MACMILLAN AND
LONDON
CO., Limited
BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE
MADRAS
DALLAS
THE MACMILLAN
BOSTON CHICAGO
SAN FRAN'CISCO
CO. OF
TORONTO
CANADA, Ltd
AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON
COORDmATE GEOMETRY
OF THREE DIMENSIONS
BY
ROBERT
J.
T.
BELL, M.A.,
D.Sc.
MACMILLAN AND
ST.
CO, LIMITED
Vk
COPYRIGHT
First Edition 1910.
Second Edition
PRINTED
IN (JREAT BRITAIN
PREFACE
The
lie
in the direction of
furnish
when
line,
and the
conicoids.
his
It is also
intended to
of reference
same time
it is
At the
chapters contain a
first
first
ten
all
sections
30387
PREBACE
vi
him
to
some extent
familiar.
My
am
am aware
of,
are
followed in the
to the
interest
Glasgow, September,
1910.
ot*
the book.
One
R
June, 1912
in
J. T. B.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
t^
AKT.
1.
Seguieuts
2.
3.
Cartesian coordinates
4.
5.
Cylindrical coordinates
6.
Polar coordinates
7.
Change
8.
9.
The equation
of origin
rati
to a surface
10.
The equations
11.
Surfaces of revolution
to a curve
CHAPTER n
PROJECTIONS.
DIRECTIONCOSINES.
DIRECTION
RATIOS
12.
13.
The
projection of a segment
lines
15
15
14.
15.
The
16.
17.
its
projection
17
18.
its
projection
18
its
projection
15
16
17
CONTENTS
&RT.
19,
between
Relation
areas
of
and
curve
closed
its
projection
20,
Directioncosines
The
23.
definition
21, 22.
angle
between
two
lines
with
given
direction
given
direction
cosines
24.
25. 26.
The angle
27.
between
two
with
.......
cosines
Direction ratios
lines
31.
32.
lines
CHAPTER
III
Forms
34, 35.
to a plane
36.
37.
The distance
of a point
38.
The planes
bisecting
39.
The equations
40.
41.
The
line
42.
The
dii^ectionratios
43.
44.
45.
The
46.
from a plane
the
32
33
35
two giver
between
angles
34
planes
37
to a straight line
'
42
43

47
53
47.
48.
lines
49.
The
two given
54
should be coplanai

51.
The volume
56
57
lines
50.
of a tetrahedron
40
40
straight line
38
38
...

lines
61
84
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
IV
CHANGE OF AXES
ART.
I'AliK
5'2.
Formulae
53.
IJclations
54.
55.
Formulae
between the
perpendicular lines
69
by a given plane
ExAJirLKS
08
72
75
76
I.
CHAPTER V
THE SPHERE
......
56.
The
57.
58.
The
ecjuation to a sphere
radical plane of
EXAMI'LES
two spheres
81
82
83
85
II.
CHAPTER
Vf
THE CONE
..,..
88
90
59.
The equation
60.
61.
The condition
62.
63.
The equation
to a cone
lines in
of tangency of a plane
and cone
cular generators
Examples
92
92
to a cone
93
95
III.
CHAPTER Vn
THE CENTRAL CONICOIDS. THE
THE PARABOLOIDS
64.
The equation
6").
CONE,
to a central conicoid
99

on.
67.
101
102
102
CONTENTS
xii
PAfiK
ART.
68.
69.
70.
Polar lines
71.
72.
73.
74.
110
75.
The normals
...
76.
77.
78.
79.
The equation
104
105
107
108
Diameters
82.
Tangent planes
83.
Diametral planes
84.
The normals
112
114
119
123
124
124
125
126
127

111
122
80.
parallel chords
to a paraboloid
81.
Examples IV.
108
=
103
CHAPTER
VIII
86.
Axes
87.
Axes
of
88.
Axes
of a section of a paraboloid
89.
The determination
90.
91.
Any two
92.
93.
any section
of a central conicoid

of circular sections
circular sections
131
131
134
137
138
138
lie
on
139
a sphere
.
139
140
94.
142
95.
Umbilics
143
Examples V.
144
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
IX
GENERATING LINES
PAi:E
ftHT.
148
96.
Euled surfaces
97.
The
98.
Line meeting
99.
section of a surface
150
by a tangent plane
102
generator
152
154
of generators of a hyperboloid
100.
System
101.
155
ion.
155
103.
104.
The
105.
Along a generator
106.
The systems
107.
163
108.
163
109.
The equation
163
165
inter.sect
15G
tors
projections of generators
The
110,111.
fc*
</)
is
...
...
constant
to the conicoid
112.
The equation
113.
114.
The
to a hyperboloid
when generators
15G

158
161
are co
166
ordinate axes
167
....
Examples VI.
169
172
CHAPTER X
CONFOCAL CONICOIDS
115.
The equations
116.
The three
117.
Elliptic coordinates
118.
119.
The
120.
The
121.
The parameters
of confocal conicoids
...<..
....
....
.
176
17G
178
179
179
180
central conicoid
181
CONTENTS
xiv
PAGE
ART.
122.
123.
The normals
124.
The
12.5.
The axes
confocals
181
to the three confocals through a point
self polar
of
tetrahedron
an enveloping cone
The equation
to
The equation
to the conicoid
128.
Corresponding points
129.
The
foci of a conicoid
130.
The
foci of
183
183

an enveloping cone
126.
127.
1S2
184
184
186
187
189
Examples Vll.
193
CHAPTER XI
THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE
131.
Introductory
132.
....
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
The
139.
140.
The
141.
142.
Principal planes
when one
root
143.
Principal planes
when two
144.
The
145.
T\ieinctorsoi(abcf(/h)(.vi/zy\(.v+//'^+Z')
146.
147.
The
principal directions
148.
The
149.
The
principal directions

203
203
204
204
is
ha.s
two zeroroots
zero
206
206
207
212
212
208
when
209
210
.,.,.,.,.
The transformation
202
The centres
201
principal planes
151.
197
198

150.
196
196
of (a?x'/(7/0(.y'A:)2
212
214
215
CONTENTS
XV
ART.
l'A<^K
"
152.
The
153.
The
central phines
154.
The
LHiuation
2216
when the
origin
is
at a centre
217
155161.
21G
162.
Conicoids of revolution
163.
Invariants
219
228
......
231
EXAMPLE.S VIII.
CHAPTER
233
XII
165.
Conicoids with a
of intersection of
common
common
two conicoids
generator
...
....
166.
Conicoids with
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
Circumscribing conicoids
conicoid
generators
intersection of
common
two conicoids
245
248
248
249
173.
The polar
174.
251
system
...
Examples IX.
CHAPTER
CONOIDS.
252
253
257
XIII
Definition of a conoid
176.
Equation to a conoid
177.
The degree
251

SURFACES IN CENERAL
175.
78.
241
246
plane sections
172.
238
239
of a surface
179.
180.
The
...

)lancs
inrtexional tansjents
..
257
259
260
261
261
CONTENTS
xvi
PACE
181.
182.
Singular points
263
183.
265
y)
The anchorring
266
185.
The
267
indicatrix
Parametric equations
..
ExAMPLiiS X.
270
271
273
CHAPTER XIV
CURVES IN SPACE
186.
The equations
187.
The tangent
188.
The
189.
190.
191. 192.
to a curve
275
....
....
275
277
......
279
193.
The
194.
Curvature
principal normal
195.
Torsion
196.
The
197.
Frenet's formulae
The
and binomial
spherical indicatrices
198.
..
'
278
282
284
......
and torsion
277
284
285
285
288
199.
The radius
200.
The
201.
The radius
202.
291
203.
The
292
of curvature
directioncosines
288
of
tlie
principal
normal
and
binormal
289
289
of torsion
circle of
curvature
....
..
.....
204.
205.
206.
Examples
XL
'
292
298
301
303
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XV
ENVELOPES. RULED SURFACES
AWT.
one
PACE
207.
Envelopes
208.
209.
The edge
210.
parameter
307
of regression
two
308
309
211.
Envelopes
212.
309
312
315
parameters
311
213.
214.
215.
The generators
31G
216.
316
217.
218.
313
to a ruled surface
Examples XIL
318
320
322
CHAPTER XVI
CURVATURE OF SURFACES
219.
Introductory
220.
326
221.
327
222.
329
223.
Umbilics
224.
330
331
326
elliptic
point
330
Meunier's
theorem
225.
The radius
226.
The
227.
Lines of curvature
228.
229.
230.
The
231.
principal
normals
iadii
to
at a point of an ellipsoid
332
333
surface
at
points
of
333
line
333
of
curvature
334

335
CONTENTS
xviii
ART.
232.
PAGE
Determination
of
principal
tlie
radii
...
and
curvature
233.
Determination of umbilics
234.
Triplyorthogonal systems,
lines
of
342
Dupin's
theorem
344
346
347
349
235.
236.
The measure
of curvature
237.
The measure
of curvature
238.
Curvilinear coordinates
239.
240.
The
linear element
241.
The
principal radii
337
346
is
l/pip.2
348
350
and
lines of curvature
Examples XIII.
350
354
CHAPTER XVII
ASYMPTOTIC LINES GEODESICS
242.
Asymptotic
243.
The
244.
245.
246.
Geodesies
247.
248.
The
249.
lines
differential equation of
358
asymptotic lines

358
359
359
362
363
363
365
367
.=.
370
250.
Geodesies on conicoids
251.
252.
Geodesic curvature
253.
Geodesic torsion
373
Examples XIV.
375
torsion of a geodesic
Miscellaneous Examples
INDEX
369
378
,
391
CHAP'IEK
1.
line
If
A,
B,
C,
...
N,
is
is
that of
is
made
that a segment of
OX
or OX', then
we have
the following
relations
.i\,
..,
OA and OB
any
positive
OA = ii:^L, OB = a\,L,
and
or the measure of
AB = (a'.3.\)L,
x^
AB is
.r.,
Coordinates.
Let
(tig. 1),
E.G.
is
known when
the segments
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
[CH.
I.
OA, OB,
OC
are given
struction for P
The point O
parallel to
of
YOZ,
OB and OC
is
P, {x, y, z) is
used to
are x, y,
z."
the measures
are the y
Octant
3,4]
It
is
generally
most convenient
to
SIsetch
1.
ill
(H, 0, 3),
5),
choose
mutually
" oblicjue."
(2,1,
(4,2,
tlie
points
0), (0, 0,
6).
is 3,
(ii)
Ex.
(i) ,r
iiwA
What
3.
= and
j/ = h'l
ij
the locus of a
is
(ii)
])()int
x = a and ^ =
(iii)
if
OC
made
convention
that given
by XYX'Y', that
is,
is
in the plane
counterclockwise,
XOY
if
the
Hence
amj
to fix the
plane,
we
normcd
to
Applying
positive
rule
this
to
directions of
positive
the
plane
direction of rotcdion
is
counterclockwise.
YOZ,
ZOX
The
considering that
ABC
OZ
plane
meets the axes OX, OY,
Ex.
in A, B, C, and
is the normal from O.
If
is chosen as the positive direction
of the normal, and a point P moves round the perimeter of the
triangle
in the directicui ABC, what is the sign of the direction
when OA, OB,
of rotation of
are (i) all positive, (ii) one
negative, (iii) two negative, (iv) all negative?
ON
ON
ABC
NP
CO
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Cylindrical coordinates.
5.
is
If
x'ox,
[CH.
y'oy,
of these (quantities, u, 0,
The
of P.
are
z'oz,
I.
is
determined
The measures
z,
XOY
lias
are
x, y, 0.
If
we
P are
In the
x, y, z,
figure,
those of N
x, y,
and the
polar, u,
(j>.
Therefore
x = u cos
6.
y = u sin
Polar coordinates.
plane OZPN,
of
0,
0,
then
(fig. 2),
= yjx.
we may
direction of the
i^5,6]
oL'
OP and
.ZOP.
coordinates of
P.
ray ori<^inally
tlie
given angle
In the figure,
6.
OM
and
r, 6, <p
are
all positive.
we
and ON
If
OZPN and OZ
coordinates
u,
z,
Therefore
r, 0.
But
if
(.x,
i/
r
= X + 2/^ + 2
tan Q =
^
tan
1.
Draw
is
figures
(^.I'l> ^T>>(^')What
Ex.
2.
so that r
where tan"i,
4, 5), (
2, 1,
 2),
be positive.
tan'l),
',
tan"'^:^
(.3,
+ tani^,  + tani2),
3
3.
(^I't)
may
(5V2,
Ans.
Ex.
= .
(/>
Cor.
Shew
(1,
2,
3)
from the
Ex. 4. Find (i) the Cartesian, (ii) the cylindrical, (iii) the polar
equation of the sphere whose centre is the origin and radius 4.
(i)
/Ih.s.
.r+,?/^
+ 22 = 16,
(ii)
u'^
+ z^=l(i,
(iii)
r=
4.
Ex.
5.
Ans.
Find
([)
(i)
$ = a,
{n)u = ztiiuu,
(iii) .>;'^+y
= 3tana.
Ex.
Ans.
6.
Find
(i)
(i)
u = a,
{u) .v+/r =
a'\
(iii)
r sin
^ = .
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
[en.
Ex. 7. Find (i) the polar, (ii) the Cartesian equation to the
through OZ which makes an angle a with the plane ZOX.
Ans.
7.
(i)
Change
be
(ii) .?/=.r
tan
(^,
set.
NM
is
])lane
a.
= a,
{x, y, z)
second
<^
of origin.
1.
?/,
a,
^)
h,
let
ol'cool,
fi'w^,
any point P
referred to the
referred
c,
to
OLcoh in
OL = OM + ML = OM + a)H,
Then
x = a + ^.
therefore
Ex.
1.
y=h+
= y b, ^=z c.
Similarly,
^=x a,
whence
i]
)],
= c + ^;
to par, illel
axes through
Ex. 2. Find the distance between P, {x^, y^, z^) and Q, {.v^, y^
the axes being rectangular.
Change the origin to P, and the coordinates of Q become x^y<iyx, z^z^; and the distance is given by
{{x^x,)'^Hy,ihYHHH^'YEx. 3. The axes are rectangular and A, B are the points (3, A r.),
(1, 3, 7). A variable point P has coordinates .r, ?/, z. Find the
equations satisfied by .r, y, z, if (i)PA = PB, (ii) PA2+PB2 = 2F,
,
PAPB^ = 2F.
Am. (i) 8,^ + 2^ + 242 + 9 = 0,
(iii)
(ii)
(iii)
2.7;2
8,r
2/(2
CHANGE OF ORIGIN
7,8]
Ex.
4.
1,
U),
Ans.
whose centre
to the sphere
{\, 1, 2).
is (0, 1,
Ans. x+y[z^'i)/ +
'Zz
1)
'2.
Ex.
6.
Trove
that
OY
8.
join,
represents
7.
To find
of
and
Q, (x^,
?/.,,
Zo)
X:l.
Let
Pj Q>
R,
{.v,
y, z),
(%.
R; parallel to
be
4),
tlie
point,
and
lot
planes through
OX
in
P',
Q',
R'.
x x.
^
x^x^
Similarly,
PQ' = PR PQ = X A +
:
X
X+1
= rrr,
and
x=
^"Y+T' ^
if
negative, R
Cor.
is
If
is
Therefore
..^
X + T1
X+1
1.
\x^\x,
positive,
all
real values of X,
lies
between P and
The midpoint
of
PQ
is
(^^',
'^^^~, '4^).
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.
(2,
1,
 3,
 5)
1), (3, 4,
2.
(I
Given that
3,
.4
P, (3, 2,
i.
in the ratios
^"(MD^
Ex.
[en.
4)
<^.
Q,
3,
2.
.")
6)
(5, 4,
divides PR.
coUinear, find the ratio in which
found by considering tlie ^.coordinates only ?
R, (9,
Why can
8, 10) are
the ratio be
Ans. 1 2.
:
Ex.
3.
A,
(.i'l,
?/i,
?,)
'
'
C,
ABC, prove
:
1.
Ex.
Shew
5.
Ex.
(Ex.
6.
3),
Ex.
The centres
ABCD,
AB'C'D',
coincide.
7.
Find the
ratios in
 2,
4, 7), (3,
Ex. 8. Find the ratios in vi'hich the sphere A^Tf ?/+2;2 = 504 divides
the line joining the jDoints (12,  4, 8), (27, 9, 18).' Ans. 2:3, 2:3.
Ex.
9.
joining A,
that
(2,
1,4);
B,
(5, 5, 5)
in the points
P and
AP:PB=AQ:QB = 1:2.
Ex. 10. A is the point (2, 2, 3) and B the point (13, 3, 13).
Prove that the locus of P is
point P moves so that 3PA = 2PB.
the sphere given by
x'^^y
and
2'
+ 28,r 
2y + 10^  247 = 0,
AB
internally
and externally
in
Ex. 11. From the point (1, 2,3) lines ai'o drawn to meet the
sphere ./'+ //!.: = 4, and they arc divided in the ratio 2:3.
Prove
that the ])(>ints of section lie on the sphere
'
n.,'
+ 5vHnC,r + 12y18+22 = 0.
EQUATION TO A
TllH
5^9]
The
locu.s
the equation x
/(a;)
whose
of all points
to a constant a,
;t;coorcli nates
are ecjual
is
a.
has roots
.SUllFxU'K
equivalent to the
...
YOZ.
Similarly, /(/y) =
parallel to
0,
ZOX, XOY.
f(z) =
if
polar coordinates
This equation
is
satisfied
Let
Xq,
P,
7/0,
(tig.
0.
")),
any point
Draw tinough P
of the curve,
have coordinates
let
be
//)
PQ
().
is
any point
equation
is
of
and
But
drawn
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
10
to
parallel
OZ through
represent cylinders
f{y, 0) = O, f{z, a;) =
parallels to OX and OY respectively.
Ex. What surfaces are represented by
the axes being rectangular ?
Two
tion is/(x, y)
and hence
(i)
(i)
Similarly,
by
generated
x'^+y^ = a'^^
!.
{\\) i/"
= 4(u\
The curve
Ex.
LCH.
"
What
"
are f(x, y) =
(),z
= 0.
x'^+f = d",
= 0;
(ii) x"
+f = d",z = b;
(iii) z^
= 4ax,
y=^G%
f(x,y,^) = o
Consider
now
is
the equation
/(., y, c)
represents, as
we have
= 0.
I'he equation
THE
^D]
A SURFACE
K(,)UATI0N TO
where f{x,
at all points
is satisfied
simultaneously
satisfied,
y, k)
parallel to
The two
common
at all points
i.e.
11
/(cc, y, s)
= 0,
OZ which
ecjuations f(x, y,
Jc)
= 0,
all
from
real values
surface.
The coordinates
6).
+oo be given
to
k,
is
If,
the
now,
the curve
value of
lines
= 0,
by
to the
and hence
k, f{x, y,
k)
= 0,
= 0,
(x^,
some
z^
y.^,
whose coordinates
satisfy f{x, y, z)
is
whose coordinates
z)
=Q
represents
of a variable point
Ex.
1.
The
section
.r2/a2 \)fi'h'^
+ z'^jc^ = 1
The
is
/(,''
iiuaij;iuary if />f,
therefore generated
and whose centre
the plane z= c to
XOY
XOY
iflh'^=\, and
Tlie surface is the
xlcfi
Ex.
2.
What
to rectangular axes,
(i) .r2
Ex.
3.
'
(i)
(ii)
?/2
+ 22 = a2^
(ii) ,r2
+ ?/ = 2as?
a
h'
The hyperboloid
The hy})eiboloid
c
'
of
a'
''
of one sheet
b
(fig. 30).
two sheets
(lig. 31).
c^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
12
Ex.
What
4.
(i)
loci
m
A
are represented by
f{n) = 0,
(iv)
[ch.
(ii)
^) = 0,
J\z)
= 0,
= 0,
(iii)
f{r, 6)
= 0,
a system of planes
generated by rotating
parallel to
whose polar equation is /(r, 0) = about
the curve in the plane
(v) a surface generated
the 2axis (iv) a cone whose vertex is at O
by circles whose planes pass through OZ and whose dimensions vary
(vi) a cylinder whose generators are
as the planes rotate about OZ
is the curve
parallel to OZ, and whose section by the plane z =
Ans.
system
(i)
XOY
(ii)
ZOX
f{u,
c^)
10.
= 0.
The equations
f^{x, y, s)
section of
f.,{x, y, z)
= 0,
to
f.2{x, y, z)
a curve.
=Q
= 0.
If
we
by
f^{x, y, z)
and
variables,
z,
ZOX
z
= a{ax).
(f>{x,
SUIJFAC'KS
10,11
surfaces.
cylinder which
tlie
projects
Ex.
{\)
.,2
If the
1.
Find
2.
13
y)
^(.',
represents
orthogonal ly the
curve
of
to the
(MU;iti()ns
= 0, s 0.
axes are
x~ + f = u:\ s = /;2;
= 62, (2>62)V
Ex.
OF IJKVOIA'TIOX
rectaii,ii;ul;ir,
(ii) .r'+y^
whut
+ .;^,
'//
= iaz;
(iii)
by
= ,
.'+//
tlie
to
surfaces represented
A ns.
1 1
= 0,
3.r2
Let
Surfaces of revolution.
11.
p.((),y^,z^),
equation
is
j\y, z)
= 0.
The
revolution.
scoordinate of
of
P from the
by
(1),
8),
(1)
OZ
produces a surface
(fig.
^yhose Cartesian
Then
/(2/i,^i)
of
YOZ
is
always equal to
surface,
ii,
y^.
z^,
the
the distance
'J'herefore,
f{u, z) =
Q.
But P is any point on the curve, or surface,
and therefore the' cylindrical equation to the surface is
Hence the Cartesian equation to the surface
f{u, z) = 0.
''i^f{sl^if+y\z) =
0.
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
14
Jz'^
+ X',
it
tlie
point
follows as before
{.v,
tliat
[ch.
from the
y, z)
i.
^/axis
whose axis
is
OX.
Ex.
= 0,
3.
about
its
Ex.
line z
=1,
b^
'
a^n^
+'/7,
= l.
b^
4.
0,y = 2x
Ans.
Ex.
Find the equation to the surface generated by the revolu+ 2ax+=0, 2 = 0, about the //axis.
5.
Ans. (x^
+f + + 62)2 = 4^2
Ex.
6.
(i)
z^
(^2
(f + z^)(2ax) = A3,
+ ^2).
(ii) r^
= a^ cos 2 6,
(iii) ^l?
= 2cz.
The
OX
OZ
of revolution
y2
j^+'h
2
2
= ^
of a point, the
0, 0) is
sum
of
constant, {2k\
whose distances
is
the ellipsoid
1114J
CHAPTER
IL
PROJECTIONS.
The angle that a oiveu
12.
OX we
OP makes with
directed line
XOP from
fioures
the position
The
sign of
is
angle that
13.
OX
the angle
OP makes
witli
OX.
Projection of a segment.
// ab
i.v
a given segment
and
A', B'
are
tJte
feet
segment AB on X'X.
From
is
B'a',
ditier
the definition
it
BA
AB and BA
of
only in sign.
A and B normal
made on X'X by
to X'X,
and hence
the
If AB
is
line
MN
ivith
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
16
AB
cos
projection of
tJie
is
to
12,
AB
is
positive, in figures 13
and
14,
negative.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 14.
Draw OQ from O
positive, cut off
the projection of
AB = the
= OP
= AB
// AB
is negative,
BA
is
(the
If A,
B, C,
...
AB
is
then
projection of OP,
.
cos
d,
cos
6.
of cosine),
and therefore
BA = BA cos 6,
.
= AB cos 6,
AB = AB cos d.
projection of AB)
the projection of
i.e.
//"
;
positive,
the projection of
i.e.
15.
is eqrial
II
0.
In figures 11 and
AB
[CH.
AB on X'X
M, N are
any n points in
space,
tlie
sum. of the 2^rojections of AB, BO, ... MN, on any given line
X'X is equal to the projection of the straight line AN on X'x.
Let the feet of the perpendiculars from A, B, ... M, N, to
X'X be A', B',
M', N'.
Then, (i^ 2),
.
a'b'+b'c'+...m'n' = a'n',
which proves the proposition.
rRO.TE(TT()N
1^14171
OF A CLOSED FIOURE
16.
17
take to be
shall
17.
= C()sO ABC,
AA'B'C'
then.
planes ABC,
C on
(/I
(rliere
th*;
//
other.
the
pro
is
A'B'C'.
If the planes
(i)
AA'b'C' = cos0
(ii)
If
a ABC
is
parallel, the
equation
obviously true.
triano^le
phmc
throu<^h
15).
Draw
(fio.
Then BC
i.s
parallel to
is
BC
A.^D
parallel
at right
at right angles to
equal to
6,
or its supplement.
AA'B'C'^AA.BC,
But
and
is
ABC and
!
These
P.G.
parallel
parallel to
A, say, will
cut the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
18
[cii. II.
the given
to
parallel
AA'B'C' = cos0
A'b'C',
and hence, by
(ii),
AABC
see that
if
cos
is
and
to figures 16
17,
we
ABC,
A'B'C'
is
negative.
A ABC
is
B',
//
A,
B,
then
C,
area A'B'C'
'points and
any given plane,
...
N'
area ABC
...
= cos 0,
N,
and O' be
its
A ONA,
A O'N'A'.
N' = a O'A'B' + A O'B'C' +
area A'B'C'
and
But ao'a'b' = cosO AGAB, etc., and therefore the result
follows.
. .
DI RECTION COSIN ES
^1721]
19
areas
is
cos
?ifon,
and,
by
18,
6.
that
in a constant ratio to the corresponding ordinate of the circle
is, the projection is an ellipse whose major axis is AA' and whose
The minor axis is
auxiliary circle is equal to the given circle.
cos^. AA'; therefore if AA' = 2a and cosd = b/a, the minor axis is2ft.
By 19, the area of the ellipse = cos 0. ira? = Trab.
;
Ex. 2. Find the area of the section of the cylinder 16.r + 9// = 144
Ans. Mir,
by a plane whose normal makes an angle of 60 with OZ.
DIRECTIONCOSINES.
20. If a, /3, y are the angles thata given directed line
makes with the positive directions X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ of the
/3,
cos
of the lin3.
AZ
A2
Let
P,
(,/',
y, s)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
20
is
%.
In
r.
Draw PN
negative.
18,
is
[cii. ii.
positive
in
fig. 19,
on OP, we obtain
But
a;/r
(2)
2;
2/
a;
(3)
This
is
Cor.
we
By
1.
cos
oc,
/3,
cos
in (2) or (8),
6, Cor.).
Cor.
3.
Prove that
sin'rxlsin2^
+ sin2y = 2.
Ex.
2.
If
is
The projection
of
OP = projn.
of OMprojn. of
+ projn.
of
OP
MN
NP,
3.
If P,
projection of
PQ
on a
line
?/.,>
^2)' pi'^^'*?
?i(,y2.ri)f?Wi(?/22/i)
+ iC52i)
2.)
I^,
m^,
^^at the
'>iy
is
DIRECTIONCOSINES
^^21,22]
Ex.
The
4.
21
What
is
Ans.
7.
Ex.
5.
b, c,
'/,
ABC
AOBC
A = y>r,
and
A ABC
siinilarly,
A=i
+ ca^ + a^b'^}K
Ex. 6. Find the areas of the projections of the cnrve x^+i/'^ + z'^ = 2r'>,
that the
,v + 2i/ + 2z = 9 on the coordinate planes, and having given
curve
is
(Cf. Ex. 2,
i^
If a,
22.
10.)
IGtt.
h,
of a line, the
cosines
+1
_ cos /3 _ cos y _ y/cos^a + cos^ f cos'^y _
~~1j
~
c
N/a2 + 6Hc~JaF++7^
OC
it
If
is
the point
directed line
positive
and
OP
(a, h, c)
ecjual to sja^
OP
,
directioncosines of
is
1)~
_
The
OP
+ + c^,
b
o
cosp>J(r
PO
are
((,
+ b^ + c^
Ex.
2.
cosines of
,
^'"'
Ex.
of
PQ
P and Q are
OP, OQ, PO.
,3
7'
7'
6.
"7
'
(2,
3,
_3_ j4
r,N/2'
6),
J^.
5V2' V2'
(3,
4,
5).
2 3
7
'
'
"f
If P,
CUOEDINATE GEOMETRY
22
Ex.
^,
0,
..
V2
Ex.
5.
(I, 0, n),
Ex.
(3,
.5,
6.
7),
\'2
(1,
(4, 6, 3),
is
the
= cos
cos 6
as in
{5
(/.
cos
cjL
f cos /3 cos
ft'
cosy',
j8',
is (x, y, z)
(3'
therefore
Co?'. 1.
_cos
We
6 = cos
is r,
+ z cos y'.
But
f..
2, 3),
op and OQ have
//
lines.
cos/3,
2, 4),
Ans. 
directioncosines cos a,
and
4, 5),
23.
ii.
If P,
4.
Ans.
[ch.
= r cosy
(This identit}^
shall frequently
hnd
known
it
as
Lagranges
identity.
advantageous to apply
We
it.)
Hence
sin'^0
Cor.
2.
If
is
and
(7or.
sni
.3.
h,
lines
a', h',
wl
c,
h(a.a'jhh'}cc')'
+ h^ + c^\la"" + 6' +
,
^
',
c''2
= 0.
23]
Cut.
cos
If
4.
cos
/3
23
cos
and
cos a cos ^' cos y3 cos rx' = 0,
whence cos a = cos a', cos ,8 = cos /3', and cos y = cosy'
evident from the definition of directioncosines); or
(t
_ _
b'
c'
Ex.
P,
If
1.
are
/>
6),
(2, 3,
4,
(3,
5), iiiid
A vs. cos^ =
^,
Ex.
R are
PQR.
P, Q,
2.
of the triangle
(2, 3, n),
(1,3,
2), (3, 5,
2).
9^^,
^,,^^^
(as is
OP
18v'2
^
^^^.,^
v/3
3"
3'
Ex.
3.
are proportional to
Ans.
(i)
cosi
(i) 2, 3,
^,
.'iVoS
3, 4, 5
lines
whose direction
(ii) 2, 3,
1,
2, 1.
(ii) 90.
Ex. 5. If ?i, w^i, Hi li, m.2, '>h ^3) 3' "3 '^^^ ^.he diiection cosines
of three mutually perpendicular lines, the line whose directioncosines
are proportional" to li
ra^, n^ + ihj. + n.^ makes equal
li + l^, 111^ + 7)12
!
Ex.
6.
of a cube.
Ex.
7.
(5, 8, 0),
Ex.
Prove by directioncosines
(2,1, 6) are colli near.
8.
a cube
line
makes angles
cos^o. I
9.
shew that
angles between
tlie
If a variable line in
10.
6,
c,
\a;i
Ex.
y, S
the points
prove that
Ex.
., /i,
tliat
+ + c^)
direction
cosines
I,
But
Therefore
That
is,
since
si
n^
sin
~ = ~,
8&^ = 2{8lf.
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
24
[ch.
ii,
,432
\/29
12.
Ex.
13.
cosines
3,
(2,
0), (1, 0,
\/29
n/29
diawn from
lines
.3)
Prove that the three lines drawn from O with directionL^, m.2, 112
)!, n^
^3, m^, n^, are coplanar if
^1,
^1,
Wlj,
111
Ex. 14. Find the directioncosines of the axis of the right circular
cone which passes through the lines drawn from O with directioncosines proportional to (3, 6, 2), (2, 2, 1), (1, 2, 2), and prove
that the cone also passes through the cooixlinate axes.
Ans. I/V3, l/v/3, 1/^3
Ex.
distance' of P,
from
oc,
To find
line.
tlte
l/'v/3,
cos
/3,
cos y.
from P to the
line,
ike
h, c),
have
line,
But
PN'
= AP'AN,
therefore
<52
{X
<( )
cos
(JL
f
)'
( //'
} (
h) cos 8 + (Z C) COS y }
2,
iy'
(,''
Cor.
If
{,<:',
y',z') is
cos
oc
y'
'.
line,
<)
(),
and
cos
ft
cos y'
(Cf.i:}21,Cor. 3.)
Ex.
tlif
1.
f))
(3, 4,
AXES)
DlUl<:(TlC)NCO,SlNKS(()J5l.l(ilIE
5524,25]
2,
25
tluougii
line
3,
(J.
Ex.
PQ,
V?.
iShew
3.
tliat
cos
is 0, is
a.
f3
 .y cos
r/,)'^
= sin'^(.i;'4.yHs).
Ex.
is
4.
PQ
P, axis
A ns.
(//
(Ex.
2),
and
tlie
seniivertical angle
Ex.
is
P,
5.
m>/z+8y+{z.v:iy+{.v//5y}
A71S.
= 7{(.r2f + {^ + Sy + {z5f}.
axis of a right cone, vertex O, makes equal angles with
the coordinate axes, and the cone passes througli the line drawn from
with directioncosines proportional to (1,  2, 2). Find the equation
A vs. 4.v' + 4f + 4 :' + 9yr I %zx t 9,ct/ = 0.
to the cone.
Ex.
6.
The
 3,
Ans. 9(2y5 
*25.
7)2
+ 4(,j 
cosy.
3..;)'
'J'ake
the plane
P,
XOY
'J'hen,
20),
(lio'
1('iiio
A,
/x,
O whose
(.,
measure of OP be
inM.
3)
2,
96.
line
(i).
in
()])li([U('.
axes,
rtispectively.
directioucosinos
any
y, z)
point
and
since the
NM
piojcciion
cos a, cos
on A'OA, and
parallel to
of
OP
Let
the angles
Diaw PN parallel to
r.
N,
I'
1h'
OY
is
OZ
let
to
meet
to meet
eipial
fj,
the
OX
to the
26
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
sum
OP
in turn,
r cos
we
cL
obtain
fx,
+ + cos A,
=
fx
r cos y xcos + ycosX + z,
r = x cos a + cos 8 + s cos y
r cos
/3
ii.
of the projections of
OY. OZ,
[en.
.^!
cos
(2)
2:
?/
J/
(3)
(4)
1/
(z
Fio. 2U.
Therefore, eliminating
satisfied
r,
x,
y, z,
cos
cos
cost/, cos/x,
1,
1,
COS)/,
(3,
the relation
line
=0,
cosX, cos/3
1,
cosy
cosy,
cos A,
yd,
cos a, cos
we have
any
of
by the directioncosines
1.
Multiply
by
x, y,
/m.
cos
z respectively,
i/.
and
add, then
X
i;
2/
= r^[by(4)]
Got.
2.
If P,
2(.r,
are
(.r^,
^1,51),
(A)
Ci'o, y... s.,),
PQ"
is
given by
THE AN(JLE
r]
Ex.
If P,
1.
OX,
angles to
If P, (.V,
2.
phme XOY,
*26.
OP
+ y cos +
I'
3^
cos

0.
//,
z) is
7/,
I),
((.,
tlirougli
It'
27
jjoiiit
the projection of
.r
Ex.
any
z) is
I/,
{.>;
to the
A.
the direction
fco
by
_ cos (8 _ cos y
(X.
_+
{ 1
cos y)^
jj.
/j.
projecting on OQ,
we
lines.
and
(.5),
1,
cos
cosi^,
COS
direction
with OP,
+ z cos y
,8'
(5
(1),
we have
I',
cos/x, cos
1,
cosX, cos
/3
(cos
(cos
/3
=0,
or
cosy
1,
cos
/3',
a cos a') 2
X
(9
r between equations
x, y, z^
cosX,
JUL,
angJe
obtain
Therefore eliminating
of 25,
oq has
II"
and makes an
2(sin'^X cos
(5
0,2
*27.
cos r)cos
(2), (:i)
/x
cos
y',
X cos /x cos
j8'
i^)
cos y)
Cor.
between
angles
b, c
a', b', c
direction
are given
by
i^)}
^^
^^
i^) }
/x
Am.
(i)
cos'
2, 3,
",_
7n/10
4;
;
/x
3, 4,
(ii)
5;
7r/2.
(ii)
2, 3,
1,
2,
1.
whose
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.
2,
tional to
Ex.
/,
Prove that the lines whose directioncosines are proporm, n mn, nl, lm are at right angles if A = /x=i/.
;
3.
[cH. n.
OC
V= CN are 0,
and
p,
0,
sin^v cos^Z.
..
/)
cosZ.OCN,
= c'cos /.OCN.
therefore,
by
Bat the
directioncosines of
25,
aba
=
{1
DIRECTIONRATIOS.
28.
Let
OL
be drawn from
in the
same direction as a
Then the co
lengtli.
PQ, and
when
tiie
direction of
They
are
If
tlie
same as
tlie
the directioncosines.
then
=^
'',
In hg.
21,
arc parallel to
is
positive, in
OZ
KH,
NM
tig.
22 r
is
negative.
LK,
Then
PN
since
DIKKCTIOX
2830]
Iv'ATIOS
2!)
Coi'. 1.
whose
directicniratios are
/,
any point on
m, ii,
'j=l^^.
Cor.
(,'',
If
2.
(,',
any point on
y, s) is
Cor.
8.
P,
Ii'
is r,
are
(.v^,
1.
z^),
Ibzli
(Cf.
(.'.,,
^2%
from
21
{<
(
,
'or. 3.)
and
Co),
i/o,
PQ
tlie
are
throuoli
n,
the directionratios of
^2^1
Ex.
y^,
2.)
line
tlie
m,
I,
^lZ^==yiZ]L=i:Z.
measure of PQ
21,Cor.
(Cr.
:')
?/',
length.
1
r^i
and
niidpoint,
Tlie
OM =cos
..
M,
LL
of
where L
'
1
T
has
coordinates,
i.
LOL'= ^,
m,!
+ mo
^1+^0
 '
,
'
OM
are
M + 'j
m^
2 cos 612"
+ m.,
2 cos ^/2'
7ii+v.2
2 cos Sh'
Ex.
v.+Ti.)
~,
,
2.
OX, OY,
OZ
Prove that
.1
^,
^^4
etc.
YOZ, ZOX,
XOY
Ex. 3. A, B, C, are the points (1. 2, 3), (3, 5, 3), (2, 6. 15),
and the axes are rectangular.
Find the direction cosines of the
interior bisector of the angle
*30.
The
(25, Cor.
1,
directionratios of
it is
any
(A)),
P\m'{n +
which
BAG.
2mv
cos
on, 1?)
= !.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
30
*31.
Project OL,
ni, n.
I,
(figs.
and we obtain, as
in 25
cosa =
),
+ mcos + wcoSya
^,
cos
B = l cos + m + 71 cos \ =k
2
?)m
cos
J/
To find
the angles
m!
V,
we
on OL,
(Cf. 21 (3).)
O which
has directionratios
m',
'
n'.
ni,
I,
j/
fc
obtain,
cos
/'
cos
a + m' cos /3 + n
= W + mm' + nn
cos y,
l^'ni)
9^
may
V cos
Ex.
cos
1.
rx',
If
^')^
a + ^i' cos j8 +
cos a'
cos
/3',
+ w cos
i'
^1
\/5'
VS
'
^8'
'J? '
cos
y=
+ n cos y' = 0,
A = /x = = 7r/3,
L
Ans
^
" Vs'
3771
or
where
I/,
Cor.
which
itself,
=x
*32.
ii.
2'o
directionratios are
ratios are
[ch.
(1, 2,
J?
2\/5'
^5
^
2v/.f)"
DIKECTlUNltATlUS
31,32]
31
cos
Ex.
XOY,
I'
cos
A  cos /x
cos
)Li
cos v
A s 1  cos''A cos'^ix
where
3.
 cos A
cos''^i'
sin'^i'
sinvA
XOY
Prove that the lines which bisect the angles YOZ, ZOX,
have directioncosines
internally,
^^^A
^^^A
2'
2 cos A/2
g^
'
'
ai^e
+ cosAfcos/xfcosj^Y
4 cos
JU./2
cos i/2
^^^
[CH.
CHAPTER
IT).
III
THE PLANE.
33.
Let ABC,
OC on
(fig. 23),
a given plane,
make
intercepts OA,
and
OB,
a, b, c
to
the
Fio. 23.
Let
P, {x,
parallel to
II,
OZ
z)
to
XOY
in K,
and
Draw PK
KM
parallel
OY
to
meet OX
in M.
b}^
3335]
To find
(ii)
the
equation
32
in terms of
to the j^lane
a, h,c.
ON = projection of OA on ON = OA cos fx
p = a cos OL. Similarly, h cos /3 = cos y =2^.
..
c;
Hence, by
(i),
X cosoL.y cos ^
;:;
cos
y_
V
^
^.e.
is
.
'
+ ^h + =1.
G
'
Ex. Find the intercepts made on the coordinate axes by the plane
A'+2y 2^ = 9. Find also the directioncosines of the normal to the
A, is. 9, 9/2, 9/2
I, %  .
plane if the axes are rectangular.
;
34.
TJte
For
A:
+ B^ + C: + D =
X
 D/A
general equation
a plane.
can bo written
y
 D/B
 D/C
35.
D/A,
y_ p
A ~~3 ~ C ~D"
cosa._cos /3_cos
'
Ax\By
+ Cz+D =
proportional to A, B, C.
are
But p
is
a positive
number
D
p = j=
^
J + B' + C2
^
therefore
If
is
B = p
negative,
B.C.
and
we must change
c
cos
1)
A
y ^ 7
the
= 7==^^===,.
is
positive,
A

cosoc=
fi:'
COS
if
If
B^i
the sign of
C2
.^
n/a'^
,
+ B + C.
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
34
[en. in.
Cor.
P^*^^
ax\hij
+ cz + d = Q,
a'x
+ h'y + cz+d' =
Ex.
cos
1.
3.^
(ii)
Ans.
_j_
(i)
7r/3,
(ii)
+ 4^52 = 9,
2.x
between the
+ 6t/ + 6z = 7.
7r/2.
Ex. 2. If the axes are rectangular, find the distance of the origin
Ans. 2.
from the plane 6xZi/ + 2zU = 0.
Ans.
Ex.
?/
+ 4s7 = 0, xzl=0,
to 3^; + 4?/
Ex.
4.r+;/ll=0.
4.
52 = 0.
5.
parallel to
Ans.
207
and P
is
parallel
+ 4j/ 52 + 4 = 0.
(1, 2, 3)
3j?
the point
at right angles to
(.,
(2, 3,
f3,
y)
1),
OP.
+ 3^2=14.
7.
Ex.
8.
+ hy +
cz"
if
ahc\2fghaphg'^ch = 0.
is
^^^''+^'+^'~^'~^'^~''^^"
tan'f
V
a^b + c
^
)
Shew that
B, C planes are drawn parallel to the coordinate planes.
the locus of their point of intersection is given by x'^+y^+z'^=pK
36.
The general
3537]
e.g.
tli
PI^^^NE
35
To find
plane
tltrougli {x^
y^
z^)
1/3, z.,).
+ + cz^ + = 0,
+ by + cz2 + d = 0,
ax^\by.^ + cz^ + d = 0.
Then
ax^^
cZ
hy.^^
ax.2^
Therefore, eliminating a,
Ex.
Find the
1.
2.,
Ex.
z,
^1,
Z.,
+ 3^3^ =
2.
(3, 3, 0)
(2,2,1).
(1,2,1),
(1, 1,0),
Ans.
we
d,
b, c,
equation,
1,0),
(0,
(2,
1,
1), (1,1,1),
37.
the
distance of
is
/3,
tlie
or
p'
where
p' = p x cos
CL
is
foie
p' or
(',
y,
z'),
cos y.
the
/3
new
origin,
from the
s' cos y.
origin O, cos
the normal
y' cos ^ z
of
p =px
If
5;
1/
oc,
cos ^, cos
from
^9
a?'
the
cos
new
?/'
are
still
the directioncosines of
cos
2:'
cos
is
and thereIf P
positive.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
36
and therefore ^y or
Hence,
negative.
if
pX
is
positive
if
{x,
y',
j9
cos
a?'
z)
from
i/'
is
The distance
/3
of {x,
.
II
is
{x\
if
If
is
side of the
is
any point
origin.
0,
given by
z)
y',
y',
J.
is
^ / cos y
z' cos
ax\hy^cz\d =
,,
cosy
the plane to
cos
iii.
is positive,
Cor.
[en.
to be taken, as
is
=^.
gives
it
If
2.
positive
if
is
{x\
y',
on opposite
= 0,
y', z'\
Ans.
2.
is x'
cos
a.
?/'
cos
(i
they are
if
OP
on the
+ z' cos y,
Ex.
is
3,
and negative
{hy \ cz \
sides.
Ex. 1. If P is (,)/,
normal to the plane
the plane
ax
3.
A m.
3j;2
4.
of a point the,
x+y + z = Q,
sum
of the squares of
x z = 0, x2y + z = 0,
whose
is 9.
Ans. x''+y'^ + z^ = 9.
Ex. 5. The sum of the squares of the distances of a point from the
planes x+y+z = 0, x2// + z =
is equal to the square of its distance'
from the plane x = z. Prove that the equation to the locus of the point
is i/^ + 2xz = 0.
'By turning the axes of x and z in their plane through
angles of 45, prove that the locus is a right circular cone whose semi""'
vertical angle is 45.
BISECTORS OF ANGLES
.^37,38]
BETWEEN
TI.ANES
3?
planes
the
axes
being rectangidar.
We
Then
positive.
tlie
d' are
equation
The
locus
between
is
plane
the
therefore
given
the
that
bisecting
planes
angle
origin.
Similarly,
ax + by + cz + d_
Va'2
+ 6'2 + c'2
given planes.
Ex. 1. Shew that the origin lies in the acute angle between the
Find the 'planes bisecting
planes x + 2j/ + 2s = 9, 4x  Zy + I2z { \3 = 0.
the angles between them, and point out which bisects the acute angle.
A71S.
Acute,
*Ex.
2.
(^i, >/i,
h),
25.v
Shew
(^2.
>/>,
'\7,>/
+ 62z78 =
cu
obtuse, .r+35j/
+ b// + cs + d=0
102156 = 0.
^^2
if
'^*'i
*Ex.
3.
Hence
shew
i.e.
divide
PQ
iiarmonically.
that
the
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY
38
*Ex.
[ch.
iii.
If A, P, B,
4,
ratio, or crossratio of
AP^AQ
PB
QB
AP.QB
^'
AQ
PB'
AQ _ M^ + XjVi
U1 + X2V1
PB~~w^+V^' QB~ u^+X^2
AP_
and therefore
AP.QB Jk,X,){X,Xi)
AQ.PB
This constant crossratio
*Ex.
5.
DA
CD,
P, Q, R,
of a
skew
is
ai^e
{\,X,){X,~\,)
BC,
quadrilateral.
AP BQ CR DS
PBQCRDSA"
THE STRAIGHT
The equations
39.
first
LINE.
Every equation
to a line.
Two
of the
equations of the
first
therefore the
Thus ax + hy + cz\d = 0,
a'x
represent a
straight line.
40.
Tlie equations to
directionratios
m,
1=
where
PQ
I,
xx
Q, (x, y, z) is
is r,
m = v
r
y'
and has
n,
'>
any point on
Cor.
n=
it,
3).
z'
;
And
therefore the
30,40]
~ n
the eciuations
sati.sl'y
30
^~
''
x'^x
y = y' + mr,
\lr,
for
r,
= z' + nr.
xa_yh_zc
represent a
strai<j^ht line
and having
directionratios proportional to
2.r
Ex.
2.
the .face
Ex.
Ex.
which
in
^,
n.^5/+.' = 0.
^;j
4.
line .^^='i!!^
where the
to the point
II
Ans.
3
^,_
= ^^
_ 3^
l^^^ ^^f^^^
,^
36 (rectangular axes).
^=^ =
1.
^ j^^
^^^
3.
(3, 4, 5)
line '!lz^^}Lzji^^_JL_
(a, h, c)
in, n.
I,
,
Ex. 5. Shew that if the axes are rectangulai', the equations to the
perpendicular from the point (a, (3, y) to the plane ax + b>/ + cz + d=0
he
are '^LL^ =,LZjl ^^JZJ and deduce the perpendicular distance of the
a
point
(fx.,
ft,
_y _z
^ol
are
m^n^m^yii
X_
.y
_ yft _
niL^
nJi
__f_
zy
liVio
f^iih
Ex.
7.
If the
.r/^i
= 7//mi = 2/?i,
and
.v/l2=ylni2
= z/n2,
line
tlie
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
40
[ch.
iii.
c^2
41.
(x.^,
x.^
= (2 _
,.2)
cos^o.
2/2,
Xj^,
2;,),
If p,
PQ
the directionratios of
y.2~2/i>
% %'
x x^
are
are (x^,'yi,
Ex.
^^ x+1
'
1.
2a'
+ ?/s = 3.
'
PQ
line in
x+1
"
I, 3), (4,
Ans.
'
Ex. 2. Prove that the line joining the points (4, 5, meets the surface 2.^ + 3y  4s = 1 in coincident points.
42. Directionratios
to
_ y yi _ zZi
By
'*^~'x+i
z^),
are proportional to
2), (
2, 5)
(0, 4, 1).
1, 5,
3)
ax + by + cz + d = 0,
are given
afx
+ h'y + c's
\(l'
by
ax + hy + cz = 0,
ax + //// + c'z = 0.
by
ax + by + cz \d =
in the point
bd'b 'd
f
\ah'
a'b'
da'd'a
ah'
a'b'
\.
J
^5
41,42]
4l
form are
ti
bdv ha
i
da
ab'
a'b
bcb'c
Ex.
The
an
1.
ca'
a'b
ca
z
ab'
to
o a line througli
through (,
equationifi
XOY
plane
v
da
>
iib'
'
a'b'
to the
parallel
6, c)
ct_yh _zc
(1)
'
m{.ra)^l{,,h\
and
(1) is to
Ex.
be considered
2.
'^~
on
it
XOY,
are equal to
Ex.
to
OZ
tlie
as
3.
= r,
(2)
(2).
=1^^ = "^^.
is
symmetrical form of
4, 3), (
 3,
is
5, 3).
parallel
two points
3.
The equations
are
'Izl!:
JLlk =iZ^
or .>;=,'^
y
through
(c<,
6, c)
jmrallel
= h.
Ex.
planes
4.
4.;t4//.5.
= 12,
8.>.f12^1.32=.32 can
be written
.v\_i/~2_z
2
Ex.
~4'
5.
Ex.
.v
= 0.
Avs.
6.
(0, 2,
2)
lines
 45 = = 3.*  4//
z,
bx  ?/
3j fl 2
= =x
7y h 5r
are parallel.
Ex.
7.
x^ll/\z
= 0=.v+yz,
(rectangular axes).
Ex.
8.
parallel to
.
lines
.2yl2
x\
\
y2
:3
(1, 2,
3)
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
43.
[ch. hi.
The equations
line.
xa_yh_zc
may
~ n
x=y+a
be written
m"^
(1)
'111
,
of the
one
n ^
^
which are
x = t^ij + 3\
form
(2)
= Cs + dJ'
2/
line con
given line
is
its
smallest possible
tlie
number
(2),
which
of arbitrary
constants.
Ex.
r
line
1.
Ex.
2.
x = ay^h,
are perpendicular
if
a=
l,
lines
= cij + d, x = a'i/ + h\
aa' + cc' + 1=0.
z
(9, 8,
= c'i/ + d',
c,
2,
(3,
= 1, c=
to tlie
.'/
given 1by
1,
d=
2.
Ex.
6.
(i)'^=?^ = i:i^,
to the planes
(ii)2..
(i)
(ii)
f)//
4.
+ 1 = 0,
17^25i = 0,
2^
 5.^ + 2 = 0,
rK17.(,
ft,
+ %5.4 = = 3.t4y5.6,
Ans.
(rx,
2.r
 _y  1 =
+ 34 = 0, S.ry
10 = 0.'
y)
43,44]
.STKAKlllT LINE
dr (cu;'
bi/'
*Ex.
is
Sa^sin^V
z')
cos v)
The distance
8.
/I.
4^
(.*', _y',
of
/) from
y',
(.r',
given by
..,
S(fc
~"
*Ex.
are
0, 0,
A)
1/
to tho
^,
sin V
where
If the
XOY
ju,
9.
OXY
plane
are
., f3,
y,
prove that
sinoL
cosec
sin /?
cosec
sin
cosec
/x
i'
^
A_sin B
^j^
,..^
sin
44.
sin
sin
sin
sin
/x
C
i'
line.
and
straight
(oL
where r
line.
+ lr,
13
given by
is
But
(a,
7"
/3,
is
+ mr, y + 7ir),
6/3
+ cy\d = 0.
is
y).
al
+ hm\cn =
is
if
_m _n
a
Cor.
al
plane are
and
(
tlie
line
+ hm {cn=0
+ 6/3 + cyf = 0.
(^
should
lie
in
the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
44
Ex.
1.
X3
?/ 4
_ =/__
line
[ch.
" 5
=!
iii.
parallel to the
is
Ex.
2.
31?/ 33j =
8.r
Ex.
3.
(.3,
4,
to the plane
1), (2,
through
(2, .3, 1)
normal
(axes rectangular).
1, 5),
Ans. .r+5j/6s + 19 = 0.
(2,
the
line
plane through
2x=3i/ = 4z.
points
 22s = 85.
the
5.
.5)
normal to the
the axes being
is
2),
rectangular.
Ex.
6.
of the point
9'_9
~'
1, 5, 10) from
2
w+1 1
=^U
=
(
7.
1, 0, 1)
Ans. 13.
8.
2xi/2 = 0=z5,
x=)/ Ex.
the
be written
=z 2.
to the plane
xfj_>/
f3
through the
_ zy
line
EXAMPLES
44]
Ex.
45
11.
equations to the
find tlie
2//
+ 3s + 4 = 0,
2.V
'Si/
+ 4z + 5 = 0.
,v
Ex.
'
1
.3
The equations
12.
4\
/2
VS'
3 /
'
AB
to
Q.
J.
\49'
Ex.
49 /
'
OP
to
9
/
V
'
ABC
is
'
/'
'
y\ z) a plane
P, {x\
q\
'
Through a point
13.
angles to
49
~^~^T3~
'
78 156\.
/52
.rl_y2_25
3"T76"~T9
, where
is
drawn
is
at right
Prove that
in A, B, C.
the measure of
OP.
2, >_?/'/
Ex. 14. The axes are rectangular and the plane .v/a + 7/jb + z/c=\
meets them in A, B, C.
Prove that the equations to BO are
={ =
OX
at right
angles to BC is bi/ = cz that the three planes through OX, OY, OZ,
at right angles to BC, CA, AB respectively, pass through the line
a.v=b>/ = cc
and that the coordinates of the orthocentre of the
triangle ABC are
;
~^
rt"'
Ex.
(a'u,
}/(^,
15.
Zq)
+ 6~ + c~"'
b~^
a~
where
Ex.
hv
nQ
16.
from the
u = a.v + by + cz + d=0,
is .riven
c~^
+ b~'^ + c~'^
= a'x \b'y\c'z\d' =
VQ
a'.V(,
b'i/(j
+ c'zQ + d'.
'V
line
x/l=y/m = zln.
y)
fY
+ en).
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
46
Ex.
17.
to the plane
X,
be'
clx
b'c,
III.
lines
y,
Py'(^'y^
[CH.
through the
ah
ca! c'a,
ah'
ycL'y'cL,
cLp'a.'^
(a,
y) and the
/5,
line
rz+s
ry + s
pf3 + q,
1,
1,
Ex.
The
19.
xcx._y
2'.
i:
given
distance
of
the
point
(^,
rj,
()
from the
line
is
11
b}'
^^o
_ {a'' + h^ + c):i{m{y0n{(i'q)f{^{c,.^){bncm))
{al + hm\c.n)"
'Ta
3<^
21.
Shew
from the
line.
yB
'
+%
9<^
*Ex.
of the point
''
.^'(cos/xcos
XOY
I'
'"
S(^
= "r = r
(See 31.)
z
"'
OZ
at
is
*Ex.
22.
x{coii
*Ex.
planes
ji
23.
Shew
cos
1'
 cos
YOZ, ZOX,
XOY in
cos
*Ex.
24.
Shew
A) =y(cos v cos
lines
cos
OZ
i').
cut the
cos V
fj,
is
*Ex.
Pi sin
A _ p., sin
fi
y'
_p3 sin v _
from
z'
Deduce that the planes bisecting the interior angles between the
coordinate planes pass through the line
sin
sin
/x
sin v
44.45]
*Ex.
sin V
_
A
sin
IS
.r
45.
cos
X + a + v
2^
1/
sin
normal
to
if
cos
?/, 2')
etc.
i),
27.
47
(.*',
sin v
//,
Au +
i/
z cos
1
X + U.V
^
= ^0.
Before proceeding
planes.
phines
we
we
2x y+ z=
3,
xS]/ + 2z=
1,
= !, y = 2,
= o,
(1, 2, 8).
Let us
now attempt
(i)
Eliminate z from
we
get
5x y
(iii)
x+ y
(ii)
4r
Whence
2x4>y + 2z = 5,
(ii)
and
subtracting,
?/
.x +
= 8,
= 7.
then from
(iii),
2 =1
4v  2 ?/ =
.y
(i)
and
and
(ii),
7.
= Q.
(i)
and
(ii),
then from
(ii)
There
are, therefore,
x+
no
a)
= G, are
= 6.
finite
values of
x,
The equations
limiting forms of ?
+ ? = 6,
y, z,
.
'j^,
a
+ =
^',
which
.
(i,
2/
= 6,
as
/.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
48
We
infinite distance.
[cii.
in.
section of
any two
and
12
it is
3'
Thus
if
we
we attempt
prism, and
to solve them,
from
we
obtain a para
where k
(),
is
a number
zero.
12 y + 2z = S5,
Sx^
(ii)
Eliminating z between
and
(iii),
we
y\
x + ly^
(iii)
(i)
and
tions
lie
or the
line,
(i)
we
is,
lie
= 0,
oy + 2z + 7
upon a straight
line.
1.
(i)
(vi)
y = 7,
of the planes 2x
Ans.
(v)
5y + 2z + 7^ 0.
upon both
(vii)
;iv)
(ii)
get
+ 4^ + 6e = 5,
y+ 2 = 6,
.r + 23/ + 32 = 6,
2jf + 33/ + 42 = 6,
"ix ?/+ 2 = 4,
3.r ?/+ 2 = 5,
(ii)
(iii)
common
that
Ex.
if
we
all
(ii),
2xy^7.
6a;3?/21,
Thus
7,
0.
obtain
Similarly,
equations,
z^
0
+ 5f/ + 9z=\0,
+ 3v + 4j = 20,
3.r + 4^ + 5i = 2,
3.r + 4^ + 5i = 20,
bx^1y\1z = Q,
2.r + 4y+ 2+10 = 0,
3,r
6.v
.v+
2.r
(ii)
+ 3i/ + 5z = 5
x yV 2 = 2
5a;t42/ + 32h 18 =
.?;2y + 32 = 2
3.^ + 4^22 + 3 = 0;
6A2?/ + 2e + 9 = 0.
3.v
3.r5_,y
z_^
2"~'l~~T'
(iii)
planes intersect at
(1, 2, 3)
./
(v) planes
form prism;
(vi)
(i^^)
+ 10 _ ;/8_2.
~'2~i'
planes intersect at
(1,
1, 1);
(vii)
two
45]
Ex.
.r+
49
2.
= 2, form
At>s. s^S/\H.
of tlie i)rism.
Wc
shall
now
consider the
;cnercil chho.
{),
(1)
U2 = a.^+b2y + c^z + cL = 0,
(2)
u.^
X
&1.
y
we
^
(3)
obtain
1
COOEDINATE CJEOMETKY
50
and
by
]\ence,
two or more
If
are parallel.
(5),
[ch. hi.
of the
a triangular prism.
quantities
If
different
is
one
from
the three
of
say,
a^
onljr,
u^
= 0,
u^ =
may
A=
one
and
\b^, c^,
line.
It is to
that
is,
= 6p
!
Co,
di :f
0,
when
Conversely,
if
three
numbers
lu^
where k
is
m, v can be found
I,
independent of
x, y, z,
+ a.^m + a^n = 0,
+ c^m + c^n = 0,
Therefore
la^, 62.^31
line,
bj.
dj,
+ b^m + b.^n = 0,
+ d.^m + d^n^O.
and
and A^=^0,
(A^ is
As
in the
Cg, d^\).
since 6^,
c,,
^^1
= 0,
one
line.
But
viz.,
x = 0,
b^y
x = 0,
b2y
03
are concurrent.
= 0,
Their
+ c.j,z]d^ = 0;
+ C2Z{d.2 = 0;
b.^y}c^z+d^
common
y
c^d^
and since
so that
+ mu.^ + nu.^ = k,
c^d^
A^=/=0, it is at
point
^
^
d.^b.^
d.Jb.^
is
given by x = 0,
^\
\'
a finite distance.
45]
51
now
follows
that \a^,
and
d.^\
c.,,
\a^,
line.
b^,
the
d^\,
= 0,
a^x
Therefore
are concurrent.
!!, 62, (^3l
Again,
viz.,
y = 0,
+ c^z + d^ = ();
y = 0, a.^x +
a.^a;
+ c^s +
c?.^
+ d^ =
c.^z
= 0, and
similarly,
{a^,
c^,
d.^\
{ciy,
c^,
d._^\
is
= 0.
K,
\a^,
if
d.^\
= 0,
common
minors),
The points
ZOX
of concurrence are
given by
^
z=
c^do
Cod^
'
dju
d.^a^
a./^
ax^
y
0,
h./l^
h^d^
d.,a^
d^a.^
ajj^
h^a^
he
and since d.^a^ d^a^^O, they are not coincident.
planes have therefore two common points and thus pass
through one line. It follows then that \a^, 63, c^\ and
'J'
If,
therefore,
any two
\b^,c^,d^\,
of the determinants
\a^,b2,d^\,
ctp 02,(^3!,
ai, ^g'^sl
common minors
have a
*This
easilyproved algebraically.
then, since
and
h^
I
Therefore, since
/ji
A=0,
&i, Cg,
A)
A,
(mIj  a^d^
_
~
If
^^
is
ra^di
A,
 ajdj
a^do  a^di
jctj, 62,^3!
2^A = 0.
i, ^o,
2ciAi = 0,
(^31
and
and k^iO,
a,,
c.,,
^31 = 0.
_
"
ds\0, and Aj
^ 0,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
52
The
[cn.
III.
in the form,
0,
^1'
^3
^3
two
They may
be obtained as
also
follows.
= 0,
Ui = 0,
11^
intersection of
^(2
If
the planes
'?<'o
\,
Xo,
and therefore
\u.^
or
Conversely,
if A^, A.,,
+ XoUo + AgJtg = 0.
then
ti.^
and
=
u.,
= 0.
A^'?t^ +
+ A3U3 = 0, we have
=
a3A3
^^A^ + ^^A.. + 63A3 = 0,
f^Ao
+
0,
+
a^Ai
and
d{\^
+ dn\2 + d^\=^0.
c^Ai + c^Ag + t'sAg^O,
efficients in
A2'?<'.2
we
line
obtain
0.
LINE INTERSECTING
45,4G]
jKiss
+ %+,7^ = 0,
A = , k,
/LV
.(
if
!/:
y;
</
5:i
directionratios
^^
3a
3c
36
r=I,
2,
jjlanes
3,
(!.'
y.{a^ai
Shew
Ex.
+ bjbi + c^c^=0.,
etc.
line.
The plane +"t +  = 1 meets the axes OX, OY, OZ, which
7.
ABC
.'/
a s'V' + c2
46.
any
u^
For
two given
+ \v^ = 0,
therefore
it
is
c\/a^
1.
The equations
lines.
lines,
w^
+ h^
u^ =
t'^
Ug =
to
= u,
+ X^o^O.
= 0,
and
coplanar with
Ex.
+ d^
line intersecting
are
is
b slc^
u.^
it
= = v.^.
+ 2y + 4j5 = = 2.);3y + 4i + l,
= .3.t4j/ + 23.
2.v4j/ + 2 + 6 =
Ex.
,f+//
2.
+ = l,
.j
(1, 1,1).
Am.
3.
44;
= n,i; + 1693,
lL
= ll.y + 34r,.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
64
Ex.
lines
[ch. Hi.
4.
y=za
Ex.
5.
the lines
x'^=2az.
Ans.
x^
y^ = 2az.
Ex.
6.
Ex. 7. Prove that the locus of a variable line which intersects the
three given lines _^y = m.>", z = c y mx, z= c y = z, mx= c ; is the
surface y^ ^ m^x=^z'^ c^.
;
47.
tions
u^ =
given
three
to
= v.^, and
are
u^
If the equa
lines.
u^ =
= = v^,
= V2,
u^\v^ = 0,
(1)
have a
lines
(2) ii.2X.^^
= 0,
(3)
U3X3V3 =
and therefore
with each
line of inter
section, ( 45),
A(A \
\,)
= 0,
M\
(4)
\,.,
\,)
(5)
X.,,
0(Ai, A,)
An
number
infinite
satisfy (6),
and therefore an
infinite
between
(6)
we
number
lines.
of lines can
we
If
eliminate
obtain
<^)
h:^I)=
This equation
on any
line
therefore
Hence the
surfaceT^
is satisfied
which
by the coordinates
of
any point
and
by such
lines lie
lines.
on a
47]
55
and (o),
form u^ \i\ik{ii^ \v2) = 0, and therefore
(3) is of the
that
(1),
(2),
(8),
are
(5)
(4),
The
independent equations.
equivalent to four
really
ecjuation
to
the surface
is
the surface
V^
V^
Ex.
1.
t'3
given by
also
is
by
or
>
y = h, z= c\
^) = 0,
fA'
= c x= a
;
lines
.v
lines
= ,?/= 6.
i/h + \^{z + c) = 0,
have a
(1)
AiA.A, +
it
"^'^^^
i.e.
.v a + X3Q/ + b) =
intersection,
of
line
0,
X,,b + X,c
1,
c + X.,(t
1,
A3,
0,
l=0
and
0,
1,
X.,,
{2)
lines.
That
a + X^b
X^X.X^^a'IcXiXi +
^bXsa^O.
zc+X2(v + a)=0,
,; + A3(y +
?;)
= 0,
where AiA2/\3+l=0.
the locus of the lines,
viz.
zc ^ct_..
+ c .v + a .y + &
a>/z + bzx + c.iy + abc = 0.
>/b
z
or
result
is
obtained from
(2).)
If the planes
2,
i=I
on the
= l,
HwiiAGQ yz
+ zx+.vi/ + \=0.
Ex.
y=
'
3.
Ex. 4. Prove that the locus of lines which intersect the three
.? _y = l, 2 =
yzl., x =
is
i .r=l, _v =
;
5.
A ns.
)/
\z' iyz
 'izx  2.ry = 1
= 3z
4 y + 3^ ==
2, 4)/
36.12
lines
.r^
Ex.
x + 2 = 0,
?/
= 3, 2x + z = 0.
lines
COORDINATP] GEOMETRY
56
[CH.
111.
Ex. 6. Shew that the equations to any line which intersects the
three given lines .y = &, 2= c, z = c, .v=a; x = a, y= h may be
written ?/6 + A(e+r') = 0, (,fca) + /x(2/ + Z>) = 0, where A and /x are
connected by the equation A/xc  /x6 + a = 0. Hence shew that the two
lines
lines
and
also =^^^
c
= 7{a+
rrs;
b)
+ c__zb x c_y_z a
c~h bc ca 6 a c'
.V
i/
Ex. 7. Shew that the two lines that can be drawn to intersect the
four given lines
_?/
= l,s=l;
are given
48.
by
= l,
Coplanar
3
?/
lines.
Ije
y
The equation
(2)
ni'
//
.(1)
is
(3)
+ hm + ch =
(4)
where
al
and
(d'
+ bm' +
Therefore eliminating
a,
h,
c))!
(5)
(6)
between
(4),
(5),
(6),
we
y = 0.
a a,
.(7)
111,
I,
The elimination
of a,
A,
Ijctwcen
(x.,
yft, z y
I,
on,
r,
m,
n'
gives
th(>
viz.,
= 0.
.(S)
COPLANAR LINES
57
the line (1) parallel to the line (2), and (7) is the condition
that this plane should contain the point (a', ^', y) on (2).
Ex.
(jl'
Ex.
Deduce the
1.
+ 1'/,
etc.,
2.
lines
3,
^6464
a.
X b+c_
li
/Ivw.
Ex.
2//
4.
coplanar
Ex.
= .v +
5.
if
lines
!/
+5
b _z  h c
'IT
1^
fi+7
tiiid
+ lr, etc.,
are coplanar.
Ex.
cL
lie.
z.
.v
= a.7/ + ft=y: +
lines
"
ax + bij + cz + f/=
^,
= ax +
//_>/
+ c'z + d'
^^'^
if
al + bin
'^'1
b'.
d,
,1',
Ex.
7.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
58
[CH.
III.
line,
X
inn'
mn
1^
nl'
n'l
Im' l'm
49]
Ex.
3.
Shew
.cl
_
~2~~
is r_,
>
and that
59
its
y2
.3.
a?2^;y4^ g5
4'
equations are
vG
n.v + 2//1z + G = 0,
Ex.
4.
7.1
+.?/ 5^ + 7
g3
.r3 _y8
"~3~~"l ~
lines
+3 ~'y + 7 _ 56
3
2 " 4
.r
= 0.
'
Since PP'
is
we have
Whence, solving
for r
and
?',
we
get
?
= r' = 0.
(3,7,
(3, 8, 3),
6),
PP' = 3V30,
5=
6.
6a.
Ans. IL:,
v^342
Ex.
7.
'
r+l^ + l _2 + l
?/
~ 6
~"
(],!,]).
(3,5,7),
drawn
'J^JI^='J^^,
Ans.2'j29,
Ex.
2 ~
lO.v
line
s.d.
between
 9y + 5^ = = X + ?/  2,
2,
7,
5
is
.r5_ ?/7 _g + 2
"
3 ~'^1'"
I
it.
'
r + 3_y3^2G
3
~'
jioints of intersection
Am.
(2, 8,
3),
(0, 1, 2),
n/78.
^^^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
60
Ex.
Find the
8.
s.d.
ax + 6y +c^ + f^ = 0,
{ax +
%+
C2
line
OZ
parallel to
is
to this plane
is
equal to the
s.d.)
\l
>/
line
= 0.
c'd
cd'
Ex.
rf'
111.
and
[CH.
and the
ax + h'y + dz +
9.
= az + b, z = oiX+l3
between the
lines
{0La.'){bb') + {a.'fSOLl3'){aa')
\a?a."^{a
Ex.
10.
between the
s.d.
a'a!)'^)'^
lines
aJC
where
Ex.
A = bd  b'c,
Shew
11.
r,
h,
c,
'/,
b\
d,
d'
13,
y,
^',
P',
Y,
S'
etc.,
A'
cos
meets the
cos
oj
first
= (3y'  (3'y,
that the
xx^ _yy^
s.d.
zz^
line at a point
v(.r,.r.,)(cosocicos^cosa.,)
sin2
etc.
between the
cos yj
/?!
{2(BC'B'C)2}
x
x^_^
cos a2
'
lines
_ y  y^ _zZi
cos
/iJ.,
cos
^^^^^^,^
^
^^^ ^
y.,
(/,,
_?/j,
2,) is
Ex.
12.
Shew
Ex.
13.
Shew
s.d.
between the
line
saxis
is
(l b'
{{bd
Ex.
Shew
14.
y/b + z/c =
1,
 d'b) {hd 
x = 0;
xjaylbzjc\\=0, and
if 2n? is
the
s.d.
prove that
ji
= ^i + jT^\2'
A CLASS OF PROBLEMS
50]
Ex.
15.
Two
.)
straight lines
fjL
_>/
 fi _'z  y
<<'
_i//3'
;iic
a.
 a.',
/3
/3',
m,
I,
y  y'
n
\^\
fx,
v.
Show
tli;it
the
I,
vi,
^',
m\
n'
A,
/7,
j
j
m',
I',
n'
I
*Ex.
.r/a
of the s.D.
The axes
16.
+ ?//6+2/c=l.
Prove that
= ^_?/^=S!!^'
^
/),
and that
= 2a
^
oy
'deb
3<i)
cos
I',
^ = 2a cos
u, etc.,
oz
..w^.
id
'ddi
'd4i
9(/>
_>,^=
= v^^.
a~=b7^
c^
7
Ox
d>/
oz
Hence shew that the perpendiculars pass through the point given by
^=
7^ = Ihck. ^ 2cak,
ox
'
oz
o>j
'iabk.
b~
OC
of AB and
are ^ = 2abk, a7^ =
and that the
da
oz
01/
passes through the point of concurrence of the perpendiculars.
s.D.
50.
When two
S3^stems of
tlie
s.D.
lines.
following
of use in problems
I.
and
Rectangular
let CC',
them.
axes.
length
2c,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
62
Draw OP, OQ
POQ as the plane
[en. in.
of CC' as origin.
= 0.
As
OP and
QOZ
and
and yaxes
Then
OQ.
is
y^xtaua.,
are
x
y= a^tanoc;
and
y = x tan
These
may
X
cos
OL,
= c;
z=
y=.x tan a,
c.
y
sin
_z c_
'
cos
_z + c
2/
sinoc
lines
1.
AB
fi
Let
are variables.
^^^^'
be
(^,
rj,
PQ
then since
C),
is
perpendicular
(^0L)+m(7;m(x.) = 0;
since
P'Q
since
PQ
is
(1)
perpendicular to A'B',
($f3)vii,j + mP) = 0;
is
(^"'^)a'/^) + (>/')(>/ +
To
between
The
is
result
easily
found to be
a hyperboloid.
II.
(2)
2:)erpendicular to P'Q,
'/3)
(1+mJ^
^^
axes of X and
y,
+ (tc)(f+c)=0
we have
r>=
If
to eliminate
>>
1m
(3)
a.
and
j3
which represents
we take OP and OQ
as
x = 0,
z=
c.
.v
y~f3
+c
WORKED EXAMPI.ES
50]
C,?,
PQ = Q'P'=r,
is
the angle
'Therefore
(2)
and
/:>
between
is
+r
zc
'
given by
2aycos^ _F
y'l
.y2
Ex. 3. Find the surface generated by a straight line which intertwo given lines and is parallel to a given plane.
If the axes be chosen as in Ex. 2, and the given plane be
sects
Lv +
my + )is^O,
III.
is
'
Ix
the locus
is
71XU
+ n = 0.
+ c zc
^
specitied
joining the given points may be taken as saxis, its midpoint as origin, and the parallels through the origin to the
ysixes.
are then
q^^,.
where
y^Q^
2c is the distance
The equations
to the lines
.^^q ,2;=_c;
points.
Ex. 4. AP, A'P' are two given lines, A and A' being fixed, and
P and P' variable points such that AP.A'P' is constant. Find the
locus of PP'.
Take AA' as zaxis, etc. Then P, P' are (., 0, c), (0, fS,  c), where
The equations to PP' are
a/iJ = constant = 4F, say.
X _9/ 0L~
and eliminating
a.
Ex.
(iii)
5.
_z
\
2c'
and
f^
/3"
/3
a.(i
= AP, we
obtain the
AP2iA'P'2
of PP'.
Ex.
lines
Ex.
8.
Find the
two given
of them.
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.
9.
[cii. III.
Shew
lengtii
the
lines.
Ex,
cylinder.
Ex.
11.
lines
y= mx, z~ c;
If A, B,
volume in terms of
ABC
%),
(^'o
2/2.
is
x,
y>
s,),
z,
1
1
Vv
{x
2/2'
02,
2/3'
^3'
2/3.
= 0,
^3).
the
or
TITK V()LlT^[H
51]
OF A TETRAHEDKON
.similar
may
expressions
for
cos/3.A and
be written
Now
65
2i>A,
by
(2).
tetrahedron
plane ABC, {p
Vol.
Vol.
OB AC
is
positive as in 37).
We may then
write
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Agam,
since
[CH.
III.
51]
67
^=^,
C,
B.
and
JjAi/D
1
Bi/Di,
A2/D^,
wiiere Ai
Di
is
,.
da^
etc.
given by
Ci/Di,
11
__i
A,.
6DiD.D,D.,
etc.
1
B,
etc.
6D1D2D3D;
(C. Smith, Algebra, p. 544.)
"Ex.
OABC
ft.,
the volume.
the coordinates of
Therefore
are
l,a,
m,a, n,a,
etc.
[CH.
CHAPTER
IV.
IV.
CHANGE OF AXES.
52.
OX, OY,
axes through a
of O^,
O)],
%. P, any
OX, OY, OZ and ^,
Zg,
mg,
l^^,
w^,
n^',
^ referred to Of,
Z
Orj,
O^.
We
have to
A.V
fK
^^^e^
express
and
x, y,
z in terms of
^,
],
and the
directioncosines,
viceversa.
(1)
52,53]
O^,
Or],
69
O^
in (nrn
(2)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
70
From
and each
^iHrn^HV
h>
(b),
[cii.
we
derive
IV.
O^,
O*;,
O^ can be brought by
rotation about
into coin
If the direction of
rotation
is
with OX,
OY
respectively, then
Now
71
Vol.
OLMN:
h,
O^
COOEDINATE GEOMETEY
72
54.
[CH.
The
IV.
follow
+ m^ + n'^=l,
and n is positive.
Take as O^, the new axis of z, the normal to the plane
which passes through O and makes an acute angle with
OZ. Then the equations to O^, referred to OX, OY, OZ, are
x/l = y/m = z/n.
Take as Otj, the new yaxis, the line in
the plane ZO^ which is at right angles to O^ and makes an
acute angle with OZ.
Then choose 08, the new axis, at
right angles to Oij and O^, and so that the system O^, Oij, O^
can be brought to coincidence with OX, OY, OZ. The given
l^
plane
it is
is ^0)j,
and since O^
at right angles to
Hence O^
lies in
is
at right angles to
OZ which
lies
^0>] is xll
= y/7n',
therefore
+ 'nv =
m\ lju = 0,
Am
whence  =
{),
is
0>;,
the line
O;/,
l\\mfx
O^ and
The
if \, fx,
54]
But
Oi]
positive,
the ambiguity.
In
nin
s/l\m^
And
since
O^ is
sJl'
rrr,
lv
n\,
7>l
Jl'^
+ nir'
,
+ mand
nfxniv,
ni\
lii;
Jl^^
+ m^
0.
O^',
by 53
(e>.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
74
[ch. iv.
The
+ hi/ +
.:
The
cz"^
by the plane
section
= 0,
XOY
is
ax + Ihxy +
surfaces represented
hf + 2?<.r + 2v?/ + f/ = 0.
by equations
conicoids.
Ex.
3.
^'
are then,
= k,
= k',
ax"^
Hence the
conies.
Ex.
Ex.
4.
Find
5.
of ax + by^ = 2z
by
lv+my + nz=^p
method
Ans. {a
of 54.)
6.
n=Oj\bc) = m'^{ca).
Ex.
7.
If lx + my =
is
a circular section of
prove that
Ex.
lx
8.
+ 'iny^nz = 0,
2
^
= 1
Ini
Shew
9.
a.r2
75
that
if
by"
czr'
Prove that
+ I2 + I3
I1
mj^
Hi
Ex.
12,
+ jUo + mg
+ %2 + '^3
prove that the
substitutions
\/3
Ve'
^/2
2S
\/3
\'6'
._ J
\/3
,.
V2
Ve
*55,
are
If
a.
oblique
m^, n^
l^,
OZ
O^,
I.,,
O//,
O^, as in 52,
we
y = m^i+m.2r, + m^^,^
z= n^^+
n^ti+
rj
^cos
cos
jy
(a)
i?3^.J
^+
obtain
/n
^/
(B)
>/0^,
^^O^,
^Or are
i
and adding.
X,
bj'
X,
jj.,
v.
The equations
multiplying in turn by
Again, from
(a),
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
?e
By means
and
of (a)
[ch. iv.
(c)
rect
Cor.
vice
versa,
x,
y,
any equation
the degree of
^,
>;,
and
unaltered by
is
and hence
in this
equation
Ex.
is
The equation
1.
,t'''
+ 4(v/ +
=2
i,")
is transformed by change
being oblique, and having
2,1,1;
Shew
that the
4,
\/3l, \/3l
new equation
is .v^
4,
?/'^
VS 1,
Vol.
OPQR =
3,
1,
Cs
Vsi
is,
cos
V,
COS
jjL,
(Use
* Examples
1.
The gnomon
2.
v/S
1.
+ z^ = l.
referred to a set of
COST,
cos
jU,
1,
cos
cos A,
55 (b)
T
;
51,
cf.
Ex.
9.)
I.
meridian at an elevation A
(equal to the latitude), and the sun is due east at an elevation a.
Find the angle 6 that the shadow makes with the N. and S. line of
the dial.
j^.
of a sundial
?/
+1
is
>
in the
line
through
(1,
1,
I) M'hich
meets
its inter
/15
line is
15
5 \
52 2b/
\2b
r,
= 1, 2, 3;
3. If OA, OB, OC have directionratios I,., Wr, r,
bisect the angles BOO, COA, AOB, the planes
and OA', OB',
AOA', BOB', COC pass through the line
z
^
_
)/
_
m^ + m^ + m^ n^ + + n^
li + li + lz
'
OC
n.^^
is
OMN
coscc''^
EXAMPLES
cii. IV.]
Shew
5.
iiif =
sin
at the
same angle
(.(//
circle
.v
section
i/'^
= c\
new
lines
dbcoso.
is
cos
oLaz sin
.)(.;,*
sin a.
z=/i,
a//
cos
a.)
= 0.
v c^ + h^.
7.
into
is
meet the
^
._
.
6.
77
I.
positions,
li,
and the
Wp
directioncosines of the
n^, etc.;
then
new axes
referred
if
is
if
rotated,
is
Any
9.
thi'ee
7273
I,,
ruo,
^3,
WI3,
n.^
a.3>
made
= '^ =
^
"'
'
the edges of a
, r=l,
2,
3,
''''
etc.
h,
"2,
is zero.
10.
PQ
?t~^
3h,
OR
are edges.
is the diagonal of the cube of which OP, OQ,
the diagonal of the parallelepiped of which OQ, OR, OS are
Find the coordinates
are formed similarly.
edges, and OV and
is the diagonal of the parallelepiped of which
(.f "U, V, W, and if
witli OS and that
coincides
shew
that
edges,
are
OU, OV,
o r = 5 OS.
11.
OU
OS
is
OW
OW
OT
OT
12. Find the equations to the straight line through the origin
which, meets at right angles the line whose equations are
{b
of section.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
78
14.
x^ +
i/'^
[ch. iv.
+ z = and
a'^,
A>2+//62=l,
= 0.
m,
{I,
in, n),
7i).
Lines are drawn to meet two given lines and touch the right
cylinder whose axis is the s.d. (length 2c), and radius c.
Find the surface generated.
17.
circular
19.
circles
A
.r
20.
whose
x=y
is
and the
moves so as to intersect the line z=0,
y2 + 2^ = J'^
y = 0, z'\x' = r'^. Prove that the equation to
line
= 0,
the locus
+ nz=p
{,^^yf{f^^{xyf\ = r\xy)\
is
Prove that
1
^=
Lj, L^, Lg are three given straight lines and the directions of
Find the locus of the line joining the
at right angles.
feet of the perpendiculars from any point on L3 to Lj and Lg.
23.
Li
and L2 are
The ends
joined to
BQ
are
and B are two points on a given plane and AP,
25.
Shew that for all
lines in given directions at right angles to AB.
is constant, and that all such
lines PQ, parallel to the plane,
lines lie on a conicoid.
two
AP BQ
:
26.
AC
The vertex
])ass
of a triangle
BC
is
ABC
lies
B and C
a conicoid.
lie
EXAMPLES
cii. IV.]
79
I.
27.
to the .ry/plane
28.
line
+//')
tan'/i
moves so as
i'^
meet the
to
lines
cos
a.
'l
[3, is
in
isino.
= k^, .v = 0.
of the midpoint of AB is
asymptotes are parallel to the given lines.
If the
30.
is
.V sjd^
y=
.rtana, z c,
Shew
that
its efjua
which
and 6 a parameter.
to the
is
the curve
.v
+ 2i/ = 4z,
x+y'^ = a^.
Thi'ough a fixed line L, which lies in the .?v/plane but does not
pass through the origin, is drawn a plane which intersects the planes
x=0 and j/ = in lines M and N respectively. Through and a fixed
point A, and through N and another fixed point B, planes are drawn.
33.
line of intersection.
34. The axes are rectangular and a point P moves on the fixed
plane xja + i/jhJrzIc^^. The yjlane through P perpendicular to OP
meets the axes in A, B, C. The planes through A, B, C paialiel to
YOZ, ZOX, XOY intersect in Q. Shew that the locus of Q is
X
ax
z
by
cz
AB and CD are
tludugh AB cuts CD in
35.
locus of
36.
,r
= 0,
given
P,
and
nonintersecting lines.
Any plane
PQ is normal to it at P. Find the
PQ.
2'^
= a2
?/
= 0,
s^F.f
= 6
= 0,
.r,v
circles
such
37. Find the locus of the position of the eye at which two given
nonintersecting lines appear to cut at right angles.
COOKDINATE GEOMETRY
so
[ch. iv.
a line which
The
39.
two points
to the polar of
(.rj,
^j, z{)
with respect to
t(,
= 0, v = 0, is +  =0, where
Any
40.
hedron
A A',
meets the faces BCD, CDA, DAB, ABC of a tetraProve that the midpoints of
in A', B', C, D'.
line
ABCD
BB',
CC, DD'
are coplanar.
41. If the axes are rectangular, and X, jx, v are the angles between
the lines of intersection of the planes a^r + 6^_y + c^s 0, r=\, 2, 3,
prove that
rt3,
_ (2a,2 1a^
~
.
42.
2a3^) (1
63 j
C3
 co s^ A  cos'^x  cos^i/ +
sin X sin [x sin v
The equations x = Xz +
ij.,
i/
2 cos
A cos /x cos v)
and
jx
^56
CHAPTER
V,
THE SPHERE.
Equation to a sphere.
56.
li'
P, (x^, y^, z^
and Q, (.'^2, y.,, z.^ is given by {x^Xif + iy^yif + iz.iz^f,
and therefore the equation to tlie spliere whose centre is
P and whose radius is of length r, is
(x
Any
can be written
and radius
,
)
a/
2.
Find the
centime
.r'^
Ex.
3.
Shew
(.'
>/'
to the sphere
4.
and radius of
//
spliere given
A ni.
1 1,
by
(1
2,
.3),
5.
7 {.'
tlie
(0,
.1 s.
whose
Ex.
is
"Ju^+v'^ + w' ad
0,
0),
+ z)\
(0,
5,?,'
1,
(^
(.<,, ;/,,
to the sphei'e
(1,
]),
 25 y 
=
0.
2,
 h )('  j) =
z^), {x.,,
through
0),
(1,
>/.,,
z.>)
tlie
2,
as diameter.
points
;?)
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.
(a., 13,
A ns.
Ex.
and
5.
point
[CH.
6.
the origin,
(i)
A ns.
5 {.v^
(i)
the point
(ii)
circle
(1, 2, 3).
(ii)
Ex. 7. The plane ABC, whose equation is .v/a + i//b + zlc = l, meets
Find equations to determine the circumcircle of
the axes in A, B, C.
the triangle ABC, and obtain the coordinates of its centre.
Ans.
.v/a
+ i//b + z/c = l,
a(62 + c)
x^ + i/^ + z"^
ax~bi/cz=0
+ a^)
2(a2 + 62 + c2)'
*Ex.
2{a^
Ans.
+ b^l
+ b' + c^y
c(a^
6(c2
?2.
9.
the equation
a
j;2
^ = ^ =
bc~
~~
cos A
cos u cos V
^^
a cos
V,
acosju,,
a cos
V,
a,
57.
a cos
a cos
a cos A,
u,
Q,
1 /
is
V,
S\^
^
M'hen
/x,
A,
cos
a,
to
cos/x,
w,
and A;
1,
COSVj
I',
1,
cos A,
COSjU.
COS
A
1
(a,'2, i/o,
and therefore
(a^i
Xy^
x.^,
zi
z,^.
^57,58]
to
Suppose
OM.
OM
tluit
meets
8:5
sphere in A and
tlie
tliat
(3,
y), is
(.ra)a+(^/3)i8 + (0y)y = O,
x(X
or
Ex.
+ y(3 + zy =
j3''
+ y = a.
1.
{n cos 6 sin
to the sphere x^
Ans.
(jJ'
^'cos
i/'^
a sin 6 sin
(f>,
a cos
cj>,
<^)
+ = n^.
z'^
Mn
f/i
+ ^ cos
(/>
2.
xx
Ans.
+i/i/'
+ zz' + u(x +
.v')
(r', i/,
/) to
tlie
Ex. 3. Find the condition that the plane lx + m}/ + nz=p should
touch the sphere x^ + i/^ + z + 2ux + 2vi/ + 2wz + d = 0.
A ns.
{ul
v'^
+ \o^  d).
Ex. 4. Find the equations to the spheres which .pass through the
nrcle .^2+^2+2:2=5^ x + 2y + 'Az = 2, and touch the plane 4?;+ 3y= 15.
A ns.
,r2
5x2
Ex.
at
5.
+ 2ux+2vy \2icz\d = 0,
x"^
,r2
*58.
if
+ 2vv^ir2ivw^=d+d^.
OP OQ
.
is
constant.
The equations
directioncosines are
I,
m,
n, are
whose
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
84
The point on
coordinates
this line,
a.ilr,
[ch. v.
,..+r(/* +
if
+) + F(rx,/?,y) =
OP OQ
0.
is
all
The measure
Definition.
OP OQ
of
the power of
is
Si
S^
two
whose
the plane
is
given by
S^
= S.,
or 2(u^ u^)x
This plane
It
is
is
two
spheres.
line joining
the
tivo
the
centres.
Tlie
'pass
through one
line.
line are 51
= 80 = 83.)
Tlie
2/2
(Take the
to
any two
02 4. 2 A^a;
spheres can he
+ d = 0,
x^
?/2
The equation
a;
tlie
form
+ + 2\x + cZ = 0.
z^
radical plane as
put in
tu'o
as
a;axis
and the
= 0.)
x^\y'^
+ z^\2\x + d^0,
said to be
EXAMPLES
58]
85
II.
as
d=
0.
Ex. 2. 81iw tliat the centres of the two spliures of the system
which have zeroiadiiis are at the points ( y,Ul, 0, 0). (These are the
limitingpoints of the s3'steni.)
Ex.
and
Shew
3.
.v
7/'
+ z +
2iJ.//
+ 2vzd=0,
whore
[J.
Ex.
The
4.
locus of points
Ex.
is
Shew
5.
great circles
all
* Examples II.
3.
is
in A, B, C.
If
2^
i
+ a.i
2r/
61
+ ^1
2t
ci
+ yi
(aoL)i
+ (6/:J)i + (t7)>'
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
86
[ch. v.
8. Prove tbat the centres of spheres which touch the lines y = mx,
sc; y WW, 3= c, lie upon the conicoid 7Ha;^ + c0(l + i^) = O.
9. If the opposite edges of a tetrahedron are at right angles the
centre of gravity is the midpoint of the line joining the point of
concurrence of the perpendiculars and the centre of the circumscribing
sphere.
13.
If
surface given
by
X + + z = 0,
?/
lx^my\nz = %
prove that
{i^
h
15. Prove that the equations to the spheres that pass through the
points (4, 1, 0), (2,3, 4), (1, 0, 0), and touch the plane 2.rf 2^5 = 11,
are
s26.rf2y 451 5 = 0,
r2+.y2 +
1 6.;2
in the octant
Prove that
17.
constant
is
(
a point on
= .). On AB
parallel to
OZ.
Prove
OX
OAB
OY
is
so that the angle
on
as diameter a circle is described whose plane is
varies the circle generates the cone
that as
and
AB
POP'
is
xla'^+y^/h" = l,
as diameter.
.,.2
_y2_
EXAMPLES
v.]
cii.
f+f=o,
be
gr+y^ + z^
x y
a^ + ^a +
c''^
circuniscrilMiig
the
^+U^=i,
b
c
20.
and
the spliere
U^=o,
a b
^+^=0,
c
ja
to
87
II.
ABC
21. Find the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which passes
through the origin O and meets the axes in A, B, C, so that the
volume of the tetrahedron OABC is constant.
22. A sphere of constant radius k passes through the origin and
meets the axes in A, B, C. Prove that the centroid of the triangle
ABC lies on the sphere Q{x''+y^ + z) = Ak'K
23. The tangents drawn from a point P to a sphere are all equal to
the distance of P from a fixed tangent plane to the sphere. Prove
that the locus of P is a paraboloid of revolution.
24.
circles
+ >/ + 2  + 3y + 435 = 0,
;f2+y + i''^3.r 4^ + 52 6 = 0,
x"
2,;
its
should
lie
+1=
equation.
circles
5 // + Gi
x\2ylz =
'2,w'z{
d'
=0,
lx\my\nz=p
I'x
+ m'y^n'z^}/
OC
OA
OABC
.1'
OB
OC =
is
CHAPTER VI
THE CONE.
equation.
cone,
If x/l
Cor.
= y/in = z/n
is
satisfy a
Ex.
The
1.
line
Ex.
xjl^ylm^zln, where
'ix^\iy'^bz'^
'2l'
+ Zm'^bn^ = 0^
is
= 0.
Lines drawn through the point (a., /i, y) whose directiongenerate the cone
al'^ + bm'^ + cn^ =
2.
ratios satisfy
Ex.
vertex
3.
is
and
this
1, 0,
0;
is
0, 1,
+ hf + cz^
to be Satisfied
0;
0, 0, 1.
1
2/;i/2
by the
is
+ Igzx + ^lixji = 0,
i.e.
by
EQUATION TO A CONE
59]
89
+ f/n./o + hl^m., = 0.
fm.^n^
+ vi.^n.j.\m^n^=Q,
etc.,
remaining
axis.
bf + ez^=={
^''
'''''^
+ "' y.
(iii)
Alls,
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
x^+y^+z^ + 2ax + b = 0,
ax'^
hip'
= 22,
lx+mi/ + nz=p
Ix + my +
xla+f/b' + z'^/c =
1,
nz=p
x^!r^ + >fi(^
= ii.
{iuf^
9.
Tlie plane
A, B, C.
(^:)(;>"):'(^^)Ex. 10. Find the equation to the cone who.se vertex is the origin
and base the circle, x=n, _?/ + .; = ?/', and shew that the section of the
cone by a plane parallel to the plane XOY is a hyperbola.
Ans. a^(y^hz^) = b'.i^.
Ex.
origin
11.
Shew
= i;
f(x,
y) =
is/("
]=().
is
the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
90
60.
We
Angle between
find
it
lines in
convenient to introduce
notation, to whicli
we
[CH. VI.
liere
the
cone.
following
D=
C(j[uafcioii
hiu'
AND PLANE
G0]
Therefore
(8).
+ cv" 2fv'W
cu'^
if
they are
ly,
m^, n^;
I.;,,
91
in.^, );,;
+ aw^ 2gwu
/i^n2 +h''^h
h'^hk'^i
^
2{{h'ufi
^^
(4^
+ cuv...f{hw\..){enr...))^
_ ljm.2 l^n^i
~ 2wP
From
is
seen to be equal to
av^
But
if
2uP
+ bu^2huv~
+2'yP
is
cos
lJ^^
sin
+ m^m.^ +
ii^n^
(}
I^iriiyn.^ iu.^nJ^}
cos 6
"
(a + b + o){u' +
Ex.
2x
sin 6
Find
1.
+ ?/2 =
Ans.
V
^=1 = ';
1
2'
which the
in
phme
l^JL^l.
2
1
Ex. 2. Find the angles between the lines of section of the following planes and cones
:
6.f
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
A)is.
Ex.
i/z
(i)
3.
10//
3.i+.?/
v
Iz
% +z =
cos"'
= 0,
+ 5s=0,
,
(ii)
0,
108./. ^
 2Qif 
3j?2
C0S1,
Prove
+ zx + x// =
72
Qyz2zx{bxi/ = 0;
cos~'
'
ax + hi/ + ci =
if
cuts
the
cone
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
92
61.
or
Aii;
then sin
+ Bv{Civ^+2Fuiv +
= 0, and
==
2GiVii
Equation
i.e.
If
+ 2HiLV = 0,
p = 0,
.(1)
[ch. vi.
(1)
to the plane, is a
Similarly, since
.........(2)
the corre
1.
+ 7=^
are reciprocal.
Ex.
3.
lie
on the cone
19,''
bY
62. Condition that the cone has three mutually perpendicular generators. The condition that the plane should
cut the cone in perpendicular generators is
{a
If also the
and therefore
V,
a{h
lies
w) = 0,
+ = 0.
<;
V,
w)
(1)
TANGENCY OF PLANK
!561G3J
viz.,
ANJ) (X)NK
93
lias
= 0,
If (ijb\c
be
and therefore
(1),
number of sets of
ux + vy + wz =
if
w) = 0,
(a\h
\
since
Hence, by
lies
V,
f{u,
For
w),
v,
generators.
is
two generators
of the cone at
any
given generator.
Ex.
1.
Ex.
which
x;'^
i/
tan~V2.
mutually perpendicular
(Cf. Ex. 3, 59.)
Shew
2.
passes
+ z = 3(i',
be
Ex.
If
4.
"^=1=1
A ns. X =y= z.
Ex.
(6
in
Ax =
= 2O2.
(6
/.r
perpendicular lines
63.
5 ?/
5.
c) l
/5,
I
if
+ w?/
h) z^
y)
and
J{x, y)
'icitose
vertex
Is
the
To
_^)o?7?/
= 0.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
94
The equations
to
any
through
line
x a.
t/
ir=m
and the hne meets the plane
{Ui
This point
is
/3
vl
^, y) are
='>'
= in
my,
the point
0).
if
Zy, ^ my) = 0,
/(rx
/3)y(^^+^^^)+yV(^>
/(a,
i.e. if
ly,
(rx,
[cii.
^>0o,
(1)
i.e.
The
result is
i.e.
{zyfM> ^)y(^y){^^^^^+r^%)
+ y'^<p{xcx,y8) = 0.
This equation
The
may
be transformed as follows
coefficient of y^ is
/(rx, /3)
and the
coefficient of
5;y
B+y^)=f(x,y);
is
(^^x)g+(2//3)^+2/(a,/3).
If f{x, y) be
variable
Wft
sy
becomes
of
an auxiliary
ditlerentiation,
G3
It is to
we
of zy,
be noted
to the cone
is
by equating
tliat
95
/3,
0) with
1.
and base
Am.
(i)
(i)
(ii)
whose vortex
to the cone
is (fx,
/i,
= ^ax^ 2 = 0.
+ 6/3 1)  2iy(aou; + 6/:??/  1) + 7 (.; + ?>/ 1) =
^2(/i2  4a.)  2iy /iy  2c< (.^ + (x) + y'O/  \ax) = 0.
ax' + by'^==l,
= 0;
y)
(ii) y'
,:''(aM.
Ex. 2. Find the hieus of points from which three mutually perpendicular lines can be drawn to intersect the conic s = 0, axP'\h}i = \.
(If (a., /3, y)is on the locus, the cone, Ex.
perpendicular generators.)xhxs.
.r2
1 (i),
+ % + o(a + i) = l.
3.
surface of revolution.
Ex.
4.
lies
on a fixed
0,
is
= 0,
,7;+y
+ 2a.'r+2% = 0,
on the
If the
saxis.
a rectangular hyperbola,
c)
circle.
Ex,
= 0,
5.
is
the sphere x^
\ f/"^
+ z^ = a^ + U^.
*Examples
III.
Shew that
w{ah)
v{ca)
%t{hc)
^
^^^
If
fyz+gzx + hxi/=^0
is
the bisectors
.r2 4 6?/
+ cs^ =
sufficient conditions
may be
stated,
(i)
(1)
(2)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
96
[ch. vi.
must cut the cone (1) in perpendicular lines (ii) the lines of section
of the plane and the cones (1) and (2) must be harmonically conjugate.
;
''^''^
W'
fino+gvm + huv = Q)
(3)
(ii)
/:
(cf.
and
(4),
we
./
2,^2
,;2
p. 55.)
(4)
/^ 1
ff
w{ab)J
v{ca)
Shew
obtain
u{bc)
2.
toh)
i.e.
(3)
gives
From
=
= 0.
lie
on the cone
_ (6  c) m2 + (c  a) y2 + (a  6) w2 J = 0.
z^
3. Two
= 4:bi/, and
4.
Planes through
OX
and
OY
5.
Any
lies
Shew that
a..
+ z'')=.rh/''t?in'^a..
include an angle
on the cone
ez'^
x + y + z^O,
7.
bc
is n/2 if
a + 6 + c = 0, but
Shew
two
ca
lines given
by
7r/3 if l/rt
+ l/?) + l/c = 0.
in
hyperbola
by
+ ^ + ab = 0.
8.
lines given
+ z.v+xy =
,
EXAMPLES
CH. VI.]
9.
ITI.
97
The vertex
11.
curve
F{i/, z)
w = 0, F
of a cone is (a,
= 0, x = 0.
5
Shew
=0
12. OP and OQ are two straight lines that remain at right angles
and move so that the plane OPQ always passes through the saxis.
If OP describes the cone F(v//a', zIx)=0, prove that OQ describes the
cone
Prove that
13.
cone
14.
if
a.r2
9\
'%
^
(!)}=
represents a
ula\v^lb+w^lG = d.
Prove that
if
+ 2y + 2Gj  1 7 = 0,
2,*,2
should be coincident.
(hfi + cni^
\
fmn
cl
gnl
him
\
'
17. Find the equations to the planes through the 2axis and the
z) = 'd, and
lines of section of the plane %x^v]i{wz = ^ and cone/(.r,
(The axes may be
prove that the plane touches the cone if P = 0.
_?/,
oblique.)
18. Prove that the equation to the cone through the coordinate
and the
axes and the lines of section of the cone ll.v5y + s =
14?/230z.r+3.r?/ = 0,
and that the other
is
plane 7.r5_y + s =
common generators of the two cones lie in the plane H.)' + 7// + 7i= 0,
B.G.
CJ
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
98
19.
(62c2
lie in
[en. vi,
by
cz
'
the planes
{he
l{hn^
that touches the coordinate planes, and that the equation to the
reciprocal cone is fyz+gzx + hxy = 0.
22. Prove that the equation to the planes through the origin
perpendicular to the lines of section of the plane lx+my + nz = and
the cone ax'^ + hy"^ + 0*2 = is
sfi{hi^
64)
CHAPTER
VII.
We
The
(1) represents
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
100
[en. VII.
a"
and
is
it.
The surface
is
in
Tlie section
by any
YOZ or ZOX,
a hyperbola.
variable ellipse
is
turn tlirough
a
Ir
c^
64,65]
lOl
and
is
surface
lies
iig.
The
31.
section
'
The
the centre.
65.
An
the points
OX
are y =
\z =
ix,
The equations
and
it
+ ^^dt^, .
to
any
line
.),
Any
shortly,
is
XOY
of
OX.
Similarly,
the
OY
of intersection of
If the
ZOX,
XOY
Hence
'\.
COORDINATE GEOMETER
lOiJ
[ch.
its
vu
principal axes
as coordinate axes.
66.
a given
line through
I,
'point A, (a,
y) meets
8,
in P and Q;
to
AP and AQ.
m, n are the
it
find the
is
conicoid,
OL
(1)
This
1.
If
OD
If
DOD'
is
is
constant.
Ex.
2.
any diameter
is
Ex.
is
If
3.
AD
of the conicoid
and AD',
^+
OR"
OR
in
and
,
is
OR
"
E and
E',
constant.
67.
If
aa^
and OR'
constant.
b(3''
r^+xp?
^^
+ cy^ = 1
APQ
A, (a,
y)
j8,
+ b/Sm + cyn = 0,
aoil
If, also,
is
of r given
should be a tangent at
we
eliminate
I,
m,
all
(2)
(3)
and
(3),
we
obtain
y), viz.,
(.K
or
'V;
+ cyn =
between
A, is
aa.l{bl3m
If
i.e.
/3,
,^_a._y^_z^y
~ m ~ n "'
I
line
((/.,
zero,
6568]
line.s
acjLX
which
68.
at (a,
/3,
lie
y)
103
in the
phme
+ h^ij + cyz = 1
is
To find
plane Ix + my + nz = p
(3,
l.
y),
is
represented
aoLXhh0y + cyz=l,
lx
a= a^)
Therefore
+ my + nz=p.
p = ry
0})
on the
is
I
y = cp
conicoid,
VI'
n^
+ =P'
+r
^
c
a
Cor.
Ix \my
parallel
to
+ nz =
lx{inii
+ nz= +
r=l,
+ mrV + n^^. J^L+V^+'ll,
c
'a
2, 3,
'''^^ + ^ =
111
a + b + c
on a sphere concentric
Ex. 2. Prove that the equation to the two tangent planes to the
conicoid ax^ + hif + cz^ l which pass through the line
= Ix + my \nz p = 0,
i(
u'
+ A' =
= l'x +
')n\i/
+ n'zp' = 0,
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
104
Ex.
3.
^,
line
a
tlie
[ch. vii.
tangent jjlanes to
4x+6i/ + Sz = d.
Ex. 5. Tangent planes are drawn to the conicoid a.v^ + hy" + C4r=\
through the point (a., jB, y). Prove that the perpendiculars to them
='
"
from the origin generate the cone {cL.r + Py + yzf + +
of this cone
the cone
is
and hence shew that the tangent planes envelope the cone
{ax'^
69.
plane.
We now
of
A with
Let
A,
APQ have
APQ are
(tig.
directionratios
I,
in, n.
^^
,j_^
._^
ni
;;,
let
to
POLAk
TiTE
,i^(;!),7o]
and, as in
()(), ')\,
'i\,,
I'J.AKE
the nioayures
105
AP and AQ,
oi"
arc the
roots of
r\alr{h))r
in
?!V?^
aoC'
^ ~ r^ + 9'2 ~
And from
+ hl^' + cy'^ l
+ b/3m + cyn
AQ
are
'
aoil
^(A=lp,
^y = Vp,
= Wp,
,y/3
therefore
Hence
tlie
locus of
(^,
axjLV
which
is
Cor.
^) is
>/,
is
tangent plane at
by
+ h^y + cyz = 1
(3,
y).
is
the
A.
The student cannot have failed to notice the similarity between the
equations to corresponding loci in the plane and in space. There is a
close analogy between the equations to the line and the plane, tlie
circle and the sphere, the ellipse and the ellipsoid, the tangent or
polar and the tangent plane or polar plane. Examples of this
analogy will constantly I'ccur, and it is well to note these and make
use of the analogy as an aid to remember useful results.
Polar
70.
(a,
/5,
of (^'
lines.
a line
oii
AB
PQ
passes through
AB and PQ
The
to the conicoid.
of
((jl
+ It,
y + nr), any
point on
x L_y p_z y
in
is
^ivir,
acLV +
l>fil/
+ (y'.
\
(1)
f{(iI.r\bmy
+ cnz)=^0,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
loe
all
aoLx + hjBy
This
values of
r,
is
[ch. vii.
(1).
of
'a)
PQ
axx.^
+ hyt/^ + ^^^2 = 1
PQ
(Hence
Ex.
of the
Ex.
if
aiid
3.
Ex.
point
?/
+l
= 22
y) at right angles
(i,
ax^\hy'^ + cz^ = \
Ans.
Ex.
line.
+1
4.
(oL,
2.^2
the line of
2.K=25?/1
with respect to the conicoid
is
is
drawn through a
fixed
polars with respect to
lines
their
to
(rectangular axes).
2^^fJM=0.
xa.\h cj
Prove that
5.
lines
through
(ol, (i,
~TJ + ^ + ^'=^
(_^f3)(c^yx) + {zy){a.>/f3x) = 0.
What
Ex.
6.
is
when
xa. _y
''
Ex.
:irtfx.rx'
7.
= l,
::Sa(x.7
= 0,
= hl
x  a! _y  fi' ^z  y'
zy
13
^ m ^
lines
^aoLl'
= 0,
n'
+ by'^ + cz^=l.
ax'^
1aU' = 0.
line
11
intersect the polar of the line 'Lz^. =LlR. =zZSL with respect to the
conicoid
a.r''^
+ 6?/ +
c^^
= l.
'""
'^
8.
Prove that
if
AB
PQ
PQ
.70,71]
71.
If
(oc,
lo7
is
^, y)
the
xCL^yl^^zy
^G6
is
of the
n
form
.J.
'
r^
= k^,
and therefore
Hence
all
the plane
(2)
(a,
y)
(3,
^^._^^^^^_^(^^_^y^^^(^_^^^^^()
(oc, /3,
y)
the centre.
A )is:
Ex.
.r h
conicoid
is
'[
whose
.v
4i/'^
oz"^ = \
6^  1 02 f 20 = 0.
The
2.
is (., /3).
Ex.
in
lie in
locus of the
a diameter.
The
conicoid
that
are
lie
lie
Ex,
5.
on a conic.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
108
Ans.
(a.v
+ % + cs) =  + ^ +
,
"'*'""
.)so
b'l/'
of sections of ax'^
[cii. vii.
bi/'^
cz'^
=l
cV
It follows
X_ y
lie in
the plane
This
is
_z
0.
parallel chords
which
bisects the
(fig. 34).
1.
bi/'^
+ cz" = l
bif\hx^ +
73.
point.
The
bf
f
cz
 6?)
cz~{cx'^
When
(fig. 32),
becomes a tangent,
72,73]
109
ol'
x a.
I
y ^ _z y
~ n
The
locus of
APQ
is
(1
+ 6(//^)Hc(sy)][arx+6/3 + cy2_i]
= [aaix  a.) + 6/3 y  /3) + cy (s  y
S = ax + bif + cz~l, S^ = a(L + 6/3 + t'y^  1
P = aoux,\h^ii + cyz l,
is
[a(a;oc)3
If
and
may be written
(S2p + Si)Si = (PSi)2,
)]2.
this equation
{ax^+hif^cz"
1
) (aa2
hj^^
i.e.
SSi
= P,
or
(., /i)
+ bij~ = \.
Ex. 1. Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular tangent lines can be drawn to the surface ax'\by' + cz^=\.
Ans. a{h + c)x + h{c + a)y^ + c{a + b)z^ = a + h + c.
Ex.
Ex.
Ex.
5^
w
4.
x^\y'^+z'^
kf
5.
x^ja? +y^jb'^
a'^
in a conic
Find
the
+ z^jc'' =\
Ans. x=0,
locus
of
p^, + = l
"^.,
ba~
casts a circular
c
',
v^O, ,^,+~,= \,
'
of the sphere
(0, 0, a).
(ib^
c^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
110
[en. vii.
it lies
Ex.
x'^/a'^
The
9.
i/'^/b'^
Dla,
+ z^/c^ = l whose
(ii)
The
a given
line.
Suppose
tliat
PQ
is
line.
which
bisects all
S74,75]
Let (a,
/5,
a given
to
Then
y)
(fig.
= yjin = zln.
line xll
since,
111
by 73
(1),
the line
x CL_ 2/_2: /S _z y
~ n
if
is
given by
which
is
1.
xJa +ji//b^
Prove
that
the
+ z'^/C' = 1, whose
x_
3=0
_z
in circles.
Prove that the polar of a line AB is the line of intersection of the planes of contact of the enveloping cone whose vertex is
A and the enveloping cylinder whose generators are parallel to AB.
Ex.
75.
we
2.
Normals.
normals to the
ellipsoid,
angular axes,
have, as in
,/3
+ z cos y,
whose point
a tangent plane
( 2?
of contact
>
0),
is
{x\ y\ z'\
6<S,
r)x'
cos oc ='^,
cos
r,
,o
= VV'
,y
'
cos
V^
y = g"
.

we
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
112
that
at
^; ^> ^.
C"
y\ z) are
{x',
va.
the directioncosmes of
IS,
[cii.
where p
is
the perpendicular
ft"'
The
xx
Ex.
shew that
1.
Putting
yy _zz'
_^^
X>x'
piL
HI
a
6
c
If the
for
.r
,.:=PG,=
Ex.
If
2.
A71S.
Ex.
3.
if it is
Ex.
4.
intersection
of
The normal
PQ
is
tincl
of
we obtain
etc.
the locus of P.
the
of
P,
and prove
XOY
in
at a variable point P meets the plane
and equal to AP. Prove that the
to
if
OR
OZ
is
A P.
Ans.
a.x^^
+ b^f' + ch^^c*.
If the
{x', y',
___
^}]' _
X
if
point.
^^'
and
76.
at
gS.
;
AQ is drawn parallel
Q is given by
Ex.
= ^i4m:^
A, and
locus of
parallel to
The curve
ellipsoid "I+VJ
that
&2
y
is
yf
zf_
If
/3,
the normal
7),
then
(1)
'
equal to X,
(2)
normals
Tin:
7r,,7G]
Therefore, since
y',
(.<,',
a^a
z)
113
on the elhpsoid,
i.s
cV
h^^^
^'^^
(aHXy^^(6HA)2^(cHA)'^~'
A, to each of which
and therefore there are
six points on the eUipsoid the normals at which pass
through (rx., j8, y).
corresponds a point
Ex.
(If
Prove
1.
(;',
c'),
'\j\
tliat
is
negative
Ex. 2. Prove that four normals to the ellipsoid pass through any
point of the curve of inteisection of the ellipsoid and the conicoid
x\}fi
from equations
It follows
from (a,
/3,
lie
b^z{l3y) = c''y{yz),
normals
ficmi
normals
on the three cylinders
y) to the ellipsoid
c(ry(cL
IP')
^x{yz)^(rz((x.x),
x) = b^x(^ y).
hyperbola through the
to the rectangular
the jDoint
(a., (3)
and equations
it
in
terms of a parameter
The points
X.
any point on
are given
and as
by
lici^cL
.,
+,9
+d=
wc'y
+37C
vly^B
+ = 0,
,
,
of
cubic cxirvc.
The
ellipsoid are
therefore the
normals from
feet of the
six points
of
is
meets
therefore a
'Vx, /3,
y) to the
intersection
of
normal at
has directioncosines
I,
m,
7?,
passes through
(fx, /?,
y) and
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1.14
[ch. rii.
and therefore
I
'
x a._y ^_ z y
is
771
six
Zy
y (3
X CL
Hence the
normals from
(oc, j8,
y)
lie
on a cone of the
second degree.
Ex.
3.
If
is
the point
(a.,
Ex.
4.
Shew
lies
on the cone.
Ex. 5. Prove that the feet of the six normals from (a,
the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and the cone
/5,
y)
lie
on
'
z
X
y
Ex. 6. The generators of the cone which contains the normals
from a given point to an ellijjsoid are at right angles to their polars
with respect to the ellipsoid.
Ex. 8. If P, Q, R P', Q', R' are the feet of the six normals from
a point to the ellipsoid, and the plane PQR is given 'bylx+my\nz=p,
then the plane P'Q'R' is given by
;
a^l
(If P'Q'R' is
same
b^m
c)i
is
the
as
U2+A + /r + A + c2+I
Ex.
9.
PQR,
J"^)
P'Q'R',
Conjugate
diameters
and conjugate
diametral
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS
i76,77]
is
cc^i(A^
and
(v!}
+ y'^llr + 2rjc^=l,
tlie
65).
115
OP
diametral plane of
has for
Let Q,
ellipsoid,
b'
c^
then
~a^^l)'
Hence,
0.
"*
"^
a^
equation, ( 72),
its
if
is
c'
'
is
on the
intersect in
OP and OQ
(tig.
8G),
is
OR
OR is
diametral plane of
metral plane of
that
the
the dia
is,
plane OPQ.
OR
respec
^+
^ + ^1,
a'.,
a'
i^2
'
"T"
Ml T^
(A')
c
'
0,
7,2
62
4.!n
^ M2
Ir ^ c'
dO
6^
.VS^l
a
to ecjuations (a)
and
(u) of
53,
shew that
111
?!
b' c
'
b'
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
116
we
[en. vri.
Therefore, as in 58,
deduce,
2/A + ^/222+2/3% = 0,
Z^X^
(c')
^1
+ Z.^X^+Z.^X^ = Q,
.(D')
+%'+v=c^i)
~
he
'
ca
2_ +(M3L_Mi)^
h'
the
axes
2/3'
rectangular, equations
etc., etc.;
(e')
+abc.
which the
to
"'
ah
be
If
'
ellipsoid
referred
is
are
on adding,
(c') give,
of the squares on
constant.
is
From
we
to abc.
and
if A^, Ag,
(r=l,
POQ
2, 3),
we
obtain
Thh

similarly.
by
(E'):
ahz.
n,A
2b''
i=2,
cay^
hcx^
'"26^'
2a'
m.,A.,
_^ahz^.
l^pA.,:
26
bcXo
+ A.3" + A., = ]
( b'C"
we
have,
by
+ c\t^ + (^"6).
abzo
(C),
CONJUGATE DIAMETERSEXAMPLES
77]
Ex.
c(iuatioii to the
Find the
1.
If the equation
lx + imj +
is
L t'2
Multiply by x\,
x.^,
PQR.
plane
nz=p, then
^^''3
lx\
ld'=p{xi+X2 + X2),
>;(.fi+.f2
is
.r',)
+ mij^ + nzi=py
and add
x^ respectively,
117
then by
(c')
and
(i/),
etc.
therefore
^{h+h + h) _^_
y{>/i+y2+y'i)
I
a
PQR
Shew
Ex.
Ex.
2,
x'l<x'
PQR.
3.
c
b'^
of the plane
PQR
lies
=
^"
''"
on the ellipsoid
+ ,y^/6 + zlc" = 3.
Ex. 4. The locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre
to the plane thronii;h the extremities of three conjugate seaiidiauieters
Ex.
5.
Shew
6.
(Cf. 59,
Ex.
lie
on a
6.)
planes
Ex. 8. If the axes are rectangular, find the locus of the equal
conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid x^la^+^fjb + z'lc = l.
If / is the length of one of the equal conjugate diameters,
;3r2
= a2 + 62 + c2,
P + m^ +
and
71^
7,
r
r^
~T,
a^
ru^
x\y\z^
or
^J(22
Ex.
9.
Shew
V'
10.
diameters,
If A,
is
Hx'^+f + z^
Ex.
+ 7v+~.'
co^
//.,
I'
n
'^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
118
[ch. vii.
OR
is
Ex.
13.
If,
The
14.
planes to 2+'t2 +
^^2
72
= 1>
which are
2
.jjZ
^
y
planes of
+ yTs + = l, is a."
^
aJ It
theorem become when (x = ft = y
,
Ex.
Ex.
Shew
15.
8, 70,
parallel
^2
'vi2
52
=
+ ^, + yfj'
/7t,
a.
to conjugate diametral
yi2
fj^
^.
What
+ 7>,4/jy^
(fig. 36),
OQ
OR.
OR
does this
which are
bi.sects all
Similarly
parallel to
OQ
16.
is
ellipsoid "^
+ t2 + ^ = 1 and
2o(.
and
2/5
are the principal axes of the section of the ellipsoid hy the diametral
plane of OP. Prove that OP'^ = cfi + b'^ + c' a? (3\ and" that a.fip = abc,
where p is the perpendicular from
to the tangent plane at P.
If 2a. and 2(3 are the principal axes of the section of the
17.
ellipsoid by the plane Lv + m?/
nz 0, prove that
Ex.
'y82 =
^Ex.
(^2)
18.
^/2> ii)
ellipsoid
a^l^fiP + nf + T^
If P, (ri, //j, 2j) is a point on the ellipsoid and (^,, ?;,, t,),
are extremities of the principal axes of the section of the
of OP, prove that
(^.ti
'/I
fl
555577,78]
119
The equation of a
one sheet refeiTcd to three conjugate diameters as
uf
coordinate axes
'
is
.
= 1.
+ ^,^
7
Hence
it
./
and
i8
//axes
is
ij~^+v = l
at the i)oints (0, 0, y), and these points are taken as tlie extremities
of the third of the three conjugate diameters.
Hence, if P, (.>'j, i/y, J,), Q, (.t^, >h, z^,), R? (''3) .'h, h) ^''^ the extremities
of a set of conjugate semidiameters of the hyperboloid of one sheet,
it
and
+ ^'2  J'z = ^
therefore, that
if
OP!
and
Similarly,
=  <^\
etc.
f
cV _
fjfiniy
if
0^
anot,
h^ + H"  ^'z
two do
 Vi = ^^
^yi
IJi
=
s
l,
c
Op2_OQ2OR2 = 2_i2_c2
 K^  A32 = 
_ ^2^2  a%').
and
Ai^
(ft'^c^
THE CONE.
78.
homogeneous
etj nation
of the form
may consider
the centre.
If {x',
lies
also
We
easily
find,
as
in
the case of
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
120
at
{x',
lx\iny\
section
equation
of P, (a,
acLX
The
its
+ hyy' + czz 0.
axx
The plane
y\ z) has for
[ch. vii.
4
/5,
y)
is
if
given by
h^y + cyz = 0.
whose centre
is
(a)a+(2//3)6/5 + (syVy = 0.
alx + hmy
The
= yini = zln
is
+cm = 0.
drawn from
whose
P, (a., ^,
y)
is
the
of
OP
is
=^
(aoLX
+ b^y + cyzf.
selfpolar
Q and
R,
i.e.
Similarly,
QR
is
the
RP and PQ
conic.
Conversel}^
if
PQR
I'KorKirriEs of
78]
any
is
PQR
diameters of
OQR
tlie
through the
line
cone.
QR and through
is
121
seli'polar
triaiitj;le
the plane
the cone
P,
OP
2.
iisymptotic lines
the "asymptotic cone
tlie
is
The hvperboloids
 xya^ .v^/a^' + fib"  z^lc^ = 1,
Draw
a.v^
>/lb'^
+ bi/^ +
cz'^
4.
If a
+ z^lc^ = 1
is
parallel
in lines
to the
= 0.
drawn from
OQ
clx^
/3_//"
+ yz^ =
a(3 + ba.
cm + ay
Ex.5.
which
Planes
;^enerators toiicli
cut
u.v'
6.
perpendicular
^^
+ b~
7+(('''a
+ by" + ci =
the cone
.(i +
,),,2
of
Ex.
in
+ bif + cz^ =
.,
b+7'
Ex.
ax'^
^,.j
7.
f + c (a +
Z>)
;
= 0.
Ex.
8.
'/'f'+.'//^
+ ^Vc2= 1,
then
passes
A + B^ + C.V = 0.
Ex.
9.
If
.r/^
=///?
= i/.
.^ ^ (/> ().> ^^
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
[CH. VII.
Ex. 11. Lines drawn through the origin at right angles to normal
planes of the cone ax^ + hy'^ + Gz^ O generate the cone
a{bcf
h{caf
X'
y^
c{abf _
Ex. 12. If the two cones ax^^hf + cz^ = ^, aLx'^ + (iif+yz'^ = have
each sets of three mutually perpendicular generators, any two planes
which pass through their four common generators are at right angles.
THE PARABOLOIDS.
79.
X
variable ellipse
^
unless k and
y
(2)
+^ =
hc
x^
/^,
iP
2/i'
a
This ellipse
^
sign,
is
by the
imapinary
ellipse lies
on
OZ
of the surface
if
c>0
by planes
and on OZ'
surface
is
if
c<^0.
The
Fig. 38
the
sections
elliptic paraboloid.
c.
The
79,80]
The equation
1h
n = 
.r
variable
hyperbola
ip
z=
>
and
/j,
The
li'.
/i;
is
the hyperbola
()
r? = 0, = 0.
'Ihe sections
by the planes z = k,
by the
liyperbola
its
When
of the surface
123
z=k
project on the
plane
= 0.
ZOX
and
XOY
X'
y^_ 0.
The
is
parallel to
YOZ,
a negative value of
80.
by planes
The surface
are parabolas.
fig.
sections
c.
An
form
represents a paraboloid.
equation of the
+ hy' = 2z
Any
XOY which
two
co
The planes
OX and OY
respectivel}'.
by the
Each
other.
is
therefore
Such pairs of
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
124
Diameters.
81.
If
[ch. vii.
is
111
to
tlie
= m = 0,
parallel
line
1? )
one value of r
to
the
is
+ aa^ + &/32  2y = 0.
infinite,
is
a point P whose
in
given by
.( 1
5;axis
. .
and therefore a
2n
and P
is
the extremity of
the diameter.
Hence
a
+ hy'^ = 2z
ax'^
tangent
and
plane,
two
plane at
O
is
is
the
axis.
principal planes.
Ex.
What
82.
Tangent planes.
to the
surface
is
We
aXJLX ~\h^lj
+ my + nz=])
is
(rx, fS,
=z+ y.
poiiit of contact,
and therefore
= 2c2?
find, as in
If lx
.>v/
tn
an
hn
 + ,
+ 2/w=:0
V
^
/3,
y)
is
the
TANCJENT
5^8183]
Hence
211(1 x
AND
Dl
AM KTKA L
+ my \nz){
\
=0
IM.ANKS
the
is
plane
lxii)iy
0(nati()ii
to
parallel to the
+ nz = 0.
If the
2nr{l.v
represent
we
is
125
tlnee
mutually
2, 3),
tangent planes,
perpendicular
have, by addition,
(/
of intersection of three
a plane at right
is
Ans.
'
Shew
1.
'^ = 2, and
(8, 9, 5).
Two
Ex.
2.
+"r
= 2i
tangent
perpendicuhir
planes
to
tlie
.r
paraboloid
= 0.
Shew
x=0,
Ex.
3.
Shew
i/
= {a + b)(2z + a).
+ iy = 2j is given by
(cu + h>/  2z)(aaL + hfi'  2y) = {a<x,v + hfij/ z yf.
(ol, (3,
y)
Ex. 4. Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular tangents can be drawn to the paraboloid.
A ns. ah (.r^ f)  2 (a + 6) ^  1 = 0.
83.
xll
Diametral planes.
= ylm = zjn,
If
line
op
has equations
alx + hiny n = 0.
Hence
all
i.e.
the locus
is
given by
plane of OP,
aU' +
is parallel
hmm' =
to the diametral
(1)
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
126
Hence OP
is
diametral planes of
Equation (1)
al'x\hin'y
[ch. vii,
is
= 0,
OP and OQ
are conjugate.
= 0,
= k, should be conjugate
ax^ + hy'^ = 2k Hence any plane
in
the plane
2.
+ 6y^ = 22.
it bisects.
Ex.
a;
Any
3.
3
yA zb
84.
xIf 5
The normals.
paraboloid,
referred
+ 12 = 20
represents an elliptic
to
at
_ y y' _z z'
1
XX
T~
^
If this
^^ =
mi
Therefore
>
<^^.,
'
^"/^
= /2_l\
X,
'
'
five values of A,
y),
say.
=y + N^>
,
and hence
there* are
1.
paraboloid
feet of the
on a cubic curve.
EXAMPLES
^83,84]
Ex.
2.
Prove
Ex.
3.
tliat
the noniijils
xo,
IV.
127
y) to
4.
Ex.
5.
lie
on this cone.
lies
(., /i,
y) to
drawn from
= 2rt,
paraboloid
zy
i/f3
Ex.
tlie
two
its
polar
a given point
point lies on
three normals
l)ut if the
of
the
coincide.
Ex.
Shew
6.
to the pai'abolokl
.^.2
('x, /i,
y)
Shew
(3
\4'
4'
y + n\
2
* Examples IV.
1.
Two
to a conicoid
cfi
the cone
^^.,^^^.,
^ ^^2^
^,,
_^ j2(.y,,2
P and
on
The
(u
+ b>r + cz' = \,
a.v^
+ bjj^ +
cz"^
= z'y.
Shew
br.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
128
OP, OQ,
7.
OR
if
At
0"
0"
and R tangent lines are drawn parallel to OP, and p^, p^ are
distances from O. The perpendicular from O to the tangent
their
OP
J^'
8.
[ch. vir.
is
Prove that
p.
+Pi + pr =  +
b''^
+ cK
Conjugate diameters of
a^x'^^h^y'^\c^z'^
in P, Q, R.
Shew
=l
meet
ag.*^^
POR
+ ^2^^ + ^^2^^ 1
Co
tto
= / = Co
^ =_+_ + _^.
where
CTo
&.,
Oj
b.,
C^
6j
Cj
The
edges.
10. Shew that the projections of the normals to an ellipsoid at
P, Q, R, the extremities of conjugate diameters on the plane PQR,
are concurrent.
on the ellipsoid
11. If through a fixed poirit P, (a., f3, y)
+ iflb'^ + z^/c^=l perpendiculars are drawn to any three conjugate diameters, the plane thi'ough the feet of the perpendiculars
passes through the fixed point
.t^/a^
a^oL
c^y
b'^f3
Vc^+PTc^'
d^
b'^
+ c^'
aF+W+7^J'
any point P on the
ellipsoid
12. If perpendiculars be drawn fx"om
to any three conjugate diametral planes, the plane through the feet of
the perpendiculars meets the normal at P at a fixed point whose
distance from P is
979 ^
p{c^ + <'M^+aWy
where p
is
at P.
13. Find the locus of centres of sections of a conicoid that are at a
constant distance from the centre.
14.
Shew
(P  ,2)2,,.2^(e2 _
2)2_y2
= (2 _ 52)2,2.
EXAMPLES
en. VII.]
IV.
129
16. The perpendiculars from the origin to the faces of the tetrahedron whose vertices are the feet of the four normals from a point to
the cone .r;2 + 6y^ + c = 0, lie on the cone
17.
to
PQR,
planes
x'^/a.^
P'Q'R'
The normals
18.
b)z
= 0.
from a point
Prove that the poles of the
+ i/'jb'^+z^/c'^ = l.
on the surface
lie
at
c{a
P', Q',
the ellipsoid
a)'ij f
P and
T2~
^"I
(a'")
=0.
P',
6^,
B'
with PP'.
19. The normals to x'^jd^ +ylb'^ + z'~j(P' = \ at all jjoints of its intersection with lyz\mzx + nxy = intellect the line
a^x
Shew
20.
ch
6^y
l(a^b^){c^'a^)
its
intersection
ab xy f be yz + cazx \
+ c(d'b^)z)'
'\b{a^c')2/
22.
lie
in
the plane
lx + my
+ c)P\='Z{a^(bc)mn}.
abep'^{a{b
23.
The
24.
(a^b^){c^a^)
normals from
(Xr.yr
d^a.^fy^^
lorove that
25.
,11^1^=1
a^
b^
lie in
:r),
> = 1,
if
. .
6),
l,
lies
on the
line
to the ellipsoid
'
y) are
f3,
2,
+ F(3^fl'^ + c^y^fl^ = 0.
+y +  =
the plane
'
a b c
lie in
c^
(rx,
6) z.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
130
[ch. vii.
tangent planes
26. If A, B are {a.,, (3^, y,), (ol^, /^g, 72). the pair of
at the points where AB cuts the conicoid S = CLv'^ + b7/^ + cz^l=0 is
given by
S2Pi22PiP2Pi2 + SiP, = 0,
AB, by
S(SiS2P^2)S2Pi2 + 2PiP2Pi2SiP22 = 0,
^1= a + bfi^^ + ey^^  1, etc.
<
where
27.
(.''1, i/i,
^i),
Q,
(^2,
3/2, 2),
R>
Op =
OPQR
,
OQ = r2,
OR^rg,
pi'ove
^ + 'p + ^ =
l5
and
can be written
and prove that the locus of the centres of spheres through the origin
and the extremities of three equal conjugate semidiameters is
1
CHAPTER
VIII.
We
have proved,
section of a conicoid
sections are similar
is
every plane
conies.
We now
If the lengths of
>
and o.^ r
the conic
has two diameters of length 2r, and they are ecjually
If r = a or /3, the two diameters of
inclined to the axes.
Hence to find the axes
length 2r coincide with an axis.
of the conic in which a given plane cuts a conicoid, we first
form the equation to a cone whose vertex is the centre, C,
of the conic and which has as generators the lines of
length r which can be drawn in the plane from C
The lines of section of this cone and the
to the conicoid.
the axes of a conic are 2. and
2/3,
,/3,
determines r
+ hjf {.cz^=l,
Lv 4
m y + = 0.
;
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
132
The centre
If
section.
the conicoid
of
A,
ix,
are
is
aX + 6/xcj/ =
,
of
the
L^h. viii.
, 9
r,
fir,
vv)
^= X\fJ?\V^
The
(1)
and therefore
ar2l"^6r2l"^cr2l
'
The
2r
is
\,ij.,v
equation
M^)^,(^f^^^(sf^
^3)
2r.
which
is
(1).
7/2
4. r2
86]
133
conicoid
(From equations
we deduce that
(3)
Ex. 2. Prove that the cone of Ex. 1 passes through the normal to
the plane of section and the diameter to which the plane of section is
diametral plane. Prove also that the cone jmsses Uirough two sets of
conjugate diameters of the conicoid. (Cf. Ex. 6, ^ 77.)
Ex.
3.
(ii)
A71S.
Ex.
45
(i) 64,
4.
(ii)
3x + 4i/ + 5z=0.
'76.
308,
referred to
by
a;+y + z = Oi
+ 2/ + 622 = 1,
2x^+fz^ = l,
(i) 3j;2
its
+ 2/ 222 = 1, 3x2i/z = 0,
principal axes,
is
approximately
l70x^l71,f=l.
Ex.
5.
ellipsoid of revolution
a,
'
ac{l^
_j/__2,
l^O'
6.
m^
Ex.
2^+72=1, by
X _ y _
nl~ mn ~~
z
{1"^
+ m)'
xya^+f/b'^ + zyc'^=l
is
^, where p
Ex.
7.
The
is
b+c
is
is
bi/^
+ cz^ = l by
a tangent
">
c+a a+h
a rectangular hyperbola.
is
constant
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
134
[ch. vni.
Ex. 10. If Ai, A2, A3 are the areas of three mutually perpendicular
central sections of an ellipsoid, Ar^ + A2~^ + A32 is constant.
Ex.
One
11.
by a tangent plane
What
y' \ z^
x"'
lies
2^ +
which pass
^{niz nil) +
= ^ = 
'
{nx 
lie
Iz)
on the cone
+ '^{kl  mx) = 0.
conicoid.
Let the
plane be
Then
is
"^ ^
plane
3^^
XOY
12.
87.
on the cone
is
the plane
Ex.
to the cone
if
C, (a,
and
lx\my + nz =]i.
is
y)
/3,
l,
by the equation
also represented
^ ^
Therefore
^^
Hence aHt/3Hcy' =
The equation
through C
0.x
or
^_y
= ^i^^!M!+^
(1)
say,
is
where
The equation
If A,
[JL,
tlrawn from
to the plane
is
IV
now
lx
+ 'my\i\z = 0.
to the conicoid,
= 0,
+ hjifi + cyv = 0.
l\\miL\'in'
and therefore, by
( 1 ),
(/(xX
87]
Hence
r''(c(A'
hfi'^
ct)
136
tlie
section of length r
Therefore
_4^ + ^+^ii_ =
(21
^(^0
"^^
'(^^
111
,3,
(2)
and
(8) of
86, we see that if a and /3 are the lengths of the semiaxes of the section by the plane lx + my\nz = 0, the
semiaxes of the section by the plane lx\my + nz=p are
/.a
and
Z^,
or
^^rj^
1^^
From
equations (4)
it
follows that
if A,
\ are
the areas
+ 'L + % = lhy
+ my+nz=2^
the plane
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1,36
[ch. viii.
The student should note that the equation to the cone through all
the lines of length r drawn from C to the conicoid would be obtained
by making the equation
ax^ + by"^ + cz^ + 2 {acuc + bfy + cyz) k =
homogeneous by means
of the equation x^
of the fourth degree, while for our purpose
f/^
+ z^ = r^.
It
would be
we
(4), 87.
Ex. 2. Find the coordinates of the centre and the lengths of the
axes of the section of the ellipsoid Zx^ + Zy'^ + Qz'^ = \0 by the plane
x+i/\z^\.
\5'5 5/'
\l5'
'jo
^,
'^
c
Ex.
2
5.
+ r2+^ = l whose
Ex.
X^
cut a
(^
6.
y2
+ OA2
Prove
area
that
5^1=0
^2
is
constant,
'\f^At + 1 =0 which
""'
tangent planes to
^"
C
^_.2
2
of the ellipsoid
= 7rF).
+^ + 1
'"
nB have
their points
7.4
'^
.
Ex. 7. Prove that the axes of the section whose centre is P are
the straight lines in which the plane of .section cuts the cone containing the normals from P.
Ex.
Ai/z
8.
+ bzxbxy^8 by
Ans.
Ex.
(i)
9,
2,
\/3
(ii)
2, 2.
;y,
z)
of
88]
by the plane
i'*{M^...
l.v
+ m>/ + nz =
are given
13?
b,y
lines in
Ex.
10.
by the plane
lx + mi/
+ nz=p
are given
^1
ap^h+p^
by
'2}
=0
!i!
'
cp^r+p^
bpo^+p^
If the
aa._bl3
Whence
aa.
+ b^
(3,
y), is
given by
_l _ aoL^ f &/3^ y
n
2y= ^

to
(rx,
/3,
^=
f^
say.
y) and proceeding as in
lines in
which the
an^r^p^^^bn^r'p^
by
]:>^
or
dbn^'r'^
 nr%^{(a
\
b) n
vp,^
COORDINATE GEOMETHY
138
Ex.
1.
2?;^+y2 = 2
[ch. viit.
Ex.
',+'{t,
As.
4.
= 2z
x7/
= az
aV{;^4 + l){$4^^)
=^.
CD
Ex. 6. Planes are drawn thi'ough a fixed point (a., f3, y) so that
their sections of the paraboloid ax^ + bi/ = 2z are rectangular hyperbolas.
(yf3f ^{zyy^Q_
(xa.y
^
CIRCULAR SECTIONS.
89.
If
F = 0,
sphere and
of the conieoid
and planes
lie
The
by the planes
circular sections of
tion, referred to
an
are circles.
ellipsoid.
The equa
a^
b
e
CIRCULAR SECTIONS
g 8992]
139
a, h, c respectively.
If
by the equations
~c
91.
Any
not parallel
'^
all
values of X and
jul.
The equation
\a
/.'(^
+ 1^ + ?:  1) +
J\a
and
if
k=
Ir,
x~^y + z^
^^
x+
^^
+ X^i 6 = 0,
Circular
method
of 90,
sections
of the
we deduce
hyperboloids.
/ii2
ty2.
By
the
r,^^
ny
/^^
COOEDINATE GEOMETEY
146
(i)
[ch. viii.
by
are given
y^^^J^^+^^=Q,
The radius
ot*
(ii)
y'^fFyb''yw^^=o.
is a.
~c
Ex.
1.
the plane 
si a
+ ^^ + 
3,
real
is
central
5.
*^
ci^
f^i
'/s
f^i
s=l bv
^i
+ c^.
sections
the ellipsoid
Ans. x^iz" = 0.
of
+ 355 = 0, 2^32 + 7 =
which
in circles
lie
meet
on the sphere
Ex.
2.r
>
real if A^
circular
4.
 c'^ = X
the hyperboloid
Ex.
s/i'^
',
plane
+ r^+,= 1
is
h'SJl
5
r,
/2+^~ ^
z^
.r;2
TV,,:;
(Use
91.)
Jc^
7=17T,
Circular
sections
of
any central
conicoid.
21)
xy = 1
An
92,93]
Hence
It
may
be written
if
141
= 0.
z)\{x'^y^+Z') = Q
For a pair
circles.
of planes
a \,
h,
h,
b\,
9>
/>
f
cX
mean
Ex.
1.
It will be
A.
real,
proved
+ 5/ + 3s2 + 2jP3 = 4.
If 3x^
The
+ 2y + 3/ = 0, (.vzyf = 0,
equations
Ex.
x'^.vz
+ z^ = 0.
A=4
2.
and
ha'e
xz+y = 0, xzy^^.
to the real
central
circular sections
of the conicoids,
142.r  lO.ry + 27 = 0,
+ 5/ + 222 yz 4z.v xy + 4 = 0,
(iii) 6.<^ + 1 3^2 + 622  10^2 + 4zx I0xy = l.
{.v2y5z)(3.i'4y + z) = 0,
{.v+y + z){2xy + 2z) = 0,
2{.v + zf  1 Oy{x + z) + dy = 0.
(i)
5?/2
 8^2 + 18^2 
(ii) 2j72
Atis.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Ex.
3.
Ans.  + T +  = A,
ax + hu
+ cz==ii.
"^
142
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
Ex.
[en. viii.
4.
/(.r,
i/,z)\^
Ix + m^ + nz
f{x, y, z)
Whence, comparing
,
 A)  + (6
 A) + (c  A) .
we obtain
ax^ + hy" = 2z
may
The equation
^y\ah)az' =
(),
0.
afx^ + y^^ + z^
xja b + z\/b = \,
If,
however, a or
those given
by ax^ + by = 0.
0a;2
is
ijL.
The equation
+ 02/2 + 0.;2H 20 =
as
xJa b Zsfb =
b is negative,
k,
hf^lc{z +
^J^
is
They
lines.
i.e.
and the
straight
Ex.
1,
Find the
.7;
+ 10j2 = 2y.
y3z = \.
2.
53.i'
of the oircle in
+ 4y" = 8z.
r)
UMBILICS
94,951
95.
The
Umbilics.
centres of a
143
series of parallel plane
lie
Pig. 40.
radius
called
is
an
It is evident
umbilic.
section
is
tlio
surface
To find
If P,
is
(^,
the
^)
}],
is
2
+ ^ + 2 = l
Hence
since
^+M=i,
and therefore
+ ,,,/,72irp
>7
= 0,
^=
+ejb^'^'
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
144
The
a^
Bx.
1.
two sheets
cr
by
i=
h"
[ch. viii.
'
Ja^ + c^
'Jo?
+y'^
+ c^
+ z^ = d^
Ir' \
C^.
Ex.
(g
3.
 6) A^ + ay"^ + {a + b)
are given
by
x=
^+^
\/
= o,
2 JJLzJL.
9^2
Ex.
4.
0/2
a+o + a
^2
\
ao
z;
=l
a+b
Ex.
a>b,
5.
a
are (o,
b\.'d^,
the paraboloid
a
62^
b'^
* Examples V.
1.
Prove that
if
Aj,
fx^, Vj
Ag,
v^ are
/X2,
2.
ellipsoids
^ + 12+^2 =
^^
"2
3i'6
^+^=
1' ^^y
^^^'^^
conjugate diametral
A2^
"^
8l2
3.
If Aj, A2,
832
A3^
a252,2/^2
S32 o,2/32.y2\,2
/32
^2
2X
+ ,,2/
b^
c^
EXAMPLES
^95]
r.^,
4.
three
of
145
V.
(r^, /?,
y) planes are
drawn
that the
sum
5.
the ellipsoid
^+l2 + ^i=^
= ^ = f are^i^,
,1
r,
11
,
the plane
^"^^, where
Ix
which
^i, r^
f
and
least area
line
by
?'2
^1
+ my
nz
^
0.
6.
B'^
of greatest
pass
Shew
by these planes
2~7^~72"
a?
of
parallel to
tliree
ax^ + bi/'^
+ cz^ = 0,
of the cone
a>b>c,
Any pair
cyclic
The plane
9.
'
+/ +  = 1
a
a, b,
c,
Shew
If
common tangent
?2
12.
The normals
tfi
z"^
~i
=^
'*^
*''
points of a
makes an angle
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
146
13.
6i,
di
[ch. viii.
sin^,.sin^2^.(^.~;^.)'
where a and
Through a
14.
the hyperboloid
fixed point
which
^ + p i = l
are
surface
15.
The area
16.
Shew
constant.
lie
2+f2
on the cone
+^= ^
^^
y'^^(c!^z_a^^lY^^
a*
c2
62
?/
bi/'''
+ cz^ = l
z^
ifi
.r2
18.
,,2
2
=
+ Ir + ^
a^
cf,
which are
of given eccentricity
a26V(e2 
e,
lie
l,
on the cone
2)2(.r2
e.
ellipsoid is
/ji*Z
of
and P
is
where p
at P.
the point
is
(.r',
of the ellipsoid.
?/,
z'\
an axis
/ji/2
of the axis
^2
~2~^
is
EXAMPLES
cii. viii.J
20.
x'^la'^
The normal
V.
117
+ i/jl)^+zjc^=]
contact of
tlie
x^
21.
z^
paraboloid
,r
+ %"' = 25
ah{:lz
is
a.v'
If
'\+p + ^ = l
pei'
wherer^ = x^ + 7/^ + z\
24.
(The locus
is
of the conicoid
+ bf + cz = \
x = k, = lie on
a.v^
line
7/
{ax(.v k) + bfr+cz'^{a(x 
the surface
hy + hr} = 0.
If the section of the cone whose vertex is P, (a, /3, y) and base
is a circle, then P lies on the
ax^ + bi/^ = \, by the plane x =
conic = 0, ax'^bz^ = 'l, and the section of the cone by the plane
25.
= 0,
,?/
(a
is
also a circle.
 b) yx  2aa.z
[cn. IX
CHAPTER
IX.
GENERATING
LINES.
straight line.
shall
now prove
We
Whence
it
may
be written,
straight lines
is
^r^'+l) H4(f)^
<^>
It is obviously
ix are variable parameters.
so that the equations
impossible to assign values to X and
Hence the
(1) become identical with the equations (2).
where X and
ij.
lines,
no member of
As X
one coinciding with any member of the other.
assumes in turn all real values the line given by the
equations (1) moves so as to completely generate the hyperboloid.
Similarly,
moves, as
jn
is
The
GENERATING LINES
96]
149
(See
tig.
41.)
may
be written
Fig. 41.
Whence
it
is
fx
is
the locus of
by
(I
is
COUKDiJNATE GEOMETRY
150
[cu. ix.
(See
line.
fig.
42.)
The generating
1.
CP,
CQ are
x^la^+fl = \,
are
 + r = 0.
Ex.
lines
of the eUipse
= c.
\
C'P', C'Q' are the conjugate diameters of the ellipse x"\a^Ar}hV^
and CQ. Prove that the
c, drawn in the same directions as
CP
i=
hyperboloid
Ex.
2.
^^2
jft,"
and a point, "," on the parabola x=Q, af= ^hh, is (0, 26^, 2ch^).
Find the locus of the lines joining the points for which, (i) m=?,
(ii)
n.
Ans. ^
a point.
two generating
lines,
any point
in,
lie
Each
of
these
P, (fig.
43),
two
in the tangent
g96,97]
plane at
P.
throut^li
is
151
But any
It follows
that
if
is
a straight line AB
lies
wholly on the
conicoid
it
the section of the surface by the tangent plane at P consists of the two generators through P, and therefore AB
two
The ruled
classes according
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
152
as
tlie
[en. ix.
fig. 43).
all
points of a given
generator.
98.
//'
three points of
a straight line
lie
on a conicoid
The coordinates of any point on the hne through (a, /3, y),
whose directionratios are I, m, n, are a + Zr, (B+mr, y\nr.
The condition that this point should lie on the conicoid
F{x, y, 0) = O may be written, since F{x, y, z)
second degree, in the form
Ar + 2Br + C
three points
If
equation
A = B = C = 0.
values of
r,
of the
= 0.
lie
by three values
satisfied
is
the line
of
is
conicoid.
99.
To find
a given
straight line
(*
r^(al
ni
l,
_ y ^ _z y
line,
{oL
+ lr,
^\mr,
y + '/tr),
on
lies
if
+ hm^ + en)
f
2r(acx.l
+ h(im + cyn
the
conicoid,
and
an identity, the
is
line lies
wholly on
The
+ 6/3 +(y
=1,
+hm^ +c2 =0
(1)
(2)
(3)
9799]
THE
GENE11AT(,)R.S
THROUGH A POINT
153
The
equations
tliree
(1),
any
(2), (3)
/3,
we have
Lagrange's identity,
(aP + 6m2)(aa2
whence, by
bjS")
cn'^ = ah(a.m/3lf
The values
of
have opposite
signs,
the quantities
a, h, c
(4)
if
ah and
x OL_ y
~~
I
_
y
~ n
ax'~
^hif = 1z are,
= 2y,
(1)
Md\h0mn^K)
(2)
oP^Ur^^
(3)
real values of
vi
only
if
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
154
is
The
(oc, /3,
[ch. ix.
directionratios
y) are given by
7)1
in
Ex.
1.
^+^:^=l
(2, 3,
4),
(2,
1,
*).
____^__^, _________
Ans.
z^
2 _ y + _gf
x2 _
^
3~6~10*
0~3~"4'
rEx.
2.
t/^l
yz\'izx+Zx(/ + Q
>.
x+\ y 23
Ex.
3.
^+"y^^ = l which
Ans.
a sin
a.
of the hyperboloid
II h sin a.
x a cos OL ='^,
=
b cos a
a.,
0).
4.
x\ y\ 21
We
LINES.
(1)
?_?=^(i+a
5+=='(if)
bJ
\
bJ
a c
a c
(2)
'
jji\
99102]
101.
same system
(1)
+ c = 0,
'^^ = 0,
intersect.
and
a^o '^V^bJ' a
lead to
155
h)
1^ = 0,
+ b = 0,
X\
5
inconsistent.
102.
Any
"
JUL
gene
(2),
^_ iV
b
a c _a c_
^+!
\
any
i+fb
\/U
X _\\ fl
a 1+X//'
?/_! A./"
l+A/z'
_\
JUL
+ X/i'
The equations
^^^(l+!)+^{^^xOf)}=
^^''0+!)+'^^K^!)}="
(>
both reduce to
l(\
k = l/k' = \/jUL.
But equation
(5)
tangent
Hence
ii"
plane at their
If,
common
in equation (3),
point.
is
(Cf.
is
the tangent
97.)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
156
reduces
to
if
is
/x
A//i;.
[ch. ix.
a tangent plane.
Ex.
_^m/b_ n/c
Ija
l/a
_mlb _
n/c
a'^(X2_ I)(;x2
which
at right
is
may
be written
+
+ X/X
,{\
(ctC
I 1
lies
hil\^)
/ji)
'
+ X//
c(X//)\
'
XjUL J
The
locus
is
+ y^\z^ = a^ + h^~c^
to
The
XOY
projections of the X
are given
by
whicli
SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS
TTTE
102104]
may
Whence
ir>7
be written
tlie
,=0,
the ellipse
is
^:=if:.
0^
a
ZOX
touch
iix
i.e. is
fore
(a cos a, h sin a,
the
point
eccentric angle
where
= tan
(^^
j
is
there
whose
on the
a, and the generators project into the
principal
elliptic
section
is
tangent
z=
0),
.,
cosa+sina=l,
i),
(%.
44).
X'+l
acosa_ y ^sina _ z
~ h cos a, c
sin a.
rt
x a cos a _ y 6sinoc _ z
h cos (x c
a sin a
Ex. Prove that the generators given hy X = t, ix=  Ijt are parallel,
and that they meet the principal elliptic section in the extremities of
a diameter.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
158
105.
Let P and Q,
(fig. 44),
[en. IX.
elliptic section
the
through
at the point, R,
a
X = tan
where
X+M
l+A/x
Whence
Now
and
2;
.4
'l
'i+Am'
x_rx^
+ A/x/'
tan(^j2^
a cos Q sec
therefore
if
is
h sin
(p,
the point
;+a
0:
or
0\.(p
Similarly,
it
may
"
sec 0,
and
tan
= /3^
= ^^
0(p = oL.
0, 0,"
<p."
105]
159
</)
(/..
Hence
for points
of the //system
Ex.
1.
0=0, Ex.
If
is
" $,
is
(fig. 44),
(ji,"
2.
The equations
x a cos
3.
If {a cos 9 sec
to
</>
__y
 6 sin ^ sec
b co9.{d
(f>
4>)
generating line
</>"
are
+f
are
(fi
_zc, tan
c/),
PQ
+ = fS.
sec
asin(6'0)
Ex.
constant.
is
a point on
the
Ex.
4.
;y_cos^sin0
0_sin^cos0
c~cos(B+~(f))
i'_cos{d<f))
(The equation
to the surface
is
is
(ft
is
'^r~ = \.j
We
6.
lies in
one
Ex.
7.
Ex.
8.
Prove
Ex.
lateral
9.
6r, 4'r"
r=l,
2, 3, 4,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
160
Ex.
[CH. IX.
10.
where
y', 2').]
i^
Ex. 12. Prove that the angle between the generators through
given by
^(,.2_,,2_52 ,2)
where p
P and
at
is
r is the distance of
Ex. 13. All parallelepipeds which have six of their edges along
generators of a given hyperboloid have the same volume.
If PQRS is one face of the parallelepiped and P, P'
Q, Q' R, R'
S, S' are opposite corners, we may have the edges PS, RP', S'R' along
generators of one system and the edges SR, P'S', R'P along generators
The tangent planes at S and S' are therefore
of the other system.
PSR, P'S'R', and are parallel, and therefore SS' is a diameter.
Let P, S, R be (.rj, y^, z{),
Similarly, PP' and RR' are diameters.
Then the volume of the parallelepiped is
{x^, y^, z^), (x^, ys, 23).
tetrahedron
OPSR, (O is the centre).
of
the
twelve times the volume
Denoting it by V, we have
;
V=2
2abc\/l
.2abc'J
6'
V
b'
sjc^
\
^OC^X^
2^1^3
^^
/>.
But
Therefore
7^
^2
^2
0/
,
,V1
^2
/^
^X.,X^
)
q1
^1
V_2__2
lL = l
>
or
V^3
^ a
'
V  2a6cV^f  Af=Aabc.
(
_
'
S on
the tangent
TIIK
106]
161
Find the Inous of the corners Q and Q' wliicli arc not
Ex. 14.
the given hvpcrlidloid.
Since QS and PR bi.sect one another, Q is the point
('
'i
and hence
lies
' +
'':!
.
y  y2 +
1
The systems
106.
 ~2 + h\
^1
on the liyperboloid
a
paraboloid.
.'/s
oii
We
generators
of
shall
t
CI'
now
of the
the
state
hyperbolic
results
for
the
Their proof
is left
= 2A,
5f
a
2 + = ,f
a f \
5 + 1 = 2;,.
=
?f
a b
^'
(1)
(2)
fi
by
^ = /x + X,
The
z^2\fx.
and
= t^\
_m_
by
_ m _n
dicular generators
is
The plane
=
?_^_2X + 7ii?
+ f.^
A}
b
{a
a
is
tangent plane at
The
by
//
= \/k.
^ = 0, 2r ^
B.G.
 2^^
//
= 0.
"
= 2^3;.
ZOX
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
162
Any
[cii.
{2am,
is
and
2m2),
0,
ix
if
= = m,
the generators of the X and /^[systems corresponding to these vakies project into the tangent to the
jUL
parabola at
Any
''
in."
X = ar cos
and the equations
given by
is
y = br sin
0,
2z = r^ cos 20,
6,
'
+6
Ex.
(x,
1/,
1.
z) is
Ex.
"
are
^o" cos 20
n
x ar cos 6n _y or smd
_
I.
r,
'^
7^(cos0
+ sin0)
2.
4A'
= a(]
+cos2^),
^ = & cosh
(^
cos
^,
= csinh c^cos ^
sec
Ex.
3.
{(&'
Vr=^
^;r
= e*,
y/
= 6e*cosh^,
= ee*sinh^
is
is
constant for
constant for a
Ex. 4. Planes are drawn through the origin, O, and the generators
through any point P of the paraboloid given by x^ y^ az. Prove
them
Ex.
5.
the paiuboloid
A ns.
.r^
'yfy"^^
+ ?/2 + 2z^
,
is
tan"^, where
of the perpendiculars
'^^
^^
.tv/
= 0.
is
106109]
107.
CONICOID
The
lines.
1G3
oeneral
e(uation to a coiiicoid,
viz.,
b, c, ...
the ratios of
of the
to the tenth.
coni
But
are determined
we have proved
that
if
lie
line is
given lines
'2t
= = v, u 0 = v,
+ pvv' = 0,
when
u'
and
is
v'
satisfied
O, and
two
is
when u =
contains
lu,
to
and v = 0, or
three
disposable
p.
to the coiiicoid
through three
If the
planes
form a parallelepiped,
(fig.
45).
If
the
centre
of
the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
164
parallelepiped
is
[ch. ix.
form,
(1) y
where
= h, z=c;
(2) z
= c,x= a;
(S)
x = a,
y=
b,
to a
{yb){zc) + Myb)(x + a)
Where x = a,
jULz'^
and
if
x = a, y =
is
= 0,
1'
z.
b
,
Therefore
= c{av\b)_c
2ab
is
47, Ex.
1.)
line
LINES
109111]
Cp
Co,
LINKS
Kjr,
C.5,
through Cj as yaxis.
= 0,
(1) y
= 0;
The equation
x = 0, z = (jl;
(2)
to a conicoid
\x{lx\my)\iJix{z
(3) lx
through the
+ my:==0,
lines (2)
= ji.
and
(.'])
is
^)
2/
= 0,
is
VKx  X (jufi
must be
+ d(jL) + /5a/5 =
X=p
= 0,
///3
and therefore
+ 2'/a = ();
is
\a.j3mij
= 0.
The straight
lines
lines
number
generators of a conicoid.
If the three lines are
through
A, B,
P, Q,
in three points,
R,
and
is
therefore a generator.
Q,
and therefore D
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
166
[cii. ix.
CC
concurrent.
when
2/
= = 0,
and by
2;
Suppose that
aa; f hij
all
values of y
all
values of x
when z=x = ^.
it is
= = 0,
t)
Then,
are
parallel,
the
lines
y='^,
z = 1y\
(0, 0, y).
f=9 = ^, y=w/c,
and the
e(juation reduces to
cz"
a;
= 0,
Whence
+ 2hxy + 2wz = 0.
= 2y
are
i:;.^
PROPERTIES OF A GENERATOR
112, 113]
represents a paraboloid
is
Take
OQ
tlie
and
The eqnation
centre as 2axis.
It
may be
OR
locus of P.
as .v and
written
z(rz
,v/axes,
to the
167
and the
h\)f'rlMil()id
If
line joining
hyperboloid
OQ OR
:
to the
is
+ 2io) + 2Lii/ = 0,
= 2/iXx,
z = 2kfjif/,
z
by
X(cz + 2iv) + 7/ = 0;
fi(cz
+ 2w) + .v = 0.
OX
A = C2/^^',
Where
ix^C!2/nj.
OX,
y = 0,
z=Oj x=2wiJ.,
therefore
OQ =  2wfi =  wC/ht}.
Similarly,
OR =  2wX=^  wl/hi
and P tlierefore lies on. the plane x = h).
[OQ and OR may be found more easily by considering
])Iane PQR is the tangent plane at P whose equation (see
that the
!^
134)
is
3.
OQ" + OR"
if (i)
OQ OR = F,
(ii)
OQ + OR' =
/!2.
4.
If
Ex.
5.
Shew
is
constant,
lies
Whence
= 0,
= 0,
is
the conic
or
is
of the form,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
168
The systems
The
/x
(ex.,
().
0,
by
\y = z,
?/
[ch. ix.
a;axis
{hy\
2hx) + A (cz
The generator
0) is given by
/la
gcL
+w
+ iv) 0.
licxy \z{goL
Let
P, (a,
0,
P',
0),
(ol,
0) be points
0,
at P
and
(]t"+g')0L0L 4 wg{(jL
^... If
Therefore
if
[a.
+ ~l^[a.
is
this
on the
.'Caxis.
P'
if
+ a') + w^ = 0,
+^^ = ^^^
the point
{j^^^,
0, o),
(1)
CP
CP'
is
g = ^, and aa'=
when OX
is
'W/h^.
The equation
a generator and
is
to
the
cz'^
conicoid
OZ
is
therefore
+ 2fyz + 2h xy 4 2wz = 0.
=^ = i.
hcL
The
is
It has
OX and OZ as generators,
to
vn/.
113,114]
160
Ex. 3. Four fixed generators of the same system meet any generator
of the opposite system in a range of constant anharmonic ratio.
Ex. 4. Find the locus of the perpendiculars from a point on a
hyperboloid to the generators of one system.
Take O, the point, as origin, and a generator through O as OX.
Take the normal at O as OZ, then XOY is the tangent plane at O.
The equation to the liyperboloid is
6y + cz
The systems
X.i/=z,
+ /x(ft?/ + 2h.v) = 0.
is
*114.
 2 {f + z'^){h>/ +gz) = 0.
is
.,
hy^
5:^
of distribution.
>
to
the
belongs are
z\X{2hx + hy) = 0,
y = \{1fij + cz + '2w),
OX
Ho
.0
a
zlixy + ^%vz = 0.
+ 2tyz + o?
+ cz'9,0^'
The equations
OX
in
being
given
by X = 0.
The
directioncosines
of
6cX22/X + l,
2chX\
2//X(2/Al),
2/Xl,
0,
Hence
this generator
c\.
tends to zero,
is
parallel to OY.
the generator
is
given by
t.e. It
OX where
x = iv/hk.
It contains the
(2/x_i)(2/X] WX)4cX(eX/.) = 0,
T,
k=14A
(c
0.
6)X
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
116
Therefore the
,s.D.
OX where
meets
w{c b)\
X,
of a given generator is
OY.
s.D. is
[en. ix.
distance between
rejecting
Therefore the
X", etc.
Again,
is
if
&cX^"jA+l
^^"^
whence,
if
X"
rejected,
e = 2h\.
limit of the ratio S/6, as X tends to zero, is called
The
by
we have
2^,
Cor.
A and
Ex.
If
is
2w\
1.
^"
given
by
"
and
is
.
OA' = p^.
cf>
G
h sin
i>
]
asincp
the angle between the generators "(^" and "<^i," prove that
o/j
r^ ybcoscp
=
c
cos
.
''
OA
of the hyperboloicl
0^
a^
x a
IS
Denoting
_ a6'"sin((^
that
and deduce .1
^.
dO
jj
c^,)
+
= (ab^
..
b^c^s'w^ + ca^cos^)^
.
..
,! >
r,
,
,
114]
Ex. 2.
t/j " and
"
POINT, ETC.
171
8,
^J'
rj
'
Ex.
3.
' V
(a^b
^'^
rt'^6
Ex.
If
4.
+ //^csin^ + chicos^4>'
is
b^
a'^
is its
c'
5.
 sin ^
'
'
 '
^^
cos
+ f cos
])arallel to
+sin ^ ^^' = 0.
Whence
and
1 sm d),
^
a
<
The coordinates
of
any
point, O,
a (cos ^  it sin
<^),
1

c
/L
7 cos (h,
^'
b
b{sm
cfi
+ k cos
(ji),
ck.
is
k:
V
a3(i2 + c)cos^
"
a%''
^
7)^(c2
by
+ a")sin<j!)
c3(6a=^)sin
^cos^
1
a^lfi
Ex.
6.
6'c''^
sin'''^
+ c'd cos^(f>
of the generators of
the hyperboloid.
The equation
by eliminating
cf)
^6
7,6
^G
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
172
Ex.
^'^
a 6
7.
= 2A,
'
 + T=v,
a6(aH6H 4A2)^
given by
is
%\
is
2(a262)A2\
p =
= 25
f ^a^X
the planes
[ch. ix.
on
0.
toG.
AB.A'B'
ar"
,.
^ ^
prove that tan''t7= ad'
* Examples VI.
1.
line ?.r+}?i?/
Shew
.r^/a +3/^/6
(A + l).r+^y+X
v/A:tA + l=0,
at
^.2
3.
Tangent planes
to
planes to
^2
j,2
hhh'^
c2_;,2
c^ahf
a^h"^
+ c2_a2 + a2 + t2
".
drawn
The
hyperboloid
'\+'r2~\^^
^^ ^^ ^^'
c.r>i
__
ahz
EXAMPLES
CH. IX.
173
VI.
perpendicular
5. Shew that the shortest distance of any two
members of that system of generators of the paraboloid _i/{a.r + hi/) = :,
which is perpendicular to the yaxis, lies in the plane az = h.
6.
on the surface
lies
7/z
.ri/
+ + z = 0,
f/
and
on
+ z.v +
lines
find equations to
the surface.
lies
three of four
7. The four conicoids, each of which passes through
given nonintersecting lines, have two common generators.
8.
to the conicoid
through the
lines
u'=0 = v',
= = v,
Am + /x y + A'?i' + ii'v' =
= lu + mv + I'u' + m'v'
lu + viv
AVT/aV ~ I'u' + m'v'
Xu + fxv _
^^
9.
given triangles.
P moves
CC
11.
of the paraboloid
.?/.
12. Prove that the locus of the line of intersection of two perpendicular planes which pass through two fixed nonintersecting lines is
a hyperboloid whose central circular sections are perpendicular to the
lines and have their diameters equal to their shortest distance.
13.
Prove that
if
the generators of
it is
^i+%^2 =
met by a tangent
'^
^ drawn through
to
they form a skew quadrilateral with two opposite angles right angles,
and the other diagonal of which is a generator of the cylinder
a^
14.
The normals
b^
to ^,+'f.^^o = l
c
ha^
at points of a generator
meet
COOEDTNATE GEOMETRY
174
[ch. ix.
Id.
{x^ , y,
^j),
the jilanes
).
16.
^^
~2+'f2"~;;2=^'
is
^
(l3^)
b_t(lf)
+ ^2
.'/
'
+ ^2
double the
by
ct.
'
ax''
''~A(x'
^"A/^'
+ by'^ + cz'=\
^~Ay
in six points,
at
20.
pencil
in
A and
B.
PA PB
If
is
with the
'^+^^_l^
=i
locus of P.
21.
If the
jiarallel to
"^^f^^
+ z^) = 0.
A and B
If
2x^
23.
Kir
a2~~2~^'
^"^^^ "^
^'^
G,,
G.,
a
6
.?('^_.!/V^=o.
bj
c\a
a h
c
'
EXAMPLES
en. IX.
24.
Vr.
17.'',
.shortest distances
y _z
'hc
of the
in
25.
If the generators
b^
c^
whose centre
is
,?
fcH. X.
CHAPTER
X.
CONFOGAL CONICOIDS.
115.
represents, for
any value
x^
z^
+ if
72 + ^ =
XOY
assigned to
and
Again,
if
in the equation
_j
b
1'
it
being constants,
we
=1
If this
is
form of equation be
axis.
The
and
Through
116. The three confocals through a point.
any point there pasn three conicoids cov focal ivith a given
ellipsoid,
an ellipsioid, a hyperholoid of one sheet, and a
hyperhoJoid of two
xjwefs.
115,11(5]
The
equiition
v+
,.>"
((/,
/3,
\=1
'^
represents
'p,
+ ^,= i
It"
any
the
y),
a'X^b'^X^c'X
or
177
'
/(X) = (a2X)(?y2X)(c2A)a(//^X)((;2\)
>6>
pass through
wliich
confocals
(a,
/?,
When
X=
oc
a^,
6,
C',
/(X)is
,
,
+,
,
c.
^^2
f{X)
of
00
+.
6^
X,
Suppose that
y).
(^
X,
X,
Xo, X3
X,.
one sheet, or an
ellipsoid,
according as
= 0, ^2 +
1^2
~
2
^^^^^
'
^^^
confocal hyperboloid of
which
lies
without the
focal hyperboloid of
ZOX which
of the hyperbola
y = 0,
lies
^ +
^
.2
between the
~^
tAvo branches
^"^^^ ^^^^
confocal
tlie
two
of the hyperbola.
above
ellipse
B.Cx.
The
pas.*?
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
178
Ex.
[ch. x,
2.
^^
(2
yl
_ ^2) cos^o.
{a?
!!
 6) sincx.
c^
^1
x=y
{c^
oi
y^ _
c2A~(a2X)(62X)(c2X)
\
a'\
 d^  62'
{X\^){XXX\\).
f(X)^
A2,
2c2
= 0,
Therefore
1
 e^){c^  d^)
Since X^,
Elliptic coordinates.
117.
2 (6^
^ (XXi)(XX o)(XX3)
~ {d'\){W\){c'Xy'
Hence, by the rule for partial fractions,
{a^\){a^\){d'~\,)
(62a2)(c2_a2)
j\^){W\^)(h''\^)
'
(c2_6'^)(ft2_52^
(c^X,)(c^X,)(c^X3)
2 ^
lies is
uniquely
Hence
determined.
elliptic coordinates of
conicoid
Ex.
x'^/d^
1.
x'ja^
If aj,
i/'^jb'^
y'^jh'^
a.^,
+ z^/c" = I
Xo,
Xg
are
is
the
+ z^lc^ =
a^ are the
'(62_a2)(c2a2)'
of P
called
(c262)(a262)
^^ (c^r<Har)(c2a2 + a..,2)(^2_t,24.^^2)
"^
(a2c.2)(62c2)
PROFEUTIES OF CONFOCALS
117119]
Ex.
What
2.
are
loci
179
in
elliptic
'
coordinates,
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Ex.
+ A2 + A3 = constant,
A2A3+A3Ai + AiA2 = constant,
A1A2A3 = constant
Ai
+ y = 25 which
focal to
3.
2_ 0<Ai)(aA.,)(aA3)
ba
prove that
oo_ {bX,)(b\,)(bX,
)
'
'^
^3i
_ A; + Ao + A3  6
Confocals cut at right angles. The tangent planes
two confocals at any common point are at right angles.
Let (ct'p 7/p 0j) be a point common to the confocals to
118.
to
V"
CU"
5
a/
z'~
= 1,
+ C"
+ f^
0^
are
whose parameters
^
A,i
and
_^4.^^+,^ =
Then
X.,.

Therefore, subtracting,
(a2Ai)(a2X,)
and
{x^,
tliis
2/1,
Cor.
z^) to
(6^Ai)(6'A,)^(c2Ai)(c2_^^)'
condition
the
119.
that
the
tangent planes at
focals
focdl
is
'
it
Confocal touching given plane. One conicoid cona given coniroid imiclirs; a given plane.
iritli
lx
+ my + nz = p
?/
z
.+.r^
roe^X
a2_X + h~\
,
viz.,
?)
= l,
'
'
X,
should
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
180
[ch. x.
Ex. 2. Prove that the perpendiculars fr'ora the origin to the tangent
planes to the ellipsoid which touch it along its curve of intersection
with the confocal whose parameter is A lie on the cone
f,a_A^62_x"^c2A~
touching given
Confocals
120.
Two
line.
conicoids
and
the
line
=
,
^=
'^
^ should
aA + /;2A
r^
'
'
62A
'
+ r^ = X
c'A/Va^A
'
c^A
^^A
^m
yn Y
_(
\a^\'^W\^c^\)'
fd
{(Bn
yni f _
(6'^A)(c2A)
gives
two values
l^
a^A
m~
'
n^
^'^A
'
c'X
of A.
a
= 1,
'
a'\^b'\^c'X^
and
let
first
at
+ ,2_x^l
^^
'
62_x^
(1)
//Ai '^c^Ai
lies in
and the
the tangent
and ^^2_^+i,2_^+,,_^^i
Therefore, subtracting,
(a^^\){a^\.y
whicli
is
y^y^
(/>2Ai)(/j^A,)
'
.,
.T%
=0,
{c'X.Xc^X,)'
right angles.
PKUPKirriES OV CONFOCALS
1201:^2]
181
conicoid.
Let
P, Cr,
y,
z, ) lie
4 tt,
+ 9 = 1
Then
equation
J
^i
= = J 4
Zl
c^((r  A
(b'  X)
a^a'  A):+..7#.x+>74^
'
= 0.
'
by the plane
V+
X2
"1
^^^
^^'^
0,2
^2
^2
a\a'o^'y{r'ycHc'r^)
the
^i^^enby
,,
,,^
^1
Ih
^2^2
h~r
c^r^to the
is
normal at
equal to
(aj,
y^,
%)
7^.
it.
y
a A
and the given plane by
'
b'^X
Ix
^2
'
c2A
+ iiu/} nz
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
182
Then,
if (^,
^) is
t],
[ch. x.
the confocal,
1=
m = b\
'^
^
a^\
.,
^ a"
Whence
1?
= ^.
c^A
= b^=^ c".
(^,
i,)
?/,
is
which
is
of contact is
it is
jjlane
the point
on the
locus,
contact.
123.
pass tJirougJi a
fjiveji
point
P,
point.
a given conicoid
fJte
normcds
given conicoid in Q,
PQ = \/Pv
R, S.
To prove that
PR = \Jp,,
PS=^\,/p,,
where
the
parameters of
tJte
confocals.
122125]
If the coordiiicates of P,
toPQare
^_oc
a
Hence,
if
PQ =
/',
is
a^ \}
on
,^2
tlie
zy
Ir"
I?
_ x^y + 6 V^ +
6^
 AJ +
K>+^>
b'^
Ai
<'^
V^
^ c^  Ai = 1
are
and therefore
P,
p^
0^^
'^
the equations
,_
Ki+i^^x,)'
polar plane of
y),
/5,
Ai
the coordinates of
0+^)But Q
(fif^.
y/3
183
c^
Therefore r = Xjp^.
124.
the
Similarly,
given conicoid.
Substituting
J^,
Cfc2Ai
J?!^,
for
jy^r,
_!Z_.
the coordinates of
Whence the
6^Ai c^Ai
Q become
plane of
polar
^
Q with
IS
given by
^^^+^^,^+^ = 1,
Axes of enveloping
is
cone.
P are
P.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
184
common
to the
section of
conicoid
tlie
Therefore,
[ch. x.
( 78),
conjugate diameters of the cone, and being mutually perpendicular, are the principal axes.
its
To find
126.
tion to
tlie
the
equa
P referred
is
to
principcd axes.
The equation
will
PC
equations to
are
'/Pi
is
= ?//p2 = ^//'s
QRS
is,
( 71),
(x  kp^)Ap^
By
QRS makes
127.
its
equation
is
also
to the cone is
Equation to conicoid.
to
tJie
The equation
will be of the
form
tj^t^t^kimj^'Mj^p^^i^
A;^
The centre
The equations
A3
X2
V Aj
A2
A3
"
"
chords through
OX
^~
(1)
are
^'
it.
185
substitutino;
^j^
+ v,
y).^,
X, y, 2, in (1), viz.,
M = 0.
Therefore
X2
Xi
Xg
to the conicoid
is
^^U, +
vx;+x;+x3Ax;+x:+x3
x,
x3
v
prove that the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane
at
to the ellipsoid is
^
to
Ex.
2.
a(a/a)
If Ai,
A.J,
'
M/^A)
that pass through P, prove that the perpendicular.s from the centre to
the tangent plane at P are
v^
Ex. 3. If i, ^1,
confocals to
Ci
A,)(&'^A,)(c''^A,)
(AoAi)(A3Ai)
a.^,
b.,,
2
c^;
a^,
^, + > + ^, =
a.
b^,
c^
~2
,,2
fs^
which pass through a point {x, 1/, 2), and Px, pi, Px '^^'*^ the perpendiculais from the centre to the tangent planes to the confocals at the
point, prove that
^+f +
z^
= a^ + b^ + e^,
l+^+^=1,
aJ
a..
ai^u."
If
d^f^r
Pi'
"/oC^
a.;a.
{a^ a:){a^^a:^){a^a:^)
Cj
.,,
If a,, ^i, Cj
6.2,
4.
03, 63, C3 are the axes of the
confocals to a given conicoid through P, show that the equations,
referred to the normals at P to the confocals, of the cones with P
as vertex and the focal conies as ba.ses, are
Ex.
61
h.,
b.f
Cj
c.r
C3
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
186
Ex.
Prove
m^
l^
[ch. x.
the
common
four
n^
Ex.
8.
d^
thi'ough a point
P on
c2
b'^
the surface
lie
axis
is
Ex.
If the plane
7.
plane at
P meets one
PF = a.
Ex. 8. P is any j^oint on the curve of intersection of an ellipsoid
and a given confocal and r is the length of the central radius of the
If p is
ellipsoid which is parallel to the tangent to the curve at P.
the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane to the ellipsoid
at P, prove that pr
is
constant.
CORRESPONDING POINTS.
128.
Two
points,
P, {x,
y,
z)
and
Q,
a
p^
y
(^,
>;,
situated
^),
a^
b^
If P and
are
cr
when
!^=1,
1=1, =y.
a.'
13'
^'
any points on an
ellipsoid
and
on a confocal
P'
and
ellipsoid,
PQ' = p'Q.
Let P and Q,
(,>',
y, z), (^,
i?,
^) lie
on the ellipsoid
a^^W^c^~
and
let P'
and
i{,
'
^')
nfl
^'i
be the corresponding
CORRESPONDING POINTS
128,129]
i=jJ==,
^ = ^^,
Then
Therefore
etc.
a.
Vet
and
18?
lience
\((
0
c^
a^
6^
c/
R' are
Q',
P,
Q, R.
Ex.
If
3.
ellipsoid,
Ex.
OP, OQ,
2.
P',
OP", OQ",
An
4.
any confocal
OR"
ellipsoid.
and
planes
is
contained by
its
distances
from two
fixed
a conicoid.
The equation
form
'''
'^
+p')'
conicoid.
point
is
parallel to
a given
'plane,
from a given
line, is
a conicoid.
first
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
188
[ch. x.
(a, B, y)
plane through
given
(^,
in
line
distance of
(^,
t},
is
^) parallel to
>/,
point
the
line
^)
,
from the
line
measured
to the locus is
(..a)H(3//3)H(.y)^ = /4('7/ +
which represents a
In
(I) the
parallel to
given by
and
The
(2/'fy}'
conicoid.
is of the form X^ uv
form A0 (it^+i') = 0, where
in (II) of the
and u = (), v =
represent planes.
In either case,
if
S=
()
is
In
(I)
real,
in
If S =
and
directrices of a conicoid
found
line
is the
equation
to
of intersection
directrix.
the
first
species,
if
second species.
Lemma.
the
If
equations
the equation
(x,y,
^=0, ^=0,
2)
^=0
represent
three
planes passing
If F(.r,
AND DIRECTRICES
FOCI
129,130]
z)
//,
= iiv,
7:^=av + au,
ox
then
is
p^
oy
il',
uv\ou, ^^ = cv + cu,
'
oz
evident.
189
and paraboloids.
To
'find the
ellipsoid
tJie
Tlie e(iiation
'^^
is
+ ^^, + ~lK^o.f\{y^f\{zyr = ^
...(1)
the equations
= ~, a = 0;
The
line
(i)y=
or (ii)X
if
= ^2' ^ = ^'^
= ^,, y = 0.
^^ (iii)X
is,
z=
ti
'
,....
or (in ) X
^
./
or(ii)2;
a^oL
rt
= ^
7, ,
C
',,
T5
(r
r^,
IrR
y = jT,
''
b~
TV
C"
ft
(ii)
,
//
^c^ = l,
o
and
in this case,
a = 0:
ft
= 0.;
Tp^f^^,
c a^ b = l,
.,
8
^. + p^=l,
6
y' = 0.
?>
(iii)
ft c
c
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
190
Hence,
(i)
there
is
an
number
infinite
[ch. x.
of imaginary foci
^
^ = 0.
?^i
a^
There
is
an
a^
b"
c^
'
infinite
number
y = 0,
p p
There
is
an
=1
infinite
number
= 0,
"2
The
2"l"
/2_
^^'
^
rr,
_ ~ ^"7
ij^
= 1,
lie
z%c') _
lie
on the
x\a^ C)
elliptic
i/^(/j
C) _ 
""
a'^
cylinder
6^
"
lie
FOCI OF ELLIPSOID
130]
If (a, 0, y) is a point
19i
(a, 0, y) are
sections, are
first species,
and the
is
the
a focus of
its
first species
distances from
directrix parallel
/3,
0)
is
r(JL
.,2
w'here
{(*.,
/3,
the
through
P,
c""
})
equations to the
0) are
i:x',
x = ^, y = vy', z')
ellipse.
directrix
Now
parallel to
corresponding to
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
19?!
[ch. x.
ri
in the
point
The distance
measured
PP'
is
It is
given by
is
whose distance from a focus of the second species is proportional to its distance, measured parallel to a real circular
section, from the corresponding directrix.
By the same methods, we find that the points on the
parabolas
(i)
= 0,
^%=2z + a;
the
(u)
y = 0,
+ ^ = 2z.
focal parabolas.
.
= 20 + 6
The corresponding
directrices
(i)^./ = 2. + a,
It (0,
,8,
y)
is
(ii)^^..2 = 2. + 6.
yzp\iine,
ah{
ah
If
((X,
$;a!plane,
0,
y)
is
6/3
a bJ
any point on
1,
,
cr
tlie
'
,,
'
FOCI OF PARABOLOIDS
130]
a/
Whence the
(ta
\"^
193
if
the
signs
Ex.
conies
Ex.
1.
is
2.
Ex. 3. If
intersects the
is
tlie
normal at P to the
conic.
QR
lie
lines
Ex. 9. Prove that the focal lines of a cone are normal to the cyclic
planes of the reciprocal cone.
Ex.
The enveloping cones with vertex P of a system of conhave the same focal lines, and the focal lines are the
10.
focal conicoids
generators of
through
the confocal
hyperboloid of
P.
* Examples VII.
enveloping cone of an ellipsoid has three mutually
perpendicular generators the plane of contact envelopes a confocal.
1.
If
the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
194
4.
Shew
confocals
[ch. x.
by a given plane
5.
it is
6. Any tangent plane to a cone makes equal angles with the planes
through the generator of contact and the focal lines.
The sum
any generator
of a cone
makes with
is
conicoid of revolution
foci are S and S'.
whose
is
The
Ix
_ my _
nz
^^^^^^
P,iX,\,)
^
(C
P2(^,^,)
1/
P.JKX,)
z
EXAMPLES
CH. X.J
VII.
195
17. Normals are drawn from a point in one of the principal planes
Prove that they lie in the )rincipal \A:ine or
to a system of confocals.
in a plane at right angles to it, that the tangent planes at the feet of
those in the principal plane touch a parabolic cylinder, and that the
tangent planes at the feet of the others pass through a stiuight line
20.
confocals .
r
4./
+ ^
r
is
(62
the form
where
system.
z^v{t + c^/t),
a, b,
23. Through a given line tangent planes are drawn to two confocals
and touch them in A, A' B, B' respectively. Shew that the lines
AB, AB' are equally inclined to the normal at A and are coplanar
;
with
it.
24. If P and Q are points on two confocals such that the tangent
planes at P and Q are at riglit angles, the plane through the centre
and the line of intersection of the tangent planes bisects PQ. Hence
shew that if a conicoid touches each of three given confocals at two
points
it
[CH. XI.
CHAPTER XL
THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE.
131.
certain
We
when
the
the conicoid
is
represented
and then
and principal
determination of
the centre
Constants in
132.
or
may
The
be written
f{x, y, z)
and therefore a
e.g. a conicoid
can be found to pass through nine given points no four
of which are coplanar, or to pass through six given points
and touch the plane XOY at the origin, or to pass through
lines.
Ex.
1.
How many
number the
CONSTANTS IN EQUATION
g 131133]
Ex.
(li
where
a, b,
Ex.
through
2.
c,
197
conic
= 0,
+ my + nz=p
z{lv + my + m p) + {kx + fxzf + ( A.y + vzf = 0,
A,
Ex,
4.
/x,
is
+ z{(Lv + bf/ + ci + d) = 0,
where
= 0,
</)
The equation
3.
tlie
l.v
at
is
133.
[nations to
tlic
x(x. _
OL
this line
+ lr,
y^ _zy
The
whose
~ n
^^
'
jS+jnr, y\nr.
It lies
is
r has
on the conicoid
F{x,y,z) = 0,
F(a.
if
that
is, if
F(a,
(3,
1^
+ lr,
jS+mr, y + iir) = 0;
+ ry(/,,
m, .0 = 0.
(?^
iind Q,
the equation
If
(2).
(i)F(./3,y) = 0.
(iii) f(l,
/,+ + I = 0.
(ii)
m,n) = 0,
"^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
198
[ch. xi.
The
134.
tangent plane.
conicoid,
,9F
3F
/3,
3F
y) =
a
A
0,
(2) is zero.
on the
is
coincides
,_,
(^)
coincide
drawn
through A in
The equation
is
(.a)3^+(,^) + (.y) = 0.
and hence the locus is a plane, the tangent plane at
above equation may be written
3F
9F
BF
^SF
SF
A.
The
3F
...
now, F{x,
If,
tion of
y, z)
an auxiliary variable
3F
3F
9F
^3F
3F
,3F
,
is
equivalent to
,
= 2F(a,
/?,
y,
t),
DF
,9F
,
(Euler's Theorem),
= 0.
Ex.
1.
Ans.
(i)
(,r',
y\
z')
on
.v)/
in
which any
in the planes
i<,i^
THE
133, 134]
Ex.
PLANE
Tx\.NGENT
199
3.
(1, 2,
3) on the
liyperboloid
zx  1 6.r  6.r  // + 4;  2 = 0,
to the
.r2y + 5 = 0;
3.i'2y+l=0.
Ans.
?/
the
(ii)
(i)
point.
and 4.r3y + 2 = 0,
(i)
(a., /?,
y),
should
then
Therefore
3F aP 3F 3F
9oL
7
3y = 3<
,
i=
= 3^
=2a,
4
m.
11
say.
""
+ hl3+gy + u+ IX = 0,
koL+bf^ + fy+ v + mX = 0,
go. +f(3 + cy + w + nk = 0,
7i.ciL+v(3 + wy + d+ pX = 0.
la. + mf3 + ny+p = 0,
Hence
aa.
And
eliminating
a., (3,
y, A,
must
we obtain
a,
h,
jr,
h,
b,
f,
V,
in
g,
f\
c,
u\
u,
V,
ti>,
d,
I,
?H,
n,
27,
~Q.
Ex.
5.
Ex.
6.
Prove that
x>j
= cz\i dm + np = 0.
where
a,
h,
^>^
^ /
and
A = ^3,
8=^^71
if
etc.
A.r2
is
?/2
+ ^2)2.
of intersection of three
//,
D(.r2+/ + ^) = A + B + C.
z)=\
is
the sphere
(Cf. G8,
Ex.
1.)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
200
Ex.
9.
surface
Ex.
at
[ch. xi.
is
+ 3 = 0, 2x2z+l=0
2.?;
lie
If
10.
two points
If the generator
6/+
6'_y2
taken as
is
C2^+
c'z'^
2fi/z
.raxis,
+ 2gzx
and the
on the surface.
+2h.vi/ +2vi/
+2wz =0,
at
(a., 0,
0) are
y{hoL + v) + z(goL + w) = 0,
y{k'a.
if
hcL
h'a.
+ v _ goL + w
g'a. + w'
+ v'
a..
Ex.
If
11.
surfaces.
Ex.
12.
Tangent planes
+ [iy + yz =
= 0,
13.
If a conicoid passes
is
taken as
is
of a
Ex. 14. If a set of I'ectangular axes through a fixed point
conicoid meet the conicoid in P, Q, R, the plane PQR meets the
in a fixed point.
normal at
Ex.15.
If
Ur
are given by
(i)
(ii)
where
Ex.
16.
(.r',
y', z')
= l,
2, 3,
to the conicoids
Aitti2+V2^ + ^3%^=1'
AjWi^ + AgWa^
= 2X3^3
X.^^^^n^{X2U.iU2^X:iU^^(^
+ X2U2U2' = Xsi'ih +
/ = a,.v' + 6^?/ + Cr^ + dr.
Aii?(i'
'\,
'":\)i
Prove that
n^U2 + AiV,2 + 2\2ViV2 +
=
= 0,
A3?'.;
?f^
at their points
135]
The polar
135.
plane.
A with
to
respect
20 i
Q and
If
polar of A.
If
is
(a,
j8,
X CL _ 1l ^ _ Zy
then
i\,
the measures of
i\,
AP and AQ,
the equation
Hence
if
is (^,
_
^
^)
>;,
2i\r,
r]
is p,
2F(a, ^, y)
9F
ap'
^3^ + ^"3^ + ^'3y
,3F
n+7\,~
"
^cL = lp,
and
^ = mp,
^y = np.
Therefore
(fa)3^+(,/3)+(fy)=2F(a,Ay),
and the equation to the locus of
becomes
3F
9F
^3^ + 2/3^ +
3F
(^,
^),
>/,
,3F
%+%
,
= 2F(a,
/3,
y, t)2F(cjL,
(3,
t),
y,
= 0.
Ex.
1.
^^^^^=trJ[
I
y, z)
= 0.
(Cf. 70.)
Ex.
2.
lines
va. _ y P _zy
n
I
m
.r
'
m'
n'
COOEDINATE GJEOMETKV
SoS
^,3F
,3F
,
,3F
op
ooL
Ex.
3.
Any
3F
F(.v, y, z)
,,3F
oy
ol
[ch. xi.
if
3F
,3F
om
on
meets
a given conicoid in six points. Prove that the sum of the squares of
the ratios of the distances of the points from the polar plane of O to
O as
(Take
Ex.
4.
origin,
constant.
is
and use
54,
Ex.
9.)
Prove that
AiMj^
+ AaWa^ + A3%2 + A^
V=
a
selfconjugate, and
(0, b,0), (0,0, c).
is
a,
0,
0),
"
Ex.
6.
section
136.
The enveloping
cone.
of
The equations
x 0L_y ^_s y
I
~ n
if
But
y)f{xCL,
F{oL
(oc, /3,
y)
is
y/3,zy)
+ xOi, ^ + tjl3,
=f{xOL,y^,Zy)
y\Zy)
S 136138]
ENVELOPING
Therefore the
(JUNE
e(iuition to
AND CYLINDER
2o;i
4F(a,^, y)F(,f,2/,0)
OF
3F
3F
,SF\2
Ex. 1. If a cone envelope a sphere, the section of the cone l\y any
tangent plane to the sphere is a conic which has a focus at the point
of contact.
3.
the sphere
.^.2
casts a parabolic
Ans.
137.
+fJrz^iaz =
= 0.
= 2a.
The enveloping
cylinder.
lies
for
y),
! = ,
m n'
3F
3F\2
A^F
m, n)^ = [l:^ + m:^y^n)
A^,
^^n
^F(x, y, z)f{l,
The
a given point.
If
(ex.,
/3,
y), the
is
the mid
pcjint of the
a^a _ y ^ _ zy
~ n
'
the equation
F(a,
/3,
y) + r (/
=
^^ + mf. + nf) + r\f{l, m, n)
;3F
3F
SF
.,,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
204
Hence
[ch. xi.
all
(3,
y)
in
lie
by
()g+(!//3)+(y)=o.
The
which
is
y)
of centres of sections of
a>/z
cf.\hz
c^)'^
The diametral
139.
.r2/a.2+//i8H 22/7^=1
which touch
A ns.
plane.
all
line
_z
X _y
T
lie
the centre.
Ex.
by
3F
^x
3F
dy
3F
is
dz
(ii)
7/2
(iii)
Ans.
(i)
2
(iii)
circles
lie
2.
*V.3'1
%v+y  s = 0, x + 2//  2j =
X _ji _
Ex.
+ bzx  5x1/ + 8 = 0,
 yz 2zx xi/ 4: = 0.
x+i/z = 0, xi/ + z =
1
(ii)
x\z
= 0,
x+y\z =
^ Q^
^2
?/2
^ ^2
>3"
2
2
;
X _y _
2\/3
\J2
the
x^+y2+2 = 0,
(i)
= 0,
yH ^2 ^
through the
^^2
which
it
is
bisects is a principal
138140]
plane.
whose equation
is
x(al + hm
plane
is
l
or
205
+ m~dy\n
=0,
dz
dx
x^y_^z_
I
m n
if
{a \)l + hni\gn
= 0,
+ {bX)m+fn = 0,
gl+fm + {cX)n = 0.
ld
Therefore A
or
is
(1)
g =0,
A,
h,
h,
b\,
0,
f>
cA
where D
((,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
206
Find the
Ex.
(ii)
(i)
(ii)
141.
(i)
Jns.
[ch. xi.
BCF = aD = 0,
CAG" = 6d = 0,
If
d = 0, then
ABH2 = cD = 0,
two
is
a,
the
at an infinite distance or
For
to a fixed line.
G, H, are
F,
perfect square.
if
is
right angles
140, give
_n
G~y~C'
I
_'}n
= = = = =,
Vb Vc
or
v/a
(8141).
^^
^
The corresponding
all zero.
(2),
A, B,
are not
by
140,
the equation
s/Ax 4 VB (/
+ ^/Cz
= 0,
\
\/Au + \/Bv}Vci^^O, or
and
is
may
at
an
infinite distance if
TaTJI^Jo
In the
is in
first
.'^
,
,
is
in, tlie
fixed direction.
whose axis or
141143J
Ex.
1.
(i)
2.v^
(ii)
5.r2
Ans.
(i)
at infinity
(ii)
A=14,
right angles to
27,
2xy + Zz = \,
0;
+ fvy + 2==2,
.r
any
i)lane at
^= = ^.
207
in
cubic has
X = 0,
all
reduce to
two
of the
J ax + Jby + Jcz =
1,
(i) .r2
(ii)
A = 3,
+ 2/2 + 22
x'^+y^+z'^2yz +
0, 0.
If
and
3^2_2v/3^3 = 0.
Ex.
2.
lx+my + nz = 0,
the locus of
is
V m
m\l
vJ
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
208
[CH. XI.
real.
written,
^(X)^(Xa){{\b){\c)f}
{(Xb)g^ + Qic)h^ + 2fgh}=.0.
We may
assume (X>?>>c.
Consider
y = ^r{\)^(\b){Xc)f\
Corresponding values of A and y are
00
+ G0,
Y
c,
f,
b,
f,
+ 00
+00.
144,145]
209
when
A
= a,
^  {{(xb)[f + (oic)h2j{fj.b){a.c)gh}
= {iJs/cL b llJcL Cf,
real
wlien
= (gJb^+JiJc^f,
where Jb ^, Vc /3 are
real.
= 0,
and /=
\p(\)
have b = c,
fails
if
such that
and
(3,
In that
are equal.
case,
however,
we
{Xb){{\a){\b)g^h^]=0,
tlie
roots of
which are
145.
y,
If
is
the product of
two factors
+ 2hxy  A
of the f i^m
(x.x
+ ^/H 5^)
+ Py + ys. Only
(a.'^
/3,
y.
For
and therefore
where
* ax
tv
is
of tlie
and v are
form
linear functions of x, y,
A=
z,
with
real
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
210
coefficients.
of 6
[en. xi.
bX,
x/.(A),
,
+,
,
+,
+.
A = Ai,
\ = \,
A = A3,
Hence /(;,
according
y, z)
A = Ai,
as
or
Ag,
correspond
coefficients
The
A3.
therefore
with real
factors
the
to
mean
root,
A^.
(Cf.93.)
To find
the
The cubic
(ii) tliree
a \,
h,
h,
h\,
f
cA
f>
fj>
Therefore, as in 141,
(6A)(cA)/,
have the same
If
is
two
roots equal.
is
(p(\)=
(i)
condi(i)
if
is
(cA)(aA)^^
{aX){hX)h^
sign.
and
^^(b\)(cX)P
+ {cX){aX)g~ + (aX)ihX)h^ = 0,
and therefore
and hence,
{aX)f=gh,
{bX)g = hf,
,^s
also
{cX)h=fg
(b)
(a')
(p/)
(r')
145,146]
is
For
sufficient.
211
if (a') is
given, substi
we
obtain
whence
(6
Therefore,
A,
= hf,
(j,.x)g
is
not equal to
a, h
or
If
(a),
X = b or
X = c, then
<;
If
c.
/, g, h is zero,
and we have
(i^
Ai;
f^
If /,
from
c,
ff
G H
X = . =  = ^
F
or
two,
X)(c A)=/'.
if
first
{c\)h=f<j,
/, g,
It,
zero, then,
is
X = b, then h = 0, and
= 0, and
{ac){hc) = h\
Therefore
must be
if
zero,
is zero,
anotlier
and we have
X = ,
g = h = 0,
{ha){ca)=p;\
or
\ = h,
(ch)(ab) = g'},
or
X = c,
h=f = 0,
f=g = 0,
(2)
{ac){bc) = h\)
The equations
of ec[ual roots
(ii)
X also
satisfies
the
equation
^=
But,
by
0,
or
(A),
must be a sphere.
/= g h = 0.
Tlie conicoid in
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
212
The principal
147.
tions determined
al
We
directions.
[ch. xi.
by the equations
+ h.in + gii _
~ Id + hm +fn _ gl +fin + cn _
2/
J/
'
dl_dm _c)n _
^^
Tr 2^i~27i~^'
// X
I,
m.;
is
\ =f{l, m,
t or
148.
n).
X=
do
din dn
dt
dm
dn
=  = rr = lTTTt:
= '^'
sr
(^
21
2{l'"\m^\n")
2m 2n
The principal
directions
,.,
5:
'tn,
corres2Mnding
n).
'
to
two
at right
angles.
If
\,
X.,
l^,
m^,
n^;
l.^,
m.,,
n.,
are the
^k\ = ^'
But
etc.;
%\ = ^'
etc.
l^^+,n,^+n,^^l,^
+ m.:^
+ n.,^,
^dt^
^dm^
^dn^
^dl^
"dm^^
^dn^
and therefore
(i)
is
a definite
dl2_d7no_dno_^
...
^^
any
is
satisfied
by the
147149]
21:}
= A3^0, and
3^
\.,

'
1^
(J
gl,+fm2 + {c\.,)n,=^0
all
become
And
ry/iZ.,
since the
sum
+ hfm.^ +fgn.^ = 0.
a A,^ 
'
is
a + ^ + c,
It
may
be written
The three
which determine a
equation corresponding to
directions given
by gh hf:fg,
:
l.^
The
m.y
should be at right
v.,
angles.
If
we have
X, = X3 = a,
r/=.0,
/i
= 0, and {ba)(ca)^f,
(ba)m,+fn., = 0,
If
X.,
= X.^ = 0,
he
=p
ca
D = 0,
then
 g",
<ih
A.,
'^
//
and
+ Jbm., 4 s/cv = 0,
Ja
Jb
single
is
sjc
Aj are
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
^i4
and
If
(ii)
any
[ch. Xi.
direction
]i
reduce to
The reason
is
For X = a = h c,
a principal direction.
is
f=g = = 0,
obvious.
_^i^
on
The
_ '^
n
surface
is
it.
To sum
roots,
up,
if
are
there
the discriminating
three mutually
cubic
has distinct
perpendicular
principal
If
it
dm _'c>n _
2l~2in~2n~
dl _
where A
is
'
?3,
x = l^^+l^}] + ^,
Then
We
etc.
X^, Ao, A3 of
^=l^x
+ m^y + n^z,
have also
^dx
^dy
^dz
dl^
'^dm^
dri^
similarly,
l.^,
m^,
n.,
the cubic.
etc.
19151]
Hence, multiplying by
or
^,
f(x, y, z)
Ex.
IiiEx.
(i)
1.
\Ax" +
In Ex.
(ii)
2A'^
(i),
= \$'' + \r + A3^'
1, (i),
8.*v/
tiansfornis into 6g
In Ex.
(i),
2.
2>/
8^^.
transforms into
\A^\2ir,f.
143,
'
142,
+ 20^2 + i82a_i2_y2+12.tv/
(iii)
and adding,
140,
1 4?/
^ respectively
;,
215
into 3^.
+ ^hzx + 2cx}j = 1
2cLi/z
+ 2f3zx + 2yxi/ = 1
if
THE CENTRE.
when P is any point
151. If there
on a conicoid and PO is produced its own length to P',
P' is also on the conicoid, O is a centre of the conicoid.
// the origin is at a centre, the coefficients of x, y, z in
is
the
f{x, y, z)
Then
if
is
(x,
y',
z), P' is
f{x\ y, z) +
f(x\
Therefore
y',
of values of
x',
is
satisfied
iix
(1)
by an
infinite
we must have
+ d = 0,
+ d = 0.
+ vy'\wz =0
number
{x\
+ vy + ivz = 0,
u= =
t'
i''
= 0.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
216
To determine
152.
F{x, y, z)
Let (a,
= 0.
Change the
y) be a centre.
and the equation becomes
(3,
fix, y,
[ch. xi.
z)\x+y;^ + z
origin to (a, ^, y)
0,
jF{0L, (3,
y)
= 0.
aF_3F_9F_
The equation
Cor.
SF
dx
to
dF
is
of the
form
dz
The central
planes.
2 9^
point
(2)
l^^gx+fy + cz + w^O
(8)
common
we may
Similarly,
(1),
(2), (3)
by
A, H,
respectively
and hA + bH+fG = 0,
Au + H y + Gw
y=
single
centre
etc.,
D
z
D^tO,
then, since
x=
We
call
aA + /iH + f7G = D
I.
(1)
^'^^hx + hy+fz + v = 0,
Multiply equations
and add
e(juations
= '' + %+5'^ + ^^ =
Any
The
at
hnite distance,
_p
hyper
boloid, or cone).
THE CENTEK.S
^ 152154]
11.
D = 0,
single centre at an
Au+Hv + Giv=l=0,
III.
217
D = 0,
(paraboloid).
infinite distance,
line of centres at a
(elliptic or
finite distance,
planes
(central
linder,
hy
perbolic cy
pair
of intersect
ing planes).
parallel,)
IV. A, B, C,
line of centres at
F, G, H,
all zero,
an
(parabolic
distance,
infinite
cy
linder).
(central planes
but not
parallel
coincident,)
V. A, B, C,
plane
H,
F, G,
fu = gv = ivh,
154.
of
centres,
planes).
coincident,)
the origin
(pairofparallel
planes
(central
all zero,
changed to
it,
is
at a
centre.
If
(oc, /3,
f(x,y,z)+F{a.,^,y) = 0,
,3F
dF
or, since
f(x, y, z){uoi
+ v^ + wy + d = 0.
A^'. y>
^)=
Ati^{Bv^\Cw
S
where
a,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
218
Ex.
1,
(i)
U.v^ +
[ch. xi.
conicoids,
Uf + 8z'^4^z4zx8xi/+l8xl8i/ + 5 =
0,
(ii) 3x^(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(ii)(_l,
_^),
J^=^ = ,
9
(iv)
!_^=^ =
lb
1
(iii)
(vi)
is
the line of
11
x^+z = l
is
the
(i)
and
(ii)
3.r2
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
5.t'2
ellipses
 3),
or to any point on
c'
Ex.
5.
The
Ex.
6.
If F(x,
?/, 2,
two
of the
dx
Ex.
7.
principal
that their vertices
Ex.
circle
x'^
i/^
Ex.
'by
dz
?)t
on a
conic.
= ax.
9.
points (a, 0,
these points
conicoid
0), (0, b, 0), (0, 0, c), and its section by the plane
is a circle.
that its centre lies on the line
through
Shew
Ex.
10.
Shew
155]
Ex.
11.
:.'l!i
z=0,
a.v'^
+ hf + 2f.v + d=0;
.v
of their centres
is
= 0,
cz^
+ bf + 2(/z + d = 0;
.y
= 0.
12.
I.)
roots,
direc
can be taken
= A2 = A3).
The
lines
principal planes.
\x^+\y'~ + \z'^ + ^ =
The surface
is
two
sheet, a hyperboloid of
If
().
S = 0, the surface
is
sheets, or a sphere,
if
S^O
a cone.
2S.V
2.v>/
 6.V  2>/  2^ + 2 = 0.
is
A^3A8A + 16 = 0.
Whence
A^4, ~^"^
~^
a*
V^'
'
4, .2,
/Q^
say
 ?/  2  3 = 0,
.r+y32l=0,
.r3y + 2l =0.
.r = l, y= 1, z=l.
These give
.:
^=u.r+n/+)r + d=l.
is therefore
presents a hjqjerboloid of two sheets.
4x^0.^+ fSh"^
I,
and
re
COOBDINATE GEOMETRY
220
[ch. xi.
Note.
If the roots of the discriminating cubic cannot be found by
inspection, their signs may be determined by a corollary of Descartes'
Rule of Signs " If the roots of /(A) = are all real, the number of
In
positive roots is equal to the number of changes of sign in /(A)."
the above case, /(A) = A^ + 3/\.28A + 16, and there are two changes of
positive
roots.
two
therefore
sign, and
:
Ex
Reduce
2.
(i) .r2
(ii)
(iii)
/I
s.
(i)
3a72y2_22+6y26x+6j/2s2 = 0,
2/ + 4sjp + 2j;43/ + 6s + 5 = 0.
(ii) 2,x^ + 2j/2  4^2 = 4,
1
^H 2/ + 452 =
(iii)
x^ + y'^
 z^ = 0.
CaseB: d = 0, au + hv + giv^O.
156.
There
is
a single centre at
X^^O, X3 = 0,
( 153,
infinity,
II.).
If
(/^3+/m3+f"3 =
hl^{bm.^+fn^ =
and
0,
d
^.
= ^ = ? = 2_J
and
uA + vH + wG
A
H
G
Hence ul.^ + vm..^ + wn^^O. Denote it by k
therefore
The
^
is
at infinity,
(U2).
Where
= ~ =
the line ^
=r
may
be written
r2
+ F(oL,/3,y) = 0,
+ 2kr + F(a, ^, y ) = 0.
Therefore any line in the principal direction corresponding to X3 meets the surface in one point at a finite
and one point at an infinite distance.
If the
hne
 = ^ =
156]
is
normal to
tangent plane at
tlie
(x',
y',
z'),
221
a point of
the surface,
9F
3F.
SF
3F
^
g^
gg^
Sx^"^'"=^3j/"^'^^9^;
9F
'dF_
= 2('M,^3+
;7?i,3
+ wn^) = 2k.
(1)
p.2^hx + hy+fzivkm._^ = 0,
(2)
P3 = gx+fy + cz+tvkn.^ =
(3)
kPi +
But
'>'>hp., + n^Ps^O,
7
= ^3
'^h
^3
Therefore there
the normal
is
is
is
the equations
(2),
(1),
(3),
'j
= ^ = ^.
That point
F(x, y, z)
= hx
by
But
is
\hy:^ + ^z^ + ux + vy +
c)
ivz
= 0.
+ d,
and the
equation
k{l^x
+ m^y +
n.;^z)
+ ux + vy + ivz + =
^'
y', z').
fix, y, z)
or
f(x, y, z)
the
y\ z) =
lines
through the
cosines
oi'igin to
O^ has
direction
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
222
The surface
Since,
,
from
3F
^dx
therefore a paraboloid.
is
SF
^dy
[ch. xi.
c^F
^dz
9F
dx
3F
^dy
3F
^dz
two
2x^ +
1,
2f + z^ + 2i/z2z.vUy + :v + = 0.
7/
Whence
^^> ^^' 0;
o.^ /3^ 0,
say.
Ao,
2ls2m^ 71^=0,
^3_'"3_%_
Therefore
i/,
V2
and
iV
is
the
for
2
therefore a?x^ + (^^y" + f^z = 0.
vertex give
V2
x=i/=z0, and the
axis
is
= 0.
j^
(ii)
J,...
^^g + 4.2
4,12
157.
The
(1,1/2,5/2);
+ x/2. = 0;
CaseC: d = 0,
There
+ ^^j^ _ ^x  1 4^  22^ + 33 = 0,
Ai6
(1,9/4,3/4);
+ Hv + Gi^ = 0,
?^ = ?^
^=.^9 = ^.
a^O.
(as in 1.56),
or,smceGH=AF,.
l^^m^^^
A~ H ~G
'
^^=^^ = ^.
156,157]
In this case
ul.^
+ vm.^ + um.^ = 0,
corresponding to A3
indeterminate,
is
223
142).
(ij
It
may
be
Hz.
ax + hy \g.z\7t = 0,
hx + hy+fz + v = 0,
u'Jt
^T yt
^l^
uf
1/H
1/G
1/F
Hence
tlie
line of
centres.
Any
If
we change
if+ r
vg + r
F"'
G~'
the origin to
ul.^
fix, y, z)
F{x, y, z)
F
or, since
it,
wh + r
vi]i.^
becomes
+ ivn.^ = 0,
+ ~^+^ + ^ + d = 0.
further reduces to
^^^z
^ ^^y2 ^^' = 0,
^'.^+!^+!^^ + ^.
where
= 0,
Ex.
1.
it is
A2
is
an
elliptic or
hyperbolic cylinder;
is
0,
say.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
^24
and therefore
^
and
Hence there
ul3
[ch. xi.
= ^=rr,
z
+ vin^ + 1071^ = 0.
^.2
which reduces
Ex.
to
What
2.
^ g ^2 _ ^2 _ ^2 ^ 5 ^^ _ i^
a^x^ (i'^y'^ = l.
surfaces are lepresented
by
2y2
2.y2
Ex.
3.
5.^2
CaseD: A = B = c = F = G = H = 0,
158.
There
A^, A2,
If Zp m.^, n^
If
direction
]^
u/^v^f.
is
= ah, we
f'^
= bc,
g^
= ca,
and
have
al^
~'
^1
^ = J = ^4
whence
sja
And
since
Let O^,
O;;,
cosines are
^3,
m^,
( 149).
is
ufvg^Q,
l^,
O^be a
vc
m^, n^;
l^,
satisfy the
The equation
therefore
\lh
m^,
th^
'>
h>
''^h> '^s
whose direction
Then
l^,
m^,
n.^
0>;,
O^
158,159]
Now
l^l.^
l.^,
m^TTi^
n^ to satisfy also
on^,
+ wn^ = 0.
+ vm._^ + tvn 3) = u{n.J..j^ n.J..^ v{m^n^ m^n^),
= um^ vl^=f=0.
if ul.^+vm^ + ivu.^ is denoted by ti\,
u^2
Then
225
+ n^n.^ = 0,
VTTi^
nj^ul.^
Therefore,
iv^ = 'Z(uii\
vl^f
_ {vSwJhf+{wJ7tuJcfJt{uJhvJa,f
~
Writing
for
ii^
id^
a+6+c
+ vin^{ivii^,
the
equation
to
the
surface becomes
Ai^;
'''+A,/
which
may
+ Su^a; + 2ii\z + = 0,
fZ
+ \
V^^^iv,
2iv,\J^^'
_2w^_ 2{(vs/cwJbf+{W'JaUs/cf+(^vs/bVs/af} ^
^1
(a + b + cf
159. Case E: a = b = c = f = g = h
There is a plane of centres, ( 153,
As
in
sfa
But
= 0, uf=vg = wh.
V.).
since
sjb
\fc
uf= vg = wh,
u _ V _w
Ja Jb Jc
and therefore
iil.2
The equation
\x + 2u^x + d = 0,
and the surface
B.G.
is
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
226
[ch. xi.
perfect square.
coefficients in the
numerical.
a = B = C = 0,
Since
f{x, y, z)
a perfect square.
is
Hence
?{x, y, z)
If,
(Jcix
p
= 7= =
\lh
sjc
if,
But
/;,
(Case B),
of parallel planes.
j^=l=7=:,
the equation
may
be written
Now
coordinate planes
t=
^=
^a+6 + c
,
as
>7
and
T_==,
2jl.{X'Jauf
to
 {^Ja{Xs/au)Y
^^{vslcwslbf;
new
160,161]
may
227
be written
(a + 6 + c)^
Ex.
X +
(i)
(ii) 9./'
Ans.
161.
(i)
\f +
.'
2vW3 = 0,
G.^
Summary
(ii)
2.*;
2*7/
+ Ay  2.  3 = 0,
+ 4.^ + y + 1 Oj + 1=0.
x\=f^^y.
In the reduction
coefficients
is
generally
scjuare,
proceed as in 160.
If the terms of second degree do not form a perfect
square, solve the discriminating cubic.
the three roots are different from zero, find the centre
If
(a,
^, y)
reduced equation
X^x"
equations
,'
If k=f=0, the
If
/,:
= 0,
=~ = ^ =
'Psf
there
on
it
is
l^,
*"/5
0.
^^^
m.^, n.^,
Evaluate
td.^
+ vm.^+ivu.^ = k.
is
= = ^=
0.
Choose
(a,
^"^
+ uy + d = 0.
7)'f
reduced equation
the equations
^^^~'^~^>
is
(3,
is
y) any point
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
228
Ex.
[cii.
xi.
(ii)
3.12
2.rH20yHl8s2
(v)
3^4^21222=1,
(ix)
(x)
+ 6=0,
+ 2^/2 4*2 = 0.
(viii) 49.^235.^^
14.v226/==2v^9T2,
(vi)
+ 27/ = l,
3.^2 + 4^/21822=1,
(vii) 14x2
.r2
reduces to
\(^'+y')+\^^+~=o,
\{cv^
or
(i)
+ i/) + 2kz = 0,
(ii)
or
The surface
is
therefore,
cone of revolution,
(ii),
(i),
an
(iii)
ellipsoid,,
hyperboloid, or
a paraboloid of revolution, or
These
are, if
we
(iii),
the only conicoids of revolution, and therefore the conditions that F(x, y, z)
viz., (
146),
= a'^ = 6^Ccf;
f
or
\ = a,
\=
or
or
h,
(1)
g=^0, h = 0;
(2)
(3)
(ha){ca)=f,
(4)
CONICOIDS OF llKVOLL'TlON
i^iesj
229
And
any plane
therefore
'.
+ + =
The
'
'^
is
the
(.'
Similarly,
if
Ex.
1.

is,
d=
^ yvla z+w/a
sjc a
s/h a
m^
\ f
?i^\
l'^
i
n^\
fl
nfl
^
,
aAa^ +^+^;=p^^+F+c^;==M^+p+c^.
= Q,
or
m=0,
or
n = 0,
{m2(a2 
C2)
{n\l)^a'') + l{h'^c^)]{na?^l'c''} = Q,
{l%c'^h'^ + m\c^a?)]{l%'^
+ m'^a?} = 0.
If a >b>c, the second only of these equations gives real values for
the directioncosines of a generator, viz.,
I
If
is
_ 'w _
/>
\ a
c
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
230
[ch. xi.
to the cylinder is
x^+y^ = b'^.
or
Ex.
A{x''
3.
+ y^2z^\) + {x'JYbzf^0.
Prove that
^^^.2
j^y'i
+ 2 ^yzzx xy 
3.^
%  9^ + 21 =
^>H?/2/62 = l,
Ans. x = 0,
^,
+ =l;
= 0.
^^ =
^ = 0,
1
Ex. 5. The locus of the vertices of the right circular cones that
circumscribe an ellipsoid consists of the focal conies.
Ex.
6.
If
f{x,
I/,
s)
\f
1^
h.j
Ex.
7.
a+b+c
qh
z)
?/,
=Q
represents a conicoid
fix, y, z)
a perfect square.
Hence shew that the four cones of revolution that pass through the
coordinate axes are given by ayz + bzx + cxy = 0, where
is
a
A
sni^
,u
_ b
b
.
sin^^
cosZ
o/x
sin^
'2
a
v'
sm;^
(?
sin^
v'
cos^Z
cos^
a,
,v'
/x
cos^^
IA
cos'^
cos^
9V
sinZ
Ex. 9. Find the equations to the right circular cones that touch
the (rectangular) coordinate planes.
INVAKIANTS
163j
231
INVARIANTS.
163. If the equation to a conicoid F(ft, y,
formed by any change of rectangular axes,
rt
+ 6+c,
remain unaltered in
If the origin
therefore a
If
now
only
+h+
is
trans
D,
value.
is
changed, f(x, y, z)
A + B + C, and D are
is
unaffected,
and
unaltered.
so that fix, y, z)
f[{x,
c,
A + B + C,
z)
the expressions
is
transformed into
then
f{x, y, z)
\ {x + y + z)
becomes
f^{x,y,z)\{,^Vf^z;^).
/(a',7/,s)ACTH2/H5^) =
If
represents
two
planes,
And \
is
a X,
h,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
of S,
[CH. XI.
INVARIANTS
^163]
will also represent tlie
in
both
aX,
e<iuitions,
/>,
h.,b\,
ih
cone.
And A
the equations
't
23:i
(iiuintity
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
234
2.
[ch. xl.
line
xy =
z.
3.
What
4.
is
real cone
by
given by
ai'e
b (,^2
5.
 2cy)  a {f  2c.);) = 0,
x'^
and
+ C22 + 2% + a2 = 0,
?/2
+ dz'^ + iax + = 0,
form a rightangled
triangle.
Prove that
6.
(aX2
Shew
7.
+ cz^=\
at
its
its
ar'''']bii'^
!.
(rti.r
?/
Prove that
8.
if
a^^b^ + (? = 3abc,
9.
3S
9<x
'dh
db
'da
,
of a
3S
_
"dc
'dc
,
normal section
is
9S
3S
3S
"da
'db
'dc
tt
3D 3D 9D\^
da^db^dc)
EXAMPLES
CH. XI.
Prove that
10.
and that
if it
if F(.r,
s)
_?/,
is
also
=l
are given
by
^
'df
dz
'dy'
'dx'
F(,r,
z)
9/,
;di
we have
ii
where
235
y, 2)=
f
The
11.
VII I.
3F
9F
SF
dx'
dy'
dz
z)
= 0.
//
= 0,
13.
kz
= m.
ax +by + 2cz=0,
14.
= 0.
{a^
^^^
hyperbolic paraboloid passes through the lines
 = T = ^;
2
represents a paraboloid
Shew
^^^'^^
li^s
ji
'
^^
a~J)~2c
'
M4=
'=Gi)+=(^>)=o
a(yb){z/iyb(xa){z + />f = 0.
16.
Given the
ellijisoid of
02
,,2
revolution
I
2
=
^,+^
b
1,
(>62).
^
'
that the cone v/hose vertex is one of the foci of the ellip.se 2 = 0,
x^la^+y^jb'^ = \, and whose base is any plane section of the ellipsoid is
Shew
of revolution.
17.
The axes
six points
{a,
or on the cone
0, 0), (0,
.,_
o18.
circle
,2_,,2
^2_,,2
c
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
^36
[ch. xl.
19
and
is
.r
= 0,
a and
b.
22. A, B, C are the points (2a, 0, 0), (0, 2ft, 0), (0, 0, 2c), and the
circle is circumscribed about the triangle
axes are rectangular.
conicoid passes through this circle and is such that its
OAB.
are rectangular hyperbolas which
sections by the planes x = 0, i/ =
O, C and A respectively. Prove that
pass throTigh O, B and C
the equation to the conicoid is
,^.2
where A and
jn
such conicoids
is
Shew
.t'
and
is
= 0,
2/
= 0,
2=0,
.vla+j/jb + z/c
= l,
opposite face,
is
parallel to the
is
the
24. Shew that the equation to the ellipsoid inscribed in
tetrahedron whose faces are x=0, y = 0, s = 0, xja+ylb+zjc^l, so as
is
gravity,
of
centre
its
at
face
each
to touch
"o^
+ 'F^
c2
^'hc
"^
ca'^ ab
cC'^
25.
f^^/z
F^ c^^ be
b
xi^\_
ca'^ ab
alie
zx
24"
to the ellipsoid
is
the cone
EXAMPLES
en. XI.]
VIII.
23';
of
given
i)y
ax + h>/ + gz,
Fi,
27.
Prove that
(.r
is
Aa=y/5 = sy.
CHAPTER
CH. XII.
XII.
Any
is
of intersection of
common
to
two
conies.
two conicoids
The curve of
is
a quartic
curve.
If the conicoids have a common generator, any plane
which does not pass through it meets it in one point and
may
common
is
a cubic curve.
two conicoids
and a cubic curve.
intersection of
of
the
common
points of the
be a cubic curve.
Ex. We have seen that three cylinders pass through the feet of
the normals from a point (a, jtf, y) to the conicoid
mt,
^
are
Iheir equations
^
or
.ro.
ax
= 11 ^ =
zy
',
by
h)
cz
zx (c  )  cou + ayx = 0,
 afSx + hcjLy = 0.
CONICOIDS WITH
164, 165]
COMMON GENERATORS
is
written
One asymptote
of
^ 1  at'
^ ^ Y~ht'
of
any phme
z
may bo
/i
</.
^'
230
^^\ct
phme
+ = 0.
c
a
an asymptote of one
165.
Any
meets
S._,
in
two
one of which
points,
lies
Fig. 49.
Let
P, fig. 49,
be the
first
of these
surface
S.,
the second.
in three points,
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
240
of
[ch. xii.
common
S.,.
AB
generator
at
two
points.
along AB.
any position
of P.
And
therefore
if
Theconicoids 5.r2j/2
1.
22J;
+ 2^3/ + 207 + 2^ = 0,
2x^zx+x + i/=0,
(1)
(2)
OZ
as a
common
We
obtain
^_Q^
x=0,
2x
z
+ \ =0
(3)
(4)
(3)
and
(4),
coordinates
and
y = tx = t%t + l)
(5)
But
t is
Ex.
2.
x'^y'^yz+zx\x2y+z = 0,
x^ + 2y'^+^z^Zyz + zxAxy+x2y + z = Q
have
x=y=z
as a
common
generator.
xy = t{yz)
meets the cubic cui've which contains the other common points in the
P'^i"^
_ 300 ^,_(4^ + l)(<l).'
_ (4<2 + 4< + 3 )(l0
'^"'
Ai^+bt
^ Af + bt'
Ai^ + bt
'
CONTCOIDS WITH
105, IGG]
COMMON
GKNEIlA'J'Ol^S
241
shew that the cubic meets tlie common generator at the origin and tlie
point .v=i/ = z= and verify that the surfaces have the same tangent
15,
166.
curve
Conicoids with
may
common
The cubic
generators.
Let
O and
P,
(fig.
50),
let
common
the measure
to
PG
Then, since
as yaxis.
x = 0,y = 0;
z = y,a: =
may be written
2yz + 2gzx + 2hxy2yy =
are generators of
S^
its
y = 0,z = 0:
equation
(1)
Fia. 50.
And
to So are
=
(2)
i2 4 by + 2yz + 2g^zx + 2k^xy 2yy
The tangent planes at (0, 0, z') to Sj and S.^ are given by
gz'x y(yz')
and hence
if
g^g^
= 0,
g^z'x
 y yz) = 0,
{
all
points of the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
242
common
obtain
We
generator OZ.
From
where g^f^g^
case
[ch. xii.
shall consider
and
(1)
by
(2),
meantime the
subtracting,
a^x^^rh^y''^2zx{g^g)\2xy{h^h) = 0,
we
(3)
common
cone, having OZ as
the common points
which
It is in general a
But
if
If h^
of So,
and equation
Hence
tlie
(3) then
becomes equivalent to
x = 0,
common
points of S^ and
().
upon a conic
lie
S.^
in the plane
= 0,
in the plane
x = 0.
If,
also,
% = 0,
OX
is
generator of
The
the conic
If
of the
therefore of
OX and
PG.
common
quadrilateral formed
of the
two
is
consists
The plane
therefore a tangent
system, and
S^.
is
same
OX and
The complete
is then a skew
all
the
points of
common
+ h^y = 0,
second
common
generator.
all
points of a
EXAMPLES OF INTERSECTION
166]
Ex.
The
1.
243
conicoids
2.f
y"\ Ai
c
f 5^ 
3:.'.'
(5//^
r)
Ex.
The
2.
conicoids
3?y2
have
OX
common
for a
points.
A n s.
+1=
Ex.
3. f
3.
The
common

2>/
generator.
( 2//
tlicir otlior
+ 3.:) + 2y + G. = 0.
conicoids
2z^
4z^
Ex.
4.
The
= 0, x=0 x=0,
;
^i/2z = l
?/
= 0,
5.r22 = l.)
conicoids
z^
4j2
5.
is
all
tlie
.v=A*2,
v/
may be
= A2+l,
written
2
= A1.
Ex.
6.
22
Am. Two
Ex.
7.
+ 102y + 26 = 0, /2j/,r + 2 = U.
coincident at (17,
5,
7)
(2, 2,
4)
1 1 xy
 2x + 22 =
x=y =
z,
and
8.
lie
Ex.
to a
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
244
Ex.
10.
y{az) = a^,
11.
Prove that
x{ay) = a^
z{a.v) = a\
Ex.
[ch. xii.
lies
on the surface
.rv/^
+ a^ 0,
if
2
*''~^=^'
_2_
y~tir ^~'tc
Ci = y.(6c)2^ + 2 = 0,
C2 = zx{c  a)  2s + 2.r = 0,
Cs = xii{ah)'ix+2y = 0,
through
to a conicoid
it is
ACi+/i.C2 + vC3 = 0.
Prove that the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through
the curve is
(6
and that
2_2__2_2
''~al)
~ac'
ba'
''~bc
ca
'
'
rh
are asymptotic to the curve, and that the locus of the centres passes
through them and through the curve.
Ex. 12. Prove that the general equation to a conicoid through the
cubic curve given by
_^_^^
^^2^
^^^3
is
is
is
the surface
+ s=0.
2A33.r2/
of the curve.
Ex.
13.
The equations
= Aj.r 4 A2?/
1
Agz,
= Bi,i
^^
Ai = ^,
OUi
Shew
I
'etc.;
lies
B.?/ f
^ Ae
B^
"1,
c,
a 21
b.2,
Co
2ir{w^
is
through
it is
Ex.
TWO
INTERSECTION OF
16^
14.
('ONK'OIDS
215
lies
whose
Ex.
15.
a,fi
+ Iht'' + c,t + d,
aofi
.'/
aifi
lies
+ b.,fi + + d..
+ b/ + Cit + d^
c.,t
ai^^
where
nl
3 =
Cj.i
v.^
u^
D,.r
Do//
D.,:
+ D^
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
246
S + AS' =
the equation
(t
+ \a,
Xp
is
a cone
+ \u'
+ \g\
+ \b',
f+Xf,
v + \v'
c + Ac',
w + Xiv',
w\\w'
O + Xg,
f+\f',
u\X^t',
v\Xv',
^i
then (a,
sponding to Ap
Sa+AiS' = 0,
where
is
with respect to
x(S,{lu.S'^)
y), the
If these are
given by
+ AiS'^ = 0,
S^
Sa = ,
/3,
=0,
d + Xd'
if
]i\\]i',
h\\li,
and
This conicoid
curve of intersection.
[ch. xii.
etc.
S^
+ AiS'^ = 0,
S,
+ AiS', =
S + julS' =
,8,
(1)
y)
(),
l(JLS't)
= 0,
S'.
Hence
this plane is
any three
of the cones
is
1G7,1C8]
on AB as x and saxes.
a point
247
and
to the
......(1)
+ z{l'x+m'y+n'z+p') =
(2)
The
^y
<p{y,z)
<p(y,z)+Xz^ = 0.
{),
by the plane x =
are given
+ 2fy\c[z{my + n'z+i>') = 0,
m=m
and therefore
From
(1)
and
(2),
by
and p=j/.
we have
subtraction,
\x'+z{{l'l)xi{n'i})z}=();
tlierefore the
common
points of the
two conieoids
lie in
two
consists of
If
other
cross at
A and
B.
AB
we have
is
points
lie in
generators
is
AB
to the conic at B,
to either conicoid at
is
common tangent
common points of
A.
plane at
the conicoid
BAC
In the second
lie
is
case,
the
the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
248
//
169.
tivo
[ch. xii.
common
'plane sections
The
in
The
B.
also touch at C.
If the
The
analytical proof
is
equally simple.
S=
If
is
the
u = ax+hy\cz\d =
is
v=
(),
ax + b'y +
common
(^'^
+ d' =
form
of the
S + \uv = 0.
If
u'
is
/3,
y),
then
conicoid
(I)
to the second
is
+ vu') = 0,
+ 2/S^ + 2;S^ + St = 0,
by
or,
a;S
(1),
to a conicoid
having double
u = 0,
= 0, is
or,
is
since
u' = ?/
= 0,
xS_\yS^
+ zSy\St^O.
B.
to
J^S^
169171]
touch a
triveii
CIKCUM.SCRrBrN(} C'ONU'OIDS
240
and
tlicrerore the
plane at a
<>iven
point,
does.
it
Cor.
focus of a conicoid
is
which has double contact with the conicoid, and the corresponding directrix is the chord of contact.
Circumscribing conicoids. If two conicoids toucli
C and none of the lines BC, CA, AB is a
common generator, then the conicoids touch at all points of
their sections by the plane ABC.
Since the conicoids touch at B and C, their connnon }5ints
171.
at three points A, B,
lie
plane.
When two
one
conicoids touch at
all
is
Ex.
2.
If thx'ee conicoids
of their other
i)lanes
Ex. 3. The locus of a point such that the square on the tangent
from it to a given sphere is pi'oportional to the rectangle contained by
distances from two given planes is a conicoid which has double
contact with the sphere.
its
Ex.
4.
Two
in plane curves.
Ex.
6.
.r2
is
+ 20 =
x'=8,
= 2.
Ex.
7.
If a
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
250
[ch. xii.
Ex.
The
9.
ax'^
+ hf + cz^^l
0=0
in a circle,
acL
'
Ex.
10.
A sphere of
_j.2
its
centre
b(3
= /5, and
intersect
must
lie
,2
,2
.r
'
h'^
^^.
d^. + c^
d^ =
g2
v/
ellipsoid
Prove that
same
the surface
the plane
of the
= 0,
x^
d^
,.2
_j;2
ifi
r^
2+7:2^=l"2
when
the sjAere
lies
wholly
13.
Any two
whose
vertices lie
lc^
Ex. 16.
of contact
is
172,173]
CONICOIDS
172.
number
oL'
})a.s.s
251
intinite
thron<i;li
ci^bt
given points.
Tbeii one
fixed points.
conicoid can
given points, and one to pass through B and the eight given
points.
S = 0,
S'
the points
all
= 0, and
common
by
any value can be assigned to the parameter A therean intinite number of conicoids can be found to pass
through the eight given points.
xVnd
fore
The
locus of the
common
Hence
quartic curve.
all
points of S
= 0,
S'
is
One
Cor.
points,
but
lies
infinite
number
of conicoids
Tlie
the conicoids
fixed line.
Any
S1AS' = 0,
(a,
/3,
is
{).
line
+ //S^ + :S^ + S, = 0,
xS\ + yS'^ +
S',
+ S\ = 0.
If four conicoids pass tli rough eight given points, the polar
planes of any ])oint with respect to them have the same anharn)onic
Ex.
1.
ratio.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
252
[ch. xii.
/3i,
yi)
and we denote
and
and Ao,
o
o
(olj
ySg,
r.
by
Pa.,,
+ >jSp.,+zSy. + St.i
xSa..
then the equations to the polar of AjA., with respect to the conicoid
S + AS' = Oare
Pa, + AP'a,=0.
p,^ + AP'^ = 0,
The
is
therefore given
by
Pa,P'aoPa.,P'a,=0.
The
hyperboloids
Ex.
points
+ A P'ai = 0,
5.
lie
p^p'^
= 0,
Pa2
+ A P'a, = 0,
Paj
+ A P'aj = 0.
_ p^p'^=0,
Pa^P'a,
Pa.P'a3
= 0.
The
174. Conicoids
S'
is
If
s = 0,
is
S + XS' + /^S" =
The
(1)
0,
S'
= 0,
(1).
S" =
0,
whose
co
and therefore
Therefore
all
conicoids
EXAMl'LES
174]
Ex.
The centres
4.
points
Ex.
The
5.
points
253
on a surface of the
lie
IX.
tliird degree.
lie
Examples IX.
1. Tangent planes parallel to a given plane are drawn to a system
of conieoids which have double contact at fixed points with a given
Prove that the loc\is of their points of contact is a hyperconieoid.
bolic paraboloid which has one system of generators parallel to the
given plane.
3.
The
feet of the
straight line
lie
OC
ABC
O
OC
ABC
variable plane
passes through a fixed line and cuts the
axes, which are rectangular, in A, B, C.
Pi'ove that the locus of the
centre of the sphere
is a cubic curve.
5.
OABC
'
t'
7.
The
generator
in
P.
.shortest distance
?/
\+fi
'
l+;2line
x = a,
= b,
and the
= A, \x=z,
Shew
'^^'l'"^^^^
_ y + aji
_c
_ ylV fx.fi
x^+z^^axbz=0.
10. If a cone with a given vertex P has double contact with a given
conieoid, the chord of contact lies in the polar plane of P with lespeet
to the conieoid.
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
254
[ch. xii.
12.
When
AB, the
intersects
x = t'^^t,
y = t'^+t\
= 2^2 + 3^ + 1.
Prove that the equation to the conicoid which passes through the
curve and the ^axis and which touches the plane 2*' = 3j/ at the point
(0, 0, 2) IS
7 ^,2 ^ ,^, _ 4 . y _ 2,,^ + 4^ + 4^ ^ 0.
14.
2.'j/
2.>;
 2?/ = 0,
have a common generator x=y=z, and pass through the cubic curve
,
+ + l)
+ 2i2_3^ + 2'
2(2^3
*'~4^^
^{ffi\)
;!2
''^~4f'
1,
1,
+ 2;;2l)
+ 2^2 _ 3; + 2'
2(^
+ 22_3^ + 2'
4'*
1).
If
two
(i^
a.' is
constant.
OQ
OQ
EXAMPLES
en. xii.J
21. The sides
and the lines
v/
of a
= 0,
IX.
266
Lv+mz + l=0;
x = 0,
the
.raxis,
//axis,
r^ + mz + \=0.
is
where
z{lx + a./y
cx.
=r
or
I'
0,
22.
tlie
r,
s)
when
(*.
tlio
conicoid
l'.
CD
AC, DB
if the joins of the midpoints of AB,
are taken as coordinate axes, the etjuation to any conicoid
is of the form
through the four sides of the skew quadrilateral
Prove that
23.
BC
AD,
ABCD
(H^(^^4(^lr^^>r^
where A
(ii)
is
a parameter.
What
surfaces correspond to
(i)
k = \,
A=l?
24. Find the locus of the centres of hyperboloids of one sheet that
pass through the sides of a given skew quadrilateral.
25. If a conicoid passes through the edges AB, BC, CD of a tetrahedron, the pole of the plane bisecting the edges AB, CD, AC, BD
will lie on the plane bisecting the edges AB, CD, AD, BC.
26; If the intersection of two conicoids consists of a conic and two
straight lines through a point P of the conic, the sections of the conicoids by any plane through P have contact of the second order unless
the plane passes through the tangent to the conic at P, when the
contact is of the third order.
common.
with respect to S.
three cones Cj, Co, C3 have their vertices coUinear and
C^, C3 intersect in plane curves, then C C, intersect also
in i)lane curves and the six planes of interstnaion pass through one
28.
C,, C.
If
;
line.
29.
If conicoids pass
conicoid
from O
lie on a curve
lie
which
is
of the conicoids.
30.
Two
Q'.
;
stMant
I'love tliat (he lines
P, Q'
P',
P',
Q'
lie
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
256
[en.
xu,
ABCD
DAB
and
PAPiB, ^ PAP2Bi
P^Ag.PaBg"
PiA. .P1B2
curve
is
y
^(l+^2_)2
and that
+ ^2)2'
(1
t^t2titi
+ ^2'
= \.
through the feet
to a conicoid
ellipsoid,
S = 0,
of the
is
C2 = 0, 0^ =
normals.
,,2
^2
ft
= l,
+^
c
whose vertex
is (0, h,
'2c
in a
is (a, 0,
0)
and base
.r=0,
0)
and base
^175,1761
CHAPTER
XIIL
THE CONOIDS.
175. A cone is the surface generated by a straight Hne
which passes through a fixed point and intersects a given
curve, and a cyHnder is the surface generated by the
parallels to a given straight line which intersect a given
These are the most familiar of the ruled surfaces.
curve.
Another important
may
is
a right conoid.
( 50,
Ex.
176.
it is
the locus of
to a given plane,
3).
The equation
to a conoid.
is
the
2;axis
any point
z^),
is
z=f{y).
is
be
The generator
of
Let
i~yr~^'
Eliminating y^ and z^ between the.se equations and the
equation z^=f{y^, we obtain the equation to the conoid,
^=f(yM
viz.,
.t;
ff,
y + s2 =
72.
generated by lines
and
intersecl
y(z'r) +
the
aY^O.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
258
[CH. XIII.
is
rtan~^  = sin~^.
Ex.
3.
Prove that
if
to the locus
becomes
z(.v^+f) = 2c.V7/.
(The locus
is tlie cylindroid.)
cut
all
helix.
= c tan~iy/.r, where
Ex.
5.
(i)
.v^+f
(ii)
,r2+_y2
(^)
(ii)
= a tan oc.
are
<l5)(f^^)\
b\
XOY
{v'+.f'),
.'/).
drawn
to intersect
OZ
SURFACES IN GENERAL
177]
Ex.
6.
(i)
Ex.
yh = Aacx,
(ii)
>/z^
l)y
= ctx'.
7.
2r)9
tlie
cases in
r = 2,
A curve
xz = cy;
c\x^ + 7f)=fz\
r=\,
the
,tani^ = taui^.
graphs of
specially
c cosec 0,
c{x^\y'^)
= 2xyz^
2cxy = z{x^y%
8.
is
it
X= u
cos
d^
y u sin
m = sin a. cot
where
6,
are given by
= ae'",
(3.
SURFACES IN GENERAL.
177.
We
surfaces
shall
coordinates.
of the
o?*''
degree
may
be written
U(^+ Ui + Uo +...} Un = 0,
in
X, y, z of
(r+l)(rH2)
1.2
y (r+l)(r + 2)
1.'^
,.7o
'
l2.'3
'
Ex.
1.
cul)ic
stants,
to
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
260
Ex.
If
2.
[cii. xiii.
the equation
^1
= 0,
^1 =
uvw + Xu,v,^o, =
u = 0,
178180]
Any
Cor.
Hence the
points.
n^^'
n^^^
degree
of an
is
y, z)
= 0,
If in eciuation (1)
the jjoint
(.,
on
y, z) is
If also
jdF
3F
3F ^
=
l+m+n
dx
dy
dz
,
0,
the surface at
BF
all zero,
(2)^
^
p,
two coincident
(x, y, z) in
aP
are not
is
degree.
the surface.
locus
a curve of the
179.
261
and the
points.
line
meets
If therefore
3F
which
is
given by
made homogeneous by
which
is
equated
may
plane
Ex.
SF
,3F
SF
^3.K
3?/
^^z
dt
1.
Ex.
lie
The
2.
upon a
ratios
feet of tbe
(.', //,
:)
+ >//// + C/^'=3.
m,
inflexional
I
tangents.
n can be found
,
?)x
dy^
dz
Two
values
of
3F
\n
=
dz
jdF
3F
l^^ + m
303^
^/.>;
conicoid.
The
180.
Ans.
dy
dydz
0,
dzdx
dxdy
the
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
262
[ch. xiii.
coefficients of p and p^ in
equation (1) of 178. The lines through {x, y, z) whose
directions are determined by these values meet the surface
in
three coincident
That
points.
the system
in
is,
of
{x, y, z)
there are
the ellipsoid.
The
point P on
at a
is
it
Hence,
the inflexional
if
are imaginary, P
181.
is
a conjugate point.
n)
surface
is
and the
line
^_
are given
c_^
..
'
by
where
dz
dz
p^^,
= ^,
3%
r.
,,
d''z
= ^^,
.d^z
^
= ^,.
p(ix)+q{>iy){^z)=o,
and the inflexional tangents are the lines of intersection
the tangent plane and the pair of planes given by
of
SINGULAR POLNTS
180182]
Ex.
The
1.
inflexional tangents
2G3
are real.
Or thus
according as
is
Ex.
point
Ex.
>/,
rts'=
z) of
Any
3,
imaginaiy
'4/.
^^hf'^f'
,f"^.
the surface
(i)
r}~C=4c^,
(ii)
C'^y}
= a^^.
isgivenby
,;=cos^,
.^/
+ i/) = 2cxi/
= usind, z=^c^mW.
is
2.
(.*;,
real, coincident, or
and
z=f(i//x),
r'%r4r,
and hence
]K)int,
"?{,
9" have
for
.?;
'
X _ y _2csin2^
cos^~sin^~
Ex. 4. Find the locus of points on the cylindroid at which the
inflexional tangents are at right angles.
182.
Singular points.
surface
If at a point P, {x, y,
^p
3P
^^
ctt;
?)y
dz
z),
of
tlic
0,
points.
lines
?iy
(sI+b4+v>="
ac
'dz/
and are
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
264
The
[cii. xiii.
tf.)^g+...2(,,).)^^+... = 0.
Singular points are classified according to the nature of
the locus of the tangent
When
lines.
the locus
when
The
whose
is
biplanes coincide, P
is
a pair of
when
the
six tangents
a proper
is
it is
P,
(x, y, z),
dy
?)X
dzJ
dx
dy
dz/
have fourpoint contact with the surface at P. They correspond to the inflexional tangents at an ordinary point of
the surface.
Ex,
1.
,>;*
the origin
the cone
The
is
>/*
six tangents
is
r\
y = (2\/5)2;
.*;
4 ^
?/
= 0, 2x+z = 0;
= 0, \/2.r = y.
2.
.r* h
the origin
.i
is
The
a binode.
= 0,
2y + 3j = 0;
y^%zx = Q;
The
<?
= 0,
y = 0,
A'
Ex.
The
a conic node.
six tangents
.r
= 0,
= 0,
+ s = 0; y = 0,
.r 42^ = 0;
2 = 0,
?/
by the planes
+ .r = 0;
= 0.
x\'iy^Zz =
xyz = 0,
3
.i//
<d^
3.
The equation
to a surface
2^
I
M3
h
W4
f
is
.
of the
t
form
= 0.
Prove that there is a unode at the origin, that the section of the
surface by the plane 2 = lias a triple point at the origin, and that the
three tangents there, counted twice, are the tangents to the surface
with fourpoint contact.
g 182, 183]
Ex.
The
4.
eiiuation to a surface
is
.V'+ff + M3 + ^4 +
Shew
that
tlie
form
of the
. . .
it,,
265
= 0.
OZ
1ms
Ex.
5.
x)/
prove that the origin is a binode and that tlie line of intersection of
the biplanes lies on the surface. Shew that the plane cx\dy = Q is a
tangent plane at any point of OZ.
Ex.
Find and
6.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Am.
is
(i) (0, 0,
0)
is
a?x^bY = ^ir'z\
+ 6?/^ + c2,
+ 3y2 + 322) = 3 _ y2 _ ^2)^
xijza{x+y + z) + 10^ = 0.
.ry2=a.r2
(.^.2
Xix"^
binode
*(.;2
+ 3//) = 3rt(.>;'^y), s = 0,
is
circle passing
3=0
in the conic
{:xn)
Ans.
Ex.
(i)
x=y = 0;
3(,.;2+/)
{y^W){{^xyf + z^ = Aah\
x=^y = 0; (iii) y = z^O, y2x=z = 0.
(ii)
9.
= 2.7;y,
C%r2+J^2)2 = 2,2(^.2_^2)^
^a.xis is
any point
(0, 0,
Ex.
10.
real
is
3.j;2y
(0, 0,
2),
(0, 0, ).
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
266
If
is
[ch. xiii.
which
is
and
all
cone or cylinder.
Such a plane
is
trope.*
Ex. 1. For the cubic surface ^ivw + UiViWi=^0, the planes u=0,
w = 0, tti = 0, ^1=0, Wj=0 are triple tangent planes.
The intersection of the plane u = and the surface is the cubic curve
consisting of the three straight lines = i = 0, ic = t\ = 0, u = w^ = 0.
These lines form a triangle and the three vertices are double points,
is tangent plane at thi'ee points.
so that the plane m =
v = 0,
Ex.
2.
3.
Ex.
4.
by
planes parallel to
XOY are
it
along two
lemniscates.
the cylindroid
2(.v'^+y'^)
to
= 2c.ry.
THE ANCHORRING.
by the revolution of a circle about
a line in its plane which it does not intersect is called the anchorring
or tore.
If the straight line is the 0axis and the circle is y = 0. (x  a)^ + z'^ = b"^,
(a>b), shew that the equation to the surface is
Ex.
5.
The
surface generated
(.12
+f +
s2
is
surfaces.
gl83]
Ex.
Idl
6.
of the surface
parallel to
OY
of intersection
referred to a line
= 4asin(.
as initial line,
)'^
is
sina. = v^6;.
Ex.
7.
inflexional
tangents at {ab,
0) are
0,
x=ab, y\lb=z\Jah.
Ex. 8. The tangent plane which passes through OY is i =
where sina. = 6/a and it touches the surface at the two points
(acosV,
Where
it
a;
0,
a cos
ex.
sin
ol),
ocos.sin
(acos'^o., 0,
,/;
tan
ol,
cc).
sin
ex.
=2 cos OL,
{x^
therefore
{x'^+y^
= Aay sin^a.
Hence
x
rt
cos
a.
sin a),
f< cosa.,
0,
rtcosocsino.).
N'ON
is
normal
to
any central
a
b'^
c^
'
and lengths OA, OA' OB, OB' equal to the axes of the section are
measured along ON and ON', the ])oints A, A', B, B' lie upon a surface
Since the axes
of the fourth degree, which is called the wave surface.
of the section by the plane lx + m.y\nz = ^) are given by
;
r/^/2
;,2,2
c22
a;"
br^
cr^
wave
surface
ah'
is
bY
ch'^
I
ct^r
b'^r'^
c^r^
^Q
'
r'^
x''^\y'^
z'^.
YOY
COOEDINATE GEOMETEY
268
[ch. xiii.
^ = 0,
2
= 0,
i)2y'i
_ ^252) = 0.
ax
v/a262
<?^
Q^c
\'a^i
sJU^c^
such as
cross only where the axes of the central sections are equal.
since there are only two real central circular sections, and the
radius of each is b, the only four points common to the two sheets lie
on the normals to the central circular sections, and are at a distance b
from the centre. They are given by
will
Hence
a^
^ 00
cC
Va2^rp~0~Vp372
/a2_^)2
f(2'+
fc2_c2
s/a2c2'
c2
?/
= 0,
is
plane w =
tangent plane at P.
wave
surface.
+ ^2^h\
7;
= 0,
a^^
+ C'C=^ac^.
183]
and hence P
is
iJG9
a conical point.
conical jjoints,
ellipse
QR
y = 0,
2
+ x^ = 62
by
where
.r^
(^,
rj,
() is
y = 0,
ch'^
+ dhfl = ca\
found to be given by
y = 0,
or
easily
+ c"3.f=a6c,
.y
= 0,
is
f{x,
?/,
*)
= 0,
^=
when
of the j.rplane
is
?/
= 0,
parallel
ax^ + cz^=abc
at least a double tangent plane.
can be written in the form
is
62(,.2
0,
Now
6(,2_,,2)+!:^(2_,2)l^(,2_,2)_(2_,2)J
a2c2
(,.2
ac
Therefore the plane ax^ + cz^abc meets the surface at points lying
But, subtracting,
the plane
we
b{r^
r"'')
common
 ^1 (a^ 
c")
= 0.
lie in
ax^ + cz^=abc.
or
of the surface
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
270
The
184.
indicatrix.
[ch. xiii.
and normal
and the
z=f{x,
saxis,
y), this
where p,
''2/^)
q, r, s, t
at the origin
Hence,
if
dz
dz
3'%
dh
3%
?>x'
dy'
dx^'
dxdy'
dy^
p = q = 0,
^z^rx^ + lsxy + ty'^....
or, since
we
and higher
and
therefore, if
orders,
we have
we
first 'order,
z is
terms of the
reject
as an approximation to
This conicoid
cylinder
if
rt
is
= s^.
by
a paraboloid
if
and a parabolic
Tt=l=s^,
parallel to
coincide
which
is
= h,
given by
= o,
is
by
ra^
The
+ 28xy +
= 6,
At an elliptic point the shape of the svirface is approximately that of an elliptic paraboloid, and therefore the
surface lies on one side of the tangent plane at the point.
It is said
At a
liyi)erbolic
THE INDICATRIX
184, 185]
271
is
At such a point
plane.
said to be anticlastic.
it is
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
The
direction
l^Fxz
Hence the
is
by means
a parabolic point.
IF,^
'2.n
F,
But F^
therefore
is
of
i/,
z)
are given
+ hn F^^ = 0.
if
F,
F
F.,
F.
F,,,,
F,,,
F,
F..,
F,
F,
F,
F:,,
F,j,
==.0
(1)
of
which equation
(1)
1),
and
can be reduced to
=
0.
Ex.
3.
A'*+^* + 2* = *
4.
2(a,+y)
lie
is
points.
upon the
lines
xy = 0,z = c;
= 2c.!v/
= 0, z=
x\ry
c.
5.
Ex.
6.
tan i.V
Ex.
7.
of the helicoid
rectangular hyperbola.
of the surface xyz  a(j/z + zx + xy) = 0, at which
a rectangular hyperbola, lie on the cone
,iiQ; + z) + 7/\z+x) + z^{x+y) = 0.
The points
the indicatrix
is
185. Representation
by parameters.
u and
If
.',
equations
x=fy{u,v),
y=Mu,v),
y,
are
tlie
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
272
[CH. XIII
{x, y, z) is a surface.
For u and v
can be eliminated between the three equations, and the
The tangent
we may
plane
To
plane.
But
The equation
proceed thus.
(^a^)F,
y, s)
= 0.
+ (>/2/)F, + (^0)F, = O.
u and
v,
=
?^Xy + Vyy^ + F^s,, = 0.
Fa;+F2;2/M+F,2
and
F.
Fa,
Therefore
Viflv
^uyv ~ yw^v
^u^v
^u^v
'^ihijv
The equation
ny,
:0.
Xu,
z,.
Xj),
Ex. 1. Find the tangent plane at the point " m, Q " on the helicoid,
for which
.^.=,,cos^, y=sin^, z=ce.
Ex.
2.
for which
X = xh cos
^,
y = n sin
Q,
" ,
"
on the cylindroid,
= c sin 2^,
and prove that its intersection with the surface consists of a straight
is the circle
line and an ellipse whose projection on the plane 2 =
(^2 4 j/2) cos 2 ^
 M {x cos 9  y sin
0)
= 0.
4.
y = a.X\h.,\x\c.^\x^
A = 0,
Ex.
if
=/=
0,
= asX +
bs[j.
and a pair
+ c.^XiJL
of planes
if
where
5.
If
=/=
0,
y = WgA^ + 62 A/x +
is
c.,[ji?,
the origin
=yla.^ = zla^,
xjc^
=y/r, = zlc3.
as
EXAMPLES
185]
X.
273
Examples X.
1.
(1,1,1),
(1,1,1),
2.
{o:>ry
(1,1,1),
(1,1,1).
+ zaf = xyz
line
va, z = is a nodal
 a) + hy{2x  a) = 0,
line
on the surface
4c5(a'
and that there is a unode at the point where it meets the plane y = 0.
Prove also that the section of the surface by any plane through the
nodal line consists of three straight lines, two of which coincide with
the nodal
4.
line.
a(yb)(zcyh(.ra){z + cf^O
represents a conoid which is generated by lines parallel to the plane
which meet the line x = a, y = b. Shew also that the normals to
the surface at points of the generator x/a=y/b, z = 0, lie on the hyperbolic paraboloid
XOY
4:ab{bx  ay)(ax + by
6.
Shew
+ !? Zxyz o?
(f/.,
/?,
y) to the
X = u cos
lie
y(.rcx.)2
8.
^^^
d,
y = u sin
0,
= c sin W
on the conicoid
Shew also that the section of the surface by a plane through one of
Detormiiu' the
these lines consists of a straight line and a conic.
position of the plane through the line x = a, .?/ + = which meets the
circle.
is
//:plane
a
the
on
projection
whose
conic
surface in a
.r
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
27J.
9.
Shew
.iyplane cuts
and
[ch. xiii.
10.
0.
Shew
.V
= 2asm
0cos9,
y=2a cos^O,
z=k (sec
6  tan
B).
P,
are
c); B,
P'
{a,
b,
c),
CC
is
(^0(l0(^f)(fJ)(^l)li;')
that this surface contains the lines, AA', BB', CC, PA, PB,
PC, P'A', P'B', P'C, PP'. Examine the shape of the surface at the
Shew that any point on PP' is a singular point, and that
origin.
P and P' are singular points of the second order, (that is, that the
locus of the tangents at P and P' is a cone of the third degree).
Shew
an
^2_
5V(ffl^A)(2,x)
A(a2 _
62)(^,2
_ ^2)
'
^_ c%^(&2A)(62yj)
A(62  2)(ft2 _ ^2)
,
'
^"
a'h^ck)(c'^ [x)
"
A(f2
 a2)(c2  ^2)
'
fx.
186, 187]
CHAPTER
CUEVES
186.
The equations
XIV.
IN SPACE.
to a curve.
f\{x,y,z) = 0,
The equations
Ux,y,z) =
given by
first X,
/^(a;, y, z)
and then
y,
y=M^l ^=M^)
(1)
y ^ ^^ (^t),
x = 0^ (0
given by
where
t is
x = c/,,(t),
a parameter,
of the
surfaces.
z = ^,(f),
y = <}>o,{t),
is
My,
= 0,
at
(I
two equations
leads to
z)
(Compare
of intersection
^^^
Uif).)
to the t((V(/rnt
given point
Suppose that
meter
t.
We
x, y, z
shall
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
276
etc. to
is
denote
^,
dr
at "tS
... etc.,
and
let Q, (x
cm^ve adjacent to
P.
meaning
{X, y, z),
[ch. xiv.
if
x=f{t),
xiSx=f{t + St),
=f(t)+Stf{t)+^f"{tH...,
=X+X
Similarly, y
6t
The equations
as
PQ
to
+ z"rj+....
are
^x
Jt
7,y
x'+x^ +
Now,
r^\
Z\Sz=Z + z'St
"
+X
t^
Jt^
Jt
,^
2+52+...
y+y^ + ,
...
tends to
P,
is,
the tangent at
y'
F^{:x,y,z)
/3F,
'
P, is
given by
z'
curve are
= 0,
F,(a',
,BFt
2/,
,9Fi
s)
= 0,
="
^^
+ 2/^+^^
oz
Tix
oy
we have
''
,dF,
,3F,
,9F2
,
therefore
y
3F,
9F2_9F, SR,
dz dy
dz
whence the
Cor.
section
3F2_3Fi 3F2
dx dz
dz dx
3F,
3F,
3F2_9Fj BFg
dy dx
ox dy
The tangent at a point P to the curve of interof two surfaces is the line of intersection of their
tangent planes at
P,
DIRECTIONCOSINES OE TANCIENT
187189]
Ex.
277
Eind tho equations to the tangent at the point " 6" on the
1,
^'^''"^
.r
= acos^, y = asin6/,
= ke.
Shew
that the tangent at a point of the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid x'^/a^+y'^/b'^ + z^/c' = l and the confocal whose
Ex.
2.
parameter
is
is
given by
a\l)^c'){a'k)
~ b\c'  a'){b'^  A)
Ex.
Shew
3.
line
If tlie axes
188.
P, {x, y, z)
and
Q, {x
given by
^7.2
= 1,
tlie
curve be
Ss.
Then
and therefore
or
s'^
= x + y' + z^,
and
''
clx
>
Hence
^tc.
v'
z'
dx dy dz
, ^, ,
Ex.
1.
or
9,
7,
as
Tr,
as
CIS
y = asm
9, z
Ex.
2.
= ti
of the curve
and
= U,
is
Asl2a{tot^).
189.
is
The normal
curve at a point P
is
prove that
Shew
is
also
a cycloid
plane.
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
278
the tangent at
to the
If the
P.
normal plane
[ch. xiv.
is
190.
tend to
with
at
P,
P,
then in the
when
limit,
P^,
Pn,
P,i
P2,...Pn coincide
11^^
order
P.
and
^{t)^f{<pM H^)'
let
Then the
4>S))
t^,
and 1^ = 0,
F(g =
,
and clearly
dz
dF J^^+^^
 ^.
= dx df  + 3/
^
df
And
generally,
if
dii
t^,
and therefore
the contact
is
of the
7i*^'
order,
= 0.
at^
<;
the origin
1891!)1J
279
Ex. 2. Determine a, />, h so that the paraboloid 2z = cu:\2lixij\hi/may have closest possible contact at the origin with the curve
x=fi2fi+\,
What
is
i/
= fi},
Ex.
Find the
3.
The equations
z=t2t
Fourth.
inflexional tangents at
to a line
tlimugh
r = .ri + l(,
+ l.
(.)'i,
_?/=_y,+jHi',
y,, ,)
may be
on
tlie
surface
written
= Sy + nt.
The inflexional tangents are the lines which have threepoint contact
with the surface where t = 0. For all values of t, we have
dv
Hence
dy
dt
dt
'
dz
'
dt
z{),
we have
(i)yi%i4cr, = 0,
(ii)
(iii)
4cl+2//iZim + 7/in = 0,
^lw2 + 2J/lm?t=0.
'J^=
Therefore
Ex.
=^=^.
^1
3a,
2^1
Find the
4.
or
4c
i/i^
(Compare
lines that
(0, 0, 1)
with
the surface
3.11/z
Deduce the
191.
curve,
plane
The osculating
PQR
is
the
= 775
>
5.
plane.
To find
be
+ by = 2z,
If p, q,
r are points of a
equation
to the
P.
osculating plane.
tliis
order at
(x, y, s),
we have
ax + by + cz{d = 0,
=0,
ax { by' \ cz
ax"[by"{cz"
=0
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
280
Therefore, eliminating a,
we
h, c, d,
[ch. xiv.
= 0.
X,
x",
Ex.
1.
x=acosB, y asmdi
= kd.
Ans. k{j(;sindycosdad) + az = 0.
For the curve x = 3t, i/ = 3t% z = 2fi, shew that any plane
2.
it in three points and deduce the equation to the osculating
A7is. "Lt^x^t^^z^^t^^
plane at =^i.
Ex. 3. Prove that there are three points on the cubic x at^Xh,
i/ 3ct'^ + 3dt, z = 3et+f, such that the osculating planes pass through
the origin, and that the points lie in the plane Scex + afi/ = 0.
Ex.
meets
PT
is
the tangent at P.
Q tends to P is
PQT
as
(a,
y) to the ellipsoid
Ex.
x^/a'^
(a., /?,
5.
+ z^/c'^ = l.
fi,
6V
Ans.
+ _ c2)(c2 _ a^)y + 1
+ _ 62)(52 _ c2)^^(62
 a2)(a2 _ 62)(X^(2
;
(C^
= 0.
*'",
y"\
Ex.
7.
it
lies.
Ex.
8.
Shew
cV
is
lies in
ht
at'
the plane ax +
bi/
+ cz~0.
OSCULATING PLANE
TIIK
191,192]
281
e(][uatioii
is
of
X{{ir)f.+(>iy)fy+a^)f\}
That
we must have
(1)
and
But
...(2)
...(3)
first
(3),
we
Differenti
obtain
a^'%x
X'~(}>:cz
whence by
{i^^)fx\{^y)fy+{t^)fzAi^)^x+{ny)<t>y\{t^H^
X^fxx
Ex.
1.
+ ^'z'fyz +
X^:,^
.v'^
+ z^ =
~"
a'
Ex.
2.
a?., y'^
+ ^'Z'(l>yz +
(.r,,
y^, z^)
+ z = b^
is
on the curve
given by
62
inter
f=
We have
o.;2
xx
where
yy'
z^
A=B = C'
whence
Again,
aA^'b/PcC'
1^^
which reduces
y/2
is
(^,)r^r + Oj y)f3y +
aA' fSh^
Z'
to 2(^.r).t3iJr'(5.^2_
a :)y^
yC^
.r;2
c/) = o.
"^
y^
"^
z^
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
282
[CH. XIV.
We have
etc.
(/36)(yc)^(yc)((x.a)
Ex.
Shew
3.
that at {x\ y\
z'),
{a.a){(ib)
+ 10.
confocals,
first
two
+ rf + Tz^ = 1
ax^^ hf + cs^ = 1
br
ar
'
ab'
193.
infinite
lie
on the cone
= 0.
^1
jlcin
A and
is
Two
of the
lies in
the
and
193]
that whicli
is
In
fig.
54
AT
is
the tangent,
principal normal,
We
at
:is3
is
is
AP
the
is
the
plane.
A the direction
in
positive direction of
increases,
and as the
is
turned.
We
shall then
tangent by
l^,
w^, n^;
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
14
[ch. xiv.
Therefore
_^
s''^\/x"'^\y"'^\z"'^
x"(x^_^
^~
+ y"^ +
s"'Jx"'^
and
X
s"'"
+ y'y" + zz")
+ y'"^ + z""
z'^)
(x'x"
s'"^
similarly,
ssjx
Ex.
il"s'
y's"
+y
'+S
'^
z"s'
1.
z's"
+0 s
ssjx "+?/
'
to the
binomials
of the helix
lie
Ex.
2.
to the helix
is
the normal
to the cylinder.
ratio
^
measured by the Lt
<^^<"
), that
Tiie rate of
by
ia
is '^^^
It is
^
and
change at A^
is
called the
The
195. Torsion.
A.,,
is
If
8t
is
the ratio
the
k
angle between
arc AjAo.
that
is
by
^
by
] /cr,
The
rate of change at A^
t,
and
(Is
and a
is
is
is
measured by the Lt
It is
k,
denoted
The spherical
196.
FORMULAE
FEENET'S
19319:
285
The
indicatrices.
formulae
for
From
follows.
tlie
whose centre
The extremities
is O.
tangents.
directions of
by drawing
we
binomials,
the
is
radii
in
the positive
In
AJi,
and 0?>j
oh.,, Ob.,,
...
A^Bp
Then
f^
t.,,
f.^,
indicatrices of the
A,T.,, A3T3,
in the
h^,
6.,,
same
...,
63, ...
Of.,
t^Of., is
to the indicatrix
at
t^
of
tjt^, is
it is
tj:.,t^
. .
gent AjT^.
is
it
is
And
since
t^
to the indicatrix
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
t^t.^t^ ...
is
[CH. XIV.
normal at
Let
A^.
us take as the positive direction of the tangent to the indicatrix, the positive direction of the principal normal.
t^t.^
is
t^Ot.2
cuts
the sphere, and of the angle t^Ot^ are equal, and hence the
Let
is Syp.
8a.
Then Lt
the indicatrix.
we take
t^t.^
of
the arcs
Syjy
of the indicatrix
sense,
the sign of
S\p:
^
Again,
t^ is
i^,
we
the point
Ss
ds
Sol
doi'
fix
sign,
(1)
S\J^
(l^,
m^,
n^),
and
therefore,
thus
by 188,
t^
to the
FEENET'S FORMULAE
197]
position
the plane
oi"
reciprocal cone,
bj)jb.^... is
b^ is
the tangent at
i.e.
to the indicatrix
6^
IJesides,
the tangent at
is
b^
to the indicatrix
bj)jj.^
normal at
Suppose
parallel
that
to the
to Ob^.
is
pkme
the tangent
iC.
is
position of b^K,
h^Ob.^,
2H7
its
positive direction
If the
A^.
is 8/3,
is
the indicatrix
bjj.,
bjj.,
and Lt~=+l.
bjOb.^ is ^t,
limit
of
of the
is
If
+1,
the tangent
Hence we
ds
Ss
J
^="^
= "^=30
J
are
6^
(^
^3,
dicatrix are
dm^
cU^
Therefore
Orbv(2)
^"^'
'
We
"^
h^ = f%>
dp
^^
have
'>^^>
ds'
also,
dL
Hence
^1
^
ds
dl^
The
are
t^=
as
results (a),
known
(p.),
d(3
dL
k'~r
^
ds
= 0.
(i;),
o
K ^^^
= t^'
Ti^^dn^
ds
a
'
4
ds
+ If + U = 1
^ds + h^
ds
Snmlarly,
^'2
d^
a
l^^
TT
= j^>
m^^dm,
= ^^
a
dn^
d^'
d(3'
d(i'
ds
a
(c) are
exceedingly important.
as Frenet's Formulae.
(c)
They
COOEDINATE GEOMETEY
288
[ch. xiv.
We
198. The signs of the curvature and torsion.
have agreed that the positive direction of the tangent at ^^
to the indicatrix
But
if
tytj.^ ...
is
t^
of the arc
t^t=^
is
We
is
is
that
turned, the
positive.
The
^^^
^^^^
positive direction of
direction at
6^
of the arc
h^b.y
is
such as that in
55,
tig.
but
is
^/3,
fig.
56.
199.
To
From
(a),
we
'?Ali)'<'^hm
dly
;'
But
Hence
^=2
75
2a;'^
= s'^, and
"Zx'x"
~'
.o'4
<^>
s'x'
{x"ss"xy
(,'6
Therefore, since
x's'
= s's",
obtain
198201]
289
Got.
If the coordinates are functions of 8, the len^^th of
the arc measured from a fixed point, so that t^s, then
s'
s"
= 0, and
\dsy ^\dsy ^\dsy
p'
The
Deduce equation
Ex.
To find
200.
normal and
From
directioncosines
1
Aojani,
m.,
(dlA
.,
m.^^ p
y'z"zy "
Y'
y'x"
^ ^,.^^
= p xy"
xz"
z'x"
v.,
8"x'
n,=, and
_
hP
o.
x"s'
y"s' 8"y'
= p^,^^,
on,=
smce
Similarly,
of the 'principal
197,
(a),
,
o
10, 23.
hinorinal.
equations
Similarly,
(1)
the
n.,
,
^,
Compare 193.
Cor.
If i = s, we have.
dx
dH
(V^y
L=J'M/^':^_^.^y)
""
201.
To
formulae,
find
(b),
^
^Kds
the
we have
ds dsJ'
ds^
radius
,^
ds
h = ji^y'^"  ^'V"l
of
^,
<T
or
etc
torsion.
From
Frenet's
t,
= piy'z"  z'y").
we
obtain
I .<i''^^
<1)
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
xz
V^m^s^s =p{zx
Similarly,
^
p
H3%s'^s
= pixy yx
+ ^^^
,.(3)
cr
Multiply
...(2)
)\
a
and
XTV.
[ciI.
by
L^,
and we have
)],
0"
which, on substituting p
Ex.
^_P_
a
s'^
for
^
l^, etc.,
X,
y,
x",
y",
x'",
y'",
z'
radii of curvature
Find the
1.
'
becomes
and torsion
of the helix
= acos^,
= asin^, z = u6id,\\cL.
y' a cos 0,
z' = a tan oc.
x' =  a sin 6,
s"^ =
+ fp + z"^ = a^ seccx..
z' s" 0,
x" =  a cos 0, y" =  sin
y'" acos. 6,
z"' = 0.
x'" = a si n 6,
.r
We have
Therefore
?/
x'"^
Hence
and
6*,
Therefore
and
p'V
 a sin
J_
a sin
whence
Ex.
4.
1/^
5.
a.
apr.6
a cos ^,
rt/sin a.
cos
a..
= iaX,
X!^.
c\
?/
X ta nil ,
(.t'=ccosh^,
Ex.
,3
For a point

 tan
cos 9, a tan a.
asin^,
.r^S;",
6,
o= 
2,
^,
acosd,
s'*^
2x2
_y
= a(l +3A''),
?/
= csinhi;, z = ct.)
z = slQ,a\, prove
that (T=y'^ja.
Ex.
6.
Find the
curve x^ + y^ = a^,
2_
x"^
radii of curvature
of the
 .?/ = az.
(5a^ 4^")^
5a2 + i22
(.V
TANGENT TO A CURVE
201,202]
291
Take the
n,
Then
dn,
n.y
cosoi> and ^' = ^
P
= 0,
(197,
(a)).
Therefore
n^
Again,
anffle a.
'^
dn.^
n.^_
=
+ !^= 1^
ds
( 197, (c)).
{),
a
Therefore
cr
= + p tan a.
1.
dz
dz
^
^ = cosa. and ^t,=0.
ds
ds'
= sin a.,
.
,
ds
Ti?
it
i
is (.r,
\
'
\
?/, 2),
./'
Whence
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
is
helix
a helix.
Similarly,
nii
hi^V ko,;
ni
= k7i3 + Ic^.
Multiplying by Z,, hii, i, and adding, we obtain ^'i^i + /.,?! + /;,! = 1Hence, since k{^ + k./ + k3^ = l + k'\ and therefore /.,, k.,, t^, cannot all
be zero, the tangent to the curve makes a constant angle with the
^xed line
x y z
fCt
Parallels
A'o
fCi)
lies,
If p
5.
/3
o
= 2a(l + )^/sin.cosa.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
292
The
203.
circle of curvature.
From
the osculating
is
P, it
as
Q and
tlie
PQR
circle
circle at P.
the definitions of
curvature at
r are points of
If p, q,
[en. xiv.
plane at
P,
and that
its
radius
P.
y + '^^hP^
x + hp>
We
s+n^p.
the centre
is
the equations
+ m3(;;2/) + ^3(^^) = 0,
(1)
(,^a)H(>?/3)H(^y)^ = r'
(2)
^3(^a;)
may
be taken to represent
it.
with respect
formulae, we have
ating twice
to
and
applying
And
(3)
= 0,
(4)
+ m.,{yl3) + n,{zy)= p
/3,
y)
lies
in
Therefore,
Multiply
(5)
the osculating
^a)OL)+m^(yj3) + ^>K{zy) =
plane, (1),
Frenet's
(6)
and
by
l^,
I.,,
l.^
respectively,
X OL= l,p.
Similarly,
Therefore
204.
OL
y (i= ju^p,
=x+
/3 =
l.,p,
The osculating
z
.y {
sphere.
y=n
y z\n.,p.
m^/?,
.^p.
If p, Q, R,
and S tend
to
is
P.
S are points
PQRS
as Q, R
THE OSCULATINCJ
203, 204]
^5
SPJfEKI:
293
we have on
{x, y, z),
difier
s,
^,:a.fj^{il^f + {zyf =
R\
+ 7n,(^,8) + 7?,(y) = 0,
U{xa.) + nu{y^)\n.J,zy)=  p,
Z.j(xfx)
or,
by
(2),
where
= crp,
(2)
(3)
(4)
dp
(1)
n f.
ds
Whence, as
in 208,
wc deduce
and
a.
= x\Up l.^<jp,
y = z + n.,p n.^(rp.
^ = y + m>p m.^ap',
is
If a curve is
deduced.
drawn on a sphere
if
by
all
Hence,
yf
we
a^
if
is
differentiate
and obtain a
of radius a, I{
= a,
known, a can be
a
= p + (.'
differential equation
spherical curves
(It
Ex.
1.
is 0,
p = "0 scoolcos^).
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
S94
We
have, by 202,
(T
dz
and ^=sina..
(T
But
XlV.
= p cot O..
,
Also
[cti.
ds
therefore
pdp
Whence
:W
dz
= a cos 6,
^= a sin
dr
dd
a sin
COSOL
Integrating,
we
obtain
\la^
p^=
a cos 9 sec a. + b,
an arbitrary constant.
p = a when d = 7r/2, 6 = 0, and then
where
If
b is
Ex.
(1, 2,
2.
3)
on the curve
= 3f' + 2, s = 4fi + 2.
.v = 2t + l,
+ 3//2 + 3 j2  6.v  1 6^  1 82 + 50 = 0.
?/
A ns.
3.f2
Ex.
of the
Ans.
Ex.
The equation
to the sphere
given by
= 3.
+ c./ + cs^),
2h
2b.
0,
t'l,
c,,
5.
of the curve
7/^
3{ci^
Ex.
and
4.
(1, 2, 3)
toi^sion of
263
Co
of the tangents.
The
8a. is
an
infinitesimal arc,
Hence,
if
the curvature
Lt
is
Z2,
?r = l
Po
,2V
'
If the torsion is
\p
(Tl
= l:lL.,
^
(T^
as in Ex.
1.
204]
295
dp
,
and
p
^ ^fds
,
where
Ex.
6.
(T
radii of curvature
V p" + (T
da
=r
ds
and
torsion of
tlie splicrical
and
(T{(rp<T'p)
Let C,
of the cone as origin and the axis as 2axis.
be the projection of P, the \Knni considered, on the axis, and
OP have measures r and R respectively. Then if CP makes
an angle 6 with OX, r, 6 arc the polar coordinates of the projection of
P on any plane at right angles to the axis.
From fig. 58 we obtain
fig. .57,
CP
and
dr = dRsi\v\cL = dz tan
a..
(1)
is
where
/t
dr
=
cot/i?sina.c/6^,
.1
is
arbitrary.
lias
as integral
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
296
Again, from
(1), ^
[CH. XIV.
We have
therefor
a = ptany.
^.=0,
'
'^^=0,
Since
Now
.i'
= rcos^,
>/
= rsinO,
and
s,
by
(1),
= sin /?.
rO'
Therefore
x'
od'
Hence
Ex.
8.
y'
/3'v
''
9o\
sin;8siny'
and
Deduce equations
x^ + y2 _ z\2,v?a.,
and applying
\
sin ^) ^'
sin/8(lcos2.cos2i3)
(r
= ptan
(1),
/3
Ex.
7,
x^ + y^ +
sin
'
by
2^
xx'+yy +zz'=R
/:(
cosy
= R^)
cos
^'^
+ .y^ ==
''^>
/?.
i}=y + m.,r,
(=z+ii.,r,
204]
wlieie
of length
is
we
If
r.
and
to
OP
= l,
mi = ??j=0;
or OO',
Hence, since
Again,
if ^'
^^
=
^
as
= m^ = 0,
= 0,
m^^
= f,
;7
l^
= m^ = 0, 3=1
and therefore
OB
= 2 = 0, m2=\
The tangent
is (0, r, 0).
29?
take
and
at right angles
mi,f'^+*^)
(T J
\ p
i.e.
is
+ jH,$' = 0.
^
ds
constant.
is
we have
etc.,
ds'
f = (lr/p),
7/
= 0,
C=r/^,
iiiakes
an angle 6 with
OT
.such
6'=,^^.
1  r/p
^e"=V^+/Yl_i;,_:;)+^_;i!:^',etc.;
p
'
p"
\p
<r/
cr
rp
A,,
p
(T
therefore
is
ra
.
^
'
P'
(T
at right angles to
OP, and
f^" t"A' =
nr'
rp'
p"
(r'~
a
we obtain
Integrating,
ig..i(,i)=ig^,
where
.1 is
an arbitrary constant,
is
p/
a
rla
7 = A, and therefore 6
Again,
tan ^ = r
1 r/p

'
is
constant.
Ex.
10.
makes angles
curve
ol
and
first
is
/3
p=
'.
wlii<li
is
the
COOEDINATE GEOMETEY
[CH.
205.
and
8s.
8s'
= 8s sin
a.,
Let A^,
Ao, Ag,
...
(fig. 59),
curve,
and
let
...
Mj^C^Sp M0C2S2,
the sides.
the
be consecutive vertices of an
'4
of
...
planes M^CiSp
GEOMETRICAL INVESTKiATION
205]
20!)
the cyclic
Fioiii
(quadrilateral C^Mj^AoM.^,
AjA,
2.sin^MiCjiM3
But
_
~ ^^^'
tangents,
2 sin h
A^A.j
are
is p,
P
and the
and
_ds^
M^C^M2~ drf/
A^A,
curvature =  = , where
is
circle of curvature.
But
since C^S^
from
A.,,
A.,,
is
A3,
is
normal
is
parallel
and CoSj
is
the locus
sphere through Aj, Ao, A3, A^, and the limiting position of
Sj is the centre of spherical curvature at
lies
A^
on the
Therefore,
line
drawn
we may denote
C.,Sj
are parallel
Hence,
By
if
is
St
St
cIt
binormal
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
300
dextrorsum, and Sr
negative,
so
is
that Sp/Sr
ordinates of A^ are
x,
therefore
y,
= projection
z,
^o = '^
or
Hence,
and those
of
if
Sp
the
is
co
the limiting
z^,
of M1C1
a;
Also
negative.
positive.
is
[ch. xiv.
+ projection
of C^Si on OX,
+ pk^h
Similarly,
2/0
=y+ p'^^h
'^ ^^h
'
^o=^+p'>^2^''h
The points S^, S.^, S3, ... are consecutive points of a curve
which is the locus of the centres of spherical curvature,
and SjS.,, S0S3, ... are ultimately tangents to that locus.
The plane S^S^Sg or MgC^S^^ is ultimately an osculating
plane to the locus, and hence the osculating planes of the
Therefore, if
locus are the normal planes of the curve.
angles between adjacent tangents and bi6\lr, St are the
normals to the curve, and (^i/r^, <5ti are the angles between
adjacent tangents and binomials to the locus,
Lt^i = l,
and
Lt^^ = l.
oyr
St
l/op
Ss^ _j,Ss
Ss^ _
J
PP^'^^^I^'S^^^I^'St'"^'
Ss
The
of a ruled surface
which
is
...
tangent planes to
tlic
polar developable.
COOKDINATKS IN TERMS OF
^205,20G]
Ex.
AIM'
301
Shew
Rd/i
dsi
If (^,
>/,
{) is a
etc.,
Ex.
\iif^p^
2.
Prove that
Ex.3.
ppi
fig. 59.
dll
p,
= /^^^,
a.J^P'^J^
or
dp
dp
'
= ooj.
Coordinates in terms of
If the tanoent, prinnormal and binormal at a given point O of a curve are
taken as coordinate axes, and s measures the arc OP, we
may express the coordinates of P in terms of s. We liave
206.
.s\
cipal
^=/()=/(o)+>i/'(o)+^/'(o)+^r(o)...,
= 80c^ + 2
where
orioin.
Similarly,
^0 "^ "(3
'^'o
We
Since
tlie
is
>
+2^0
+(0
the .raxis,
principal normal
x"', ...
z = 8z^
is
the
7/a.x;is,
at the
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
302
[ch. xiv.
i+==(px +px
ds
i + ^=r.{py +pij),
1
^ + ^={pz
p
Z=
Ex.
1.
Shew
7.
s^,
,.
Unless
is
its
l/o is zero, z
+pz\
we have
point.
),
s.
If,
said to be stationary.
Ex. 2. Prove that the projection of the curve on the normal plane
O has a cusp at O. What is the shape at O of the projections on
the osculating plane and rectifying plane ?
at
T^s/^~0"'
s/p~T~//o' "O^s/o"!'
O and P are adjacent points
4.
OP
is
of length
of a curve,
.s.
principal normals at
O and
is
s(p2{o)i
Ex.
and P
5.
The
is of
length
sjp
curvature at
+ &'
in the ratio p
a".
Ex. 6. The angle that the shortest distance between the tangents
at O and P makes with the binomial at O is s/2o.
Ex.
O and
Ex.
7.
P
8.
The
osculating spheres at
j.
EXAMPLES
206J
XI.
303
Examples XI.
Shew
normal at any
Find
point.
7(6') so that
.v
= acosd,
= asin6?,
?/
= f{9)
deterniino a
plane curve.
4. If tlie osculating plane at every point of a curve pass tlirough
a fixed point, the curve must be plane. Hence prove that the curves
of intersection of the surfaces x'^\>f + Z" = a.^, '2,{x^\)f^ + z^) = a'^ are
circles of radius a.
5. A right helix of radius a and slope a. has fourpoint contact
with a given curve at the point wliere its curvature and torsion are
1/p
and
l/<r.
Prove that

;,
and
6.
7.
Shew
tluit
.v
(T
= a tan
$, y = a cot ^,
_ _ _^\/2a
.
tano(.=
p f a
(.r,
y, z)
0,
on the curve
+ 2ax=f 2% = + Icz
z'^
t
has equation
8.
Shew
?/
= a.f f Zh.f
t
Sc.,?
t (^3,
the osculating planes at which pass through the origin, and that they
lie in the plane
.r,
?/,
K K
9. If p, pi, p.j, p3 are the radii of curvature of a curve and its
projections on the coordinate planes, and a., ft, y ai'e the angles that
the tangent makes with the coordinate axes, prove that
sin^g.
sin"/3
sin"y
Pi
pi
pi
sin^gcoso.
sin^/3cos/?
P\
Pi
'y=
=
Pi
0.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
304
fcH. xiv.
section IS
<
^^
r.
(.r
Prove
= acos^,
also that p
?/
= (Xsin^,
= ccosh^.
j
3\'a
is
the normal at P
13. For the helix prove the following properties
to the cylinder is the principal normal at P to the helix ; the binomial
the locus
at P makes a constant angle with the axis of the cylinder
if P' is
of the centre of circular and spherical curvature is a helix
the cenire of circular curvature at P, P is the centre of circular
curvature at P' for the locus.
:
principal
14. A curve is drawn on a sphere of radius , and the
normal at a point P makes an angle B with the radius of the sphere
to P.
^,
=
(T
^
CIS
OP = shewOP is s^lMp%
16.
OP
5,
Prove that
^
p*
pcr
s.
If
18.
The
a'^
P'\jpJ
and
torsion.
EXAMPLES
CHAP. XIV.]
XI.
any point
305
, so as to
if
is
of the curve,
a c os 6
^^
Jl
 suid cosV'
a^ tan a.
^ ~ (a"  p^ cos^a.)'
22.
equal to
A curve is
latitude
is
8a23j2
{^a^z^f
same
at the
its
its
angle.
c^/pV = gin
(j
being the angle which the tangent to the meridian through the
point makes with the axis.
<^
25. The normal plane at any point to the locus of the centres of
circular curvature of any curve bisects the radius of spherical curvature
at the corresponding point of the given curve.
/3o
= sin a.
\/sin2o(.cos/:?
+ sin7i,
The coordinates
27.
meter
t.
of a point of a curve are functions of a paraline drawn through any point (.r, y, z) of the
j^,,
lies in
the
principal normal an
points, ^
curve makes
R.r.
^=
5^,
witli the
where
is
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
306
[ch. xiv.
is
given by
=p^ + 2(r'\
Po
30.
Shew
of the
\/2pJ2p.
\/2/)o/4o,
j cp'a%pc)
\cV+cr2(pc)2j
Y ^.cY(^
'^{cap'
+ pipcWf
{cY+a\pcff
{c
Xy = U, etc.,
Xo=
'
sip'^^
and that
its radii of
cr
etc;
A3=
'fl
'Jp
etc.,
(T^
(p^cr){as)
\/pM^2'
p{(rp'p(T')
'
33. Prove that the radius of curvature, pj, of the locus of the
centres of circular curvature is given by
pHp + py
Pi
where
p'
'
.
= j.
207]
CHAPTER
XV.
ENVELOPES.
207.
f{x, y, z,
a) =
0,
an arbitrary parameter, can be made to represent the different members of a system of surfaces by
where a
is
a.
The curve
of intersection
a + ^a,
is
given by
y, z, .)
/(.',
or
= 0,
f{x, y,
z,
a + oa) = 0,
by
that
is,
by
fix, y,
where
is
z, a.)
= 0,
^J{x,
y, z,
a+0Ja) = O,
a proper fraction.
Hence, as
Sol
position given
by
/(,7;,i/,0,a)
= O,
is
^f{x,y,z,<^) = 0.
called the characteristic corre
p.
f{x,y,z, a) = 0,
^/ir,y,z,a) = ().
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
308
Ex.
on OX.
The equation
[ch. xv.
whose centres
lie
is
{xaf+y'^\z' = r'^,
whex'e a
is
{.va.f+y''
which
lies in
the plane
,r
= a,
/+
208.
Tlce
+ =
f
r'^
is
the cylinder
= r2.
all
z,
a) = 0,
fjx,
ing
y, z,
may be
a) = 0.
obtained
b}^
eliminat
characteristic,
and this
may
given by
of X, y, z
f^{:x, y, z,
a) =
envelope.
at
(x, y, z)
to the envelope is
therefore
if.+nfy+Lfz+tft=o,
which represents the tangent plane at (x, y, z) to the
Hence the envelope and surface have the
surface /=0.
same tangent plane at any point of the characteristic.
At any
and therefore
we have
and .4 = 0,
But if (.r, ?/, 2) is a singular point on the surface f(.v, i/, z, a.) = 0,
/^=fy= /j=b, and hence tlie characteristic passes througli the singular
The h)cus of the singular points of the surfaces of the system
point.
THE
208210]
therefore
lies
KlXiK
For
on the envelope.
iiny
309
zero,
L'EdUKSSloN
Ub'
all
y'^= z^ tan a.
locus of the singular points of the system is OX, and the tangent
planes to the envelope and surfaces are indeterminate at any point of
The
the locus.
209.
(/=)...,
(=o)
=o+Sa
any common point of these characterthe four equations, and therefore satisfy the
The coordinates
istics satisfy
of
equations
(/=)...
where
to
d^
zero,
and
the
0.^
( = o)
((=o)
common
points
tend
Hence, as
S<i.
tends
limiting positions
to
given by
(/>
<
(L;(iL
between equations
(1).
This locus
is
210.
sion.
Each
We may
/=0,
where d is a function of x, y,
sent two surfaces who.se curve
regression.
The tangent at
(.>*,
/a
z,
().
given by
/,<
of intersection
y, z) to
= 0,
is
to repre
the edge of
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
310
[en. xv.
is
tlie
surfaces.
/a =
0,
faa
/= 0,
Ex.
that
0,
i.e.
7/'^=xz,
Ex.
curve
xy = z.
2.
A lis.
ix'
of the sphere
+ (y  a sin ^)2 + z^ = 61
+ 7/^+z^ + cC  b'^y = Aa^x"^ +y^) a cos
^)2
= 0, where a and
= 0, is found by
/=0, <^ = 0, ^ = ^.
Ex.
a, b, c
the
Find the envelope of the plane 3xt'^ Si/t + z = fi, and shew
edge of regression is the curve of intersection of the surfaces
{x
Ex.
to
z,
y,
1.
its
b are
x,
to a characteristic.
and
nating
z,
a, 6)
b)
(/>(,
4.
</)
a, b, c
<f>
= 0,
't^
<Pa
= 't = 9b
(Pc
2^3(^.r) = 0,
i::ioi$x)
= 0,
(BVenet's formulae),
whence ^.v,
'>]=y,
ll.,($x) = 0,
2^i(^.r) = 0,
i5210,211]
211.
equution
'I'he
f{.r,y,c,<>,h) =
where a and
b are parameters,
may
+ Sft
oi
h, is
by
(?a
where
and
= 0,
ft)
and
tlie
(/l
+ oul
of
((,
and
ft,
0.,
ft
curve of intersection
/(a,
of intersection of the
a.,
^/(a + e.oVx,
0^
given by
/(rx, ft)
or
0,
The curve
ft
311
is
If Sft
= \S<jL,
the
given by
^J{<J. + e^S<x,
ft
+ 8ft) + X ^/(a,
/(a,^) = 0.
ft
+ 0.8ft) = 0,
tend to zero, by
8ft
^+X =
0.
1= 1=
0,
0.
characteristic
characteristic points,
points
M,.,a,;,)=o,
is
the envelope
^My^^^o,
/iJ^)=o.
of constant mdius
to the systenj is
a and
h are arhitrarj'
P(r^,
/i,
0)
parameters, and
and
P'('x
+ 3rx.,
/i
is
constant.
+ a/i,
0)
Let
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
312
[ch. xv.
=A
s
The equation
nating
may
(X
and
= 0.
The character
to the envelope
/3
be effected
substituting in
z, a., /3)
/= 0.
Hence,
we may regard
f(x,y,z,oi,^)==0,
and
where
a.
fp = 0,
/3
are functions of
x, y, z,
given by /^ = and
The tangent plane
3^\_
2^(/.+/.
point, /^^
and
/^
= 0,
1.
of the plane
^sin (i)}cos^ = l
cos ^sin (i
^ + ysin
^ c
^
a
b
Ex.
where
A )is.
2.
X.
and
/x
(/AA).y
(llA^)y
<x
are parameters.
x^ja^ +jf'llf'
 ,?2/c2  1
(1
V> ^ ^
^
'
i^j5
212,21:3]
;n:J
Ex. 3. Prove that the envelope of the surfaces /(.), y, z, a, />, i') = 0,
where a, b, e are paraineteis connected by the equation (j){a, b, f) = 0, is
found by eliminating , 6, c between the equations
/=0,
</)
= 0,
fa_.h_f.
^b
4>'t
</>c
Ex.
4.
Ex.
5.
<lia
(i) jt>2
Ans.
^b
4>d
4>c
= al + bm^ +
+ ^Vc^=l,
c^n^,
(i) ,i./aHy'/6'^
al
(ii)
(ii)
+ bm + 27>p = 0.
xya^+yW = 2z.
Ex. 6. Find the envelope of a plane that forms with the (rectangular) coordinate planes a tetrahedron of constant volunie c^/6.
Ans.
Ex.
27j:>/z
= c^.
A plane makes
7.
intercepts a,
b, c
i;on
meets
OABC
is
RULED SURFACES.
213. Skew surfaces and developable surfaces.
the equations to a straight line
x = az + a.,
11",
in
= hz + ^,
a, h,
OL,
by the
/3
line as
varies.
The
locus
is
a ruled
suiface.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
314
[ch. xv.
to values
t,
t\St,
of
x 0L _y ^_
a
Therefore,
if
"""'
x oL ooL _y ^ S^ _
a + Sa ~ b + Sb ~
is
SoiSh
,_
S^Sa
~j8a^+Sb^ + (a6bbSaf
higher powers of
^^
St
...
t.
etc.,
Therefore,
if
cubes and
are rejected,
+ b'^(aiy~a'b)^^(afa'' +
...
'
jSt
The
coplanar.
result
may
be stated thus:
if
a'6'^V = 0,
If
generators
developable surface,
if
intersect
the
surface
it
is
is
if
a skew
surface.
and
B,
may
( 114),
Ex.
1.
Shew by means
to a curve
213,214]
x
coordinates
the
functions of
at
uhz + ^,
{f,
genci'ates
+ ({:i + 4t)
We may
i=az + (x,
i/= 2t:
to a ruled surface.
oi"
two variables
= t.vt\ z = t'h/t^
= 3tz + '2t(l3t'^),
214.
reoard
)j
;}!>
z)
^=z.
^az (x,
7jhzl3,
az+OL,
b'z+(3',
a,
h,
= 0,
1
= 0,
az + (JL,
h'z
+ ^',
0,
0,
'"'
(1)
which
If
^^^^^a.,
aS' h'oL=0,
function of
and
is
t,
= h^+^,
or
=
,
^,
say:
sav,
/i,
{t, z).
where k
is
some
therefore
involves
is
,j
is
only,
independent of
and
since
when
is
z.
is
the same at
all
points of the
generator.
If
(c'/3'
6'a'=/=0,
if t
is
t,
so that
tixed
and
points of a generator.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Sie
[ch.
x = az + OL,
y = bz\l3;
x = {a + aSt)z + 0L+a.'6t,
surface
xv
are
= {b + b'St)z + l3 + ^'St
t,
is
given by
By
differentiation,
we
is
a curve.
obtain
or
(a;,
y, z).
a developable surface.
Let
u = a^+bt] + c^+d = 0,
where
a,
b,
c,
A characteristic
u = 0, u' = 0,
is
t,
be the
given by
u = 0,
>;,
is
^,
PEOPERTIES OF DEVELOPABLES
215,21G]
.^17
u = 0,
and hence,
if
(a,
y, z) is
u = 0,
ti"
= 0,
ax + bi/ + cz + d = 0,
of regiession,
ax + h'y \vz\d' =
{),
( ]
of regression
and
whence we
point contact at
(;,
planes
of, its
has three
y, z)
to,
edge of regression,
Ex. 1. Find the equations to the edge of regression of tlie developable in Ex. 2, 213.
The point of intersection of consecutive generators is given 1)v
and these
Ex,
2.
ecpiations
may be
Find
tlie
(li)
(iii)
Am.
(i)
= 3('\
.v=acos9, y = a9,md,
= ^~'i
x = e%
?J
J/
z=2fi;
z
= c6\
z='J2t.
 9^)2 =
 2y)(4y2  ^zx)
= a(cos^Asin6'),
= (sin ^ + Acos
(.>;2
{x>i
(ii) ,r
x = QL
?/
^),
= c{e + X\
Ex.
y = e'(lA),
= sFl{t^X).
{\n)
x = e\\ + X\
3.
of the normal
)lanes of a curve.
normal plane
is
given by
\l,{ix) = 0.
And by
Frenct's formulae,
we have
COOEDINATE GEOMETEY
318
Multiplying by
[CH. XV.
^ = x+l2p l3,(rp',
and
similarly,
^=z + n.2p7i^ap'.
ri=y{m2pm^(rp',
217.
developable surface.
should represent a
>])
If
Vi+(ln^=VX + qyz
Let (p=px + qy z.
Then,
the parameter,
is
is ;:rV^
= 0.*
d{x, y)
Px,
Ptj
qx<
qy
= 0;
that
is,
necessary condition
is
Again,
if rt
may
rts^ = 0.
sx + ty
r,
s,
qy
qx,
Therefore,
This
therefore rt s^
.
s^ = 0,
is
a function of
8,
rxjsy,
I
If
r,
[
be proved
follows
is
rt
q.
Hence, the
s^ = 0.
u=f{v),
Uy = Vyf'{v),
and
and therefore
Hence
d(u, v)
,^^
It
is
is
^,
3(c,
a necessary condition.
2/)
For
also sufficient.
if llxi'y
V.yVx
= ^,
Therefore
di'
the variation of
v,
if
or
Vy ~ Vxdx + Vydy ~ dv
is
a function of
i\
of
u depends only on
217]
By
r(
s, deleiniino
if
319
f
he sjifacea
= 0,
4,
tliat
two
Shew
y = 4rt,t'
Any
first
\z + my
{a +yf
parabola
/(!,)
6.
Shew
am
'
is
+ z)  x = 0.
dm
easily obtained.
X'+y = 4a\
and that
4,'/
between
is
x + am^,
and
Eliminate
= 27ah:
= 0; x = 0,
y'^
= 4a(z + a);
(2a,
0,  2a).
Ex.
7.
Shew
(a^yz
is
and that
conicoids
its
edge of regression
a22
+ c2y = 0,
is
a'yzhc\v=0.
3.?
.?/_
y ~2~3(a.7y
Prove that the edge of regression of the developable that
passes through the circles 2 = 6, x^iry^ = a^, x=0, y'^iri = b\ lies ow the
Ex.
9.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
320
[ch. xv.
^2+y2 + ,2^,2^
is
5+6 = 5
given by
AjBp
A.2B2,
A3B3 are
of a
skew
AjBp
A2B2, A3B3.
c^
cfi
 c^'
generator
Properties of a
218.
If
li^
of a
skew
surface.
if
the
any
conoid, otherwise
it
will be a hyperboloid.
and A3B3
in
Q and
R,
say.
Now PQR
If
is
any
A^Bj, A3B3
and therefore is a
Hence the plane of A^B^ and
P to the conicoid. But PQR also
PQR
is
tangent plane at
plane of
PQR and
surface at
P.
AgB^
Therefore
can deduce
all
many
the
We
is
to touch a
generator
is
a hyperbolic paraboloid.
55
218]
321
are the
central point
CP.CP'= S^,
where
o is
of a
line of striction.
c{.vsmd^cose) + {zce){xcose+//sind) = 0.
Prove also that the parameter of distribution of any generator
and that the line of striction is the 2axis.
Ex.
2.
i/^z
is c,
= 4(.'rx
Ex. 3. For the cylindroid z{:'J^+>/') = 27n.r>/, prove that the parameter of di.stribution of the generator in the plane . sin (?=// cos ^ is
2m a >^
20.
4.
(,^7/
a"
Ex.
5.
If
the
line
+
+ b"' + {ab'a'b)
generates
generator
(where
is
^^
da.,
dl,
^^j^^
P + m + n = \),
it
distributinu
for
the
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
322
[ch. xv.
CQ=
is
Ex.
10.
line
is
3(1
+ 2^2)2^
Ex.
11.
If the line
X  fx _ ;/  ^ _ zy
~ m
wliere
Deduce the
Ex.
12.
Ex.
13.
The
Ex.
14.
Shew
y + nr\
P + mr,
+ h;
'2()n?i'
'
 m'n)(nB'  my')
^^tt
2L{mn
m n)
results of Exs. 7
line of striction
principal circular section.
,.,
and
8.
on a hyperboloid of revolution
is
the
x a cos d _y b sin _z
a sin d
b cos 6
c%a^ 
&^) sin
= l,
elliptic
6V^sin'^^
+ c%'^cos6^ + ab'^^
Examples XII.
1.
is
.^^plane.
to
PO.
2.
cii.
EXAMPLES XH.
XV.]
323
Given three spheres Sj, S^, S3, Sj and S^ being fixed and
and with its centre on S,. i'rove that the radical plane
S3 and S2 envelopes a conicoid.
S.j
4.
of
variable
in A, B, C, so
PQR
11.
equal
12.
and cut an
13.
14.
15.
Find
.i;a^+f/b^ + z^jc" =
the confocals
z
A
0
A
c
r".
a' +
y
ft.'/
I
't
b
+t
f3,
y) to
is
B),
{<*.,
A
where A, B,
tlie
,j
^.2
(('
x^ +;/ +
1,
c
t,
^1
t
16.
P,
in
circles.
PQR'.
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
324
[ch. xv.
polai^
R = a + b + cx^yr] z(,
by
e^.^ +
kiL^,
etc.,
etc,
^(tan^)
where tan^ = /3/o. Prove also that the directioncosines of the tangent
and principal normal are proportional to l^pl^a; etc.; l^p^l^a; etc.,
and that the radii of curvature and torsion are
19.
If the conicoids
.v'jd^
+ fib' + z'lc"' = 1
.v\a^
+ f'lb^ + z^\c^ = 1
the cone
20.
a,
,,v2
c^
bi
y = 0,
prove that
21.
ai
its
Shew
a2
= (a.  b){2i  b)
edge of regression
.v
lies
= 0,
f = {a  b){2z  a)
on the cylinder
.V
1^1
is
by
Xf
''{ca){bay
11.
(b + Xf
__
y~{cb){aby
(c
+ Xf
{ac){bc)
EXAMI'LKS
cH. xv.l
23.
V developable surface
A.f vy"
is
Xll.
:}i..
= A, ^ = c
.f
+y =
z=
,
shew that
its section
2.>=.sin
fA
+ sin
/:/,
24. If the generator of a skew surface make with the tangent and
principal normal of the line of striction angles whose cosines are A
and
/i,
prove that
25.
by the
^=,
where p
line of striction
fi sin Q _
a
cos 
COS
an
tlic
line
X  a cos B
is
is
"'^
line of striction.
elli])se
whose centre
a
cos 
"^^
.sin
in
is
sin
^^
0,
j.
a,
' and
,
[CH. X\
CHAPTEK
XVI.
CURVATURE OF SURFACES.
219.
We now
make
point.
In our investigation
we
in 184.
If the point is
to the surface
origin, the
taken as
origin as .ryplane,
]i,
2.s''//
+ ('//'+...,
Fio. CO.
220.
point.
Let
be
.s'>0
its centre,
tlie
indicatrix
CA and CB
its
is
an
axes,
elliptic
and
let
CP
be any
219221]
NORMAL SKCTlONS
C'L'liVATUKE OF
semidiameter.
Then,
normal section
if
327
is
OCA, which
liave
O and
arc
p.,
If p^,
CA = a, CB = 6,
If the
axes
^..
/,,
OX and OY
OCA, OCB
the indicatrix become
the e(uations to
z=K
or
'"'h^^2h,
Pi
Pi
to the surface is
^ + ....
 + y.
x"
2^ =
Py,
CP =
XOY
respectively,
P2
r,
2/t_cos0
^~
1
,,
therefore
Pi
cos'f?
whevo
221.
/)
is
Pi
sin0.
Pi
sin0
h
Pi
tlie
section
OCP.
bolic point.
If r^
s'^<0,
the indicatrix
is
a hypcibola,
is
01).
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
3^8
positive,
[CH. XVl.
]i,
(A>0),
(1)
The normal
{h>0)
(2)
least curvature
(1),=,,
If
Pv
Pi
%_r
a^
(2)
z=h,
Ir
measure
a
b^
magnitude and
sisfn,
:Lt
h,
 + ^=2/^
Pi
Pi
(2)
2h
z=h,
Pi
Pi
and the
NORMAL
C'lTUVATURR OF
221,222]
c(iuation to the
V+
The radius
makes an angle
Pi
curvature
Avitli
329
.suri'ciee is
Pi
oi"
SKCTloN.S
the 5;.rplane
_cos20
normal
tbo
oi"
section
that
given by
is
sin0
P2
Pi
Curvature of normal sections through a paraIf rt n = {), the indicatrix consists ol" two
bolic point.
The intlexional tangents
parallel straight lines, (tig. ()2).
222.
coincide,
curvature zero.
its
OY
in
lie
the principal
indicatrix are
where
((
= CA.
The
sections,
sections.
the
= h,
2h=
equations
radius p^
2z=
^;
Pi
is
the
given by
+....
Pi
OOP which
to
makes an angle
OX and
= Lt ^^.
curvature.
If
= (i',
tinite principal
P\
Hence the
Qr
maximum
^cofO
Pi
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
asO
[cii.xvi.
223. Umbilics.
circle
the indicatrix
is
The curvature of an oblique section. The rebetween the curvatures oi' a normal section and an
oblique section through the same tangent line is stated in
Meunier's Theorem: // p^ and p are ilie radii of curvature
224.
lation
the
the
sections.
If the
is
taken as
;ri/plane,
common tangent
to
the
and, (see
= h,
fig. 60),
CA'
The equations
to
QQ' are
y
= h tan 0,
But
li,
surface,
is
X and y are small quantities of the first order,
of the second order, and therefore to our degree of approxi2h
and
mation, lix and /r may be rejected. Hence QV^ =
if
/;
P=
^^t
QV _ ^
.= Lt
2ov~
2A/r
= cos
2/^^^(9' Po
^,^
0.
ininiediately follows.
55
PvADlUS OF CfJRVATURK
223225]
;}:}1
section through
directioncosines
lu.,,
I.,,
ii.,
0,
But
given by
is
pU qm^ + n^
pl^\qm^
therefore,
by Frenet's formulae,
pl2
dn
'dp
ds
dx ds
dx
dq
dq dx
ds
dx ds
= 0,
When
since
d}j
ds
dq
dy
di/
'
ds
,70,07
=5
p
= 0]
'i'i<^
3 dv
+ qm.,n.y
or
Cor.
J I +'p' + (f
+p^ + q'
s/l
n
L.
Vlf^'^+g^
p becomes
p^,
immediately follows.
Ex.
1.
Find the
priiicip;il radii
2z = 5.r
+ 4x^ + 2j/.
Ex.
2.
2z=7x^
Ans.
1,
f^.
and that
tlie
+ 6x>/jif,
Ex.
.i=,y.
If
/),
p'
normal sections at
^^^3^^
and 
?.,
3x=^/.
a point of a surface,
is
two perpendicular
constant.
COOriDINATE GEOMETRY
332
Ex.
4.
{r
Ex.
5.
The
of curvature of the
^^ ,.2
by the plane
is
[ch. xvi.
+ m'^f{am'^^hhn\hl'