen whose
direction-cosines satisfy the equations of 147, which
directions.

If

it

determine the principal directions. Therefore in all cases


we can transform the equation, taking as new rectangular
axes three lines through the origin whose direction-cosines
satisfy the equations

dm _'c>n _
2l~2in~2n~

dl _

where A

is

'

a root of the discriminating cubic.

Transformation of /(, y, z).


f(x, y, z) transforms into \i^ + \9>f' \-\^^Let O^, 0>y, O^ have direction-cosines l^, m-^,
150.

?3,

m^, %3, corresponding to the roots

x = l^^+l^}] + ^,

Then

We

etc.

X^, Ao, A3 of

^=-l^x

+ m^y + n^z,

have also
^dx

^dy

^dz

dl^

'^dm^

dri^

= 2\{l^x + m^y + n ^z),


And

similarly,

l.^,

m^,

n.,

the cubic.
etc.

DETERMINATION OF THE OENTKES

19-151]

Hence, multiplying by

or

^,

f(x, y, z)

Ex.

IiiEx.

(i)

1.

\Ax" +

In Ex.

(ii)

2A'^

(i),

= \$'' + \r + A3^'-

1, (i),

8.*v/

tiansfornis into 6g

In Ex.

(i),

2.

2>/-

8^^.

transforms into

\A^--\-2ir,f.

143,

x^+y^ + z'-'ir/z + 2zx-'ixn transforms


Ex.

-'

142,

+ 20^2 + i82a_i2_y2+12.tv/

(iii)

and adding,

140,

+ 8^^ - 4^2 - 4^.'; -

1 4?/-

^ respectively

;,

215

into 3^-.

Prove that the conicoids


'imjz

+ ^hzx + 2cx}j = 1

2cLi/z

can be placed so as to be confocal

+ 2f3zx + 2yxi/ = 1

if

THE CENTRE.
when P is any point
151. If there
on a conicoid and PO is produced its own length to P',
P' is also on the conicoid, O is a centre of the conicoid.
// the origin is at a centre, the coefficients of x, y, z in
is

a point O, such that

equation to the conicoid are zero.


Let the equation be

the

f{x, y, z)

Then

if

is

(x,

+ 2nx + 2vy + 2wz+d=0.

y',

z), P' is

f{x\ y, z) +

f(x\
Therefore

y',

-y', -z), and

z) - 2ux' - 2vy' - 2vjz


%ix'

of values of

x',

is

satisfied

iix

(1)

by an

infinite

y\ z other than the coordinates

of points lying in the plane

we must have

+ d = 0,
+ d = 0.

+ vy'-\-wz =0

Hence, since equation (1)

number

{-x\

2ux' + 2vy' + 2wz

+ vy + ivz = 0,
u= =
t'

i''

= 0.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

216

To determine

152.

F{x, y, z)

Let (a,

= 0.

Change the

y) be a centre.
and the equation becomes
(3,

F(x + 0L, y + l3, z + y) =


or

fix, y,

[ch. xi.

the centres of the conicoid

z)-\-x+y;^ + z

origin to (a, ^, y)

0,

-j-F{0L, (3,

y)

= 0.

Therefore, since the coefficients of x, y, z are zero,

aF_3F_9F_
The equation

Cor.

SF
dx

to

any diametral plane


9F
dy

dF

is

of the

form

dz

and therefore any diametral plane passes through the


centre or centres.
153.

The central

planes.

2 9^

point

(2)

l^^gx+fy + cz + w^O

(8)

common

we may

Similarly,

(1),

(2), (3)

by

A, H,

respectively

and hA + bH+fG = 0,
Au + H y + Gw

y=

single

centre

etc.,

-D
z

have to consider the following

D^tO,

the central planes.

then, since

x=

We

call

to the central planes is a centre.

aA + /iH + f7G = D

I.

(1)

^'^^hx + hy+fz + v = 0,

Multiply equations

and add

e(juations

= '' + %+5'^ + ^^ =

represent planes which

Any

The

at

hnite distance,

_p

cases, (cf. 45)


(ellipsoid,

hyper-

boloid, or cone).

THE CENTEK.S

^ 152-154]
11.

D = 0,

single centre at an

Au+Hv + Giv=l=0,
III.

217

D = 0,

(paraboloid).

infinite distance,

line of centres at a

(elliptic or

finite distance,

planes

(central

linder,

pass through one


line

hy-

perbolic cy-

pair

of intersect-

and are not

ing planes).

parallel,)

IV. A, B, C,

line of centres at

F, G, H,

all zero,

an

(parabolic

distance,

infinite

cy-

linder).

(central planes
but not

parallel

coincident,)

V. A, B, C,

plane

H,

F, G,

fu = gv = ivh,
154.

of

centres,

Equation when the origin


is

planes).

coincident,)

the conicoid has a centre

the origin

(pairofparallel

planes

(central

all zero,

changed to

it,

is

at a

centre.

If

y) at a finite distance, and


the equation becomes

(oc, /3,

f(x,y,z)+F{a.,^,y) = 0,
,3F

dF

or, since

f(x, y, z)-{-uoi

+ v^ + wy + d = 0.

This becomes, on substituting the coordinates of the


centre found in 153,
,,.

A^'. y>

^)=

Ati^-{-Bv^-\-Cw-

+ 2Fviu + 2Giim + 2Huv-<^D


^

-S

where

a,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

218
Ex.

Find the centres of the

1,
(i)

U.v^ +

[ch. xi.

conicoids,

Uf + 8z'^-4^z-4zx-8xi/+l8x-l8i/ + 5 =

0,

+ 5f- + 3z'^-2i/z+2zx-2x)/ + 2x+Uy + lOz + 20 = 0,


2.^;2 + 20j/2 + I8z^-l2i/z + l 2xxj + 22x+Qy-2z-2= 0,
5.^2 + 26/+ 10^2 + 4^2+142^^ + 6^^- 8j;- 18^-10.5 + 4 = 0,
x''-+y''' + z^-2yz-\-2zx~ 2x}j - 2x-47/-2z + 'S=0,
x^ +3/2 + s2 - 2i/z + 2zx - 2x1/ -2x + 2i/- 2z -3 = 0.

(ii) 3x^(iii)

(iv)

(v)
(vi)

Ans. (i)(_l, 1, o),


to the line
are parallel
^

(ii)(_l,

-|_^),

J^=-^ = |,

-9

(iv)

!_^=-^ =
lb
1

(v) the central planes are parallel,


centres,
plane of centres.

the central pL.

(iii)

(vi)

is

the line of

11

x-^+z = l

Ex. 2. If the origin is changed to the centre, the equations


become
^^^2 + 14^2 + 8.-2 _ 43/2 - Azx - Sxjj = 4,

is

the

(i)

and

(ii)

3.r2

+ 5/ + 322 _ 2yz + 2zx - 2x11 = 1

If the origin is changed to (.5, 0,


the line of centres, the equation (iv) becomes

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

5.t'2

ellipses

- 3),

or to any point on

+ 26y2 + 1 0,s2 + 4yz + 14:ZX+ 6x1/ = 1

Prove that the centres of conicoids that pass through the


x^ja^+fjb^^l, z=0 x^/a^ + z^/c^=l, ?/ = lie on the lines
;

c'

locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through


given straight lines and two given points is a straight line.

Ex.

5.

The

Ex.

6.

If F(x,

?/, 2,

t)=0 represents a cone, the coordinates

two

of the

vertex satisfy the equations

dx
Ex.

7.

principal
that their vertices

Ex.
circle
x'^

i/^

Ex.

'by

dz

?)t

Through the sections of a system of confocals by one of the


planes and by a given plane, cones are described. Prove
lie

on a

conic.

Prove that the centres of conicoids that pass through the


x'^+y^ = 2ax, 2 = 0, and have OZ as a generator, lie on the cylinder
8.

= ax.
9.

points (a, 0,
these points

conicoid

touches the axes (rectangular) at the fixed

0), (0, b, 0), (0, 0, c), and its section by the plane
is a circle.
that its centre lies on the line

through

Shew

that the locus of the centres of conicoids which


at an unibilic at the origin, touch the plane x=a
fixed point on the 2-axis, is a conicoid which
touches the plane 2=0 at an umbilic.

Ex.

10.

Shew

touch the plane

and pass through a

REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION

155]

Ex.

11.

:.'l!i

Variable conicoids pass through the given conies

z--=0,

a.v'^

+ hf + 2f.v + d=0;

shew that the locus

.v

of their centres

is

= 0,

cz^

+ bf + 2(/z + d = 0;

a conic in the plane

.y

= 0.

Find the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass througii


two conies which have two common points.
Ex.

12.

REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.


155. Case A: D^O.
There is a single centre at a finite distance, (153,
Change the origin to it, and the equation becomes

The discriminating cubic has three non-zero


\, X^, A3, and there are three determinate principal
tions, (Xi=^X2=/=X3), or three directions that

as principal directions, (A2 = A3, or Ai

I.)

roots,

direc-

can be taken

= A2 = A3).

The

lines

througii the centre in these directions are the principal

They are the lines of intersection


Take these lines as coordinate

axes of the surface.


of the
axes,

principal planes.

and the equation transforms into

\x^+\y'~ + \z'^ + ^ =
The surface

is

thus an ellipsoid, a hyperboloid of one

two

sheet, a hyperboloid of

If

().

S = 0, the surface

is

sheets, or a sphere,

if

S^O

a cone.

Ex 1. A'2 +f + 22 - 6,/z The discriminating cubic

2S.V

2.v>/

- 6.V - 2>/ - 2^ + 2 = 0.

is

A^-3A--8A + 16 = 0.
Whence

A^4, ~^"^

For the centre

~^

a*

V^'

'

4, .2,

-/Q^

say

- ?/ - 2 - 3 = 0,

-.r+y-32-l=0,
-.r-3y + 2-l =0.
.r = l, y= 1, z=-l.

These give
.:

^=u.r+n/+)r- + d=l.

The reduced equation

is therefore
presents a hjqjerboloid of two sheets.

-4x^-0.-^-+ fSh"^

I,

and

re-

COOBDINATE GEOMETRY

220

[ch. xi.

Note.
If the roots of the discriminating cubic cannot be found by
inspection, their signs may be determined by a corollary of Descartes'
Rule of Signs " If the roots of /(A) = are all real, the number of
In
positive roots is equal to the number of changes of sign in /(A)."
the above case, /(A) = A^ + 3/\.2-8A + 16, and there are two changes of
positive
roots.
two
therefore
sign, and
:

Ex

Reduce

2.

(i) .r2
(ii)

(iii)
/I

s.

(i)

+ 3/ + 352-2j/2- 2a,-- 2y + 62+3 = 0,

3a72-y2_22+6y2-6x+6j/-2s-2 = 0,

2/ + 4sjp + 2j;-43/ + 6s + 5 = 0.
(ii) 2,x^ + 2j/2 - 4^2 = 4,
1

^H 2/ + 452 =

(iii)

x^ + y'^

- z^ = 0.

CaseB: d = 0, au + hv + giv^O.

156.

There

is

a single centre at

Xj, X2, Xg are

X^^O, X3 = 0,

( 153,

infinity,

II.).

If

the roots of the discriminating cubic, Xi=f 0,


If ^3, m^, n.^ are the direction-cosines
( 141).

of the principal direction corresponding to X3,

(/^3+/m3+f"3 =
hl^-{-bm.^+fn^ =

and

0,

d
^.
= ^ = ? = 2_J
and
uA + vH + wG
A
H
G
Hence ul.^ + vm..^ + wn^^O. Denote it by k

therefore

The

-^

principal plane corresponding to X3

is

at infinity,

(U2).

Where

= ~ =

the line ^

=r

meets the surface, we have

which, by means of the equations of 147,

may

be written

\r- + 2r {X3(/3a + m.^^ + n^y) + ul^ + vm^ + wn.^}


or

r2

+ F(oL,/3,y) = 0,
+ 2kr + F(a, ^, y ) = 0.

Therefore any line in the principal direction corresponding to X3 meets the surface in one point at a finite
and one point at an infinite distance.
If the

hne

- = -^ =

REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION

156]
is

normal to

tangent plane at

tlie

(x',

y',

z'),

221

a point of

the surface,

9F

3F.

SF

3F

^-

g^

gg^

Sx^"^'"=^3j/"^'^^9^;

9F

'dF_

= 2('M,^3+

;7?i,3

+ wn^) = 2k.

Hence such points as (x, y', z) lie on the three planes


p^ = ax-{-hy + gz + u }d.^ =

(1)

p.2^hx + hy+fzi-v-km._^ = 0,

(2)

P3 = gx+fy + cz+tv-kn.^ =

(3)

kPi +

But

'>'>hp., + n^Ps^O,

therefore the three planes pass through a line which


parallel
to
^

7-

= ^3

'^h

^3

Therefore there
the normal
is

is

only one point on the surface at which

parallel to the line

is

the vertex of the surface.

the equations

(2),

(1),

(3),

'j-

= -^ = ^.

That point

Its coordinates are given

F(x, y, z)

= hx

by

(which are equivalent to two

independent equations,) and the equation F(x, y;

But

is

-\-hy:^ + ^z^ + ux + vy +

c)

ivz

= 0.

+ d,

= k(l^x + vi^y + n^z) + ux + vy + ivz + d.


Hence any two

and the

of the equations (1), (2), (3)

equation
k{l^x

+ m^y +

n.;^z)

+ ux + vy + ivz + =
^'

determine the vertex.


To reduce the given equation, change the
vertex, {x\

y', z').

fix, y, z)

or

+ x^^,-\-y'^, + z'^, + F{x',

f(x, y, z)

Take the three


Z.p -rtio, ??3,

the

y\ z) =

+ 2k{l^x + m.^y + n.^) = 0.

lines

through the

vei-tex in the principal

directions as coordinate axes, so that

cosines

oi'igin to

The equation becomes

O^ has

direction-

and the equation transforms into

A,f + A,'r + 2/.f-0.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

222

The surface
Since,
,

from

3F
^dx

therefore a paraboloid.

is

(1), (2), (3),

SF
^dy

[ch. xi.

c^F

^dz

9F
-dx

3F
^dy

3F

^dz

the principal planes corresponding to X^ and X^ pass through


the vertex. The new coordinate planes are therefore the

two

and the tangent

principal planes at a tinite distance

plane at the vertex.


Ex.

2x^ +

1,

2f + z^ + 2i/z-2z.v-Uy + :v + = 0.
7/

The discriminating cubic is


X3_5A2 + 2A = 0.
\=

Whence

^^> ^^' 0;

o.^ /3^ 0,

For the principal direction corresponding to

say.

Ao,

2ls-2m^- 71^=0,

^3_'"3_%_

Therefore

The reduced equation


The equations

i/,

V2

k = 2d^ + vm3 + wn.^=-7^-

and

iV

is

the

for

2
therefore a?x^ + (^^y" + -f^z = 0.

vertex give

V2
x=i/=z0, and the

axis

is

= 0.

Ex. 2. The following equations represent jjaraboloids. Find the


reduced equations, the coordinates of the vertex, and the equations
to the axis.

j^

(ii)

J,...

^^g + 4.2
4,1-2

(i).r + 3.2 = ..;


(ii)2,.2-,/2

157.

The

(1,1/2,5/2);

+ x/2. = 0;

CaseC: d = 0,

There

+ ^^j^ _ ^x - 1 4^ - 22^ + 33 = 0,

- if - ^2 + 2yz - %x -Ay + Sz-2 = 0.

Ai6

(1,-9/4,3/4);

+ Hv + Gi^ = 0,

?^ = ?^

^=.^9 = ^.
a^O.

a line of centres at a finite distance, ( 158, III.).


discriminating cubic has one zero-root, A3, giving,
is

(as in 1.56),

or,smceGH=AF,.

l^^m^^^
A~ H ~G

'

^^=-^^ = -^.

156,157]

REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION

In this case

ul.^

+ vm.^ + um.^ = 0,

corresponding to A3

&nd the principal plane

indeterminate,

is

223

any plane at right angles to Fx = Gy =


The line of centres has equations

142).

(ij

It

may

be

Hz.

ax + hy -\-g.z-\-7t = 0,
hx + hy+fz + v = 0,

which may be written


vg

u'Jt

^-T y-t

^-l^-

uf

^3, 7713, v.^

1/H

1/G

1/F

Hence

are the direction-cosines of

tlie

line of

centres.

Any

point on the line of centres has coordinates


1

If

we change

if+ r

vg + r

F"'

G~'

the origin to

ul.^

fix, y, z)

F{x, y, z)

F
or, since

it,

wh + r

vi]i.^

becomes

+ ivn.^ = 0,

+ ~^+-^ + -^ + d = 0.

Transform now to axes through the centre chosen whose


principal directions, and the equation

directions are the

further reduces to

^^^z

^ ^^y2 ^^' = 0,

^'.^+!^+!^^ + ^.

where

If (r=f=0, the surface


if d'

= 0,

Ex.

1.

it is

A-2

is

an

elliptic or

hyperbolic cylinder;

a pair of intersecting planes.

+ 6//-i2-;/^ + 5.r^ + 2.r + 5y = 0.

The discriminating cubic

is

0,

say.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

^24

and therefore

-^

and
Hence there

ul3

[ch. xi.

= ^=-rr,
z

+ vin^ + 1071^ = 0.

is a line of centres, given by 2x + 5j^ + 2 = 0, i/ + 2z = 0.


point on this line is (-1, 0, 0). Change the origin to it, and the
given equation becomes

^.2

which reduces
Ex.

to

What

2.

^ g ^2 _ ^2 _ ^2 ^ 5 -^^ _ i^

a^x^- (i'^y'^ = l.
surfaces are lepresented

by

+ 2^- 2a;j/- ^- 2y + 32- 2 = 0,


(ii) 26j;2 + 20/ + 10^2 - Ayz -\<ozx - ZQxy + b%v - 36y - I62 + 25 =0 ?
Ans. (i) 6^'2_ 2/ = l, axis2^ + 3 = 2j/ = 2s-l
x=y-\=z-\.
(ii) 14r2 + 42?/2 = l, axis
(i)

2y2-

2.y2

Ex.

Prove that the equation

3.

_ 4^2 + 5^2 + 4^2 - \Azx + 4.rj/ + 16.v + 1 6y - 322 + 8 =


x + Z=y = z + \

5.^2

represents a pair of planes which pass through the line


and are inclined at an angle 2 tan~W2.

CaseD: A = B = c = F = G = H = 0,

158.

There
A^, A2,

If Zp m.^, n^

If

are the direction-cosines of the principal

corresponding to A^, since

direction
]^

u/^v^f.

a line of centres at infinity, ( 153, IV.).


are tlie roots of the discriminating cubic.

is

= ah, we

f'^

= bc,

g^

= ca,

and

have

al^

+ Jabm^ + Jacn^ _ Jabl^ + hii\ 4- slhcn^


_Jcal^-\-\/hGii\-\-cn^

~'

^1

-^ = -J = -^4

whence

sja

And

since

Let O^,

O;;,

cosines are
^3,

m^,

( 149).
is

ufvg^Q,

l^,

O^be a

vc

set of rectangular axes

m^, n^;

l^,

satisfy the

The equation

therefore

\lh

Us/b vja=f=0, or um-^ vl^^O.

m^,

th^

'>

h>

''^h> '^s-

whose direction-

Then

l^,

m^,

n.^

equations for principal directions,


to the surface referred to O^,

0>;,

O^

REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION

158,159]

Now

l^l.^

and we can choose

l.^,

m^TTi^

n^ to satisfy also

on^,

+ wn^ = 0.
+ vm._^ + tvn 3) = u{n.J..j^ n.J..^ v{m^n^ m^n^),
= um^ vl^=f=0.
if ul.^+vm^ + ivu.^ is denoted by ti\,
u^2

Then

225

+ n^n.^ = 0,

VTTi^

nj^ul.^

Therefore,

iv^ = 'Z(uii\

vl^f

_ {vS-wJhf+{wJ7t-uJcfJt{uJh-vJa,f
~
Writing

for

ii^

id-^

a+6+c
+ vin^-{-ivii^,

the

equation

to

the

surface becomes
Ai^;-

'''+A,/

which

may

+ Su^a; + 2ii\z + = 0,
fZ

+ \

V^^^iv,

2iv,\J-^^'

be reduced, by change of origin, to

The surface is therefore a parabolic cylinder.


The latus rectum of a normal section

_2w^_ 2{(vs/c-wJbf+{W'Ja-Us/cf+(^vs/b-Vs/af} ^
^1
(a + b + cf
159. Case E: a = b = c = f = g = h
There is a plane of centres, ( 153,

As

in

Case D, X^ = a + b-\-c, X^ = '\^ = 0, and

sfa

But

= 0, uf=vg = wh.
V.).

since

sjb

\fc

uf= vg = wh,
u _ V _w
Ja -Jb Jc

and therefore
iil.2

+ vm., wn^ = ul^ + vm^ + wn^ = 0.

The equation

to the surface therefore reduces to

\x- + 2u^x + d = 0,
and the surface
B.G.

is

a pair of parallel planes.


P

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

226

[ch. xi.

Reduction when terms of second degree are a


The following method of reduction is
applicable to Cases D and E, and is the most suitable
160.

perfect square.

method when the

coefficients in the

given equation are

numerical.

a = B = C = 0,

Since

f{x, y, z)

a perfect square.

is

Hence
?{x, y, z)

If,

= {Jax + J by + slczf-\-2ux + 2 vy + 2wz + d.

(Case E), -7= =


\la

(Jcix

--p

= -7= =

\lh

sjc

if,

the equation becomes

+ s/by + Jczf + 2k{Jax + J by + Jcz) + d = 0,

and represents a pair

But

/;,

(Case B),

of parallel planes.

-j^=l=-7=:,

the equation

may

be written

(Jax + Jbij + s/czi-Xf

= 2x{xJa-u) + 2y{Xjb-v) + 2z(XsJc-w) + \~~d.

Now

choose X so that the planes

U=J7ix + s/bij + s/cz + X = 0,


V = 2x{Xs/a -u)+ 2y{xJb -v) + 2z{Xslc -w) + X^-d = {)
are at right angles.

This requires that

_ uja + vjb + Wsjc


Then take rectangular axes with U = 0, V =
^=0, = 0, so that

coordinate planes

t=

^-=

^a+6 + c
,

as

>7

and the equation reduces

and

T_==,
2jl.{X'Ja-uf

to

i\a + & + c) = 2 V2( xVrt - u)\


But, by Lagrange's identity,
{a + b + c){Z{Xj7i-uf]

- {^Ja{Xs/a-u)Y
^^{vslc-wslbf;

new

REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION

160,161]

may

therefore the reduced equation

227

be written

(a + 6 + c)^

Reduce the equations

Ex.

X- +

(i)

(ii) 9./'-

Ans.

161.

(i)

\f +

.'-

- 4y,: + 2cX - Axij -

+ Af + Az- + 8yz + 1 izx +

-2vW-3 = 0,

G.^-

Summary

(ii)

2.*;

2*7/

+ Ay - 2.- - 3 = 0,
+ 4.^- + y + 1 Oj + 1=0.

x\=f^^y.

of the various cases.

In the reduction

of the general equation of the second degree with numerical

the following order of procedure

coefficients

is

generally

the most convenient


If the

terms of second degree form a perfect

scjuare,

proceed as in 160.
If the terms of second degree do not form a perfect
square, solve the discriminating cubic.

the three roots are different from zero, find the centre

If

(a,

from the equations

^, y)

reduced equation
X^x"

+ A,2/2 + X3S- + w*. +

If one root, A3, is zero, find


7^-f

equations

,'

If k=f=0, the

If

/,:

= 0,

=~- = ^ =
'Psf

there

on

it

is

l^,

*"/5

0.

^^^

from two of the

m.^, n.^,

Evaluate

td.^

+ vm.^+ivu.^ = k.

is

a line of centres, given by any two of

= = ^=

0.

Choose

(a,

as centre, and the reduced equation


\a:"

^"^

+ uy + d = 0.

7)'f

reduced equation

the equations

^^^~'^~^>

is

(3,

is

+ X.3I/ + ucjL + r/3 + vy + = 0.


<J

y) any point

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

228

Reduce the following equations

Ex.

[cii.

xi.

+ 5^2 + 3^-j + 2j/2 + 'izx + 2^7/ - 4x- - 8s + 5 = 0,


123^s + 12.rj/ + 22,i- + 6j/-22-2 = 0,
(iii) 3A'2_24_^2 + 822-}-16y/;- 10i;t'- 14>;j/ + 22y+2s-4 = 0,
(iv) 36J';2 + 4y2 + ^2_4_y-_12^A. + 24^J/ + 4^+16_?/- 26^-3 = 0,
( v) 3^2 ^. 7^2 + 3^2 + iOj/2 - 22^ + lOj^^j/
4jp - 12^ - 45 + 1 = 0,
(vi) 6y2 - 18^/2 - 62JC + 2^3/ - 9^7 + 5^/ - 52 + 2 = 0,
(vii) 5^2 + 26j/2 + 1022 + 4^2 + 1 42J, + g^^ _ 8_^ _ jg^ _ lo^ + 4 = 0,
(viii) 4*2 + 9y2 + 36j2_3g^2 + 24e.y_12jr.i/-10.r+15?/- 302 + 6=0,
(ix) ll?/2 + 14y2 + 82^ + 14^j/-6j^-]6?/ + 22-2 = 0,
(x) 2^2_ 7^2^.222 _ iq?/2-82j;- 10,rj/ + 6.r+ 12j/-6j + 5=0.
(ii) 14:p2 + 26j/2 = 2^912,
J?js. (i) 3^2 + 2/ + 622 = 1,
(iv) 4lA'2 = 28y,
(iii) 14a;2- 273/2=1,
(i)

(ii)

3.1-2

2.rH20yHl8s2-

(v)

3^-4^2-1222=1,

(ix)

(x)

162. Conicoids of revolution.

+ 6=0,
+ 2^/2 -4*2 = 0.

(viii) 49.^2-35.^^

discriminatino- cubic are equal


^{x, y, z)

14.v2-26/==2v^9T2,

(vi)

+ 27/ = l,
3.^2 + 4^/2-1822=1,

(vii) 14x-2

.r2

If two of the roots of the


and not zero, the equation

reduces to

\(^'+y')+\^^+~=o,
\{cv^

or

(i)

+ i/) + 2kz = 0,

(ii)

\{x^ + y'^) + d' =

or

The surface

is

therefore,

cone of revolution,

(ii),

right circular cylinder.

(i),

an

(iii)

ellipsoid,,

hyperboloid, or

a paraboloid of revolution, or

These

are, if

we

(iii),

exclude the sphere,

the only conicoids of revolution, and therefore the conditions that F(x, y, z)

should represent a surface of

revolution are the conditions that the cubic should have a

repeated root different from zero,


X,'

viz., (

146),

= a-'^ = 6-^Cc-f;
f

or

\ = a,
\=

or

\^c, (a-c){h-c) = lr, f=0, g =

or

h,

(1)

g=^0, h = 0;

(2)

(c-b)(a-h) = g", h = 0, /=0;

(3)

(h-a){c-a)=f,

(4)

CONICOIDS OF llKVOLL'TlON

i^iesj

229

If equations (1) are satisfied,


F(x, y, z)

And

= \{x' + y' + s2) + 2ux + 2 vy + 2ivz + d

any plane

therefore

parallel to the plane

'-.

+ +- =

The

cuts the surface in a circle.

'-

axis of the surface

'^

is

the

through the centres of the circular sections, that


the perpendicular from the centre of the sphere
line

(.'

+ ^H z~) + ^ux + 2 ry -\-2wz

to the planes of the sections.

Similarly,

if

the axis are

Ex.

1.

-|-

is,

d=

Its equations are therefore

equations (2) are satisfied, the equations to


a;_^^,/,<,

^ yvla z+w/a
sjc a
s/h a

Find the right circular cylinders that circumscribe the

The enveloping cylinder whose generators are parallel to the line


xll=ylni=zjii has equation

Conditions (1) give

m^

\ f

?i^\

l'^

i-

n^\

fl-

nfl

-^
,

aAa^ +^+^;=p^^+F+c^;==M^+p+c^.

which can only be satisfied if a = h = c, or l=zm n = 0. (If rt = & = f,


the ellipsoid becomes a sphere, and any enveloping cylinder is a right
Using conditions (2), (3), (4), we obtain
cylinder.)
l

= Q,

or

m=0,

or

n = 0,

{m2(a2 -

C2)

+ 2(a2 - 62)}{ ,^2^2 4. 2^2} ^ Q,

{n\l)^-a'') + l-{h'^-c^)]{n-a?-^l'c''} = Q,
{l%c'^-h'^ + m\c^-a?)]{l%'^

+ m'^a?} = 0.

If a >b>c, the second only of these equations gives real values for
the direction-cosines of a generator, viz.,
I

If

is

_ 'w _

the repeated root of the di.scrin\inating cubic,

/>-

\ a-

c-

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

230

The reduced equation

[ch. xi.

to the cylinder is

x^+y^ = b'^.

or

Ex. 2. Find the right circular cjlindei's that can be inscribed in


^^o
the hyperboloid
_^ .-^^^ _ 3^2 ^ 1,
Ans.

Ex.

A{x''-

3.

+ y^-2z^-\) + {x'JYbzf^0.

Prove that
^^^.2

j^y'i

+ 2 ^yz-zx- xy -

3.^

% - 9^ + 21 =

represents a paraboloid of revolution, and find the coordinates of the


Ans. (1, 2, 3).
focus.

Ex. 4. Find the locus of the vertices of the cones of revolution


that pass through the ellipse

^>H?/2/62 = l,
Ans. x = 0,

^,

+ |=-l;

= 0.

^-^ =

^ = 0,

1-

Ex. 5. The locus of the vertices of the right circular cones that
circumscribe an ellipsoid consists of the focal conies.

Ex.

6.

If

f{x,

I/,

s)

represents a right cone of semi- vertical

\f

1^

h.j

If /(*', y, z) = \ represents an ellipsoid formed by the


revolution of an ellipse about its major axis, the eccentricity of the
generating ellipse is given by

Ex.

7.

a+b+c

qh

Ex. 8. If the axes are oblique, F(,r,


of revolution if

z)

?/,

=Q

represents a conicoid

- k(x'^+y^ + z^ + 2yz cos A + 2zx cos /x + 2xy cos v)

fix, y, z)

a perfect square.
Hence shew that the four cones of revolution that pass through the
coordinate axes are given by ayz + bzx + cxy = 0, where
is

a
A

sni^-

,u

_ -b

b
.

sin^^

cos-Z

o/x

sin-^
'2

-a

v'
sm-;^

(?

sin-^

v'

cos^Z

cos-^

a,

,v'

/x

cos-^^

IA

cos'^-

cos-^-

9V

sin-Z

Ex. 9. Find the equations to the right circular cones that touch
the (rectangular) coordinate planes.

A 718. x'^+y^ + z^2yz2zx2xy = 0,


signs being taken).

(one or three of the negative

INVAKIANTS

163j

231

INVARIANTS.
163. If the equation to a conicoid F(ft-, y,
formed by any change of rectangular axes,
rt

+ 6+c,

remain unaltered in
If the origin

therefore a
If

now

only

+h+

is

trans-

D,

value.
is

changed, f(x, y, z)

A + B + C, and D are

is

unaffected,

and

unaltered.

the coordinate axes be turned about the origin

so that fix, y, z)
f[{x,

c,

A + B + C,

z)

the expressions

is

transformed into

y,z)^ a,x^ + b,y^ + c,z^^ + 2f,yz + 2g,zx + 2h,o:y,

then

f{x, y, z)

\ {x- + y- + z-)

becomes

f^{x,y,z)-\{,^-Vf-^-z;^).

/(a',7/,s)-ACTH2/H5^) =

If

represents

two

planes,

f^{x,y,z)-\{x} + y' + z'') = Q


will also represent the planes.

And \

is

the same quantity

in both equations, therefore the equations

a X,

h,

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Hence the new value


,

of S,

[CH. XI.

INVARIANTS

^163]
will also represent tlie
in

both

a-X,

e<|iuitions,
/>,

h.,b-\,

ih

cone.

And A

the equations
't-

being the same

23:i

(iiuintity

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

234
2.

[ch. xl.

Find the eccentricity of a section of the surface

by a plane through the

line

xy =

z.

3.

What

4.

Prove that the cylinder and

the nature of the sui'face given

is

real cone

by

through the curve of

intersection of the conicoids

given by

ai'e

b (,^2
5.

- 2cy) - a {f - 2c.);) = 0,

x'^

- y'^ + {a-h)z^ + 2c{x- y) = 0.

Prove that three cones can be drawn through the curve of

intersection of the conicoids


.r2

and

+ C22 + 2% + a2 = 0,

that their vertices

?/2

+ dz'^ + iax + = 0,

form a right-angled

triangle.

Prove that

6.

(aX-2

+ 6z/2 + Cl2 _ 1 ) {l^ + !|! + t^ = (/,; + , y + nZ - 1 f

represents a paraboloid touching the surface


points of section by the plane "^.r + ?^-|- ??? =
ax hi cz
,,,,,, v
axis IS parallel to the hne - = -^ = -.

Shew

7.

+ cz^=\

at

its

Prove also that

its

ar''''-]-bii'^

!.

that the conicoids

+ 61 + c^zf + {a.^v + b.^y + c.zf + (a.,r + b.jy + c^zf = 1,


(aix + a^y + a^zf + {b^x + b.^y + h^zf + (cri' c.^y + Cgs)^ = 1

(rti.r

?/

are equal in all respects.

Prove that

8.

if

a^^b^ + (? = 3abc,

ax- + by^ + cz^ + 2ayz + 2bzx+2cxy + 2tix + 2vy + 2ivz + d=0

represents either a parabolic cylinder or a hyperbolic paraboloid.


If F{x, y,z)

9.

represents a cylinder, prove that


?)S

3S

9<x

'dh

db

'da
,

and that the area

of a

3S
_

"dc

'dc
,

normal section

is

9S

3S

3S

"da

'db

'dc

tt

3D 3D 9D\^

da^db^dc)

EXAMPLES

CH. XI.

Prove that

10.

and that

if it

if F(.r,

represents a right circular cylinder

s)

_?/,

is

also

=l

are given

by

-^

'df

dz

'dy'

'dx'

F(,r,

z)

9/,

;di

we have

ii

principal planes oi f(x, y,


a;

where

235

represents a paraboloid of revolution,

y, 2)=

f
The

11.

VII I.

3F

9F

SF

dx'

dy'

dz

the cone reciprocal to /(.r, y,

z)

= 0.

Prove that the centres of conicoids that touch yz = mx at its


vertex and at all points of its generator y=kx, kz=m, lie on the line
12.

//

= 0,
13.

kz

= m.

Prove that z{ax+hy + cz)-\-cL.v + Py =

and that the equations

ax +by + 2cz--=0,
14.

= 0.

{a^

+ b'^)z + a/x +b/3 = 0.

^^^
hyperbolic paraboloid passes through the lines

- = --T = ^;
2

represents a paraboloid

to the axis are

Shew

^^^'^^

li^s

ji
'

^^

a~J)~2c

'

^^^ system of generators parallel to the plane

that the equations to the axis are

M4=-

'=G-i)+=(^>)=o-

Paraboloids are drawn through the lines ?/ = 0, z = h; x = 0,


z= -h; and touching the line x=a, y = b. Shew that their diameters
thi-ough the point of contact lie on the conoid
15.

a(y-b){z-/iy-b(x-a){z + />f = 0.
16.

Given the

ellijisoid of
0-2

,,2

revolution
I

-2

=
^,+^
b-

-1,

(->62).
^
'

that the cone v/hose vertex is one of the foci of the ellip.se 2 = 0,
x^la^+y^jb'^ = \, and whose base is any plane section of the ellipsoid is

Shew

of revolution.
17.

The axes

six points

{a,

or on the cone

of the conicoids of revolution that pass through the


6, 0), (0, 0, c) lie in the coordinate planes

0, 0), (0,

.,_

o18.
circle

,2_,,2

^2_,,2

c-

Prove that the equation to the right circular cylinder on the


through the three points {a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0), (0, 0, c) is

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

^36

[ch. xl.

Find the equation to the paraboloid which has

19

as generators and the other system parallel to the plane x+i/ + z = 0.


Find also the coordinates of the vertex and the equations to the axis.
20. The axes of cylinders that circumscribe an ellipsoid and have a
cross-section of constant area lie on a cone concyclic with the ellipsoid.
21.

A conicoid touches the plane z =

y=o'in two circles


Shew that the locus

and

is

cut by the planes

of variable centres but constant radii


of the centre is

.r

= 0,

a and

b.

22. A, B, C are the points (2a, 0, 0), (0, 2ft, 0), (0, 0, 2c), and the
circle is circumscribed about the triangle
axes are rectangular.
conicoid passes through this circle and is such that its
OAB.
are rectangular hyperbolas which
sections by the planes x = 0, i/ =
O, C and A respectively. Prove that
pass throTigh O, B and C
the equation to the conicoid is

,^.2

where A and

^. ^2 _ ^2 ^ 2 Aj/2 + 2[xzx -2ax-2h/ + 2cz^0,

jn

such conicoids

is

are parameters, and that the locus of the centres of


the sphere
x'^+^^ + z'^-ax-by-cz0.

that the equation to the conicoid that passes through the


23.
vertices of the tetrahedron whose faces are

Shew

.t'

and

is

= 0,

2/

= 0,

2=0,

.vla+j/jb + z/c

= l,

such that the tangent plane at each vertex

opposite face,

is

parallel to the

is

the
24. Shew that the equation to the ellipsoid inscribed in
tetrahedron whose faces are x=0, y = 0, s = 0, xja+ylb+zjc^l, so as
is
gravity,
of
centre
its
at
face
each
to touch

"o^

+ 'F^

c2

^'hc

"^

ca'^ ab

Shew that its centre is at the centre of gravity of the tetrahedron


and that its equation referred to parallel axes through the centre is
x"^

cC'^
25.

f^^/z
F-^ c^^ be

upon a concentric conicoid

b-

xi^\_

ca'^ ab

If the feet of the six normals from

alie

zx

24"

to the ellipsoid

of revolution, the locus of

is

the cone

EXAMPLES

en. XI.]

and the axes

VIII.

23';

symmetry of the conicoids lie on the cone


a- {I)- - c-)x' + 62(c2 - a^)/ + c2(a2 _ h'^)r = 0.

of

26. If a.v- + h>f''- + cz^-\-2fyz + 'ilgzx-'r'ih.v>/^Q represents a pair of


phines, prove that the planes bisecting the angles between them are

given

i)y

ax + h>/ + gz,
F-i,

27.

hx+ h>/ + fz, gx +/?/ + cz


G-\
H
'

Prove that

(.r-

+ oC'KP + y) + (f- + /52)(y + a.) + (z^ + y^)(r^ + fS)


- Zu.j/z - 2/3zx - 2yx>/ + 2.>i2/3y - fx/3 - rxy)
+ 27/(2yoL -f3y-f3a.) + 2 {2<l(3 - yc*. - yfi) =
:

represents a cylinder whose axis

is

A--a=y-/5 = s-y.

CHAPTER

CH. XII.

XII.

THE INTERSECTION OF TWO CONICOIDS.


164.

plane meets a conicoicl in a conic, and therefore

Any

any plane meets the curve


in the four points
intersection

is

of intersection of

common

to

two

conies.

two conicoids
The curve of

therefore of the fourth degree, or

is

a quartic

curve.
If the conicoids have a common generator, any plane
which does not pass through it meets it in one point and

meets the locus of the other


in three points,

Thus the quartic curve

may

common

points of the conicoids

and therefore the locus

is

a cubic curve.

two conicoids
and a cubic curve.

intersection of

of

consist of a straight line

Ex. The conicoids zx='if-^ xy = z have OX as a coiumon generator.


Their other common points lie on a cubic curve wliose equations maybe written x=t^ ?/ = ^^ s = i!-\ where t is a parameter.

Again, an asymptote of one of the two conies, in which


a given plane cuts two conicoids, may be parallel to an
asymptote of the other. In that case the conies will inter-

and the locus of


two conicoids which are at a

sect in three points at a finite distance,

the

common

points of the

finite distance will

be a cubic curve.

Ex. We have seen that three cylinders pass through the feet of
the normals from a point (a, jtf, y) to the conicoid

mt,

^-

are
Iheir equations
^

or

.r-o.

ax

= 11 -^ =

yz{h-c)- hyy + c(iz = 0,


xy ( -

z-y
'-,

by

h)

cz

zx (c - ) - cou + ayx = 0,

- afSx + hcjLy = 0.

CONICOIDS WITH

164, 165]

Their curve of intersection

COMMON GENERATORS

a cubic curve whose cfjuations

is

written

One asymptote

of

and one asymptote

^ 1 - at'

^ ^ Y~ht'

any phine section

of

any phme
z

may bo

/i

</.
^'

230

^^\-ct

of the lirst lies in the

phme

section of the second lies in the plane

+ = 0.
c
a

Hence any plane meets the two cylinders

in two conies such that


is parallel to an asymptote of the other, and
the conies therefore intersect in three points at a finite distance.

an asymptote of one

The cubic curve common to two conicoids. Suppose


common points of two conicoids S^ and
consists of a common generator AB and a cubic curve.

165.

that the locus of the


So

Any

generator, PQ, of S^, of the opposite system to AB,

meets

S._,

in

two

one of which

points,

lies

upon AB and the

Fig. 49.

other upon the curve.

Let

P, fig. 49,

be the

first

of these

The plane containing AB and PQ


meets the curve in three points, one of which is Q. But
all points of the curve lie upon Sj and the plane intersects
S^ in the lines AB and PQ, therefore the other two points
must lie upon AB or PQ, or one upon AB and one upon PQ.
Neither can lie upon PQ, for then PQ would meet the
points and

surface

S.,

the second.

in three points,

and would therefore be a generator

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

240

of

[ch. xii.

common

Therefore the cubic curve intersects the

S.,.

AB

generator

at

two

points.

AB meet the curve in R and S, and let P move


As P tends to R, Q tends to P, so that in the
limit PQ is a tangent at R to the surface S^, and the plane
of AB and PQ is then the tangent plane at R to the
But the plane of AB and PQ is tangent plane
surface S.,.
Let

along AB.

at P to the surface S^ for

any position

of P.

And

therefore

the surfaces S^ and S2 have the same tangent plane at R.


But we have
Similarly, the surfaces also touch at S.

two conicoids have a common


two points of the generator.
the common points of two conicoids

proved, ( 134, Ex. 10), that


generator, they touch at

if

Hence the locus of


which have a common generator consists of the generator
and a cubic curve, which passes through the two points
of the generator at which the surfaces touch.
Ex.

Theconicoids 5.r2-j/2-

1.

22J;

+ 2^3/ + 207 + 2^ = 0,

2x^-zx+x + i/=0,

(1)
(2)

Any plane through the generator


generator.
To find where tliis ph\ne meets the cubic curve
is given hy 7/ = tx.
in equations (1) and (2).
substitute
common to the conicoids,
have

OZ

as a

common

We

obtain

^_Q^

x{5 + 2t)-z{t + 2) + 2{t + l)=0,

x=0,

2x

-z

+ \ =0

(3)
(4)

The points corresponding to .r = lie upon the common generator.


The remaining point of intersection of the plane and cubic has,
from

(3)

and

(4),

coordinates

x=t{t+\\ z^{2t + \){t + \);

and

y = tx = t%t + l)

(5)

a variable parameter, so that we may take the equations (5)


The points where the curve meets the
to represent the curve.
common generator OZ are given by ^ = 0, t= -\. They are the
It is easy to verify that the common tangent
points (0, 0, 1), (0, 0, 0).
planes at these points are y = 0, x+y = Q.

But

t is

Ex.

2.

Prove that the conicoids

x'^-y'^-yz+zx-\-x-2y+z = 0,
x^ + 2y'^+^z^-Zyz + zx-Axy+x-2y + z = Q

have

x=y=z

as a

common

generator.

Prove that the plane

x-y = t{y-z)
meets the cubic cui've which contains the other common points in the
P'^i"^
_ 30-0 ^,_(4^ + l)(<-l).'
_ (4<2 + 4< + 3 )(l-0
'^"'
Ai^+bt
^ Af + bt'
Ai^ + bt
'

CONTCOIDS WITH

105, IGG]

COMMON

GKNEIlA'J'Ol^S

241

shew that the cubic meets tlie common generator at the origin and tlie
point .v=i/ = z= and verify that the surfaces have the same tangent
15,

{)hines at these jioints.

166.

curve

Conicoids with

may

common

The cubic

generators.

deoenerate into a straight line and a conic or

into three straiojlit lines.

Let

O and

P,

(fig-.

be the points of the

50),

generator at which the surfaces touch and

let

common

the measure

Take OP as s-axis and O as origin. Let OX


of OP be y.
and PG be the other generators of the conicoid S, which
Take OX as a'-axis, and the parallel
pass through O and P.
tin-ougli

to

PG

Then, since

as y-axis.

x = 0,y = 0;

z = y,a: =
may be written
2yz + 2gzx + 2hxy-2yy =

are generators of

S^

its

y = 0,z = 0:

equation

(1)

Fia. 50.

And

since the tangent planes at the origin and (0, 0, y)


respectively, the equation to S.^ is
2/ = 0, x =

to So are

=
(2)
i2 4- by- + 2yz + 2g^zx + 2k^xy -2yy
The tangent planes at (0, 0, z') to Sj and S.^ are given by
gz'x -y(y-z')

and hence

if

g^g^

= 0,

g^z'x

- y y-z) = 0,
{

the surfaces touch at

all

points of the

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

242

common
obtain

We

generator OZ.

From

where g^f^g^

case

[ch. xii.

shall consider

and

(1)

by

(2),

meantime the

subtracting,

a^x^-^rh^y''^2zx{g^-g)-\-2xy{h^-h) = 0,

we
(3)

common
cone, having OZ as
the common points

clearly represents a surface through the

which

points of Sj and Sg.

It is in general a

a generator, and in general, the locus of


of Sj and S2 is a cubic curve which lies upon the cone.

But

if

equation (3) represents two intersecting planes, the


The condition for a pair of planes is

cubic will degenerate.

If h^

of So,

h^(gigy = 0, and hence 6^ = 0.


= 0, PG, whose equations are a; = 0, s = y, is a generator

and equation

Hence

tlie

(3) then

becomes equivalent to

a^x + 2z(g^-g) + 2ij{h,-h) =

x = 0,

common

points of S^ and

().

upon a conic

lie

S.^

in the plane

a,x + 2z{g,-g) + 2y(h,-h)

= 0,

and the two common generators, OZ and PG,

in the plane

x = 0.
If,

also,

% = 0,

OX

is

generator of

conic then passes through OX, and

The

plane to both conicoids.

straight lines, one of which

the conic

If

conic therefore becomes

of the

therefore of

OX and

PG.

common

quadrilateral formed

of the

two

OX, and the other a generator

is

consists

generator which intersects


locus of the

The plane

therefore a tangent

But OX and PG are

of the opposite system.

system, and

S^.
is

same

OX and

The complete
is then a skew

points of S^ and S.,


by four common generators.

the conicoids touch at

all

the

points of

common

generator OZ, g = g^, and equation (3) becomes


a^x^-\-2{\ - h )xy

which represents a pair

If these planes are distinct,

two other common generators


If

+ h^y- = 0,

of planes through OZ.

they meet the conicoids in

of the opposite system to OZ.

they are coincident the conicoids touch at

second

common

generator.

all

points of a

EXAMPLES OF INTERSECTION

166]
Ex.

The

1.

243

conicoids

+ ;3j/? + G:.'' + 4,ty/ - 2.f +// - A- = 0,


+ 4.*v/ - v+i/ + =

2.f-

-y"-\- Ai-

c-

-f- 5^- -

3:.'.'

(5//^

r)

have two ceiuiiuon genei-ators and a couiiiion conic section.


(The generators are .f = 0, >j + z \ i/ = 0, z->rx=\.)
;

Ex.

The

2.

conicoids
3?y2

+ 42^ + 6j/3 - bzx - xy + ;/ + ^ = 0,


_ 3- y + 2 y + 3: =

4y2 + 6j2 + 9^2

have

OX

common

for a
points.

A n s.

+1=

Ex.

3. f

3.

The

common
-

2>/

Find the locus of

generator.

= Az, and x +y + z+l = 0,

( 2//

tlicir otlior

+ 3.:)- + 2y + G.- = 0.

conicoids
2z^

4z^

- 2>/z - 5zx - Gx>/ + z = 0,

- 6>/z - \Ozx + Ixj/ + 2z =

have four common generators.


(y = 0, z =

Ex.

4.

The

= 0, x=0 x=0,
;

^i/-2z = l

?/

= 0,

5.r-22 = l.)

conicoids
z^

+ di/z + 6zx - Zxy - 1 2? = 0,


- 2?/2 - Azx + 2.iv/ + 82 =

4j2

have two conimon generators and touch at


Ex.

5.

Prove that the intersection of


22

is

all
tlie

points of these generators.


coniccnds

+ 22-.y + 2=0, y'^-'2ij-x-\=^

a quartic curve whose equations

.v=A*-2,

v/

may be

= A2+l,

written
2

= A-1.

Find the points of intersection of the plane A" -9;/- 42 =


and the quartic curve which is common to the parabolic cylinders

Ex.

6.

22

Am. Two
Ex.

7.

+ 102-y + 26 = 0, /-2j/-,r + 2 = U.

coincident at (17,

5,

-7)

(2, 2,

-4)

(82, 10, -2).

Prove that the conicoids


3x'2
^.2

+ 42- - 4//2 - zx - 2xy - 2x + 22 = 0,

_ yi _ 8^2 + 7^2 + 1 22.^ -

1 1 xy

- 2x + 22 =

touch one another at all points of the common generator


that their other common generators lie in the planes

x=y =

z,

and

2{x-yf + \Z{x-y){y-z) + \2{y-zf = 0.


Ex.
points

8.
lie

two cones have a common generator, their other common


on a cubic curve which passes through both vertices.
If

If two paraboloids have each a system of generators parallel


9.
given plane and touch at two points of a common generator of the
syste"n, they touch at all points of the generator.

Ex.

to a

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

244

Ex.

10.

y{a-z) = a^,

11.

Prove that

x{a-y) = a^

z{a-.v) = a\

pass through a cubic curve which

Ex.

[ch. xii.

Prove that the three cylinders

lies

on the surface

.rv/^

+ a^ 0,

the cubic curve

if

2
*''~^=^'

_2_

y~t-ir ^~'t-c

meets a conicoid in seven points, it lies wholly on the conicoid.


Shew that the curve lies upon the cylinders

Ci = y.(6-c)-2^ + 2 = 0,
C2 = zx{c - a) - 2s + 2.r = 0,
Cs = xii{a-h)-'ix+2y = 0,

and hence that the general equation

through

to a conicoid

it is

ACi+/i.C2 + vC3 = 0.

Prove that the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through
the curve is
(6

- c){c -a){a- h)xyz + 2(6 - c)(i + c - ^a)i/z - 22(6 - c)x = Q,

this surface is also the locus of the mid-points of chords of


the curve.
Shew that the lines

and that

2_2__2_2

''~a-l)

~a-c'

b-a'

''~b-c

c-a

'

'

r-h

are asymptotic to the curve, and that the locus of the centres passes
through them and through the curve.

Ex. 12. Prove that the general equation to a conicoid through the
cubic curve given by
_^_^^
^^2^
^^^3

A (.r?/ -z)+ix{zx- 3/2) + v(.^2 -y)-=0,

is

?nd that the

locus of the centres of such conicoids

Verify that this surface

is

is

the surface

+ s=0.

2A-3-3.r2/

also the locus of the mid-points of chords

of the curve.

Ex.

13.

to a cubic curve are

The equations

y = a.f + h.f + c.^t, z = a^l? + h^fi-\-c^t.


Prove that the cone generated by chords through the origin
given by wu = v^, where
x=ait^ + hit'^ + c^t,

= Aj.r 4- A2?/

-1-

Agz,

= Bi,i-

^^
Ai = ^,
OUi

Shew

that the curve

-I-

-'etc.;

lies

B.?/ -f

^ Ae

B^

w = Ci.r + C^/ + CjJ

"1,

c,

a 21

b.2,

Co

on each of the conicoids, (two of which

have a common generator),

and that the locus

of the centres of conicoids that pass

2ir{w^

is

- Av) -A{iup- Au) = 0.

through

it is

Ex.

TWO

INTERSECTION OF

16^

14.

('ONK'OIDS

215

Prove that the equations

determine a cubic curve, which

lies

upon three cylinders

whose

generators are parallel to the coordinate axes.

Ex.

15.

a,fi

Prove that the cubic curve given by

+ Iht'' + c,t + d,

aofi
.'/-

aifi
lies

+ b.,fi + + d..
+ b/- + Cit + d^
c.,t

ai^^

+ b/^ + Cit + c/i

upon the conicoids

where

nl

= Al.r + A.,>/ + A:i^ + A^,

3 =

Cj.i-

+ C.,)/ + C.j2 + C4,


3A

v.^

= B^.r+B.,_// + B..: + B^,

u^

D,.r

Do//

D.,:

+ D^

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

246

S + AS' =

the equation

(t

+ \a,

Xp

is

a cone

+ \u'

+ \g\

+ \b',

f+Xf,

v + \v'

c + Ac',
w + Xiv',

w-\-\w'

O + Xg,

f+\f',

u-\-X^t',

v-\-Xv',

^i

then (a,

sponding to Ap
Sa+AiS' = 0,

where

is

with respect to
x(S,-{-lu.S'^)

y), the

If these are

vertex of the cone corre-

given by

+ AiS'^ = 0,

S^

Sa = -,

/3,

=0,

d + Xd'

this equation gives four values of X.

A2, A3, A4,

if

]i-\-\]i',

h-\-\li,

and

represents a conicoid through the

This conicoid

curve of intersection.

[ch. xii.

etc.

S^

+ AiS'^ = 0,

S,

+ AiS', =

Again, the polar plane of (a,

S + julS' =

,8,

(1)

y)

has for equation

+ y{S^ + jULS'p)-^z{Sy + iuiS'y) + {St +

which by means of the

(),

l(JLS't)

= 0,

relations (1) reduces to

(fx-X,)(xS\ + yS'^ + zS\ + S\)=0.

The polar plane of (a, ^, y) with respect to any conicoid


through the curve of intersection is therefore the polar
plane with respect to the conicoid

S'.

Hence

this plane is

the polar plane of (a, ^, y) with respect to the three cones


corresponding to A.,, A3, A4, and thei-efore passes through

the vertices of these cones.


vertices of

any three

Thus the plane through the

of the cones

is

the polar plane of the

fourth vertex with respect to any conicoid of the system,


or the four vertices form a self-polar tetrahedron.
168. Conicoids with double contact.
If two conicoids
have common tangent planes at two j)oints they are said
to have double contact.
If tiuo conicoids have double contact and the line
joining the points of contact is not a common generator,
their curve of intersection consists of two conies.
If the points of contact are A and B, any plane through
AB meets the conicoids in two conies which touch at A
and B. Take AB as (/-axis and any two lines through

CONTCOIDS WITH DOUBLE CONTACT

1G7,1C8]

on AB as x- and s-axes.

a point

247

Let the conies in wliidi

the .;^-pUine cuts the conieoids be

/= ax' + 2hxy + by' + 2gx + 2/// + c = 0.


/+ \x' = 0.

and

Then the equations

two conieoids are

to the

f+s{Ix + m>j + nc-\-2^) = i),


f-{-\x^-

......(1)

+ z{l'x+m'y+n'z+p') =

(2)

But the sections of the conieoids by the ?/5;-planc also


touch at A and B, and therefore their equations are of the
^""s

The
^y

<p{y,z)

<p(y,z)+Xz^ = 0.

{),

by the plane x =

sections of the conieoids

are given

by' + 2fy + c-\-z{my +7iz+2j) = 0,


by-

+ 2fy-\-c-[-z{my + n'z+i>') = 0,

m=m

and therefore

From

(1)

and

(2),

by

and p=j/.

we have

subtraction,

\x'+z{{l'-l)x-i-{n'-i})z}=();
tlierefore the

common

points of the

two conieoids

lie in

two

planes which pass through AB, or the curve of intersection

two conies w^iich

consists of
If

other

cross at

A and

B.

common generator of the two conieoids, the


common points lie on a cubic curve, which may, as

AB

we have

is

seen in 166, consist of a straight line and a


In either case the common

conic, or three straight lines.

points

two planes. In the first case, if the conmion


AB and AC meet the conic in B and C, the coni-

lie in

generators

eoids touch at the three points A, B, C.

plane to either conicoid at B

and the tangent

is

For the tangent

the plane containing

AB

and the tangent plane


the plane containing AC and

to the conic at B,

to either conicoid at

is

the tangent to the conic at

common tangent
common points of

A.

plane at

the conicoid

also the plane

BAC

In the second
lie

is

case,

the
the

on the sides of a skew

quadrilateral and the conieoids touch at the four vertices.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

248

//

169.

tivo

[ch. xii.

common

conicoids have two

'plane sections

they touch at ttvo points, at least.

The

line of intersection of the planes of the sections will

meet the conicoids

in

two common points A and

The

B.

tangents to the sections at A are tangents to both conicoids


at A, and therefore, since two tangents determine the tangent
plane at any point, the conicoids have the same tangent
plane at A. Similarly they touch at B. If one plane

two generators CA and CB, the conicoids


other also consists of two generators
the conicoids touch at their point of intersection, and thus
section consists of

also touch at C.

If the

touch at four points.

The

analytical proof

is

equally simple.

S=

If

is

the

equation to one conicoid, and

u = ax+hy-\-cz-\-d =

represent the planes of the


to the other conicoid

is

v=

(),

ax + b'y +

common

(^'^

+ d' =

sections, the equation

form

of the

S + \uv = 0.
If

u'

is

the point (a,

/3,

y),

then

= aa. + b^ + cy-\-d = 0, and v =aa. + b'l3 + cy-{'d' = 0.


The equation

conicoid

to the tangent plane at

(I)

to the second

is

+ vu') = 0,
+ 2/S^ + 2;S^ + St = 0,

xSa +yS^ + zSy+St + \ {uv

by

or,

a;S

(1),

which represents the tangent plane at A to the first conicoid.


Hence the conicoids touch at A, and similarly they touch
at B.
170.

The general equation

to a conicoid

having double

contact with S = 0, the chord of contact being

u = 0,

= 0, is

S + \n^ + 2/xuv + vv^ = 0.

For the tangent plane at A


a-'Sa

or,

is

-{yS^ + zSy + S, + 2 Auu' + 2// {uv' + vu') + Iwv' = 0,

since

u' = ?/

= 0,

xS_-\-yS^

+ zSy-\-St^O.

Thus the conicoids touch at A, and similarly, at


Again, three conditions must be satisfied if a conicoid is

B.

to

J^S^

169-171]

touch a

triveii

CIKCUM.SCRrBrN(} C'ONU'OIDS

240

and

tlicrerore the

plane at a

<>-iven

point,

general e(iuation should contain three disposable constants,


whicli

does.

it

Cor.

focus of a conicoid

is

a sphere of zero radius

which has double contact with the conicoid, and the corresponding directrix is the chord of contact.
Circumscribing conicoids. If two conicoids toucli
C and none of the lines BC, CA, AB is a
common generator, then the conicoids touch at all points of
their sections by the plane ABC.
Since the conicoids touch at B and C, their connnon }5ints
171.

at three points A, B,

two planes which pass through BC, ( 168). Since


must coincide in the
plane ABC. The curve of intersection of the surfaces consists therefore of two coincident conies in the plane ABC,
and the surfaces touch at points of their section b}^ the
in

lie

these planes pass through A, they

plane.

When two
one

conicoids touch at

all

points of a plane section

said to be circumscribed to the other.

is

Ex. 1. If two conicoids have a connnon ])lane section, their other


points of intersection lie in one plane.

Ex.

2.

have a connnon plane section, the


connnon sections pass through one line.

If thx'ee conicoids

of their other

i)lanes

Ex. 3. The locus of a point such that the square on the tangent
from it to a given sphere is pi'oportional to the rectangle contained by
distances from two given planes is a conicoid which has double
contact with the sphere.
its

Ex.

4.

Two

conicoids which are circumscribed to a thiid intersect

in plane curves.

Ex. 5. When three conicoids are circumscribed to a fourth, tliey


intersect in plane curves, and certain sets of three of the six planes of
intersection, one from each pair of conicoids, pass tln-ough one line.

Ex.

Prove that the ellipsoid and sphere given by

6.
.r2

+ 5y2 + 14j2 = 200,

5 (.1-2+^24.52) -64.1- -I- 362

have double contact, and that the chord of contact

is

+ 20 =

x'=8,

= 2.

system of conicoids has a connnon conic section, the


polar planes with respect to them of any point iu the plane of the
section pass through one line.

Ex.

7.

If a

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

250

[ch. xii.

two conicoids have two common generators


Ex. 8.
system, they have two other common generators.
If

Ex.

The

9.

ax'^

+ hf + cz^^l

with the chord x = ol,


lie on the line

at its points of intersection

0=0

in a circle,

acL

'

Ex.

10.

A sphere of

_j.2

its

centre

b(3

= /5, and

intersect

must

lie

,2

,2

on one of the conies

.r
'

h'^

-^^.
d^. + c^
d^ =
g2

v/

constant radius r has double contact with the

ellipsoid

Prove that

same

centres of conicoids which have double contact with

the surface

the plane

of the

= 0,

x^

d^
,.2

_j;2

-ifi

r^

2+7:2^=l-"2-

Examine when the contact is real and


within the ellipsoid. Cf. 130.

when

the sjAere

lies

wholly

Ex. 11. If a conicoid is circumscribed to a sphere, every tangent


plane to the sphere cuts the conicoid in a conic which has a focus at
the point of contact.

Ex. 12. If a conicoid is circumscribed to another conicoid, the


tangent plane to either at an umbilic cuts the other in a conic of
which the umbilic is a focus.
Ex.

13.

Any two

enveloping cones of the conicoid


ax'--\-by'--\-cz^=\

whose

vertices lie

on the concentric and nomothetic conicoid


ax^-^-bjf'-^-cz^

lc^

have double contact.


Ex. 14. The centres of conicoids which have double contact with
a given conicoid so that the chord of contact is parallel to a given line
lie in a given plane.
Ex. 15. If two cones have a common circular section, they have
double contact, and if the line joining their vertices meet the plane of
the circle in P, the chord of contact is the polar of P with respect
to the circle.
If a sphere has double contact with an ellipsoid, the chord
parallel to one of the principal axes, and the angle
between the planes of the common sections of the sphere and the
ellipsoid is the same for all chords parallel to a given axis.

Ex. 16.
of contact

is

172,173]

CONICOIDS

THROUGH EIGHT POINTS


An

Conicoids through eight given points.

172.

number

oL'

conicoids can be i'ound to

})a.s.s

251
intinite

thron<i;li

ci^bt

given points.

Take A and B any otber two

Tbeii one

fixed points.

be found to pass through A and the eight

conicoid can

given points, and one to pass through B and the eight given

Let the equations to these conicoids be S = 0, S' = 0.


represents a conicoid which passes

points.

The equation S + AS' =


through

S = 0,

S'

the points

all

= 0, and

common

to the conicoids given

by

therefore tln-ougli the eight given points.

any value can be assigned to the parameter A therean intinite number of conicoids can be found to pass
through the eight given points.
xVnd

fore

The

locus of the

common

Hence

quartic curve.

all

points of S

= 0,

S'

is

conicoids through eight given

points pass through a quartic curve.

One

Cor.
points,

but

conicoid, in general, passes through nine given


if

the ninth point

through the other eight, an

on the quartic curve

lies

infinite

number

of conicoids

passes through the nine.


173.

Tlie

polar planes of a given iwhit ivitJi respect to


through eight given points pass througli a

the conicoids

fixed line.

Any

through the eight points is given by


where S = and S' = represent fixed conicoids
through the points. The ecjuation to the polar plane of
conicoid

S-1-AS' = 0,

(a,

/3,

y) with respect to the conicoid S-f-AS' =


a;Sa

Hence, whatever the value of

through the fixed


a'S

is

+ .VS^+:S^ + S, + A(.'-S' + //S'^+:S; + S',) =


A,

{).

the polar plane passes

line

+ //S^ + :S^ + S, = 0,

xS\ + yS'^ +

S',

+ S\ = 0.

If four conicoids pass tli rough eight given points, the polar
planes of any ])oint with respect to them have the same anharn)onic

Ex.

1.

ratio.

Ex. 2. Tlie diametral pianos of a given line with respect to the


conicoids through eight given j)oints pass through a fixed line.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

252

[ch. xii.

Ex. 3. TFie polars of a given line with respect to the conicoids


through eight given points lie on a hyperboloid of one sheet.
If Aj, (aj,

/3i,

yi)

and we denote
and

and Ao,
o
o

(olj

ji) are points of the given line,

ySg,

r.

by

Pa.,,

+ >jSp.,+zSy. + St.i

xSa..

then the equations to the polar of AjA., with respect to the conicoid
S + AS' = Oare
Pa, + AP'a,=0.
p,^ + AP'^ = 0,

The

locus of the polars

is

therefore given

by

Pa,P'ao-Pa.,P'a,=0.

Ex. 4. The pole of a given plane with respect to the conicoids


through eight given points lies on a cubic curve, the intersection of

two hyperboloids which have a common generator.


Let Aj, (oLi, ^1, yj), A^, (a..,, ^82) y-A A3, (olo, ^3, y3) be three points
of the fixed plane.
Then the po e of the fixed plane with respect to
the conicoid S + AS' = is the point of intersection of the polar 23lanes
of Ai, A2, A3, and therefore is given by
Pai

The

hyperboloids

Ex.
points

+ A P'ai = 0,

locus of the pole

5.

lie

p^p'^

= 0,

Pa2

+ A P'a, = 0,

Paj

+ A P'aj = 0.

therefore the curve of intei'section of the

_ p^p'^=0,

Pa^P'a,

Pa.P'a3

= 0.

The

centres of conicoids that pass through eight given


on a cubic curve.

174. Conicoids
S'

is

through seven given points.

If

s = 0,

S" = 0, are the equations to fixed conicoids through

the seven given points, the general equation to a conicoid

through the points

is

S + XS' + /^S" =

The

(1)

fixed conicoids intersect in eight points

ordinates are given by S =

0,

evidently satisfy the equation

S'

= 0,

(1).

S" =

0,

whose

co-

and therefore

Therefore

all

conicoids

which pass through seven given points pass through an


eighth fixed point.
Ex. 1. The jDolar planes of a given point watli respect to the
conicoids which pass through seven given points pass through a fixed
point.

Ex. 2. The diametral planes of a fixed line with respect to the


coincoids which pass through seven given points pass through a fixed
point.

Ex. 3. The poles of a given plane with respect to tlie conicoids


which pass through seven given points lie on a surface of the third
degree.

EXAMl'LES

174]

Ex.

The centres

4.

points

Ex.

The

5.

points

253

of the coiiicoitls wliich pass

on a surface of the

lie

IX.

through seven given

tliird degree.

vertices of the cones that pass througli .seven given

on a curve of the sixth degree.

lie

Examples IX.
1. Tangent planes parallel to a given plane are drawn to a system
of conieoids which have double contact at fixed points with a given
Prove that the loc\is of their points of contact is a hyperconieoid.
bolic paraboloid which has one system of generators parallel to the
given plane.

2. Tangent planes are drawn tlirough a given line to a system of


conieoids which have contact with a given conieoid at fixed points A
and B. Prove that the locus of the points of contact is a hyperl)oloid
which passes through A and B.

3.

The

normals to a conieoid from points on a given


on a quartic curve.

feet of the

straight line

lie

OC
ABC
O

of a parallelepiped are fixed in position,


4. The edges OA, OB,
}ja.s.ses through a fi.xed line.
Prove that
the vertex opposite to
lies on a cubic curve which lies on a cone
that has OA, OB,
as generators.

and the diagonal plane

OC

ABC

variable plane
passes through a fixed line and cuts the
axes, which are rectangular, in A, B, C.
Pi'ove that the locus of the
centre of the sphere
is a cubic curve.
5.

OABC

6. The feet of the perpendiculars from a point ((l, f3, y) to the


generators of the paraboloid xij cz lie on two cubic curves whose
equations may l)e written

'

t'
7.

The

generator
in

P.

.shortest distance
?/

\+fi

'

between the fixed

l+;2line

x = a,

= b,

and the

= A, \x=z,

Shew

'^^'l'"^^^^

_ y + aji

_c

_ yl-V fx.fi

of the paraboloid .v^=z, meets the generator


that the locus of P is a cubic curve which lies on tlie

x^+z^^-ax-bz=0.

Find the locus of the centres of conieoids that pass througli a


given conic and a straight line which intersects the conic.
8.

9. Two cones have their vertices at an umbilic of an ellip.soid and


meet the tangent plane at the opposite umbih'c in two circles wliich
cut at right angles.
Shew that their curvt's of intersection with the
ellipsoid lie in two planes, each of which contains the i)oIe of the other.

10. If a cone with a given vertex P has double contact with a given
conieoid, the chord of contact lies in the polar plane of P with lespeet
to the conieoid.

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

254

[ch. xii.

variable plane ABC meets the axes in A, B, C, and is at a


11.
cone passes through the
constant distance p from the origin.
curves of intersection of the ellipsoid whose semiaxes are OA, OB, OC,
and the planes OBC, ABC. Prove that its vertex lies on the surface

12.

When

AB, the

two conicoids touch at all points of a common generator


any given plane with respect to them
AB.

line joining the poles of

intersects

Prove that an infinite


13. AB is a given chord of a cubic curve.
number of conicoids can be found to pass through the curve and
through AB, and that one of these^ will touch a given plane which
passes through AB at a given pont of AB.
The s-axis is a chord of the curve

x = t'^^t,

y = t'^+t\

= 2^2 + 3^ + 1.

Prove that the equation to the conicoid which passes through the
curve and the ^-axis and which touches the plane 2*' = 3j/ at the point
(0, 0, 2) IS
7 ^,2 ^ ,^, _ 4 . y _ 2,,^ + 4^ + 4^ ^ 0.
14.

Prove that the conicoids


2^2 _ y2 _ ^2 + 2j/s .^2

2.'j/

2.>;

- 2?/ = 0,

- f -yz + ^zx- '2xy -2y + 2z =

have a common generator x=y=z, and pass through the cubic curve
,

+ + l)
+ 2i2_3^ + 2'

2(2^3

*'~4^^

^{f-fi-\)

;!2

''^~4f'

which touches the generator at

1,

1,

+ 2;;2-l)
+ 2^2 _ 3; + 2'

2(^

+ 22_3^ + 2'

4-'*

1).

conicoids, Cj and C.^, have double contact, and the pole


with respect to Cj of one of the pfanes of the common sections lies on
Co, then the pole of the other also lies on C2.
15.

If

two

16. Find the locus of the centres of conicoids of revolution that


circumscribe a given ellipsoid and pass through its centre.
17. P is any point on the curve of intersection of two right cones
whose axes are parallel and whose semiveitical angles are a. and
If d and d' are the distances of P from the vertices, prove that
rx.'.

(i^

cos CLd' cos

a.' is

constant.

If a variable conicoid has double contact with each of three


confocals it has a fixed director sphere.
18.

19. Prove that two paraboloids can be drawn to pass through a


given small circle on a given sphere and to touch the sphere at a given
point, and prove that their axes are coplanar.

OQ

are the generators of a hyperboloid through a


20. OP and
Prove that the two paraboloids which
point O on the director sphere.
contain the normals to the hyperboloid at points on OP and
intersect in a cubic curve whose projection on the tangent plane at O
is a plane cubic witii three real asymptotes.

OQ

EXAMPLES

en. xii.J
21. The sides
and the lines
v/

of a

= 0,

IX.

266

skew quadrilateiul are the

Lv+mz + l=0;

x = 0,

the

.r-axis,

//-axis,

r^ + mz + \=0.

Prove that the general equation to a conicoid which touches


sides

is

where

z{lx + a./y

cx.

=r

or

I'

+ mz + ,\)+ K.ri/ + ( A.r + /x// + v: + (>)/ \

0,

- A{ix- 1'p){v - mf)).

Give a geometrical interpretation of the equation of

22.

tlie

r,

s-)

in Ex. 21 in the case

when

(*.

tlio

conicoid

l'.

CD

AC, DB
if the joins of the mid-points of AB,
are taken as coordinate axes, the etjuation to any conicoid
is of the form
through the four sides of the skew quadrilateral
Prove that

23.

BC

AD,

ABCD

(H^(^^4(^lr^^>r^
where A
(ii)

is

a parameter.

What

surfaces correspond to

(i)

k = \,

A=-l?

24. Find the locus of the centres of hyperboloids of one sheet that
pass through the sides of a given skew quadrilateral.

25. If a conicoid passes through the edges AB, BC, CD of a tetrahedron, the pole of the plane bisecting the edges AB, CD, AC, BD
will lie on the plane bisecting the edges AB, CD, AD, BC.
26; If the intersection of two conicoids consists of a conic and two
straight lines through a point P of the conic, the sections of the conicoids by any plane through P have contact of the second order unless
the plane passes through the tangent to the conic at P, when the
contact is of the third order.

cone, vertex P, and a conicoid S have two plane sections


The conicoids Sj and S2 each touch S along one of the
curves of section. Prove that if S, and S._, pass through P, they touch
have
a common conic section lying in the polar plane of P
at P and
27.

common.

with respect to S.
three cones Cj, Co, C3 have their vertices coUinear and
C^, C3 intersect in plane curves, then C C, intersect also
in i)lane curves and the six planes of interstnaion pass through one
28.

C,, C.

If
;

line.

29.

through the curve of intersection of a given


and a given sphere whose centi-e is O, the noi-mals to them
on a cone of the second degree, and the feet of the noi-mals

If conicoids pass

conicoid

from O
lie on a curve
lie

of the third degree

which

the locus of the centres

is

of the conicoids.

30.

Two

conicoids are inscribed in the

same cone and any

through the vertex meets them in P, P' Q,


of intersection of the tangent planes at P, Q
in one of two fixed planes.
:

Q'.
;

stM-ant
I'love tliat (he lines

P, Q'

P',

P',

Q'

lie

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

256

[en.

xu,

ABCD

are along generators


31. The sides of a skew iiuadrilateral
of a hyperboloid, and any transversal meets the hyperboloid in Pj, Pj
in Aj, A,, Bj, B^.
Prove that
tlie planes ABC, BCD, CDA,

DAB

and

PAPiB, ^ PAP2Bi
P^Ag.PaBg"

PiA. .P1B2

y^ \- z^ = ci^ so that at any


xP- \point the latitude is equal to the longitude. Prove that it also lies on
the cylinder xr-\-ip' = ax. She\T that the curve is a quartic curve, that
its equations may be written
32.

curve

is

drawn on the sphere

y-

^-(l+^2_)2

and that

if t^, t^, ts, t^

The general equation

normals from a point to an

+ ^2)2'

are the values of

the curve meets any given plane,


33.

(1

t-^t2titi

+ ^2'

= \.
through the feet

to a conicoid

ellipsoid,

for the four points in which

S = 0,

of the

is

S + ACi + /xC2 + vC3 = 0,


where Ci =

C2 = 0, 0^ =

represent cylinders through the feet of the

normals.

Prove that the axes of paraboloids of revolution that pass throiigli


the feet of six concuri'ent normals to the conicoid ax'^-^by'^ + cz'^ = \ are
parallel to one of the lines
2

,,2

^2

-a+b+c a-b+c a+b-c


34.

Prove that the cone whose vertex


??,

ft-

intersects the cone

= l,
+^
c

whose vertex

is (0, h,

'2c-

in a

parabola of latus rectum 7=^=^^-

is (a, 0,

0)

and base

.r=0,
0)

and base

^175,1761

CHAPTER

XIIL

THE CONOIDS.
175. A cone is the surface generated by a straight Hne
which passes through a fixed point and intersects a given
curve, and a cyHnder is the surface generated by the
parallels to a given straight line which intersect a given
These are the most familiar of the ruled surfaces.
curve.

Another important

class of ruled surfaces, the conoids,

may

be defined as follows a conoid is the locus of a line wliich


always intersects a fixed line and a given curve and is
If the given line is at right
parallel to a given plane.
:

angles to the given plane, the locus


a

is

a right conoid.

Ex. The hyperbolic paraboloid is a conoid, since


line which intersects two given lines and is parallel

( 50,

Ex.

176.

it is

the locus of

to a given plane,

3).

The equation

If the coordinate axes

to a conoid.

be chosen so that the given line

is

the

2;-axis

and the given

plane the xy-Tplane, the generators of the conoid will project


the given curve on the plane x=l in a curve whose
equation, let us suppose,

any point

the conoid through P


(0, 0,

z-^),

is

z=f{y).

is

P, (1, y^, z^),

be

The generator

of

Let

of this curve; then z^=f{y^).

the line joining P to the point

and therefore has equations


X _ y _z z^

i~yr~^'
Eliminating y^ and z^ between the.se equations and the
equation z^=f{y^, we obtain the equation to the conoid,

^=f(yM-

viz.,

Ex, 1. Find the equation


which meet OZ, are parallel
circle

.t;

ff,

y- + s2 =

7-2.

to the right conoid


to the piano XOY,
.1//*-.

generated by lines

and

intersecl

y-(z'-r-) +

the

aY^O.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

258

[CH. XIII.

Ex. 2. The grapli of csin6', from ^ =


to d = 2rTr, is wrapped
round the cylinder x-'^+^/" = r" so that the extremities of the graph
coincide on OX.
Lines parallel to the plane XOY are drawn to meet
OZ and the curve so formed. Prove that the equation to the conoid
they generate

is

rtan~^ - = sin~^-.

Ex.

3.

Prove that

if

r=2, the equation

to the locus

becomes

z(.v^+f) = 2c.V7/.

(The locus

is tlie cylindroid.)

e drawn on the right cylinder x'^ + t/^


the generators at the same angle is called the right circular
The coordinates of any point on it are easily seen, (fig. 51),

y x=acod, y^asind, z = aOtsir\a..


The conoid generated by lines parallel to the plane XOY which
Shew that
intersect the 2-axis and the helix is the helicoid, (fig. 52).

cut

all

helix.

= c tan~iy/.r, where

Lines parallel to the plane


and the curves
,

Ex.

5.

(i)

.v^+f

(ii)

,r2+_y2

Find the equation


Ans.

(^)

(ii)

= a tan oc.

are

to the conoids generated.

-<l-5)(f^-^)\

b\

XOY

{v'+.f'),

.'/).

drawn

to intersect

OZ

SURFACES IN GENERAL

177]
Ex.

Discuss the form of the conoids represented

6.

(i)

Ex.

yh = Aacx,

(ii)

>/z^

l)y

= ctx'.

Conoids are constructed as in Ex. 2 with

7.

2r)9

tlie

Find their equations, considering


c tan 6.
which r = l and r = 2.

cases in

r = 2,

A curve

xz = cy;

c\x^ + 7f)=fz\

r=\,

the

,-tan-i^ = tau-i^.

Ans. rtan-^^ = cosec-i-,

graphs of

specially

c cosec 0,

c{x^-\-y'^)

= 2xyz^

2cxy = z{x^-y%

drawn on a right cone, semi-vertical angle a., so


as to cut all the generators at the same angle, /i, and a right conoid is
generated by lines which meet the curve and cut OZ at right angles.
Ex.

8.

is

Prove that the coordinates of any point on

it

X= u

cos

d^

y u sin

m = sin a. cot

where

6,

are given by

= ae'",

(3.

SURFACES IN GENERAL.
177.

We

now obtain some general properties of


which are represented by an equation in cartesian

surfaces

shall

coordinates.

In the following paragraphs it will some^, tj, ^ to denote current co-

times be convenient to use


ordinates.

The general equation

of the

o?*''

degree

may

be written

U(^+ Ui + Uo +...-}- Un = 0,

where Ur stands for the general homogeneous expression


degree r. The number of terms in u^ is

in

X, y, z of

(r+l)(r-H2)
1.2

and therefore the number

(u-fl)(n + 2)(o. + 3) _^^

-y (r+l)(r + 2)
1.'-^

,.7o

of terms in the general equation is

'

l-2.'3

'

Hence the equation contains N disposable constants, and


'?<*"' degree can
a surface represented by an equation of the
be found to satisfy N conditions which each involve one
relation

Ex.

1.

between the constants.


In the general

cul)ic

equation there are 19 disposable con-

and a surface represented by a cubic equation can be found


pass through 19 given points.

stants,

to

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

260

Ex.
If

2.

[cii. xiii.

A cubic surface contains 27 straight lines, real or imaginary.

u = 0, v=0, w=0, Ui=0,

the equation

^1

= 0,

^1 =

represent arbitrary planes,

uvw + Xu,v,^o, =

contains 19 disposable constants, and therefore can be identified with


any cubic equation. Suppose then that the equation to the given
surface has been thrown into this form. Clearly the lines

u = 0,

THE INFLEXIONAL TANGENTS

178-180]

meets the surface in


equation of the

Any

Cor.

Hence the

points.

n^^'

n^^^

degree

of an

is

Tangents and tangent planes.


F(.^;,

y, z)

= 0,

If in eciuation (1)

the jjoint

(.,

on

y, z) is

If also

jdF
3F
3F ^
=
l+m+n
dx
dy
dz
,

0,

the equation gives two zero values of

the surface at

BF

all zero,

(2)^
^

p,

two coincident

(x, y, z) in

aP
are not

is

degree.

of the last paragraph,

the surface.

locus

a surface of the ?/>' degree.


plane section of a surface of the /^"' degree

a curve of the
179.

261

and the

points.

line

meets

If therefore

3F

the system of lines whose direction-ratios

satisfy equation (2) touches the surface at {x, y, z), and


the locus of the system is the tangent plane at {x, y, z),

which

is

given by

If the equation to the surface is

made homogeneous by

the introduction of an auxiliary variable

which

is

equated

to unity after differentiation, the equation to the tangent

may

plane

Ex.

be reduced, as in 134, to the form


.3F

SF

,3F

SF

^3.K

3?/

^^z

dt

Find the equation to the tangent plane at a point

1.

of the surface ^rjC^a^.

Ex.
lie

The

2.

upon a

ratios

feet of tbe

(.', //,

:)

+ >//// + C/^'=3.

normals from a given point to the cylindroid

m,

inflexional
I

tangents.

n can be found
,

?)x

dy^

dz-

Two

values

of

to satisfy the equations

3F
\-n
=
dz

jdF
3F
l^^ + m-

303^

^/.>;

conicoid.

The

180.

Ans.

dy

dydz

0,

dzdx

dxdy

the

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

262

[ch. xiii.

coefficients of p and p^ in
equation (1) of 178. The lines through {x, y, z) whose
directions are determined by these values meet the surface

formed by equating to zero the

in

three coincident

That

points.

the system

in

is,

of

two which have


They are called
contact of higher order than the others.
the inflexional tangents at {x, y, z). They may be real
and distinct, as in the hyperboloid of one sheet, real and
tangent lines through

{x, y, z)

there are

coincident, as in a cone or cylinder, or imaginary, as in

the ellipsoid.

The

by the tangent plane

section of the surface

point P on

at a

a curve of the n^^ degree, and any line

is

it

through P which Hes in the tangent plane meets the curve


P is therefore a double point of
in two coincident points.
the curve. The inflexional tangents at P meet the curve in
three coincident points, and are therefore the tangents to

Hence,

the curve at the double point.

the inflexional

if

tangents through P are real and distinct, P is a node on the


curve if they are real and coincident, P is a cusp if they
;

are imaginary, P
181.

is

a conjugate point.

The equation ^=/(^,

If the equation to the

n)-

given in the form ^=f(i, )]), the values of p


corresponding to the points of intersection of the surface

surface

is

and the

line

^_

are given

c_^

..

'

by

z+np=f(x + lp, y + mp),

where

dz

dz

p^^,

= ^,

3%
r.

Hence the tangent plane

,,

d''z

= ^^,

.d^-z
^

= ^,.

at (x, y, z) has for its equation

p(i-x)+q{>i-y)-{^-z)=o,
and the inflexional tangents are the lines of intersection
the tangent plane and the pair of planes given by

r{i-xf + 2s{i-x)i>]-y) + t{,i-yf = 0.

of

SINGULAR POLNTS

180-182]

Ex.

The

1.

inflexional tangents

2G3

through any point of a conoid

are real.

the generator through the


Hence the other must also be real.

One inflexional tangent


therefore real.

Or thus

according as

is

The inflexional tangents are


rt - s^ = 0.

For the conoid

Ex.
point

Ex.

>/,

rt-s'=

z) of

Any

3,

imaginaiy

'4/-.

^^-hf-'^f'

,f"^.

the surface

(i)

r}~C=4c^,

(ii)

C'^y}

= a^^.

point on the cylindroid


z(.v^

isgivenby

,;=cos^,

.^/

+ i/) = 2cxi/
= usind, z=^c^mW.

Prove that the inflexional tangents through


"

is

Find the equations to the inflexional tangents through a

2.
(.*;,

real, coincident, or

and

z=f(i//x),

r'%r4r,
and hence

]K)int,

- u cos 9 _y u sin 9 _z c sin 2^


-UiimW~ Mcos3^ ~ 2ccos22^

"?{,

9" have

for

.?;

'

X _ y _2-csin2^
cos^~sin^~
Ex. 4. Find the locus of points on the cylindroid at which the
inflexional tangents are at right angles.
182.

Singular points.

surface

If at a point P, {x, y,

^p

3P

^^

ctt;

?)y

dz

z),

of

tlic

0,

every line through P meets the surface in two coincident

P is then a singular point of the first order. The


through P whose direction-ratios satisfy the equation

points.
lines

?iy
(sI+-b4+v>="
a-c

meet the surface

'dz/

in three coincident points at P,

and are

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

264

The

the tangents at the singular point.

[cii. xiii.

locus of the system

of tangents through P is the surface

tf-.)^g+...2(,-,)-.)^^+... = 0.
Singular points are classified according to the nature of
the locus of the tangent

When

lines.

the locus

when

cone, P is a conical point or conic node,


distinct planes,

The
whose

a biplanar node or binode,

is

biplanes coincide, P

is

a pair of

when

the

a uniplanar node or unode.

through a singular point

six tangents

a proper

is

it is

P,

(x, y, z),

direction-ratios satisfy the equations

dy

?)X

dzJ

dx

dy

dz/

have four-point contact with the surface at P. They correspond to the inflexional tangents at an ordinary point of
the surface.
Ex,

For the surface

1.

,>;*

the origin
the cone

The

is

>/*

+ z^ + Qxyz + 2.i-2 - / + z^ + 4?/^ + ^zv = 0,

six tangents

locns of the tangents at the origin


<?

is

r\

y = (2\/5)2;
.*;

4- ^

?/

= 0, 2x+z = 0;
= 0, \/2.r = y.

For the surface

2.

.r* -h

the origin
.i-

is

y * + 3* -t- ^xyz + A-2 - 2 y2 - Se- - hyz + 2r.r + xy = 0,

The

a binode.

= 0,

2y + 3j = 0;

y^%z-x = Q;
The

<?

which have four-point contact are

= 0,
y = 0,
A'

Ex.

The

a conic node.

six tangents
.r

= 0,

= 0,

sections of the surface

with four-point contact are

+ s = 0; y = 0,
.r 4-2^ = 0;
2 = 0,
?/

by the planes

+ .r = 0;
= 0.
x-\-'iy-^Zz =
x-y-z = 0,
3

.i--//

<d^

have a triple point at the origin.


Ex.

3.

The equation

to a surface

2^

-I-

M3

-h

W4

-f-

is
.

of the

-t-

form

= 0.

Prove that there is a unode at the origin, that the section of the
surface by the plane 2 = lias a triple point at the origin, and that the
three tangents there, counted twice, are the tangents to the surface
with four-point contact.

SINGULAR TANGENT t^LANES

g 182, 183]

Ex.

The

4.

eiiuation to a surface

is

.V'+ff + M3 + ^4 +

Shew

that

tlie

form

of the

. . .

section of the surface

it,,

265

= 0.

OZ

by any plane through

1ms

a cusp at the origin.

Ex.

For the surface

5.

x)/

+ z {ax- + -Ihxif + hi/-) + z\cx + dy) = 0,

prove that the origin is a binode and that tlie line of intersection of
the biplanes lies on the surface. Shew that the plane cx-\-dy = Q is a
tangent plane at any point of OZ.

Ex.

classify the singular points of the surfaces

Find and

6.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

Am.
is

(i) (0, 0,

0)

is

a?x^--bY = ^ir'-z\

+ 6?/^ + c2,
+ 3y2 + 322) = 3 _ y2 _ ^2)^
xijz-a-{x+y + z) + 10^ = 0.

.ry2=a.r2

(.^.2

Xix"^

binode

conic node, (the surface

*-(.;2

+ 3//-) = 3rt(.>;'-^-y-), s = 0,

0) is conic node (iii) (0, 0, 0)


formed by revolution of the curve
about OX) (iv) {a, o, a) is a conic node.
(ii) (0, 0,

is

Ex. 7. Find the equation to the surface generated by a variable


through the points (0, 0, c) and intersecting the circle
s=0, x^+y'^ = 'iax, and shew that the tangent cones at the conical

circle passing

points intersect the plane


(c^

3=0

in the conic

- 42).f2 + c2y2 _ ^ac^x.

Ex. 8. If every point of a line drawn on a surface is a singular


Find the nodal lines of the surfaces
point, the line is a nodal line.
(i)
(ii)

{:xn)

Ans.

Ex.

(i)

x=y = 0;

3(,.;2+/)

{y^W){{^x-yf + z^ = Aah\
x=^y = 0; (iii) y = z^O, y-2x=z = 0.

(ii)

Prove that the

9.

= 2.7;y,

C%r2+J^2)2 = 2,2(^.2_^2)^

^-a.xis is

a nodal line on the surface

2xy + ax^ + ^hxhj + Zcxy- + dy^ + z ( px'^ + 2qxy + ry"^) = 0,

any point

(0, 0,

y) being a binode at which the tangent planes are

'ixy + y ( px^ + 2qxy + ry'^) = 0.


Prove also that if r and p have the same sign there are two
u nodes lying on the nodal line.

Ex.

10.

real

For the surface


%vy + A-3 _

prove that the 2-axis

is

3.j;2y

- 3.ry2 + ?/3 + z^x"^ - xy + ?/2) = 0,

a nodal line with unodes at the points

(0, 0,

2),

(0, 0, ).

We have seen that tlie


183. Singular tangent planes.
tangent plane at a point P of a snrface meets the surface
Tlie curve may
in a curve wliicli has a doublo point at P.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

266

have other double pomts.

If

is

[ch. xiii.

another double point,

the plane contains the inflexional tangents to the surface


A plane
at Q, and is therefore the tangent plane at Q.

which

is

a tangent plane at two points of a surface is a


We may likewise have planes touching

double tangent plane.

at three points of the surface or triple tangent planes,

and

tangent planes touching at four or more points of the


surface.

Or we may have a tangent plane which touches the


surface at

all

points of a curve, as the tangent plane to a

cone or cylinder.

Such a plane

is

a singular tangent plane or

trope.*

Ex. 1. For the cubic surface ^ivw + UiViWi=^0, the planes u=0,
w = 0, tti = 0, ^1=0, Wj=0 are triple tangent planes.
The intersection of the plane u = and the surface is the cubic curve
consisting of the three straight lines = i = 0, ic = t\ = 0, u = w^ = 0.
These lines form a triangle and the three vertices are double points,
is tangent plane at thi'ee points.
so that the plane m =
v = 0,

Ex.

2.

Find the singular point on the surface

and shew that the planes z=


Ex.

3.

are singular tangent planes.

Sketch the form of the cone

and shew that the planes 2\/2Gi/=az each touch


generators.
The sections

Ex.

4.

by

planes parallel to

XOY are

it

along two

lemniscates.

Prove that the planes z= c are singular tangent planes

the cylindroid

2(.v'^+y'^)

to

= 2c.ry.

THE ANCHOR-RING.
by the revolution of a circle about
a line in its plane which it does not intersect is called the anchor-ring
or tore.
If the straight line is the 0-axis and the circle is y = 0. (x - a)^ + z'^ = b"^,
(a>b), shew that the equation to the surface is
Ex.

5.

The

surface generated

(.1-2

+f +

s2

+ a2 - 62)2 = 4a\x^ + 7f).

Prove that the planes z= b are singular tangent planes.


* For an adequate discussion of the singularities of surfaces the student
An interesting account of
referred to Basset's Geometry of Surfaces.
the properties of cubic surfaces with methods for the construction of models
Kummer's Quartic Surface
is given in Cubic Surfaces, by W. H. Blythe.
(Hudson) contains an exposition of the properties of various quartic

is

surfaces.

THE WAVE SURFACE

gl83]

Ex.

-Idl

Prove that the polar equation of the curve

6.

of the surface
parallel to

OY

and the tangent plane x = a-h,

of intersection
referred to a line

= 4a-sin(.-

6')sin (fx+6'), wliere

as initial line,

)-'-^

is

sina. = v^6;.

Ex.

Prove that the

7.

inflexional

tangents at {a-b,

0) are

0,

x=a-b, y\lb=z\Ja-h.
Ex. 8. The tangent plane which passes through OY is i =
where sina. = 6/a and it touches the surface at the two points

(acosV,

Where

it
a;

0,

a cos

ex.

sin

ol),

-ocos.sin

(-acos'-^o., 0,

,/;

tan

ol,

cc).

meets the surface we have

sin

ex.

=2 cos OL,

{x^

+ y"^ + + a- - h'^Y = 4,a~{.v^ { jf-)


z"^

therefore
{x'^+y^

+ z^ -a^ cos-ot.)'- = ia\x-+y-) - 4a-(.^'2 +y'^ + z-) cos'V,


= Aa'{x^ +y-) sin^o. - Aah"^ cos'^o.,

= Aa-y- sin^a.
Hence

x-

+ (_y sin a.)- + 5- = a-.

Therefore the curve of intersection of the surface and the tangent


plane consists of two circles which intersect at the points of contact
(acos^oL, 0,

rt

cos

a.

sin a),

f< cos-a.,

0,

-rtcosocsino.).

THE WAVE SURFACE.


If

N'ON

is

normal

to

any central
a-

b'^

section of the ellipsoid

c^

'

and lengths OA, OA' OB, OB' equal to the axes of the section are
measured along ON and ON', the ])oints A, A', B, B' lie upon a surface
Since the axes
of the fourth degree, which is called the wave surface.
of the section by the plane lx + m.y-\-nz = ^) are given by
;

the equation to the

r/^/2

;,2,2

c22

a--;"

b--r^

c--r^

wave

surface

ah-'

is

bY

ch'^
I

ct^-r-

b'^-r'^

c^-r^

^Q

'

The equation, on simplification, becomes


+
(.t-H/ + 22)(aVH6y + cV)-a2(62 + c2).^2_52(^.2+2)_y2_c2(a2 + i2)-2
+ a26V = 0.
where

r'^

x''^-\-y'^

z'^.

Tf the plane of section of the ellipsoid passes through one of the


principal axes, that axis is an axis of tlie conic in which the plane cuts
is
the ellipsoid. Thus one of the axes of any section through
equal to b. The remaining axes of such sections coincide in tui'n with
Hence the
the senii-dianieters of the ellipse y = 0, .y^//^^ + .--/r- = 1
points A, A', B, B', corresponding to sections through Y'OY, describe
a circle of radius b and an ellipse which is simply the above ellijjse
turned through a right angle, and whose equations are therefore ^ = 0,

YOY

COOEDINATE GEOMETEY

268

[ch. xiii.

The circle and this ellipse clearly form the interx^/c^+z^la^ = l.


section of the wave surface and the plane y = 0.
The result can be immediately verified by putting y equal to zero
in the equation to the surface, when we obtain
(02

+ .r2 - 62) (^252 + ahf- - c'^a-) = 0.

Similarly, the sections of the surface

by the planes .v=0, 2=0 are

the circles and ellipses given by

^ = 0,
2

= 0,

{f +z^- a2) (bY + c^z'^ - h^-(P) =


(^2 ^y2_ c2)(a2^2

i)2y'i

_ ^252) = 0.

Fig. 53 shews an octant of the wave surface.


lia>h>c, the only two of these circles and ellipses which have
common points lie in the plane ?/ = 0, and the points are given by

ax

-v/a2-62

<?^

Q^c

\'a^-i

sJU^-c^

The wave surface consists of two sheets, one described by points


A and A', the other by points such as B and B'. The sheets

such as

cross only where the axes of the central sections are equal.
since there are only two real central circular sections, and the
radius of each is b, the only four points common- to the two sheets lie
on the normals to the central circular sections, and are at a distance b
from the centre. They are given by
will

Hence

a^

^ 00

cC

Va2^rp~0~Vp372-

/a2_^)2

f(2-'+

fc2_c2

s/a2-c2'

c2

of intersection of the circle and ellipse in the


as clearly should be the case.
one of these four points, the section of the surface by the
is not a
has a double point at P, and the plane ?/

and are thus the points


plane
If

?/

= 0,
is

plane w =
tangent plane at P.

wave

surface.

This suggests that P is a singular point on the


Change the origin to P, (^, t), (), noting that
^2

+ ^2^h\

The equation becomes

7;

= 0,

a^^-

+ C'C-=^a-c^.

THE WAVE SURFACE

183]

and hence P

is

iJG9

Thus the wave surface has four

a conical point.

and they are the |)oints of intersection of the circle and


which form the section of the surface by the plane /y = 0.
Since any plane section of the surface is a curve of the fourth

conical jjoints,
ellipse

degree, if the surface has a singular tangent plane, the intersection


of the tangent plane with the surface will mnsist of two coincident
conies, or the plane will touch the surface at all points of a conic.
Any plane will meet the conic in two points
and R, the singular
tangent plane in the line QR, and the surface in a curve of the fourth
degree which
touches at
and R. Considering, then, the sections
of the surface by the coordinate planes, we see that any real singular
tangent plane must pass through a common tangent to the circle and
ellip.se in the plane y = 0.
Their equations are

QR

y = 0,

2-

+ x^ = 62

and the common tangents are

by

where

.r^
(^,

rj,

() is

y = 0,

ch'^

+ dhfl = c-a\

found to be given by

sla^- bh: Vft^ c'^z = b sJa^ c^,

y = 0,
or

easily

+ c"3.f=a6c,

.y

= 0,

one of the singular points.

If the equation to the surface

is

f{x,

?/,

and hence the tangent plane at any point


to OY, and therefore the plane

*)

= 0,

^=

when

of the j.r-plane

is

?/

= 0,

parallel

ax^ + cz^=abc
at least a double tangent plane.
can be written in the form
is

62(,.2

0,

Now

the equation to the surface

- a2)(,.2 _ ^2) + (2 _ J2)(,,2 _ f,2).,.2 _ Q;i _ ,.2)(,.2 _ ,,2) j2 = Q,

|6(,2_,,2)+!:^(2_,2)l|^(,2_,2)_|(2_,2)J

a2-c2
|(,.2

ac

_ ^2) -^ _ (,.2 _ ^,2) t^l .(,,,,,^ + c:i- ahr] = 0.

Therefore the plane ax^ + cz^-abc meets the surface at points lying

on one of the spheres


6(/--'

- 2) + 'li (,j2 _ (.2) = 0,

But, subtracting,
the plane

we

see that the

b{r^

r"'-')

common

- ^1 (a^ -

c"-)

= 0.

points of these spheres

lie in

ax^ + cz^=abc.

or

Thus the plane meets both spheres

in the same circle, or tl>e section


of two coincident circles a'"'
therefore the ])lane is a singular tangent plane. The wave .surface
has therefore four singular tangent planes.

of the surface

by the plane consists

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

270

The

184.

indicatrix.

[ch. xiii.

If the tangent plane

and normal

at a given point of a surface be taken as the plane z

and the
z=f{x,

and the equation

s-axis,

equation may be written


=px + qy^-h ir^ + 2'i'*2/ +
+'>

y), this

where p,

''-2/^)

are the values of

q, r, s, t

at the origin

Hence,

if

dz

dz

3'%

dh

3%

?>x'

dy'

dx^'

dxdy'

dy^

p = q = 0,
^z^rx^ + lsxy + ty'-^....

or, since

we

consider x and y in the neighbourhood of

the origin to be small quantities of the


of the second order,
third

to the surface is then

and higher

and

therefore, if

orders,

we have

we

first 'order,

z is

terms of the

reject

as an approximation to

the shape of the surface at the origin the conicoid given


2.Z

This conicoid
cylinder

if

rt

is

= s^.

by

= rx^ + ^sxy + ty^.

a paraboloid

if

and a parabolic

Tt=l=s^,

In the neighbourhood of the origin the

sections of the surface

and conicoid by a plane

parallel to

the tangent plane, and at an infinitesimal distance h from


it,

coincide

the section of the conicoid


z

which

is

= h,

called the indicatrix.

given by

= o,

is

the conic given

by

2h = rx^" + 2sxy + ty^,

ra^

The

+ 28xy +

inflexional tangents are


ty'^

= 6,

and are clearly parallel to the asymptotes of the indicatrix.


Hence if the inflexional tangents are imaginary, the indicatrix is an ellipse, and the origin is an elliptic point on the
surface if they are real and distinct, the indicatrix is a
hyperbola, and the origin is a hyperbolic point and if they
are coincident, the indicatrix is two parallel straight lines,
and the origin is a parabolic point.
;

At an elliptic point the shape of the svirface is approximately that of an elliptic paraboloid, and therefore the
surface lies on one side of the tangent plane at the point.
It is said

to be synclastic in this case.

At a

liyi)erbolic

THE INDICATRIX

184, 185]

271

approximately that of a lij'perbolic


paraboloid, and the surface lies on both sides of the tant;ent
point the sliape

is

At such a point

plane.

said to be anticlastic.

it is

Ex.

1.

Every point on a coue or cylinder

Ex.

2.

Find the locus

The

direction

l^Fxz

Hence the

is

by means

a parabolic point.

of the inflexional tangents through (x,

+ wi^F^3, + n-F:, + 2mn F,j, +

IF,^

'2.n

inflexional tangents coincide

F,

But F^
therefore

is

the parabolic points on the surface

of

i/,

z)

are given

+ hn F^^ = 0.

if

F,
F

F.,

F.

F,,,,

F,,,

F,

F..,

F,

F,

F,

F:,,

F,j,

==.0

(1)

a homogeneous function of x, y, z, t, of degree {a


...p^, + y F,, + zF,, + iF^e = (w - 1) F^,, etc.

of

which equation

(1)

1),

and

can be reduced to
=

0.

This equation determines a surface whose curve of intersection with


the given surface is the required locus.

Ex.

3.

Prove that the points

of intersection of the surface

A'*+^* + 2* = *

and the coordinate planes are parabolic


Ex.

4.

2(a,--+y-)
lie

is

points.

Prove that the parabolic points of the cylindroid

upon the

lines

x-y = 0,z = c;

= 2c.!v/
= 0, z=

x-\ry

-c.

Prove that the indicatrix at a point of the surface z=/(-v,y)


a rectangular hyperbola if (1 +p^)t + {l+q'^)r-2pqs = 0.
Ex.

5.

Ex.

6.

Prove that the indicatrix at every point

tan -i.V

Ex.

7.

of the helicoid

rectangular hyperbola.
of the surface xyz - a(j/z + zx + xy) = 0, at which
a rectangular hyperbola, lie on the cone
,iiQ; + z) + 7/\z+x) + z^{x+y) = 0.

The points

the indicatrix

is

185. Representation

by parameters.

functions of two pai-ameters

u and

If

.',

equations

x=fy{u,v),

y=Mu,v),

y,

and are given by


z=f,,{ii,v),

are
tlie

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

272

[CH. XIII

{x, y, z) is a surface.
For u and v
can be eliminated between the three equations, and the

the locus of the point

elimination leads to an equation of the form {x,

The tangent

we may

plane

To

plane.

But

The equation

proceed thus.

(^-a^)F,

y, s)

= 0.

find the equation to the tangent


is

+ (>/-2/)F, + (^-0)F, = O.

since x, y, z are functions of

u and

v,

=
?^Xy + Vyy^ + F^s,, = 0.

Fa;+F2;2/M+F,2

and

F.

Fa,

Therefore
Viflv

^uyv ~ yw^v

^u^v

^u^v

'^ihijv

These give the direction-cosines of the normal.

The equation

to the tangent plane is

n-y,

:0.

Xu,

z,.

Xj),

Ex. 1. Find the tangent plane at the point " m, Q " on the helicoid,
for which
.^.=,,cos^, y=sin^, z=ce.

Ex.

2.

Find the tangent plane at the point

for which

X = xh cos

^,

y = n sin

Q,

" ,

"

on the cylindroid,

= c sin 2^,

and prove that its intersection with the surface consists of a straight
is the circle
line and an ellipse whose projection on the plane 2 =
(^2 4- j/2) cos 2 ^

- M {x cos 9 - y sin

0)

= 0.

Ex. 3. Prove that the normals at points on the cylindroid for


which Q is constant lie on a hyperbolic paraboloid.
Ex.

4.

Prove that the equations

y = a.-X-\-h.,\x-\-c.^\x^

.r=aiA + &i/x + CiAju-,

determine a hyperbolic paraboloid

A = 0,

Ex.

if

=/=

0,

= asX +

bs[j.

and a pair

+ c.^XiJL

of planes

if

where

5.

If

=/=

0,

prove that the equations

X = aj A^ + &! AjU. + Cifx^,

y = WgA^ + 62 A/x +

determine a cone whose vertex

is

c.,[ji?,

the origin

= a^A" + h^Xii + Cyju^


and which has

generators the lines


.r/rtj

=yla.^ = zla^,

xjc^

=y/r, = zlc3.

as

EXAMPLES

185]

X.

273

Examples X.
1.

Prove that the smfaces


z{x^+y'^-z^ + \) = 'ixy

have each four conic nodes whose coordinates are

(1,-1,-1),

(1,1,1),
2.

{o:->ry

has binodes at the points


3.

(-1,1,-1),

(-1,-1,1).

Prove that the surface

Prove that the

+ z-af = xyz

{a, 0, 0), (0, a, 0), (0, 0, a).

line

va, z = is a nodal
- a) + hy{2x - a)- = 0,

line

on the surface

4c5-(a'

and that there is a unode at the point where it meets the plane y = 0.
Prove also that the section of the surface by any plane through the
nodal line consists of three straight lines, two of which coincide with
the nodal
4.

line.

Prove that the surface

('-+/)(%- 2)2 = 4.r2


contains an infinite number of straight lines. Examine the nature of
the sections by planes through the line x = Zy-s=0.
5.

Prove that the equation

a(y-b)(z-cy-h(.r-a){z + cf^O
represents a conoid which is generated by lines parallel to the plane
which meet the line x = a, y = b. Shew also that the normals to
the surface at points of the generator x/a=y/b, z = 0, lie on the hyperbolic paraboloid

XOY

4:ab{bx - ay)(ax + by
6.

Shew

- ci^ - ) = cz{a^ + b'^f.

that the equation


x^-{-y^

+ !?- Zxyz o?

represents a surface of revolution, and find the equations to the


generating curve.
7.

Prove that the perpendiculars from the point

(f/.,

/?,

y) to the

generatoi's of the cylindroid

X = u cos
lie

y(.r-cx.)2
8.

^^^

d,

y = u sin

0,

= c sin W

on the conicoid

+ y(y-^)2 + 2c(a;-a)(.y-i)-(s-7)('^r + /?y-.2-/i-) = 0.


real lines lying on the surface x^-\-y^->t-z^ = a}
x=a,y + z = 0; y^a,z + x=0; z = a, x+y = 0.

Prove that the only

Shew also that the section of the surface by a plane through one of
Detormiiu' the
these lines consists of a straight line and a conic.
position of the plane through the line x = a, .?/ + = which meets the
circle.
is
//:-plane
a
the
on
projection
whose
conic
surface in a
.r

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

27J.

9.

Shew

.i-y-plane cuts

and

[ch. xiii.

that an infinite number of spheres with centres on the


the surface {.c" + f/-){x + a) + z^{x-a) =
at right angles,

find the locus of their centres.

10.

Discuss the form of the surface


i/-2-

+ 2tvi/z + k'.v^ - 2ak^i/

0.

that it is a ruled surface, and give a geometrical construction


for the generator through a given point of the parabola in which it
meets the .7/-plane. Prove also that any point on its curve of intersection with the cylinder x^ + 7/'^ = 2ai/ is given by

Shew

.V

= 2asm

0cos9,

y=2a cos^O,

z=k (sec

6 - tan

B).

{-a, -b, -c); A, A' are (a, b, - c),


and C, C' are
B' are {-a, b, c), (-a, -b, c)
( a, 6,
Prove that the equation to the surface
(a, b, c), (a, b, c).
generated by a conic which passes through P and P' and intersects
11.

P,

are
-c); B,
P'

{a,

b,

c),

the lines AA', BB',

CC

is

(^0(l-0(^f)(f-J)-(^l)li;-')-
that this surface contains the lines, AA', BB', CC, PA, PB,
PC, P'A', P'B', P'C, PP'. Examine the shape of the surface at the
Shew that any point on PP' is a singular point, and that
origin.
P and P' are singular points of the second order, (that is, that the
locus of the tangents at P and P' is a cone of the third degree).

Shew

12. If A, IX are the parameters of the confocals through a point P of


ellipsoid x^la^
7/^/b^
z^lc'^=l, centre O, prove that the points on

an

the wave surface which correspond to the section of the ellipsoid by


the diametral plane of OP are given by

^2_

5V(ffl^-A)(2-,x)

A(a2 _

62)(^,2

_ ^2)

'

^_ c%^(&2-A)(62-yj)
A(62 - 2)(ft2 _ ^2)

,
'

^"

a'-h^c--k)(c'^- [x)

"

A(f2

- a2)(c2 - ^2)

and the corresponding expressions obtained by interchanging A and

'

fx.

186, 187]

CHAPTER
CUEVES
186.

The equations

XIV.

IN SPACE.

to a curve.

f\{x,y,z) = 0,

The equations

Ux,y,z) =

together represent the curve of intersection of the surfaces

and f^{x, y, s) = (). If we eliminate


between the two equations, we obtain
equations of the form

given by
first X,

/^(a;, y, z)

and then

y,

y=M^l ^=M^)

(1)

If, now, z be made to depend upon a variable /, z and


being connected by the equation z (}).^{t), the equations (1)
/

y ^ ^^ (^t),

take the form

x = 0^ (0-

Hence the coordinates of any point on tlie curve of


intersection of two surfaces can be expressed as functions
of a single parameter.

Conversely, the locus of a point whose coordinates are

given by

where

t is

x = c/,,(t),
a parameter,

of the

the curve of intersection of two

For the elimination of


form
f,{x, y) = 0,

surfaces.

z = ^,(f),

y = <}>o,{t),
is

My,

= 0,

which represent two cylinders whose curve


is

the locus of the point.


187.

at

(I

two equations

leads to
z)

(Compare

of intersection

^^^

The tangent. To find the equations


to a given curve.

40, 41, 7G,

Uif).)

to the t((V(/rnt

given point

Suppose that
meter

t.

We

are given as functions of a parathroughout use the symbols x\o:", ...

x, y, z

shall

COOEDINATE GEOMETRY

276

etc. to
is

denote

^,
dr
at "tS-

... etc.,

unless where another

and

let Q, (x

cm^ve adjacent to

+ Sx, x + 8y, z + Sz)


Then,

P.

meaning

Let the given point, P, be


be a point on the

expressly assigned to them.

{X, y, z),

[ch. xiv.

if

x=f{t),

x-iSx=f{t + St),

=f(t)+Stf{t)+^f"{tH...,

=X+X
Similarly, y

6t

The equations

as

PQ

to

+ z"rj+....

are

^-x
Jt

7,-y

x'+x-^ +
Now,

r^-\-

+ S}j = y + y'St + y"r^ + ...,

Z-\-Sz=Z + z'St

"

+X

t-^

Jt^

Jt

,^
2+5-2+...

y+y^ + --,

...

tends to

position of PQ, that

P,

is,

tends to zero, and the limiting

the tangent at

y'

If the equations to the

F^{:x,y,z)
/3F,

'

P, is

given by

z'

curve are

= 0,

F,(a',

,BFt

2/,

,9Fi

s)

= 0,

="
^-^
+ 2/^+^^
oz
Tix
oy

we have

''

,dF,

,3F,

,9F2
,

therefore

y
3F,

9F2_9F, SR,
dz dy
dz

whence the
Cor.

section

3F2_3Fi 3F2
dx dz
dz dx

3F,

3F,

3F2_9Fj BFg
dy dx

ox dy

direction-ratios of the tangent are found.

The tangent at a point P to the curve of interof two surfaces is the line of intersection of their

tangent planes at

P,

DIRECTION-COSINES OE TANCIENT

187-189]

Ex.

277

Eind tho equations to the tangent at the point " 6" on the

1,

^'^''"^

.r

= acos^, y = asin6/,

= ke.

Shew

that the tangent at a point of the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid x'^/a^+y'^/b'^ + z^/c' = l and the confocal whose

Ex.

2.

parameter

is

is

given by

a\l)^-c'){a'-k)

~ b\c' - a'){b'^ - A)

c\a^ - ){c^ - A)"

that the tangent at any point of the curve whose


equations, referred to rectangular axes, ai-e

Ex.

Shew

3.

makes a constant angle with the

line

If tlie axes

The direction-cosines of the tangent.

188.

are rectangular, and

P, {x, y, z)

and

+ 6x, y + Sy, z + 6z)

Q, {x

are adjacent points of a given curve, Sr, the measure of PQ,


is

given by

^7.2

= Sx"- + Sy^- + SzK

Let the measure of the arc PQ of


Sr
Lt-T-

= 1,

tlie

curve be

Ss.

Then

and therefore

or

s'^

= x- + y'- + z^,

where x, y, z are functions of

and

''

clx

>

Hence

^tc.

the actual direction-cosines of the tangent at P are

v'

z'

dx dy dz

-, ^, -,

Ex.

1.

or

For the helix x = acos

9,

-7-,

as

-T--r,
as
CIS

y = asm

9, z

Ex.

2.

Prove that the length

between the points where

= ti

= o.9 tan a.,

of the curve

and

= U,

is

Asl2a{to-t^).

a helix drawn on a cylinder whose base


and making an angle of 45 with the generators.
that the curve

189.

is

The normal

curve at a point P

is

prove that

measured from the point

^=: secoc, and that the length of the curve


d9
where ^=0 is a^seco.. (Compare fig. 51.)

Shew
is

also

a cycloid

The locus of the normals to a


the plane through P at right angles to

plane.

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

278

the tangent at
to the

axes are rectangular the equation

If the

P.

normal plane

[ch. xiv.

is

{i-x)x+{n-y)y' + {t-^)-=^Contact of a curve and surface. If p, p^, p.^,


lie on a given surface and P^, P2,

190.

points of a given curve,

tend to

with
at

P,

P,

then in the

when

limit,

P^,

Pn,

P,i

P2,...Pn coincide

the curve and surface have contact of the

11^^

order

P.

To find the conditions that a curve and surface shoidd


have contact of a given order.
Let the equations to the curve and surface be

and

^{t)^f{<pM H^)'

let

Then the

4>S))-

roots of the equation F{t)

are the values of

which correspond to the points of intersection of the curve


and surface. If the curve and surface have contact of the
first order at the point for which t = t-^, the equation
and therefore
has two roots equal to
F(/) =
t

t-^,

and 1^ = 0,

F(g =
,

and clearly

dz
dF J-^-^+^^
- ^.
= dx df -- + 3/
^
-df

If the contact is of the

has three roots equal to

And

generally,

if

dii

second order, the equation F(f) =

t^,

and therefore

the contact

is

of the

7i*^'

order,

Ex. 1. Find the plane that has three-point contact


withthecurve
th the curve
^,_.
.,_^,_i^
y = f-\, z = t^-l.
Ans. 3.t'-8y-|-6i

= 0.

at^

<;

the origin

THE OSCULATING PLANE

189-1!)1J

279

Ex. 2. Determine a, />, h so that the paraboloid 2z = cu:--\-2lixij-\-hi/may have closest possible contact at the origin with the curve

x=fi-2fi+\,

What

is

i/

= fi-},

the order of the contact

Ans. a/45 = k/-3 = b/5 = l/54.

Ex.

Find the

3.

The equations

z=--t--2t

Fourth.

inflexional tangents at

to a line

tlimugh

r = .ri + l(,

+ l.

(.)'i,

(.Vj, ?/,, s,)

_?/=_y,+jHi',

y,, -,)

may be

on

tlie

surface

written

= Sy + nt.

The inflexional tangents are the lines which have three-point contact
with the surface where t = 0. For all values of t, we have
dv

Hence

dy

dt

dt

'

dz
'

dt

for three-point contact at {a\, y,,

z{),

we have

(i)yi%i-4cr, = 0,
(ii)
(iii)

-4cl+2//iZim + 7/i-n = 0,
^lw2 + 2J/lm?t=0.

-'J^=

Therefore

Ex.

=^=^.
-^1
3a-,

2^1

181, Ex. 2.)

Find the

4.

or

4c

i/i^

(Compare

lines that

have four-point contact at

(0, 0, 1)

with

the surface

+ x^ -i/--z^ + 2>/z - 3xy - 2y + 22 = 1


xins. The direction-ratios satisfy lmn = 0, l'^-m'-n^ + 2mn = 0.
Ex. 5. Prove that if the circle lx' + viy + nz = 0, x'^+>/- + z- = 2cz
,>;* -i-

3.11/z

has three-point contact at the origin with the paraboloid


ax-'

Deduce the
191.

curve,

plane

The osculating

PQR

is

the

= 775--

->

5.

plane.

and Q and R tend

To find
be

+ by- = 2z,

result of ^ 88, Ex.

If p, q,

r are points of a

to P, the limiting pcsition of the

the osculating plane at the point

equation

to the

P.

osculating plane.

Let the coordinates be functions of a parameter t and P


{x, y, z).
The equation to any plane is of the form
a^+b,] + c^+d = 0.
If

tliis

order at

plane and the curve have contact of the second

(x, y, s),

we have
ax + by + cz-{-d = 0,
=0,
ax -{ by' -\- cz
ax"-[-by"-{-cz"

=0

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

280

Therefore, eliminating a,

we

h, c, d,

[ch. xiv.

obtain the equation

to the osculating plane,


t-'^

= 0.

X,
x",

Ex.

1.

Find the osculating plane at the point "^" on the helix

x=acosB, y asmdi

= kd.

Ans. k{j(;sind-ycosd-ad) + az = 0.

For the curve x = 3t, i/ = 3t% z = 2fi, shew that any plane
2.
it in three points and deduce the equation to the osculating
A7is. "Lt^x-^t^-^z^^t^^
plane at =^i.
Ex. 3. Prove that there are three points on the cubic x at^-X-h,
i/ 3ct'^ + 3dt, z = 3et+f, such that the osculating planes pass through
the origin, and that the points lie in the plane Scex + afi/ = 0.
Ex.
meets

Ex. 4. P and Q are points of a curve and


Prove that the limiting position of the plane

PT

is

the tangent at P.
Q tends to P is

PQT

as

(a,

y) to the ellipsoid

the osculating plane at P.

Ex.
x^/a'^

(a., /?,

5.

Normals are drawn from the point

+ z^/c'^ = l.

fi,

Find the equation to the osculating plane at


y) of the cubic curve through the feet of the normals.
i/'^/b'^

6V

Ans.

+ _ c2)(c2 _ a^)y + 1
+ _ 62)(52 _ c2)^^(62
- a2)(a2 _ 62)(X^(2
;

(C^

= 0.

Ex. 6. Shew that the condition that four consecutive points of a


curve should be coplanar is

*'",

y"\

Ex.

7.

Prove that the equations

= a.f'^2\t-\-c-^, i = a3<2 + 263!' + C3


^=aji;2 + 26ii! + q,
}i
determine a parabola, and find the equation to the plane in which

it

lies.

Ex.

8.

Shew

that the curve for which

c-V
is

a plane curve which

lies in

h-t

a-t'
the plane ax +

bi/

+ cz~0.

192. To find the osculating plane at a point of the curve


^) = 0.
of intersection of the surfaces f(^, rj, ^) = 0, 0(^,
The equations to the tangent at (x, y, z) are
;;,

{i-^)f. + {ri-y)fy + {t-^)^ = ^,

OSCULATING PLANE

TIIK

191,192]

and therefore the


the form

281

to the osculating plane

e(][uatioii

is

of

X{{i-r)f.+(>i-y)fy+a-^)f\}
That

this plane should

with the curve,

have contact of the second order

we must have

^Wfx + y'fy + zf^}=fx{x'<p^ + y'<Py-]-z'cl,,}

(1)

M^"fx+y"fy + z"f^}=fi{x"<l)^^-^y"<Py + z"<p^}.


x%+y'fy + z'f, = and x<l>^+i/(Py+z'<p, = 0,

and

But

...(2)
...(3)

and therefore equation (1) is an identity. This is to be


expected, since any plane through the tangent to a curve
has contact of the

first

ating the equations

(3),

order with the curve.

we

Differenti-

obtain

+ y'%y + zjzz + ^y'z'fyz + 2s'x'^ + ^x'y'Uj


= -{^"fx + y"fy + z"f^),
+ y'Hyy + ^' V~'^ + W^'^yz + '^z'x'<i>zx + 2,r''J/'0^y
= -{x"(p^ + y"({>y-\-z"cf>^),

a^'%x

X'~(}>:cz

whence by

(2) the equation to the osculating plane is

{i-^^)fx-\-{^-y)fy+{t-^)fzAi-^)^x+{n-y)<t>y\-{t-^H^
X^fxx

Ex.

1.

+ ^'z'fyz +

X^:,^

Prove that the osculating plane at

of intersection of the cylinders

.v'^

+ z^ =

~"

a'

Ex.

2.

a?., y'^

+ ^'Z'(l>yz +

(.r,,

y^, z^)

+ z- = b^

is

on the curve

given by

62

Find the osculating plane at a point of the curve of

inter-

section of the conicoids

f=
We have

o.;2

+ ftf + yz- -1=0.


+ 6y2 + C22 - 1 = 0, 4^ =
axx' + hyy' + czz' = 0,
olxx + ftyi/ + yzz' = 0,
a..)--'

xx

where

yy'

z^

-A=B = C'

whence

A = hy-c(i, B = ca.-ay, C=a(i-hct..


/=2a, fy.j = ^.b, / = 2c; f,. = f,, = U =

Again,

Therefore the required equation

(^_,^,r + (rj-y)hy + (C-:)rz

aA-^'b/PcC'

1^^
which reduces

y/2

<^ = 2a, etc.

is

(^-,-)r^r + Oj -y)f3y +
a-A' fSh^

Z-'

to 2(^-.r).t-3iJr'(5.^2_

a- :)y^
yC^

.r;2

c/) = o.

"^

y^

"^

z^

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

282

[CH. XIV.

The equation may be further transformed.

We have

a.f-a^= Bz'-Cf -(a.-a) = 0,

etc.

Hence the equation may be written


^^x^BC{c^. -a) = 2.r^ BCiBz' - Cf),
= - {Bz^ - CiMCx"- - Az^){Ai/ - Bx^),

(/3-6)(y-c)^(y-c)((x.-a)
Ex.

Shew

3.

that at {x\ y\

z'),

{a.-a){(i-b)

+ 1-0.

a point of intersection of the three

confocals,

the osculating plane of the curve of intersection of the

first

two

Ex. 4. Prove that the points of the curve of intersection of the


sphere and conicoid
rx"-

+ rf + Tz^ = 1

ax^^- hf + cs^ = 1

at which the osculating planes pass through the origin,

b-r

a-r

'

a-b'
193.
infinite

lie

on the cone

= 0.

The principal normal and binomial. There is an


number of normals to a curve at a given point, A,
Kp

^1
jlcin

on it, and their locus is the normal plane at A.


normals are of special importance, that v^hich
osculating plane at

A and

is

Two

of the

lies in

the

called the principal normal,

and

193]

PRINCIPAL NORMAL AND P.INoRNLAL

that whicli

is

perpendicular to the osculating plane and

In

called the binormal.

fig.

54

AT

is

the tangent,

AB the binormal the plane ATP


ABP is the normal

principal normal,

osculating plane, and the plane

The plane ABT

We
at

:is3

is

is

AP

the

is

the

plane.

called the rectifying plane.

shall choose as the positive direction of the tangent

A the direction

in

positive direction of

which the arc

increases,

and as the

the principal normal, that towards

which the concavity of the curve

is

turned.

We

shall then

choose the positive direction of the binormal so that the


positive directions of

the tangent, principal normal and

binormal can be brought by rotation into coincidence with


x-, y-, and 2;-axes respectively.
Let us throuoliout denote the direction-cosines of the

the positive directions of the

tangent by

l^,

w^, n^;

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

14

[ch. xiv.

Therefore

z(z'x" - xz") - y'jx'y" - y'x")

_^

s''^\/x"'^-\-y"'^-\-z"'^

x"(x^_^

^~

+ y"^ +

s"'Jx"'^

and

-X

s"'"

+ y'y" + zz")
+ y'"^ + z""

z'^-)

(x'x"

s'"^

similarly,

ssjx
Ex.

il"s'

y's"

+y

'-+S

'^

z"s'

Prove that the parallels through the origin


x = a cos 6, y = a sin 6, z = kO

1.

z's"
-+0 s

ssjx "-+?/

'-

to the

binomials

of the helix

upon the right cone a%x'^+y'^)^kh^.

lie

Ex.

Prove that the principal normal

2.

to the helix

is

the normal

to the cylinder.

If A^ and Ag are points of a given


194. Curvature.
curve so that the arc A^A^ is positive and of length Ss and
the angle between the tangents at Aj and Ao is Sxp-, the

ratio

-^

gives the average rate of change in the direction

of the tangent over the arc A^A^.


is

measured by the Lt

<-^^<"

-)-, that

curvature of the curve at A.


is

Tiie rate of

by

ia
is '^^^

It is

-^

and

change at A^
is

called the

denoted by Up, and p

called the radius of curvature.

The

195. Torsion.

direction of the osculating plane at

a point of any curve which


point describes the curve.

the binormals at A^ and

A.,,

is

If

not plane changes as the

8t

is

the ratio

the
-k-

angle between

gives the average

rate of change of direction of the osculating plane over the

arc AjAo.

that

is

by
^

by

] /cr,

The

rate of change at A^

-t-,

and

(Is

and a

is

is

is

measured by the Lt

called the torsion at A^.


^

called the radius of torsion.

It is

-k-,

denoted

The spherical

196.

FORMULAE

FEENET'S

193-19:

285

The

indicatrices.

formulae

for

curvature and torHiun are readily deduced by means of


spherical indicatrices,

From

which are constructed as

follows.

the origin, O, draw in the positive directions of

tlie

tangents to the curve, radii of the sphere of unit radius

whose centre

The extremities

is O.

curve on the sphere which


Similarly,

tangents.

directions of

by drawing

we

binomials,

the

of these radii form a

the spherical indicatrix of the

is

radii

in

the positive

construct the spherical

indicatrix of the binomials.


197. Frenet's formulae.

In

figs. 55, 56, let A^, A,, A3, ...

be adjacent points of a given curve, and

let O^^, O^,' 0^3

be drawn in the same directions as the tangents

AJi,

and 0?>j

oh.,, Ob.,,

...

A^Bp

Then

f^

t.,,

f.^,

indicatrices of the

Since Ot^ and

A,T.,, A3T3,

in the

h^,

6.,,

same

...,

directions as the binomials

AoBg, A3B3, ....

are adjacent points on the

63, ...

tanwnts and binormals.

Of.,

are parallel to adjacent tangents to the


parallel to

curve, the limiting position of the plane

t^Of., is

the osculating plane of the curve at Aj.

Hence the tangent

to the indicatrix

at

t^

of

tjt^, is

it is

tj:.-,t^

. .

being the limiting position

at right angles to the binomial at Aj.

a tangent to the sphere,

radius Ofp and

gent AjT^.

is

it

is

And

since

at right angles to the

therefore at right angles to the tan-

Therefore the tangent at

t^

to the indicatrix

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
t^t.^t^ ...

is

parallel to A^P^, the principal

[CH. XIV.

normal at

Let

A^.

us take as the positive direction of the tangent to the indicatrix, the positive direction of the principal normal.

Since the sphere


arc

t-^t.^

is

of unit radius, the measures of the

of the great circle in

which the plane

t-^Ot.2

cuts

the sphere, and of the angle t^Ot^ are equal, and hence the

measure of the arc

Let

is Syp-.

8a.

Then Lt

the indicatrix.

measure the arc


If

we take

t^t.^

of

the arcs

Syjy

and great circle through t^, to in the same


the limit is +1, and since we have fixed the positive

of the indicatrix
sense,

direction of the tangent to the indicatrix at

the sign of

S\p:

^
Again,

t^ is

i^,

we

the point

Ss

ds

Sol

doi'

fix

sign,

(1)
S\J^
(l^,

m^,

n^),

and

therefore,

the direction-cosines of the positive tangent at


indicatrix

thus

Hence we have, in magnitude and

by 188,
t^

to the

FEENET'S FORMULAE

197]

position

the plane

oi"

reciprocal cone,

bj)jb.^... is
b^ is

the tangent at

i.e.

at right angles to Ot^.

to the indicatrix

6^

IJesides,

the tangent at

is

therefore at right angles

Therefore the tangent at

b^

to the indicatrix

bj)jj.^

normal at

Suppose

to A^P^, the principal

parallel

that

to the

a tangent to the sphere, and

to Ob^.
is

pkme

the tangent

i-C.

at right angles to 0<^, and the limiting

is

position of b^K,

h^Ob.^,

2H7

its

positive direction

If the

A^.

then the measure of the arc

is 8/3,

great circle in the plane

that of the principal normal.

is

measure, with the proper sign, of the arc

the indicatrix

bjj.,

bjj.,

and Lt~-=+l.

bjOb.^ is ^t,

we take the arcs in the same sense so that the


since we have assigned a positive direction to
at b^ to the indicatrix, we fix the sign of St.

limit

of

of the

is

If

+1,

the tangent

Hence we

have, in magnitude and sign,


OS

ds

Ss

J
^="^
= "^=30
J

Again, the coordinates of

are

6^

(-^

m^, n^, and licnoc the

^3,

direction-cosines of the positive tangent at b^ to the in-

dicatrix are

dm^

cU^

Therefore

Orbv(2)
^"^'
'

We

"^

h^ = -f%>
dp
^^

have

'>^^->

ds'

also,

dL

Hence

^1
^

ds

dl^

The
are

-t^=
as

results (a),

known

(p.),

d(3

dL

k'~r
-^

ds

= 0.

(i;),

o-

K -^^^

= t^'

Ti^^dn^
ds
a-

'

4-

ds

+ If + U = 1

^ds + h^
ds

Therefore, by (a) and

Snmlarly,

^'2

d^

a-

l^^

TT

= -j^>

m^^dm,

= ^^

a-

dn^
d^'

d(3'

d(i'

ds

a-

(c) are

exceedingly important.

as Frenet's Formulae.

(c)

They

COOEDINATE GEOMETEY

288

[ch. xiv.

We
198. The signs of the curvature and torsion.
have agreed that the positive direction of the tangent at ^^
to the indicatrix

But

if

tytj.^ ...

that of the principal normal.

is

the positive direction of the principal normal

towards which the concavity of the curve


direction at

t^

of the arc

t^t=^

is

of the principal normal, (see


Sxjr

and p are always

We

is

is

that

turned, the

that of the positive direction


Therefore, ^a,

figs. 55, 56).

positive.

also agreed that the positive direction of the tangent

at hy to the indicatrix 6^62^3

The

the principal normal.

^^^

^^^^

positive direction of

direction at

6^

of the arc

h-^b.y

is

the positive direction of the principal normal for a curve

such as that in

55,

tig.

but

is

the opposite direction for a

For the curve in fig. 55, the


apparent rotation of the principal normal and binomial as
the arc increases is that of a left-handed screw, and such
curves are therefore called sinistrorsum. For such a curve
For the curve in fig. 56, the
(5/3, St and <t are positive.
apparent rotation is that of a right-handed screw, and such
curves are said to be dextrorsum. For this class of curve
curve such as that in

^/3,

fig.

56.

St and a are negative.

199.

To

From

find the radius of curvature.

(a),

197, by squaring and adding

we

'?Ali)'<'^hm
dly

;'

But

l,=> therefore -j^=

Hence

^=2

75

2a;'^

= s'^, and

"Zx'x"

~'
.o'4

<^>

s'x'

{x"ss"xy

(,'6

Therefore, since

x's'

= s's",

obtain

THE RADIUS OF TORSION

198-201]

289

Got.
If the coordinates are functions of 8, the len^^th of
the arc measured from a fixed point, so that t^s, then
s'

s"

= 0, and
\dsy ^\dsy ^\dsy-

p'

The

should note the analogy between these fornuihie and


those for the radius of curvature of a plane curve.
stiulenfc

Deduce equation

Ex.

To find

200.

normal and

From

direction-cosines

-1

Aojani,

m.,

(dlA

.,

m.^^ p-

= p s"s' -^^ 8"z'


L = m,7}.. m.,n-,.

y'z"-zy "

Y'

y'x"
^ ^,.^^
= p xy"

xz"

z'x"

v.,

8"x'

n,=, and

_
h-P
o.

x"s'

y"s' 8"y'
= p^,^-^,

on,=

smce

Similarly,

of the 'principal

197,

(a),
,

o-

10, 23.

hinorinal.

equations

Similarly,

from the result of Ex.

(1)

the

n.,

-,

-^,

Compare 193.
Cor.
If i = s, we have.
d-x

dH

(V^y

L=J'M/^':^_^.^y)
""

201.

To

formulae,

find

(b),
^

^Kds
the

we have

ds ds-J'

ds^

radius
,^

ds

h = ji^y'^" - ^'V"l

of

-^,
<T

or

etc

torsion.

From

Frenet's

and from S^ 200,


I/-'

Differentiating with respect to

t,

= piy'z" - z'y").

we

obtain

I .<i''^^

+ Sl/^-s' = piy'z" - z'y'") + p'{y'z" - z'y"),


-^
cr
= p{yz -zy >+ -^T

<1)

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

xz

V^m^s^s =p{zx

Similarly,

^
p

H3%s'^s

= pixy yx

+ -^^^--

,.(3)

cr

Multiply

...(2)

)-\

a-

and

XTV.

[ciI.

(1), (2), (3)

by

L^,

m^, n^ respectively, and add,

and we have

= p [hiy'^'" - ^'y'") + "^hi^'^'" - ^'z") + n^{xy"' - y'x"

)],

0"

which, on substituting p

Ex.

^_P_

a-

s'^

for

-^

l^, etc.,

X,

y,

x",

y",

x'",

y'",

z'

radii of curvature

Find the

1.

'

becomes

and torsion

of the helix

= acos^,
= asin^, z = u6id,\\cL.
y' a cos 0,
z' = a tan oc.
x' = - a sin 6,
s"^ =
+ fp + z"^ = a^ sec-cx..
z' s" 0,
x" = - a cos 0, y" = - sin
y'" -acos. 6,
z"' = 0.
x'" = a si n 6,
.r

We have
Therefore

?/

x'"^

Hence
and

6*,

Therefore

and

p'V

- a sin

J_

a sin

whence
Ex.

For the curve

4.

1/^

5.

a.

apr.6

-a cos ^,
rt/sin a.

cos

a..

y = 3i:2, 2 = 2(!3, prove that


p=-(r = |(H-202.
r=: 2a(sin-^A + A\/i - A^), y=2aX^,

= iaX,

X!^.

c\

?/

X ta nil -,

(.t'=ccosh^,

Ex.

,3

of the curve of intersection of the surfaces

For a point
-

- tan

cos 9, a tan a.
-asin^,

.r^S;",

Ex. 3. For the curv e


prove that p= -cr- = 8a\/lEx.

6,

o-= -

2,

^,

-acosd,

s'*^

For the curve x = sjQa\^,

2x-2

_y

= a(l +3A''),

?/

= csinhi;, z = ct.)
z = slQ,a\, prove

that (T=y'^ja.

Ex.

6.

Find the

curve x^ + y^ = a^,

2_

x"^

radii of curvature

and torsion at a point

of the

- .?/ = az.

(5a^ -4^")^

5a2 + i22

(.V

acos^, y = sin^, 2 = acos2^.)

TANGENT TO A CURVE

201,202]

291

202. If t]ie tangent to a curve makes a constant


ivWt a fixed line cr= +/otana.

Take the
n,

Then

tixed line as 2;-axis.

dn,
n.y
cosoi> and ^' = -^
P

= 0,

(197,

(a)).

% = 0, and n^= Hma..

Therefore
n^

Again,

anffle a.

'^

dn.^

n.-^_

=
+ !^= -1^
ds

( 197, (c)).

{),

a-

Therefore

cr

= + p tan a.

For the curves in Exs. 2, 3, 4, 201, shew that the tangent


makes an angle of 45 with a fixed line, and hence that p= (t.
Ex.

1.

Ex. 2. If a curve is drawn on any cylinder and makes a constant


angle a. with the generators, p = /d,, cosec-a., where 1/p and l/po are the
curvatures at any point P of the curve and the normal section of the
cylinder through P.
Take the ^-axis parallel to the generators of the cylinder. Then
if 8s, Ssj are infinitesimal arcs of the curve and normal section,
ds,
-7-

dz
d-z
^
^- = cosa. and ^-t,-=0.
ds
ds'

= sin a.,
.

-,

ds

Ti?

it

i-

is (.r,
\

'

\
?/, 2),
./'

Whence

the result immediately follows.

Ex.

3.

Apply Ex. 2 to shew that the curvature of the


x = a cos 6, y = sin 6, z ad tan a.,

Ex.

4.

If pja- is constant the curve

is

helix

a helix.

- = -y and - = -7-5 dli = lcdl^.


ds
cr
ds
p
Therefore ^,=^3 + ^-1, where k^ is an arbitrary constant.
Since

Similarly,

nii

hi^-V ko,;

ni

= k7i3 + Ic^.

Multiplying by Z,, hii, i, and adding, we obtain ^'i^i + /.,?! + /;,! = 1Hence, since k{^ + k./ + k3^ = l + k'\ and therefore /.,, k.,, t^, cannot all
be zero, the tangent to the curve makes a constant angle with the
^xed line
x y z
fCt

Parallels

A'o

fCi)

of the curve to this line generate a


hence the curve is a helix.

drawn through points

cylinder on which the curve

lies,

and a are constant, the curve is a right circular lielix.


Ex. 6. A curve is drawn on a parabolic cylinder so as to cut all
the generators at the same angle. Find expressions for tlie curvature
and torsion.
Ans. If the cylinder is x=afl, y^2at, and the angle is a.,
Ex.

If p

5.

/3

= 2a(l + <2)^/sin-a. and

o-

= 2a(l + -)^/sin.cosa.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

292

The

203.

circle of curvature.

From

the osculating

is

P, it

as

Q and

osculating plane and the

tlie

follows immediately that the osculating

circle lies in the osculating


is

PQR

circle

circle at P.

the definitions of

curvature at

r are points of

If p, q,

a curve, the limiting position of the


tend to P

[en. xiv.

plane at

the radius of curvature at

P,

and that

its

radius

It also follows that the

P.

centre of the circle, or the centre of curvature, lies on the


principal normal, and therefore its coordinates are

y + '^^hP^

x + hp>

We

s+n^p.

can easily deduce the radius and the coordinates of

by means of Frenet's formulae. If (a, j8, y)


the centre and r the radius of the circle of curvature,

the centre
is

the equations

+ m3(;;-2/) + ^3(^-^) = 0,

(1)

(,^-a)H(>?-/3)H(^-y)^ = r'-

(2)

^3(^-a;)

may

be taken to represent

Since the sphere (2) has

it.

three-point contact with the curve at

with respect
formulae, we have
ating twice

to

and

(x, y, z), differenti-

applying

(x-OLf + {y-^f + (z-yf = r\


l^(x-a.) + m,(y-l3)+n,{z-y)
l.,(x-a.)

And

(3)

= 0,

(4)

+ m.,{y-l3) + n,{z-y)= -p

since the centre (a,

/3,

y)

lies

in

Square and add

Therefore,

Multiply

(5)

the osculating

^a)-OL)+m^(y-j3) + ^>K{z-y) =

plane, (1),

Frenet's

(6)

and

(4), (5), (6),

(x-cxy + (y-(3f + {z-yf = p\


by (3),
r = p.

(4), (5), (6)

by

l-^,

I.,,

l.^

respectively,

and add, and

X OL= l,p.
Similarly,

Therefore
204.

OL

y (i= ju^p,
=x+
/3 =
l.,p,

The osculating

z
.y -{-

sphere.

y=n
y z-\-n.,p.
m^/?,
.^p.

If p, Q, R,

of a curve, the limiting position of the sphere

and S tend

to

is

the osculating sphere at

P.

S are points

PQRS

as Q, R

THE OSCULATINCJ

203, 204]

^5

SPJfEKI-:

To find tJte centre and rddius of


Assume that the equation is

Then, for four-point contact at

293

the osciUdtliig sj)herc.

we have on

{x, y, z),

entiating three times with respect to

difier-

s,

^,:-a.fj^{il-^f + {z-yf =

R\

+ 7n,(^-,8) + 7?,(--y) = 0,
U{x-a.) + nu{y-^)-\-n.J,z-y)= - p,

Z.j(x-fx)

or,

by

l,ix-a.) + m.;,{y-^) + n.^{z-y)

(2),

where

= crp,

(2)

(3)

(4)

dp

(1)

n --f-.

ds

Whence, as

in 208,

wc deduce

and
a.

= x-\-Up l.^<jp,

y = z + n.,p n.^(rp.

^ = y + m>p m.^a-p',

These shew that the centre of the osculating sphere, or


centre of spherical curvature, lies on a line

drawn through the

centre of circular curvature parallel to the binomial, and

is

distant a-p' from the centre of circular curvature.


Cor.

If a curve is

and therefore cr^=


Further,

deduced.

drawn on a sphere

if

eliminate the constant


satisfied

by

all

Hence,

yf-

we
a^

if

is

differentiate

and obtain a

of radius a, I{

= a,

known, a can be

a-

= p- + (-.'

differential equation

spherical curves

(It

curve is drawn on a spliere of radius a so as to make a


constant angle a. with the phine of the equator. Shew that at tho

Ex.

1.

point whose north-polar distance

is 0,

p = "0- -sco-olcos-^)-.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

S94

We

have, by 202,

(T

dz

and ^=sina..

(T

But

XlV.

= p cot O..
,

Also

[cti.

ds

therefore

pdp

Whence

:W

dz

= a cos 6,

-^= -a sin

d-r-

dd

a sin
COSOL

Integrating,

we

obtain
\la^

p^=

a cos 9 sec a. + b,

an arbitrary constant.
p = a when d = 7r/2, 6 = 0, and then

where
If

b is

p = a(l - cos^^ sec-cx.)'-^.

Ex.
(1, 2,

Find the equation to the osculating sphere at the point

2.

3)

on the curve

= 3f' + 2, s = 4fi + 2.
.v = 2t + l,
+ 3//2 + 3 j2 - 6.v - 1 6^ - 1 82 + 50 = 0.
?/

A ns.

3.f2

Find equations to represent the osculating circle at


3.
curve in the last example.

Ex.
of the

Ans.

Ex.

The equation

to the sphere

x = ayfi + 3b^fi + 3cit,


is

given by

= 3.

+ c./ + cs^),

2h

2b.

0,

t'l,

c,,

Find the curvature and

5.

of the curve

= a4^ + 3b^fi + 3cJ, z = a:ifi + 3b^f+3cst,


.v^ +
+ z\ 2.r, 2y, 2z
9j

7/^

3{ci^

Ex.

and

Prove that at the origin the osculating sphere

4.

(1, 2, 3)

toi^sion of

263
Co

the spherical indicatrix

of the tangents.

The
8a. is

direction-cosines of the tangent are

an

infinitesimal arc,

Hence,

if

the curvature

Lt
is

Z2,

i2) 2> (19''')) ^"^^ ^^

?-r = l-

Po

,2V

'

If the torsion is

\p

(Tl

= l:-lL.,

^
(T^

as in Ex.

1.

EXAMPLES ON CUllVATURE AND TORSIUN

204]

295

Wlience we easily find


p(p(r'-p'(r)

dp
,
and
p
^ ^-fds
,

where
Ex.

Prove that the

6.

(T

radii of curvature

indicatiix of the binurmals are

V p" + (T-

da-

=-r
ds

and

torsion of

tlie splicrical

and
(T{(rp-<T'p)

curve is drawn on a right circular cone, semi vertical


Ex.
angle a., so as to cut all the generators at the same angle ft. Shew
that its projection on a plane at right angles to the axis is an equiangular spiral, and find expressions for its curvature and torsion.
7.

Let C,
of the cone as origin and the axis as 2-axis.
be the projection of P, the \Knni considered, on the axis, and
OP have measures r and R respectively. Then if CP makes
an angle 6 with OX, r, 6 arc the polar coordinates of the projection of
P on any plane at right angles to the axis.
From fig. 58 we obtain

Take the vertex

fig. .57,

CP

and

dr = dRsi\v\cL = dz tan

a..

(1)

dR = dscos [3 = rde cot 13.}


Whence
which

is

where

/t

dr
=

cot/i?sina.c/6^,

the differential equation to the projection and

= cot ^ sin a. and

.1

is

arbitrary.

lias

as integral

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

296
Again, from

= COS a. cos/?, and

(1), --^

[CH. XIV.

therefore the tangent to the

curve makes a constant angle y with the 2-axis such that


cos

We have

therefor

a = ptany.

^-.=0,
'

'^^=0,

Since

y = cos a. cos f3.

Now

.i-'

= rcos^,

>/

= rsinO,

and, using dashes to denote differentiation with respect to


r'

= sin fx cos /?,

and

s,

by

(1),

= sin /?.

rO'

Therefore
x'
od'

= r' cos 6 - sin fS sin 0,


= (/ sin Q sin /3 cos
\

Hence
Ex.

8.

y'

/3'v

''

9o\

sin;8siny'

and

Deduce equations
x^ + y2 _ z\2,v?a.,

and applying

r' sin ^ + sin /3 cos Q

y" = (}' cos d - sin

-\-

sin ^) ^'

sin-/8(l-cos2.cos2i3)

(r

= ptan

(1),

/3

Ex.

7,

x^ + y^ +

sin

'

by
2^

xx'+yy +zz'=R

/:(

cosy

differentiating the equations

= R^)
cos

-^'^

+ .y^ ==

''^>

/?.

Ex. 9. The principal normals to a given curve are also principal


normals to another curve. Prove that the distance between corresponding points of the curves is constant, that the tangents at
corresponding points are inclined at a constant angle, and that there
must be a linear relation between the curvature and torsion of the
given curve.
If O, (.r, y, z) is a point on the given curve, O', the corresponding
point on the second curve has coordinates given by
^ = x-\-J.f,

i}=y + m.,r,

(=z+ii.,r,

204]
wliei-e

EXAMPLES ON CURVATURE AND TORSION


OO'

of length

is

we

If

r.

the tangent, principal normal, and


^j

and
to

OP

= l,

mi = ??j=0;

or OO',

Hence, since
Again,

if ^'

^^

=
^
as

= m^ = 0,

= 0,

m^^

= -f,

;7-

l^

= m^ = 0, 3=1

to the second curve

and therefore

OB

for origin and OT, OP.


binomial as coordinate axes,

= 2 = 0, m2=\

The tangent

is (0, r, 0).

29?

take

and

at right angles

mi-,-f'-^+*-^)
(T J
\ p

i.e.

is

+ jH,$' = 0.
^

ds

constant.

is

we have

etc.,

ds'

therefore, at the origin,

f = (l-r/p),

7/

= 0,

and the tangent to the second curve


that tan

C=-r/^,

iiiakes

an angle 6 with

OT

.such

6'=,-^^.
1 - r/p
^e"=V^+/Yl_i;,_:;)+^_;i!:^',etc.;
p-

'

p"

\p

<r-/

cr-

therefoi'e, at the origin,

rp

A,,

p-

(T-

But the binomial

to the second curve

therefore

is

ra

.
^

'

P'

(T-

at right angles to

OP, and

f^" -t"A' =
nr'

rp'

p"

(r'~

a-

we obtain

Integrating,

ig..i(,-i-)=ig^,

where

.1 is

an arbitrary constant,

and thus there

is

p/

a-

a linear relation between the curvature and torsion.

rla-

7- = A, and therefore 6
Again,
tan ^ = r

1 -r/p
-

'

This problem was

is

constant.

investigated by Bertrand, and curves which


satisfy the conditions are on that account called Bertrand curves.

Ex.

10.

makes angles

curve
ol

and

first

is
/3

projected on a plane the normal to


with the tangent and binomial. If p,

radius of curvature of the juojection, prove that

p=

'.

wlii<li
is

the

COOEDINATE GEOMETEY

[CH.

and R the points of the curve


Let P be a point of the curve and
distant 8s from P. Then, if the area of the triangle PQR is denoted
1
2A
2A'
1
= Lt^-;g-, where A',
by A, - = Lt^. Similarly for the projection

are the projections of


whence the result.
8s'

205.

and

8s.

But A' = A cos/?, and

8s'

= 8s sin

a.,

Geometrical investigation of curvature and tor-

The following geometrical investigation


curvature and torsion of a curve is instructive.
sion.

Let A^,

Ao, Ag,

...

(fig. 59),

curve,

and

let

be the mid-points of the sides. Planes


are drawn through M^ M^, ... normal to
M^C^ M^C^ are the lines of intersection of the

M^, Mo, Mg,

...

Mj^C^Sp M0C2S2,

the sides.

the

be consecutive vertices of an

equilateral polygon inscribed in a given

'4

of

...

IVI.2C2S2 and the plane A^AgAg; similarly, M2C2


and M3C2 lie in the plane AgAgA^, and so on.
Then C^ is the centre of the circle through the points
Aj, A2, A3, and its limiting position when A2 and A3 tend

planes M^CiSp

Let p denote the

GEOMETRICAL INVESTKiATION

205]

radius of the circle of curvature at Aj.

20!)

the cyclic

Fioiii

(quadrilateral C^Mj^AoM.^,

AjA,

2.sin^MiCjiM3

But

_
~ ^^^-'

since the limiting positions of A^A^

tangents,

2 sin h

Therefore, since the limiting value of C^A.,

A^A.j

are

is p,

P-

and the

and

_ds^
M^C^M2~ drf/

A^A,

curvature = - = -, where

the radius of the

is

circle of curvature.

Since the planes M^C^Sj, MoC^S^ are at right angles to


the plane A^AgAg, their line of intersection C^Sj
to the plane A^A^Ag.
to the binormal at A^.

Therefore, in the limit, CjSj

But

since C^S^

equidistant from the points A,,


of points equidistant

from

A.,,

A.,,

is

A3,

is

normal

is

parallel

the locus of points

and CoSj

is

the locus

A3, A^, S^ is the centre of the

sphere through Aj, Ao, A3, A^, and the limiting position of
Sj is the centre of spherical curvature at

the centre of spherical curvature

lies

A^

on the

Therefore,
line

drawn

through the centre of circular curvature parallel to the


binormal.

Since the limiting positions of C^S^ and


to consecutive binomials,

we may denote

C.,Sj

are parallel

the angle C,S|Co

by St. If C^Mo and C^Si intersect at K, then CiK = C,S,()t.


But CjK differs from CjM^ C.,M., by an intinitesimal of
higher order, and therefore
^

Hence,

By

if

is

St

St

cIt

the radius of spherical curvature at A,

our convention of 198, the positive direction of the


In our fiirurc the curve is
is that of S,C,.

binormal

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

300

dextrorsum, and Sr
negative,

so

is

that Sp/Sr

ordinates of A^ are

x,

therefore

y,

position of S^ are Xq, y^,


a^Q

= projection

z,

^o = '^

or

Hence,

and those

of

if

Sp

the

is

co-

the limiting

z^,

of M1C1

a;

Also

negative.

positive.

is

[ch. xiv.

+ projection

of C^Si on OX,

+ pk--^h-

Similarly,
2/0

=y+ p'^^h

'^ ^^h

'

^o=^+p'>^2-^''h-

The points S^, S.^, S3, ... are consecutive points of a curve
which is the locus of the centres of spherical curvature,
and SjS.,, S0S3, ... are ultimately tangents to that locus.
The plane S^S^Sg or MgC^S^^ is ultimately an osculating
plane to the locus, and hence the osculating planes of the
Therefore, if
locus are the normal planes of the curve.
angles between adjacent tangents and bi6\lr, St are the
normals to the curve, and (^i/r^, <5ti are the angles between
adjacent tangents and binomials to the locus,

Lt^i = l,

and

Lt^^ = l.
oyr

St

Hence, if infinitesimal arcs of the curve and locus are


denoted by Ss and Ss^, and the curvature and torsion of
the locus by 1/p^ and

l/o-p

Ss-^ _j,Ss
Ss^ _
J
PP^'^^^I^'S^-^^I^'St-'"^'-

Ss

The

limiting positions of C^S^, C^S^,

of a ruled surface

which

is

...

are the generators

called the polar developable.

Since CiS^ and C.^S^ are ultimately coincident, the plane


CiSiC2 touches this surface at all points of the generator
C^Sp and hence the normal planes to the curve are the

tangent planes to

tlic

polar developable.

COOKDINATKS IN TERMS OF

^205,20G]

Ex.

AIM'

301

Shew

that if ds^ is the differential of the aic of the locus of


the centres of spherical curvature,
1.

Rd/i

dsi

If (^,

>/,

{) is a

point on the locus, and ^'=

etc.,

Therefore, by Frenet's fornnilae, and since s/li^- p^ = crp',

Ex.

\iif^-p^

Obtain the result from

2.

Prove that

Ex.3.

and verify that

ppi

fig. 59.

dll

p,

= /^^^,

a.J^P'^J^
or
dp

dp

'

= o-o-j.

Coordinates in terms of
If the tanoent, prinnormal and binormal at a given point O of a curve are
taken as coordinate axes, and s measures the arc OP, we
may express the coordinates of P in terms of s. We liave
206.

.s\

cipal

^=/()=/(o)+>i/'(o)+|^/'(o)+^r(o)...,

= 80c^ + 2
where

x^, Xq", x^",

orio-in.

Similarly,

^0 "^ "(3

'^'o

We

Since

tlie

is

>

+2^0

+-(--0

Xq, y^, Zq, etc.

the .r-axis,

principal normal

x"', ...

have therefore to evaluate

Since the tangent

are the values of x\ x",


2

z = 8z^

is

the

7/-a.x;is,

at the

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

302

[ch. xiv.

Again, by Frenet's formulae,

-i+-=---=-(px +px
ds

-i + ^=r.-{py +pij),
1

-^ + ^=-{pz
p

Therefore, as far as the terms in

Z=
Ex.

1.

Shew

-7.

s^,

,.

Unless

is

that the curve crosses

its

changes sign with

l/o- is zero, z

+pz\

we have

osculating plane at each

point.

the osculating plane

),

s.

If,

at any point, l/cr = 0,

said to be stationary.

Ex. 2. Prove that the projection of the curve on the normal plane
O has a cusp at O. What is the shape at O of the projections on
the osculating plane and rectifying plane ?

at

Ex. 3. If s- and higher powers of s can be rejected, shew that the


direction-cosines of the tangent, principal normal, and binomial at P
are given by

T^s/^~0"'

-s/p~T~-//o-' "O^s/o-"!'
O and P are adjacent points

In the following examples

and the arc


Ex.

4.

OP

is

of length

of a curve,

.s.

The angle between the

principal normals at

O and

is

s(p-2-{-o--)i

Ex.

and P

5.

The

is of

shortest distance between the principal normals at


^^
and it divides the radius of the circle of

length

sjp-

curvature at

+ &'-

in the ratio p-

a".

Ex. 6. The angle that the shortest distance between the tangents
at O and P makes with the binomial at O is s/2o-.
Ex.

O and
Ex.

7.

P
8.

Prove that the shortest distance between the tangents at


is s^j 12 per.

The

osculating spheres at

and P cut at an angle -~,

-j-.

EXAMPLES

206J

XI.

303

Examples XI.

Shew

that the feet of the perpendiculars from the origin to the


tangents to the helix x = acosB, i/ = as\n6, z = c6, lie on the hyperboloid .v-jc- + >/'jc' - z'^ja^ = a-jc\
1.

curve is drawn on the helicoid z ctaii~^i//jc so as alway.s to


2.
cut the generators at a constant angle ex.. Shew that by properly
choosing the starting point it may be made to coincide with the intersection of the helicoid with the cylinder 2?' = c(e^cota_e-ecota)^ r, 6
Find the equations to the prinbeing ordinary polar coordinate.
cipal
3.

normal at any

Find

point.

7(6') so that

.v

= acosd,

= asin6?,

?/

= f{9)

deterniino a

plane curve.
4. If tlie osculating plane at every point of a curve pass tlirough
a fixed point, the curve must be plane. Hence prove that the curves
of intersection of the surfaces x'^-\->f + Z" = a.^, '2,{x^-\-)f^ + z^) = a'^ are
circles of radius a.
5. A right helix of radius a and slope a. has four-point contact
with a given curve at the point wliere its curvature and torsion are

1/p

and

l/<r.

Prove that

|-

;,

and

6.

For the curve

7.

Shew

tluit

.v

(T

= a tan

$, y = a cot ^,
_ _ _^\/2a

the osculating ))lane at


.r2

-.

tano(.=

p- -f a-

(.r,

= slia log tan

y, z)

0,

on the curve

+ 2ax=f 2% = + Icz
z'^

-t-

has equation

8.

Shew

that there are three points on the cubic

X = afi -f Zh^f- + ^c^t -^ c?,


z

a4^ -V SKfi + ^rj + d.,,

?/

= a.f -f Zh.f-

-t-

Sc.,?

-t- (^3,

the osculating planes at which pass through the origin, and that they
lie in the plane
.r,

?/,

K K
9. If p, pi, p.j, p3 are the radii of curvature of a curve and its
projections on the coordinate planes, and a., ft, y ai'e the angles that
the tangent makes with the coordinate axes, prove that

sin^g.

sin"/3

sin"y

Pi

pi

pi

sin^g-coso.

sin^/3cos/?

P\

Pi

'y=
=

Pi

0.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

304

fcH. xiv.

10. Prove that at the point of intersection of the surfaces x'^+y^=z^,


z^atAxr^yjx, where y=xidinB, the radius of curvature of the inter-

section IS

<-

^^

r-.

catenary, constant c, is wrapped round a right circular


11.
Shew that
cylinder, radius a, so that its axis lies along a generator.
the osculating plane at a point of the curve so formed cuts the tangent
^cja.
angle
tan
constant
plane to the cylinder at the point at a

(.r

Prove

= acos^,

also that p

?/

= (Xsin^,

= ccosh^.
j

3\'a-

drawn on a right circular cylinder so that its


12.
osculating plane at any point makes a constant angle with the tangent
plane at the point to the cylinder, then when the cylinder is developed
If a curve

is

into a plane, the curve develops into a catenaiy.

the normal at P
13. For the helix prove the following properties
to the cylinder is the principal normal at P to the helix ; the binomial
the locus
at P makes a constant angle with the axis of the cylinder
if P' is
of the centre of circular and spherical curvature is a helix
the cenire of circular curvature at P, P is the centre of circular
curvature at P' for the locus.
:

principal
14. A curve is drawn on a sphere of radius , and the
normal at a point P makes an angle B with the radius of the sphere
to P.

Prove that ^p = acos

^,

-=
(T

^
CIS

OP = shewOP is s^lMp%

If O, P are adjacent points of a curve and the arc


and the arc
that the difference between the chord
powers of s higher than the third being neglected.
15.

16.

OP

5,

Prove that
^

where dashes denote

p*

p-cr-

differentiation with respect to

s.

from any point of a curve equal infinitesimal arcs of length s


distance
are measured along the curve and the circle of curvature, the
extremities is s^i?/6pV.
their
between
17.

If

18.

The

shortest distance between consecutive radii of spherical

curvature divides the radius in the ratio

a'^

P'\jpJ

making a concurve is drawn on the paraboloid x-'+f^2pz


19
Shew that its projection on the plane
stant angle a. with the s-axis.
^=
is given by
j-^^^,
cos-i =

where a=pcoi<i... and

find expressions for its curvature

and

torsion.

EXAMPLES

CHAP. XIV.]

XI.

20. A curve is drawn on a spliere, radius


meridians at the same angle cc. Shew that

any point

305
, so as to

if

cut all the


the latitude of

is

of the curve,

a c os 6

^^
Jl

- sui-d cosV'

a^ tan a.

^ ~ (a" - p^ cos^a.)'

21. A point Q is taken on the binomial at a variable point P of :i


curve of constant torsion l/rr so that PQ is of constant l(n"th c
Shew that the b inomial of the curve traced bj Q makes an'^au'de
tan~'f/3/(r\/c^ + o-- with PQ.

22.

equal to

point moves on a sphere of radius a so that


Prove that at (.>;, t/, z)
longitude.

A curve is

drawn on a right cone so


Shew that the locus
curvature satisfies the same conditions.
23.

latitude

is

8a2-3j2

{^a^-z^f

same

at the

its

its

angle.

as to cut all the generators


of its centres of spherical

24. A curve is drawn on a paraboloid of revolution, latus rectum <%


so as to make an angle 7r/4 with the meridians,
investigate tlie
curvature and torsion at any point in the forms
c2//j2

= tan2</)(l + 3 sin^c/) - sin<<^ - siiic/>),


^ tan-<^(l + 4 sin-'c/) - siii^</) + 4 siii"0 + sin^'c/)),

c^/pV = gin

(j

being the angle which the tangent to the meridian through the
point makes with the axis.
<^

25. The normal plane at any point to the locus of the centres of
circular curvature of any curve bisects the radius of spherical curvature
at the corresponding point of the given curve.

curve is drawn on a light circular cone of semivertical


26.
angle a. so as to cut all the generating lines at an angle /?. The cone
is then developed into a plane.
Shew that

/3o

= sin a.

\/sin2o(.cos-/:?

+ sin7i,

where p, p^ are the radii of curvature at a point


and of the developed curve respectively.

The coordinates

27.

meter

t.

of the original curve

of a point of a curve are functions of a paraline drawn through any point (.r, y, z) of the

Prove that the

curve, with direction-cosines proportional to -^-r, -r^-,

osculating plane at the point


,/ d-t ds\
angle tan- (^p^.^j.
,

and makes with the

-j^,,

lies in

the

principal normal an

28. A curve is drawn on a cylinder of radius a and tlie cylinder is


developed into a plane. If p be the radius of curvature of the curve
and pi the radius of curvature of the developed curve at corresponding

points, -^

curve makes
R.r.

^=

5^,

witli the

where

is

the angle that the tangent to the

generator of the cylindm- throutrh the point.


"

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

306

[ch. xiv.

length equal to the radius of torsion, cr, being marked oflf


29.
along the binomials to a curve of constant torsion, prove that po, the
radius of curvature of the locus so formed,

is

given by

=p^ + 2(r'\

Po

Prove also that the direction-cosines


\/2po/4o-,

30.

Shew

of the

binormal to the locus are

\/2pJ2p.

\/2/)o/4o-,

length c is measured along the principal normals to a curve.


that the radius of curvature, po, of the locus is given by
1
Po'^

j cp'-a-%p-c)
\cV+cr2(p-c)2j

Y ^.cY(^

'^{ca-p'

+ pip-cWf

{cY+a-\p-cff
{c

31. With any point of a curve as vertex is described the right


Shew that its axis
circular cone having closest contact at the point.
lies in the plane containing the binormal and tangent to the curve and
tan~i3o-/4p.
that its semivertical angle is

32. P is a variable point of a given curve and A a fixed point so


point Q is taken on the tangent at P so that
that the arc AP = s.
the tangent at Q to the locus of Q is at right angles to the tangent
Prove that PQ = a-s, where a is an arbitrary
at P to the curve.
Prove also that if Aj, pi, Vy Aj, p.2 v^; A3, pa, Vg are the
constant.
direction-cosines of the tangent, principal normal and binormal to
the locus,

Xy = U, etc.,

Xo=

'

sip'^^

and that

its radii of

cr-

etc;

A3=

'fl

'Jp-

etc.,

(T^

curvature and torsion are


o-{a-s)

(p--^cr-){a-s)

\/pM^2'

p{(rp'-p(T')

'

33. Prove that the radius of curvature, pj, of the locus of the
centres of circular curvature is given by

pHp- + py

Pi

where

p'

'
.

= -j-.

34. "With any point of a curve as vertex is described the paraboloid


Prove that its latus
of revolution having closest contact at the point.
rectum is equal to the diameter of the osculating sphere.

207]

CHAPTER

XV.

ENVELOPES.
207.

Envelope of system of surfaces whose equation


The equation

contains one parameter.

f{x, y, z,

a) =

0,

an arbitrary parameter, can be made to represent the different members of a system of surfaces by

where a

is

assigning different values to

a.

The curve

of intersection

of the surfaces corresponding to the vakies a,

a + ^a,

is

given by
y, z, .)

/(.',

or

= 0,

f{x, y,

z,

a + oa) = 0,

by

that

is,

by
fix, y,

where

is

z, a.)

= 0,

^J{x,

y, z,

a+0Ja) = O,

a proper fraction.

Hence, as

Sol

position given

tends to zero, the curve tends to a limiting

by

/(,7;,i/,0,a)

= O,

This limiting position

is

^f{x,y,z,<^) = 0.
called the characteristic corre-

sponding to the value a. The locus of the characteristics


for all values of a is the envelope of the system of surfaces.
Its ecfuation is obtained by eliminating a between the two
equations

-p.

f{x,y,z, a) = 0,

^/ir,y,z,a) = ().

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

308

Find the envelope

Ex.

on OX.
The equation

of splj^res of constant radius

[ch. xv.

whose centres

lie

to the spheres of the system

is

{x-af+y'^-\-z'- = r'^,

an ai'bitrary parameter and r is constant. The characteristic


corresponding to a = a. is the great circle of the sphere

whex'e a

is

{.v-a.f+y''-

which

lies in

the plane

,r

= a,

/+
208.

Tlce

+ =
-f-

r'^

and the envelope


2-

is

the cylinder

= r2.

envelope touches each surface of the system at

points of the corresponding characteristic.


Consider the surface given by a OL. The equations to

all

the characteristic are


f{x, y,

z,

a) = 0,

fjx,

Tlie equation to the envelope

ing

y, z,

may be

between the equations to the

a) = 0.

obtained

b}^

eliminat-

characteristic,

and this

be effected by solving the equation f^{x, y, z, a) = ()


Thus, we may
for a, and substituting in f{x, y, z,a.)^0.
regard the equation f{x, y, z, a) = 0, where a is a function

may

given by

of X, y, z

f^{:x, y, z,

a) =

The tangent plane

envelope.

at

as the equation to the

(x, y, z)

to the envelope is

therefore

where t is introduced to make the equations /= 0, f^ =


But at any point of the characteristic
homogeneous.
=
equation becomes
above
and
the
0,
f^

if.+nfy+Lfz+tft=o,
which represents the tangent plane at (x, y, z) to the
Hence the envelope and surface have the
surface /=0.
same tangent plane at any point of the characteristic.
At any

point of the characteristic corresponding to a = a,


f^d.r+_fd//+f,dz+fadoL =

and therefore

we have

and .4 = 0,

fjlv + fi,d)/ + f,dz = 0.

But if (.r, ?/, 2) is a singular point on the surface f(.v, i/, z, a.) = 0,
/^=fy= /j=b, and hence tlie characteristic passes througli the singular
The h)cus of the singular points of the surfaces of the system
point.

THE

208-210]
therefore

lies

KlXiK

For

on the envelope.

and the proposition thus

iiny

309

point of the locus the co-

tangent plane to the envelope are

ertieients in tlie e(iu;ition to the

zero,

L'EdUKSSloN

Ub'

all

fails for sueli points.

Consider, for e.xaiuple, the envelope of the right cones of given


seniivertical angle a., whose vertices lie upon OA and whose axes are
parallel to OZ.
The equations to the system and to the envelope are
(x -ay'^+ y- = z^ tan'^ ex.,

y'^= z^ tan- a.

locus of the singular points of the system is OX, and the tangent
planes to the envelope and surfaces are indeterminate at any point of

The

the locus.

209.

The equations to the charand a + (5a. of a are

The edge of regression.

acteristics corresponding to values a.

(/=)...,

(|=o)
=o+Sa

any common point of these characterthe four equations, and therefore satisfy the

The coordinates
istics satisfy

of

equations

(/=)...

where
to

d^

zero,

and
the

0.^

(| = o)

(|(=o)

are proper fractions.

common

points

tend

Hence, as

S<i.

tends

limiting positions

to

given by

(/->-

<-

(|-L;(iL-

These limiting positions for all values of n lie upon a


curve whose equations are obtained by the elimination of <l

between equations

(1).

This locus

is

called the edge of

regression or cuspidal edge of the envelope.

210.
sion.

Each

characteristic touches the edge of regres

We may

consider the e(|ualions

/=0,
where d is a function of x, y,
sent two surfaces who.se curve
regression.
The tangent at
(.>*,

/a
z,

().

given by

/,<

of intersection
y, z) to

= 0,
is

to repre-

the edge of

the edge of regression

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

310

[en. xv.

the line of intersection of the tangent planes to

is

tlie

Its equations are therefore

surfaces.

At any point of the edge of regression we have


= 0, and the above equations become

/a =

0,

faa

which represent the tangent at


fa =

/= 0,
Ex.
that

0,

i.e.

7/'^=xz,

Ex.

curve

xy = z.
2.

A lis.

Find the envelope

ix'-

of the sphere

+ (y - a sin ^)2 + z^ = 61
+ 7/^+z^ + cC- - b'^y = Aa^x"^ +y^)- a cos

^)2

= 0, where a and
= 0, is found by
/=0, <^ = 0, -^ = ^.

The envelope of the surfaces f{x, y,


3.
parameters connected by the equation

eliminating a and b between the equations

Ex.
a, b, c

the

Find the envelope of the plane 3xt'^ -Si/t + z = fi, and shew
edge of regression is the curve of intersection of the surfaces

{x

Ex.

to

z,

y,

1.

its

b are

x,

to a characteristic.

and

nating

z,

a, 6)

b)

(/>(,

The envelope of the surfaces /(^, ;y, z, a, 6, c)=0, where


are parameters connected by the equation <^(, b, c)=0, and
are homogeneous with respect to a, b, c, is found by elimi-

4.

</)

a, b, c

between the equations f=0,


'

<f>

= 0,

'-t^

<Pa

= '-t = 9b

(Pc

Ex. 5. Find the envelope of the plane lx + my + nz = 0, where


Ans. x'^'/a+y'^lb+z^/c=0.
aP + bm^ + cii^ = 0.
Ex. 6. The envelope of the osculating plane of a curve is a ruled
surface which is generated by the tangents to the Qurve, and has the
curve for its edge of regression.
The equation to the osculating plane is 2^3(^-.r)=0, where
characteristic is given by
hi ^''Sj '^3> ^'i y> ^5 ^^^ functions of s.

2^3(^-.r) = 0,

i::ioi$-x)

= 0,

(BVenet's formulae),

which represent a tangent to the curve.


A point on the edge of regression is given by
2?3(^-.r) = 0,

whence ^.v,

'>]=y,

ll.,($-x) = 0,

2^i(^-.r) = 0,

C=z, and the jwints of the edge of regression are

the points of the curve.

Ex. 7. Prove that the envelope of the normal planes drawn


through the generators of the cone a.v'^ + by'^ + cz^ = is given by

J(b-cyJ + b^(c-a)^y^ + (^(a-bfz^ = 0.

ENVELOrES-TWO I'AKAM KTKltS

i5210,211]

Envelope of a system of surfaces whose equation

211.

contains two parameters.

equution

'I'he

f{.r,y,c,<>,h) =

where a and

b are parameters,

may

surfaces corresponding to values

+ Sft

oi

h, is

by
(?a

where

and

= 0,

ft)

and

tlie

(/l

+ oul

of

((,

and

ft,

0.,

ft

+ Sft) + 8ft ^M> ^ + OJ^f^) = 0,

are proper fractions.

curve of intersection
/(a,

of intersection of the

a.,

= 0, /(a + ^rx, /9 + 0/5 = 0,


/K/3) = 0,

^/(a + e.oVx,
0^

also be taken to repre-

given by

/(rx, ft)

or

0,

The curve

sent a system of surfaces.

ft

311

is

If Sft

= \S<jL,

the

given by

^J{<J. + e^S<x,

ft

+ 8ft) + X ^/(a,

limiting position as 8(l and

/(a,^) = 0.

ft

+ 0.8ft) = 0,

tend to zero, by

8ft

^+X| =

0.

But 8aL and ^/3 are independent, so that X can assume


any value, and the limiting position of the curve depends
on the value of X and will be different for different values
of X.
The limiting positions, however, for all values of X
will pass through the points given by
/(a./3) = 0,

1= 1=
0,

0.

and the locus of the


of the system nf
The equation to the envelope is found by cHinisurfaces.
nating a and h between the three equations
These are called

characteristic

characteristic points,

points

M,.,a,;,)=o,

is

the envelope

^My^^^o,

/iJ|^)=o.

Consider for example the system of spheres


whose centres are on the .ry-plane. The equation

of constant mdius
to the systenj is

{x-afH!l-W + z' = r-,


vvhei-e

a and

h are arhitrarj'
P(r^,

/i,

0)

parameters, and

and

P'('x-

+ 3rx.,

/i

is

constant.

+ a/i,

0)

Let

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

312

[ch. xv.

be the centres of two spheres of the system. If tlie ratio Sfi/Six.


remains constant the direction of PP' is fixed. The limiting position
of the curve of intersection of the spheres as P' tends to P along the
line PP' is the great circle of the sphere, centre P, which is at right
angles to PP'. But all the limiting positions pass through the extremities of the diameter through P, whose equations are x cl, y = (i,
and these are the characteristic points. Their locus is the pair of
planes

=A

s-

212. The envelope touches each surface of the system at


the

corresponding characteristic points.

Consider the surface f{x, y,


istic points are given by

The equation
nating

may

(X

and

= 0.

The character-

may be obtained by elimibetween these three equations, and this


by solving f^ = 0, /^ = for a and /3 and

to the envelope

/3

be effected

substituting in

z, a., /3)

/= 0.

Hence,

we may regard

f(x,y,z,oi,^)==0,

and

where

a.

fp = 0,

as the equation to the envelope.

/3

are functions of

x, y, z,

given by /^ = and
The tangent plane

at {x, y, z) to the envelope has therefore the equation


3oc

3^\_

2^(/.+/.

But if {x, y, z) is a characteristic


and the equation becomes

point, /^^

and

/^

= 0,

which represents the tangent plane at {x, y, z) to the


Therefore the envelope and surface have the
surface.
same tangent plane at a characteristic point.
Ex.

1.

Find the envelope

of the plane

^sin (i)-}--cos^ = l
-cos ^sin (i
^ + ysin
^ c
^
a
b

Ex.

where

A )is.

2.

X.

Find the envelope of the plane

and

/x

(/A-A).y

(l-l-A^)y

<x

are parameters.

x^ja^ +jf'llf'

- ,?2/c2 - 1

(1

V> ^ ^

^
'

i^j5

DEVELOPABLE AND SKEW 8LU{KACKS

212,21:3]

;n:J

Ex. 3. Prove that the envelope of the surfaces /(.), y, z, a, />, i') = 0,
where a, b, e are paraineteis connected by the equation (j){a, b, f) = 0, is
found by eliminating , 6, c between the equations

/=0,

</)

= 0,

fa_.h_f.
^b

4>'t

</>c-

I'rove that the envelope of the surfaces /(.>, v/, z, a, b, c, d) = 0,


whore ", /*, c, d are parameters connected by the ecj nation </>((<, />, c, d) = <)
and /' and </> are homogeneous with respect to a, b, r, d, is found by
eliminating a, b, c, d between the equations /=0, (/)=0 and

Ex.

4.

Ex.

5.

<lia

(i) jt>2

Ans.

^b

4>d

4>c

Find the envelope of the plane b; + mi/ + nz=p when

= a-l- + b-m^ +
+ ^Vc^=l,

c^-n^-,

(i) ,i.--/aHy'/6'-^

a-l-

(ii)
(ii)

+ b-m- + 27>p = 0.

xya^+yW = 2z.

Ex. 6. Find the envelope of a plane that forms with the (rectangular) coordinate planes a tetrahedron of constant volunie c^/6.
Ans.

Ex.

27j:>/z

= c^.

A plane makes

7.

intercepts a,

b, c

on the axes, so that

a-^ + b-~ + c~'^ = k-'^.

Shew that it envelopes a conicoid which has the axes as equal


jugate diameters.

i;on-

Ex. 8. From a point P on the conicoid a-.)'^ + b-i/- + c-z-=\,


Find
perpendiculars PL, PM, PN are drawn to the coordinate planes.
the envelope of the plane LMN.

the ellipsoid x-la'^ + )/'ll>- + z-lc' =


tangent
ent plane to tl
Ex. 9.
that the envelope of the sphere
the axes in A, B, C. Shew thai

meets

OABC

is

(ax)^ + ib>/f + {czf = (a-2 +y^ + z'f

RULED SURFACES.
213. Skew surfaces and developable surfaces.
the equations to a straight line

x = az + a.,

11",

in

= hz + ^,

are functions of a single parameter t, we can


eliminate the parameter between the two ecjuations and
thus obtain an equation which represents a surface generated

a, h,

OL,

by the

/3

line as

varies.

The

locus

is

a ruled

sui-face.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

314

The two generators corresponding

[ch. xv.

to values

t,

t-\-St,

of

the parameter have for equations

x 0L _y ^_

a
Therefore,

if

"""'

x oL ooL _y ^ S^ _
a + Sa ~ b + Sb ~

the shortest distance between them,

is

SoiSh

,_

S^Sa

~j8a^+Sb-^ + (a6b-bSaf

But a + Sa = a + a'St + a"

differentiation with respect to

higher powers of
^^

St

...

t.

etc.,

where dashes denote

Therefore,

if

cubes and

are rejected,

^ (oi' b' - 13' a') St + (oi'b" + b'oL" - a'/3" - ^'a") Sty 2


Va'2

+ b'^-(aiy~-a'b)^^(afa'' +

...

'

jSt

Hence d is an infiniteshnal of the same order as St if


a'6'-/3V^O. But if o(.'6'-/3V = 0, then we have also
a.'h"-\-b'a!' a^" l3'a" = 0, and therefore d is at least of
the order of 6'^^. If, therefore, St is so small that Sf^ and
St^ are inappreciable, d = 0, or the two generators are

The

coplanar.

result

may

be stated thus:

if

a'6'-^V = 0,

consecutive generators of the surface intersect, while


Oib' ^'a'=f^0, consecutive generators do not intersect.
consecutive

If

generators

developable surface,

if

intersect

the

they do not intersect,

surface
it

is

is

if

a skew

The name developable arises in this way. If A


B and C, consecutive generators of a surface, intersect, the plane of B and C may be turned about B until it
coincides with the plane of A and B, and thus the whole

surface.

and

B,

be developed into a plane without tearing.


may be so treated, and are
On the other hand the
therefore developable conicoids.
shortest distance between consecutive generators of the
surface

may

Clearly cones and cylinders

same system of a hyperboloid or paraboloid does not vanish,


so that the hyperboloid of one sheet and the

( 114),

hyperbolic paraboloid are skew conicoids.


of Exs. 5 and 7, 206, that the tangents
generate a developable surface and that the principal
normals generate a skew surface.

Ex.

1.

Shew by means

to a curve

213,214]

TANGENT PLANE TO A RULED SUKFACK

Ex. 2. Shew that the line given by


a developable surface.
Ex. 3. Shew that the line
generates a skew surface.

x-

coordinates

the

functions of

The tangent plane

at

u-hz + ^,

{f,

genci'ates

+ (-{:i + 4t-)

We may

any point on i\\v. surface as


and z, given by the ecjuations

i=az + (x,

i/= -2t:

to a ruled surface.

oi"

two variables

= t.v-t-\ z = t'-h/-t^

= 3t-z + '2t(l-3t'^),

The tangent plane

214.
reo-ard

)j

;}!->

z)

^=z.

has for ecjuation

^az (x,

7j-hz-l3,

az+OL,

b'z+(3',

a,

h,

= 0,
1

= 0,
az + (JL,

h'z

+ ^',

0,

0,

(i-a{-a.){h'z + ^')-(^]-h^-^)(az + (x.') =

'"'

(1)

This equation clearly represents a plane passing through


the line

which
If

^^^^^a.,

aS' h'oL=0,

function of

and

is

t,

= h^+^,

or

=
,

-^,

say:
sav,

/i-,

{t, z).

where k

is

some

equation (1) becomes

therefore

involves
is

,j

the generator through the point

is

only,

independent of

and

since

given, the tangent plane

when
is

z.

The equation then

is

given, the generator

the same at

all

points of the

generator.
If

(c'/3'

6'a'=/=0,

the ecjuation (1) contains z and

the plane given by (1) changes position

if t

is

t,

so that

tixed

and

z varies, or the tangent planes are different at different

points of a generator.

Hence the tangent plane to a developable surface is llie


same at all points of a generator the tangent planes to a
skew surface are different at different points of a generator.
Cor. The equation to tlie tangent plane to a developable
;

surface contains only one parameter.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Sie

[ch.

215. The generators of a developable


tangents to a curve. If the equations

x = az + OL,

y = bz-\-l3;

x = {a + aSt)z + 0L+a.'6t,

surface

xv

are

= {b + b'St)z + l3 + ^'St

represent consecutive generators of a developable surface,


their point of intersection

t,

is

given by

These express the coordinates in terms of one parameter


and hence the locus of the points of intersection of con-

secutive generators of a developable

By

differentiation,

we

and therefore the tangent


equations

is

a curve.

obtain

to the curve at (x, y, z) has for

i-^ _^l-y _9.


^=a^az + x = (i.^+a.,

or

which represent the generator through

(a;,

y, z).

216. Envelope of a plane whose equation involves one


parameter. We have seen that the equation to the tangent
plane to a developable involves only one. parameter, ( 214,
We shall now prove a converse, viz., that the
Cor.).
envelope of a plane whose equation involves one parameter
is

a developable surface.

Let

u = a^+bt] + c^+d = 0,
where

a,

b,

c,

are functions of a parameter

equation to the plane.

A characteristic
u = 0, u' = 0,

is

t,

be the

given by

and therefore, since u and u are linear functions of ^,


the characteristics are straight lines and the envelope
ruled surface.

u = 0,

>;,

is

^,

Two consecutive characteristics are given by


u + n'St = 0, u'+n"St = 0;
u' = 0;

PEOPERTIES OF DEVELOPABLES

215,21G]

.-^17

and these clearly lie in the plane u-\-u'Sf = 0, and therefore


nitersect.
Hence the envelope i.s a developable surface.
The edge of regression of the envelope is givi^n by

u = 0,
and hence,

if

(a-,

y, z) is

u = 0,

ti"

= 0,

any point on the edge

ax + bi/ + cz + d = 0,

of regi-ession,

ax + h'y -\-vz-\-d' =

{),

a"x + h"y + c"z -{-d" =

( ]

But the coordinates of any point on the edge


are functions of t.
Therefore, from ( ),

of regression

+ by' + cz = {ax + h'y + cz + d') = 0,


ax" + by" + cz" = + (a"x + b"'y + c"z + d") = 0,
(ix

and

whence we

see that the plane (i^-{-b)]-\-c^+d

point contact at

(;,

the osculating plane.


locus of the tangents

planes

of, its

has three-

with the edge of regression, or is


Thus a developable surface is the

y, z)

to,

or the envelope of the osculating

edge of regression,

Ex. 1. Find the equations to the edge of regression of tlie developable in Ex. 2, 213.
The point of intersection of consecutive generators is given 1)v

and these
Ex,

2.

ecpiations

may be

Find

equations to the developable surfaces wliich liave

tlie

taken to represent the edge of regression.

the following curves for edge of regression


(i)

(li)
(iii)

Am.

(i)

= 3('\
.v=acos9, y = a9,md,
= ^~'i
x = e%
?J
J/

z=2fi;
z

= c6\

z='J2t.

- 9^)2 =
- 2y)(4y2 - ^zx)
= a(cos^-Asin6'),
= (sin ^ + Acos
(.>;2

{x>i

(ii) ,r

x = QL

?/

^),

= c{e + X\

where 6 and A are parameters.

Ex.

y = e-'(l-A),

= sFl{t-^X).

{\n)

x = e\\ + X\

3.

Find the edge of regression of the envelope

of the normal

|)lanes of a curve.

normal plane

is

given by

\l,{i-x) = 0.

And by

Frenct's formulae,

we have

for tlie edge of regression,

COOEDINATE GEOMETEY

318

Multiplying by

li, l^, I3,

[CH. XV.

and adding, we deduce

^ = x+l2p l3,(rp',

and

similarly,

^=z + n.2p-7i^a-p'.

ri=y-{-m2p-m^(rp',

Hence, the edge of regression is the locus of the centres of spherical


rvature.
The envelope is the polar developable, ( 205).

The condition that ^=/(^,

217.

developable surface.

should represent a

>])

If

^=f{i, n) represents a developable


surface, the equation to the tangent plane

Vi+(ln-^=VX + qy-z
Let (p=px + qy z.

involves only one parameter.


if

Then,

the parameter,

is

p=/i(0. q=A[il <I>=m,


and hence, by the elimination of t, we can express ^j and ^
as functions of q.
Now if u and v are functions of 3; and
y the necessary and sufficient condition that u should be a
function of v

is ;:rV^

= 0.*

d{x, y)

Therefore for a developable surface,

Px,

Ptj

qx<

qy

= 0;

that

is,

necessary condition

is

Again,

if rt

may

rt-s^ = 0.

sx + ty

r,

s,

qy

qx,

Therefore,

This

therefore rt s^
.

s^ = 0,

is

a function of

necessary and sufficient condition


*

8,

rx-j-sy,
I

If

r,
[

be proved

follows

is

rt

q.

Hence, the

s^ = 0.

u=f{v),
Uy = Vyf'{v),

and
and therefore

Hence

d(u, v)
,^^

It

is

is

^,

3(-c,

a necessary condition.

2/)

For

also sufficient.

if llxi'y

V.yVx

= ^,

Ux _ih_ Uxdx + Uydy _ du


i-'x

Therefore

di'

the variation of

v,

if

or

Vy ~ Vxdx + Vydy ~ dv

du = 0, and hence the variation


11,

is

a function of

i\

of

u depends only on

EXAMPLES ON RULED SURFACKS

217]

By

considering the value of


Ex.
xyz=d^, xy = {z-cY are developable.
1.

r(

-s-, deleiniino

if

319
f

he s-jifacea

Ex. 2. Shew that a developable can be found to circumscribe two


given surfaces.
The equation to a plane contains three disposable constants, and the
conditions of tangency of the plane and the two .surfaces give two
equations involving the constants. The equation to the plane therefore involves one constant, and the envelope of tlie plane is the
retjuired developable.
Ex. 3. Shew
given curves.
Ex.
j

= 0,

4,

tliat

a developable can be found to pass through

two

Shew

y- = 4rt,t'

that the developable which passes through the curves


.^=0, Tf' = Ahz is the cylinder >/' = 4aj; + 4hz.

Ex. 5. Prove that the edge of regression of the developable that


passes through the parabolas s = 0, j>/- = 4a.r x=0, ()/ a)- = 4az is the
curve of intersection of the surfaces
;

(a +yf = 3(.r +y + z),

Any

plane which touches the

first

\z + my

{a +yf

parabola

if it touches the second, A = ?h/(1 -ni).


a })lane which touches both is

/(!,)

Therefoie the equation to

= am^ - 7n^{a +y) + m (x

6.

Shew

am

'

is

+ z) - x = 0.

dm-

easily obtained.

that two cones pass thi^ough the curves

X'+y- = 4a\
and that

4-,'/

between

and the required result


Ex.

is

x + am^,

and

Eliminate

= 27ah:

= 0; x = 0,

y'^

= 4a(z + a);

their vertices are the points (2a, 0, -2a),

(-2a,

0, - 2a).

that the equation to the developable surface which


passes through the curves

Ex.

7.

Shew

= 0, 4ay = ft2c2.r2; y=:0, 4a^zr^ = hciv


- bc^xf = 4ar-{bzx + caf){c'-y + az%

(a^yz

is

and that
conicoids

its

edge of regression
a22

+ c2y = 0,

is

the curve of intersection of the

a'yz-hc\v=0.

Ex. 8. Shew that the edge of regression of the developable that


x = a, y- = 4az is given by
passes through the parabolas .r=0, z'^=4ay
;

3.?-

.?/_

y ~2~3(a-.7-y
Prove that the edge of regression of the developable that
passes through the circles 2 = 6, x^-iry^ = a^, x=0, y'^-iri- = b\ lies ow the
Ex.

9.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

320

[ch. xv.

Prove that the section by the .tv/-plane of the developable


JtiX. 10.
generated by the tangents to the curve

^2+y2 + ,2^,2^
is

5+6 = 5

given by

Ex. 11. An ellipsoid x^la?+y'^lb'^+z^jc^=\ is surrounded by a


luminous ring ,r = 0, y'^ + z^ = a?. Shew that the boundary of the
shadow cast on the plane z=0 is given by
d^

AjBp

A.2B2,

A3B3 are

of a

skew

AjBp

A2B2, A3B3.

c^

cfi

- c^'

generator

Properties of a

218.
If

li^

of a

skew

surface.

any three consecutive generators

surface, a conicoid can be described through


'J'he

conicoid will be a paraboloid

if

the

generators are parallel to the same plane, as in the case of

any

conoid, otherwise

point on A^B^, the

it

will be a hyperboloid.

two planes through P and

respectively, intersect in a straight line

and A3B3

in

Q and

R,

say.

Now PQR

If

is

any

A^Bj, A3B3

which meets A^B^

meets the conicoid

and therefore is a
Hence the plane of A^B^ and
P to the conicoid. But PQR also

in three ultimately coincident points,

generator of the conicoid.

PQR

is

tangent plane at

meets the surface in three ultimately coincident points,


and therefore is one of the inflexional tangents through
P,

the other being the generator AgBo.

plane of

PQR and

surface at

P.

AgB^

Therefore

can deduce

all

many

skew surface from those

the

also the tangent plane to the

Thus a conicoid can be found

given skew surface at

We

is

to touch a

points of a given generator.


properties of the generators of a
of the generators of the hyper-

For example, it follows from 134, Ex. 10, that


if two skew surfaces have a common generator they touch
at two points of the generator; and from 113, Ex. 1, the
locus of the normals to a skew surface at points of a given
boloid.

generator

is

a hyperbolic paraboloid.

Since the surface and conicoid have three consecutive


generators in common, the shortest distance and angle

55

PKOPERTTES OF SKEW SURFACES

218]

321

botween the given generator and a consecutive generator


same for both. Hence the generator has the same

are the

and parameter of distribution for the surface


and conicoid. Thus it follows that if the tangent planes
at P and P', points of a given generator of a skew surface,
are at right angles, and C is the central point,

central point

CP.CP'= -S^,
where

the parameter of distribution.

o is

The locus of the central points of a system of generators


skew surface is a curve on the surface which is called

of a

line of striction.

which touches the helicoid


l*i'ove that the paraboloid
Ex. 1.
ylx = VAi\zjc at all points of the generator .I'sin d=i/cos 0, z = c$ is

c{.vsmd-^cose) + {z-ce){xcose+//sind) = 0.
Prove also that the parameter of distribution of any generator
and that the line of striction is the 2-axis.
Ex.

2.

Prove that the conicoid which touches the surface

i/^z

is c,

= 4(.'rx

at all points of the generator .v = z, // = 2c is 9/(.v + S-.) = 2c(3.r + z), and


that the normals to the surface at points of the generator lie on the
paraboloid z^ - x- 4c( ?/ - 2c).

Ex. 3. For the cylindroid z{:'J^+>/') = 27n.r>/, prove that the parameter of di.stribution of the generator in the plane . sin (?=// cos ^ is

2m a >^

-20.

= + ., >/ = h: + /3, wlieie a, b, ., /i are


If the line
functions of t, generates a skew surface, the parameter of distribution
for the generator is
-'^')(1 +'' ?>-^)
Ex.

4.

(,^7/
a"-

Ex.

5.

If

the

line

+
+ b"' + {ab'-a'b)-

-''^ JLlI^ =^17

generates
generator

(where

is

^^
da.,

dl,

^^j^^

P + m- + n- = \),

it

a skew surface, the parameter of

distributinu

^^ ^{dr^ + dm^ + d-^).

for

the

COORDINATE GEOMETEY

322

[ch. xv.

are any ^^air of


distance pa^/ip^ + a-) from the curve, and that if P,
to tlie
points on a normal such that the tangent phmes at P and
V'^/(pwhere C is the
cr'-)-,
p
+
surface are at right angles, CP
point of intersection of the normal and the line of striction.
(Apply 206, Exs. 4, 5.)
.

CQ=

Ex, 8. Shew that a given curve


surface generated by its binomials.

the line of striction of the skew

is

x=az + a., 7/=bz + f3


Ex. 9. If the line
generates a skew surface, the ^-coordinate of the point where the line
of striction crosses the generator is
a'cL'{l

Ex.

10.

+ b''")-ab(a'l3' + b'o.') + h'l3Xl+a^)


a"-^ + b"^ + {ab' -a'h)'

For the skew surface generated by the


.v

line

+ 1/t = 3t(l + 1% y + 'izt = f~{Z + 4;;^),

prove that the parameter of distribution of the generator


line of striction is the curve

is

3(1

+ 2^2)2^

and that the

Ex.

11.

If the line

X - fx _ ;/ - ^ _ z-y

~ m

generates a skew surface, the point of intersection of the line of


striction and the generator is
{fx

wliere

Deduce the

Ex.

12.

Ex.

13.

The

Ex.

14.

Shew

y + nr\

P + mr,

+ h;
'2()n?i'

'

- m'n)(nB' - my')

^^tt

2L{mn

m n)-

results of Exs. 7

line of striction
principal circular section.

,.,

and

8.

on a hyperboloid of revolution

is

the

that the distance measured aloiig the generator

x a cos d _y b sin _z
a sin d

b cos 6

of the hyperboloid x^/a^+y^/b^--z'^lc'


section to the line of striction, is

c%a^ -

&^) sin

= l,

from the principal

elliptic

$ cos ^(a^sin^^ + 6^ cos-^ + c^)^

6V-^sin'-^^

+ c%'-^cos-6^ + a-b'^^

Examples XII.
1.

is

.^^-plane.

to

a fixed point on the s-axis and P a variable point on the


Find the envelope of the plane through P at right angles

PO.

is a fixed point on the 2-axis, and a variable plane tlirough


cuts the .r?/-plane in a line AB.
Find the envelope of the plane
through AB at right angles to the plane AOB.

2.

cii.

EXAMPLES XH.

XV.]

323

Find the envelope of a plane that (.uts an ellipsokl in a conic so


3.
that the cone whose vertex is tlic centre of the ellip-soid and whose
l)ase is the conic is of revolution.

Given three spheres Sj, S^, S3, Sj and S^ being fixed and
and with its centre on S,. i'rove that the radical plane
S3 and S2 envelopes a conicoid.

S.j

4.

of

variable

of the squares of its


5. The envelope of a plane sucli that the sum
distances from n given points is constant, is a central conicoid whose
points.
given
of
the
centre
mean
centre is the
6. Prove that the envelope of the polar planes of a given point
with respect to the spheres which touch the axes (rectangular) consists

of four parabolic cylinders.


7. Prove that sections of an ellipsoid which have their centres cm a
given line envelope a parabolic cylinder
8. Any three conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid meet a fixed
Find the envelope
sphere concentric with' the ellipsoid in P, Q, R.
of the plane PQR.

plane meets three intersecting straight lines OX, OY, OZ


Find its
that OA OB and OB DC are constant.
envelope.
9.

in A, B, C, so

sets of three mutually peri)endicnlar


10. Through a fixed point
Prove that the
lines are drawn to meet a given sphere in P, Q, R.
is a conicoid of revolution.
envelope of the plane

PQR

11.

equal
12.

Find the envelope of a plane that cuts three given spheres

Find the envelope of planes which pass through a given point

and cut an

ellipsoid in ellipses of constant area.

13.

14.

Find the envelope of the normal planes to the curve

15.

The tangent planes

Find

a fixed point and P any point on a given circle.


envelope of the plane through P at right angles to PO.
is

.i-;a^+f/b^ + z^jc"- =

the confocals

z-

-A

0-

-A

c-

r"-.

a' +

y-

ft.'/
I

't

b-

+t

f3,

y) to

is

B-),

are the coefficients in the equation in


-'

{<*.,

-A

(no - AB)2 = 4(3B - A2)(3AC -

where A, B,

tlie

,-j

^.2

(('

x^ +;/ +

1,

at the feet of the normals from

envelope a developable surface whose equation

c-

t,

^1
t

The normals from O to one of a .system of confocals meet it in


Q, R P', Q', R'. Jf the plane PQR is fixed and O and the confocal

16.

P,

in

circles.

vary, find the envelope of the plane

PQR'.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

324

[ch. xv.

with respect to the


planes of (^, rj,
17.
confocals to x^ja + 7/'^!b + z^/c = l are the osculating planes of a cubic
curve, and that the general surface of the second degree which passes
through the cubic is

Prove that the

polai^

A(R2-3Q) + /x(RQ-9P) + KQ'-3RP)-0,


where

R = a + b + c-x^-yr]- z(,

P = abc- bcx^ - cayrj -abzC,

Q = bc + ca + ab-{b + c)x^-(c + a)ijy) - (a + b)z(.


regression
18. Shew that the coordinates of a point on the edge of
of the rectifying developable, i.e. the envelope of tlie rectifying plane,
of a curve are given

by
e^.^ +

kiL^,

etc.,

etc,

^(tan^)
where tan^ = /3/o-. Prove also that the direction-cosines of the tangent
and principal normal are proportional to l^p-l^a; etc.; l^p-^-l-^a; etc.,
and that the radii of curvature and torsion are

19.

If the conicoids
.v'jd^

+ fib' + z'lc"' = 1

.v-\a^

+ f'lb^ + z^\c^ = 1

are confocal and a developable is circumscribed to the first along its


curve of intersection with the second, the edge of regression lies on

the cone

20.

a,

,,v2

c^

bi

developable surface passes through the curves

y = 0,
prove that

21.

ai

its

Shew

a-2

= (a. - b){2i - b)

edge of regression

.v

lies

= 0,

f = {a - b){2z - a)

on the cylinder

that the edge of regression of the envelope of the jjlane


<-

.V

1-^-1

a+X b+X c+X


I

is

the cubic curve given


(a +

by

Xf

''-{c-a){b-ay
11.

(b + Xf
__
y~{c-b){a-by

(c

+ Xf

{a-c){b-c)-

Prove that the developable surface that envelopes the sphere

xij^f^z'^c^ and the hyperboloid x'l(v-\-flb--z-jc'=\ meets the


plane y = Q in the conic

EXAMI'LKS

cH. xv.l
23.

-V developable surface
A-.f- -vy"-

is

Xll.

:}i.-.

drawn through the curves

= A-, ^ = c

.f-

+y- =

z=

-,

by the j^lane 2 = is given by


2y = cos a. + A cos ^, where tan . = A tan ^.

shew that

its section

2.>=.sin

fA

+ sin

/:/,

24. If the generator of a skew surface make with the tangent and
principal normal of the line of striction angles whose cosines are A

and

/i,

prove that

25.

by the

^=-,

Prove that the

where p

line of striction

radius of curvature of the

on the skew surface generated

-fi sin Q _

a
cos -

COS

an

tlic

line

X - a cos B

is

is

"'^

line of striction.

elli])se

whose centre

a
cos -

"^^
.sin

the plane 2y + 2 = 0, whose semiaxes are

in
is

sin

^^

0,

j.

a,

' and
,

[CH. X\

CHAPTEK

XVI.

CURVATURE OF SURFACES.
219.

We now

proceed to investigate the curvature at a

point on a given surface of the plane sections of the surface

which pass through the


shall

make

point.

In our investigation

we

use of the properties of the indicatrix defined

in 184.
If the point is

to the surface

origin, the

tangent plane at the

and the normal as

0-axis, the equations

taken as

origin as .ry-plane,

and indicatrix are


2s ==r.v- +
z =--

]i,

2.s''//

+ ('//'+...,

2h^') 'X" + '2sxy + ty^.

Fio. CO.

220.

point.

Let

Curvature of normal sections through an


If rf

be

.s'->0

its centre,

tlie

indicatrix

CA and CB

its

is

an

axes,

elliptic

ellipse, (tig. GO).

and

let

CP

be any

219-221]

NORMAL SKCTlONS

C'L'liVATUKE OF

semidiameter.

Then,

normal section

OCP, p = hi^~, and

if

327

the radius of curvature of the

is

therefore the radii of

curvature of normal sections are proporticnial to the scjuares


of the semidiameters of the indicatrix.
Tlio sections OCB,

OCA, which

liave

the g-reatest and least curvature, are

called the principal sections at

O and

arc

p.,

If p^,

tlie principal radii.

CA = a, CB = 6,

If the

axes

their radii of curvature

are the principal radii, and

^..

/,,

OX and OY

are turned in the plane

OCA, OCB
the indicatrix become

until they lie in the principal sections

the e(|uations to

z=K

or

'"'-h^^2h,
Pi

and the equation

Pi

to the surface is

^ + ....
- + y.

x"-

2^ =

Py,

CP =

XOY

respectively,

P-2

and the normal section OCP makes an anule 6


with the principal section OCA, the coordinates of P are
rcosO, rsinO, h. Hence, since P is on tlie indicatrix,
If

r,

2/t_cos-0

^~
1

,-,

therefore

Pi
cos'f?

whevo
221.

/)

is

Pi

sin-0.
Pi

sin-0
h

P-i

the radius of curvature of

tlie

section

OCP.

Curvature of normal sections through a hyper-

bolic point.

If r^

s'^<0,

the indicatrix

is

a hypcibola,

The inflexional tangents are real and divide the


surface into two portions such that tlie concavities of
normal sections of the two are turned in opposite directions.
If we consider the curvature of a section whose concavity
(tiij.

is

01).

turned towards the positive direction of the c-axis to be

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

3^8
positive,

[CH. XVl.

then the positive radii of cuvvature are proportional

to the squares of semidiameters of the indicatrix


z=

2h=^rx' + 2s.rij + fir,

]i,

and the negative

(A>0),

(1)

radii of curvature are, proportional to the

squares of the semidiameters of the indicatrix

z=- h, - 2h = rx^ + 2sxy + ty-\

The normal

{h>0)

(2)

section of algebraically greatest curvature

passes through the real axis of the indicatrix

normal section of algebraically

least curvature

(1), and the


through the

These indicatrices project


on the a;7/-plane into conjugate hj^perbolas whose common
asymptotes are the inflexional tangents. As in 220, the
sections of greatest and least curvature are the principal
If the axes OX and OY lie in the principal
sections.
real axis of the indicatrix (2).

sections the equations to the indicatrices are

(1),=,,
If

Pv

Pi

%_r
a^

(2)

z=-h,

Ir

measure

a-

the principal radii in

b^

magnitude and

sisfn,

:Lt

and therefore the e(|uations


(1)

h,

- + ^=2/^
Pi

Pi

to the indicatrices are

(2)

-2h

z=-h,
Pi

Pi

and the

NORMAL

C'lTUVATURR OF

221,222]

c(iuation to the

V+
The radius
makes an angle

Pi

curvature
Avitli

329

.suri'ciee is

Pi
oi"

SKCTloN.S

the 5;.r-plane

_cos20

normal

tbo

oi"

section

that

given by

is

sin-0
P2

Pi

Curvature of normal sections through a paraIf rt n- = {), the indicatrix consists ol" two
bolic point.
The intlexional tangents
parallel straight lines, (tig. ()2).
222.

coincide,

and the normal section which contains them has


The normal section at right angles to

curvature zero.

its

section of zero curvature has


These two sections are the principal
tlie

OY

in

lie

the principal

indicatrix are

where

((

= CA.

The

sections,

sections.

the

= h,

2h=

equations

radius p^

2z=

^;
Pi

is

the

given by

+....
Pi

OOP which

with the principal section OCA,

to

and surface are

If p is the radius of curvature of the section

makes an angle

OX and

= Lt ^-^.

C(iuations to the indiealrix

curvature.
If

= (i',

tinite principal

P\

Hence the

Qr

maximum

^cofO
Pi

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

asO

[cii.xvi.

If r = t and s = 0, the indicatrix is a


and the principal sections are indeterminate, since all
normal sections have the same curvature. Points at which

223. Umbilics.

circle

the indicatrix

circular are umbilics,

is

The curvature of an oblique section. The rebetween the curvatures oi' a normal section and an
oblique section through the same tangent line is stated in
Meunier's Theorem: // p^ and p are ilie radii of curvature
224.

lation

of a normal section and an oblique section ilLrough


same tangent, p = Po cos 9, where 6 is the angle between

the
the

sections.
If the

tangent plane at the point

is

taken as

;ri/-plane,

common tangent

the normal as 2:axis, and the

to

the

sections as a?-axis, the equations to the indicatrix are


z

and, (see

= h,

^i^r.c' + ^sxy + tf,

fig. 60),

CA'

The equations

to

QQ' are
y

= h tan 0,

and where QQ' meets the


2/i

But

li,

surface,

= roc^ + 2sxli tan + tli^ tan^ 0.

is
X and y are small quantities of the first order,
of the second order, and therefore to our degree of approxi2h
and
mation, lix and /r may be rejected. Hence QV^ =
if

/;

P=

^^t

QV- _ ^
.-= Lt

2ov~

2A/r
= cos
2/^^^(9' Po

^,-^

0.

The following proof of Meunier's theorem is due to Besant.


Let OT 1)6 the common tangent to the sections and consider the
sphere which touches OT at O and passes through an adjacent and
ultimately coincident point on each section.
The planes of the
sections cut the sphere in circles which are the circles of curvature
at O of the sections.
The circle in the plane containing the normal
If Cq
is a great circle, and the other is a small circle of the sphere.
is the centre of the great circle and C of the small circle, tlie triangle
COCo is right angled at C, and the angle COCo is the angle between
the planes.

Hence the theorem

ininiediately follows.

55

PvADlUS OF CfJRVATURK

223-225]

;}:}1

Expression for radius of curvature of a given


any point of a surface, i^d OT, the
tangent to a given section of a suri'ace through a given
Let the
point O on it, have direction-cosines l-^, m^, v^.
normal to OT -wliich hes in the plane of the section liave
225.

section through

direction-cosines

lu.,,

I.-,,

Then, since the direction-

ii.-,-

cosines of the normal to the suri'ace are

s/i -\-p'-{- 7-'


tlie

0,

normal section through OT,


cosO-

But

given by

is

pU qm^ + n^

pl^-\-qm^

therefore,

by Frenet's formulae,

pl2

dn

'dp

ds

dx ds

dx

dq

dq dx

ds

dx ds

= 0,

When

since

d}j

ds

dq
dy

di/

'

ds

,70,07

-=5
p

= 0]

'i'i<^

3 dv

+ qm.-,-n.y

or

Cor.

J I +'p' + (f

+p^ + q'

s/l

angle between the plane of the section and the

-n

L.

Vl-f^'-^+g^

p becomes

p^,

and Meunier's tlieorem

immediately follows.
Ex.

1.

Find the

priiicip;il radii

2z = 5.r-

at the origin of the paraboloid

+ 4x^ + 2j/-.

Find also tbe radius of cin-vature of the section

Ex.

2.

2z--=7x^

principal sections arc


3.

Ans.

1,

f^.

and that

tlie

+ 6x>/-jif,

prove that the principal radii at the origin are

Ex.

.i-=,y.

For the h\'perbolic paraboloid

If

/),

p'

normal sections at

^^^3^^

and -

?.,

3x=-^/.

are the radii of cnrvature of any

a point of a surface,

is

two perpendicular

constant.

COOriDINATE GEOMETRY

332

Ex.

4.

Prove that at the origin the radius

section of the surface

{r-

Ex.

5.

The

of curvature of the

^ 2,^ jv/ + hp- = 2s.


^.r + TOy + s = 0,

^^ ,.2

by the plane
is

[ch. xvi.

+ m'^f-{am'^-^hhn-\-hl'