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Seminar Report ’05

Backhoe Loader

INTRODUCTION
If you were to ask a large group of people what they could tell you about backhoe
loaders, a lot of them wouldn't know what you were talking about. But if you showed
them a picture of one, almost everybody would understand what you meant. We've all
seen backhoe loaders, commonly called backhoes. They are used for a number of
different jobs and are often the only piece of heavy equipment at a construction site. We
pass them on the side of the road all the time. But even somebody who has passed by
dozens of backhoes may not know that much about them. What exactly do they do? Why
are they used for so many different sorts of construction projects? How can they dig such
big holes in such a short amount of time? How strong are they?
In this edition, we'll look at what backhoes can do, examine the machinery that
makes this work possible and show you how workers actually control a backhoe. The
next time you pass a backhoe loader working alongside the freeway, you'll know exactly
what it's doing!

Figure 1
Dept of Mechanical Engg

1

MESCE Kuttippuram

9 feet (7. And as we'll see later on. A construction crew that does all sorts of different work will usually buy a backhoe rather than more efficient specialized equipment because the backhoe performs well in a wide variety of situations.6 kN) of force and can reach more than 25. Mini-loaders and backhoe units are actually smaller than a typical backhoe loader. backhoes are remarkably compact when compared to large. Its backhoe can dig with 15. Caterpillar has sold more than 100. but many construction crews use a backhoe instead because of a number of factors. The backhoe is also popular simply because of its amazing capacities. it's usually better to have both units in one.200 pounds (67. set up foundations for buildings and create drainage systems. They can move around all sorts of construction sites and you can take them on the road.970 kg) and can hold 1. often more efficiently than a backhoe.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader RELEVANT FEATURES Backhoes have been around more than 40 years. Dept of Mechanical Engg 2 MESCE Kuttippuram .3 cubic meters) of dirt in its standard bucket.000 backhoes since 1985. For example. and they've gotten even more popular in the last decade. The main reason we see backhoes at work all the time is that digging and moving dirt is a big part of a lot of different projects. specialized equipment such as excavators.9 meters) away. There are a number of tools that do this sort of work. but if a contractor needs to dig and load. a backhoe is certainly sufficient. even with fairly difficult jobs. The loader can lift loads up to 8. you need to dig ditches to lay pipes and underground cable.75 cubic yards (1. The Caterpillar backhoe loader has a huge amount of power. but they do very well. For one thing. It saves a lot of time because the operator doesn't have to switch between two different pieces of equipment. some backhoe models do a lot more than just digging and loading.760 pounds (3. For small to medium digging jobs. The backhoe and loader components don't have quite as much power as larger equipment.

). You usually don't dig with it. The operator controls the loader while driving the tractor. brakes. or to push dirt like a plow. Dept of Mechanical Engg 3 MESCE Kuttippuram . you use it like a big. On a typical construction site. rugged tires and a cab with basic steering controls (a steering wheel. A backhoe loader is an interesting invention because it is actually three pieces of construction equipment combined into one unit. The Tractor The core structure of a backhoe loader is the tractor. Just like the tractors that farmers use in their fields. turbocharged diesel engine. They have components sticking out every way. It's also used to smooth things over like a butter knife.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader CONSTRUCTION DETAILS Backhoe loaders have a very unique appearance. etc. A backhoe loader is:  A tractor  A loader  A backhoe Each piece of equipment is suited to a particular sort of work. you mostly use it to pick up and carry large amounts of loose material. The loader can do several different things. Backhoe cabs are either completely enclosed or have an open canopy structure to give the operator protection. the backhoe operator usually uses all three components to get the job done. powerful dustpan or coffee scoop. In many applications. large. the backhoe tractor is designed to move easily over all kinds of rough terrain. It has a powerful. These two components serve very different functions. The Loader The loader is attached in the front and the backhoe is attached in the back.

elbow and shoulder. and the operator also maneuvers it when using the loader. In a Caterpillar backhoe.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader The Backhoe The backhoe is the main tool of the backhoe loader. comparable to your wrist. loader and backhoe have to do with each other? The tractor component is for moving the other two components from place to place. you generally need a loader to either move the dirt out of the area or to fill the dirt back in once you've got the pipes. compact material. So what do the tractor. power lines. When you dig up a lot of dirt to make a ditch or any other sort of hole.your upper arm. in position. Your arm has three segments -. or to lift heavy loads. The loader and backhoe components are a natural combination for all sorts of jobs. This design also provides extra space for the bucket when the operator curls it in with a full load. usually earth. The backhoe moves in pretty much the same way as your arm. Dept of Mechanical Engg 4 MESCE Kuttippuram . The backhoe can dig all sorts of holes. Basically. but is especially suited for digging ditches. forearm and hand. etc. The backhoe segments are connected by three joints. such as a sewer box. It has three segments:  The boom  The stick  The bucket This arrangement is very similar to your arm. the boom is bent upward to make it easier to dig with obstacles in the way. the backhoe is a big. extremely powerful version of your arm or finger. It can lift this material and drop it in a pile to the side of the hole. To use the backhoe. the operator has to park the tractor and turn the seat around.digging a trench with the backhoe and then back-filling it with the loader. The most common application for a backhoe loader is this basic job -. It's used to dig up hard.

For a good grip on asphalt. Without the stabilizer legs. The concept of hydraulic machinery may seem pretty bizarre -. let's look at the basic idea of a hydraulic system.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader The Stabilizer Legs The other appendages you'll typically notice on a backhoe loader are the two stabilizer legs just behind the rear wheels. This sort of fluid transmits nearly all of the original force instead of absorbing some of it. the operator pushes on the oil with one piston so that the oil pushes on another piston.pumping liquid to move pistons. These legs are crucial to backhoe operation because they take the brunt of the weight when a backhoe is digging.how can pumping liquid give you such power? -. all of this work is done with hydraulics -. you know that it is an extraordinarily powerful tool." so that they can be planted securely on both dirt and pavement. The most commonly used incompressible fluid in hydraulic machinery is oil. and the whole tractor would bounce constantly. minimizing the jostling effect of digging with the backhoe. An experienced operator can dig a 5-foot-deep. The stabilizer legs have two types of "shoes. the weight of a heavy load or the downward force of digging into the ground would strain the wheels and tires. but would tear up the pavement if you were to use it on a road. The grouser shoe side digs into the dirt for a better grip. Just think how long it would take you to do that with only a shovel! Amazingly. Most systems use an incompressible fluid. Hydraulic systems simply transmit forces from point to point through fluid. They also secure the tractor so that it won't slip into the ditch or hole. In the very simple hydraulic machine. raising it up.but it's actually very simple. HYDRAULIC POWER If you've ever watched a backhoe at work. and then we'll see how a backhoe uses these systems to dig and load such huge amounts of dirt. 10-foot-long ditch in less than 15 minutes. First. the operator simply flips the rubber-padded shoe into position. The stabilizers keep the tractor steady. Dept of Mechanical Engg 5 MESCE Kuttippuram . a fluid that is as dense as it can get.

14 * 1 ). This sort of hydraulic mechanism is great for systems where you need to apply a force very briefly. in the illustration above. This pushes down a certain amount of fluid. Since the pressure at the piston on the right is working on a larger area. The 2 2 piston on the right is nine times larger than the piston on the left. This means that any force applied to the left-hand piston will be nine times greater on the right-hand piston. Dept of Mechanical Engg 6 MESCE Kuttippuram . you've moved the left-hand piston 9 inches and raised the right-hand piston only 1 inch. that piston pushes upward with a greater force.300 pounds per square inch. But. in keeping with the forcedistance trade-off.25 inches.14 x 3 ). and the cylinder pistons in the backhoe arm have a diameter of up to 5. the 100-pound downward force applied to the left piston creates a 900-pound upward force on the right piston. we pushed down on some oil with one piston and that oil pushed up a larger piston. for example. Since the fluid is incompressible. The fluid has the same pressure (pounds per square inch) at every point in the system. thereby multiplying the force of our effort. it can't absorb the force you apply.26 (3. The area of each piston is Pi * r .000 pounds! HYDRAULIC VALVES With our very simple hydraulic machine. So. while the piston on the right has a 6-inch diameter (3-inch radius). The work you do in pressing down on the piston on the left has two components -.a brake system. the hydraulic system pumps oil at up to 3. so it pushes up on the piston on the right.14 (3. you're always moving pistons. while the area of the piston on the right is 28. This gives each cylinder piston a force of 70.the amount of force you apply and how far you push the piston. Assume that the piston on the left has a 2-inch diameter (1-inch radius). But in a piece of equipment such as a backhoe.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader Because the second piston has a larger diameter than the first piston. The basic concept at work is a trade between distance and force. every once in a while -. The area of the left piston is 2 therefore 3. In the backhoe loader shown above. It's pretty easy to figure out the exact multiplication factor. so you need constant oil pressure. the second piston moves a shorter distance but pushes up with greater force.

If you pushed down on the narrower piston. Figure 2 A backhoe loader uses something called a spool valve to direct oil to either side of a ram. fed by two different hoses. which requires a more complex system. however. the pistons must be able to push and pull with full force. generating enough pressure to move another piston more slowly but with greater force. This sort of piston cylinder is commonly called a hydraulic ram. It applies a lesser force to the oil at a high rate of speed. But for a backhoe to dig. The pump keeps a steady supply of high-pressure oil flowing to a valve block system. this pressure comes from an oil pump that is powered by a diesel engine. you can see that the piston rod that extends outside the cylinder is actually moved by a piston head inside the cylinder. When the operator moves the controls to change the direction of the backhoe. To move this way. the piston will move to the right.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader In a backhoe. There is fluid on both sides of this piston head. The pump does the same sort of thing as the narrow piston we saw in the earlier example. The pump takes oil from a tank and pumps it through a hose to the spool valve. the wider piston moved up with greater force. we'll see exactly how this works). There are some significant differences in how the two systems operate. which directs the pressure's force (later on. If you were to cut open one of the piston cylinders from a backhoe. and if it is greater on the left side. So. its arms have to be able to move in different directions. The simple piston we looked at could only apply multiplied force in one direction. the powerful pistons in a backhoe are actually moved by the same forces that we saw working in the simple hydraulic design. the spool Dept of Mechanical Engg 7 MESCE Kuttippuram . If the force is greater on the right side. So all you have to do to change the direction of force is stop pumping oil to one side and start pumping it to the other. the piston will move to the left.

As the high-pressure oil pushes on one side. you're actually controlling at least four individual spools (which move four different pistons). the joysticks operate hydraulic pistons that control the movement of the spool valves. Dept of Mechanical Engg 8 MESCE Kuttippuram . But how do equipment designers use this technology to create such powerful digging machines? Let's go back to the idea of a backhoe being a huge. the stick and the bucket -. powerful version of a human arm. In the animation below.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader valve changes its configuration so that the high-pressure oil goes to the other side of the ram. When you dig with a backhoe. In other backhoes. you extend or retract different hydraulic pistons. The cylinders in a backhoe serve the same function. In some backhoes. The operator manipulates this valve block with joysticks in the backhoe cab. It's obvious that your arm wouldn't be quite as useful without muscles -. you can see how an operator activates some of these different pistons together to dig with the backhoe. and see how their applied forces translate into fluid movement in the backhoe and loader. We compared the steel segments -. the low-pressure oil is forced through a different hose. we'll look at the arrangement of these pistons. Each cylinder piston is controlled by its own spool valve. control sticks are directly attached to different spool valves.your muscles provide the force that actually pulls the various segments of your arm toward and away from each other. acting as a lever to move the spool directly. All of the segments are hinged together and each cylinder can either pull a connected segment closer or push it away. In the next couple of sections. By moving different spools.the boom. This piston pushes oil through a hose to move the spool valve controlling a particular hydraulic ram. it presses down on a particular piston. HYDRAULICS IN THE BACKHOE Now we've seen how the backhoe's valve system can move hydraulic pistons in two directions with great force. back to the oil tank.to three pieces of your arm. similarly connected by three joints. When you move the joystick in a certain direction.

The boom arm is connected to the tractor with a swing casting so that these pistons can swing the backhoe arm from side to side. which gives you an idea of what the backhoe. One of the most significant variables in backhoe performance is dig depth. Backhoes also have stick lift and boom lift ratings. This lets the operator dig in spaces where it would be very difficult to maneuver the entire tractor into a good working position. which tell you the maximum weight the stick and the boom can lift individually when the hydraulic rams are pushing with full force. In many European backhoes. Backhoes also have breakout force ratings. then you know that horsepower is a measure of how much work something can do in a certain amount of time. the other pulls. They are synchronized so that when you push with one.to 16-foot dig depth and 70 to 85 horsepower. Backhoes designed for heavier industrial and commercial applications -such as road and bridge maintenance or large-scale construction -. and digging ditches for sewer and utility lines -. Typically. a bracket that can move the entire backhoe arm horizontally on the tractor. but all of the hydraulic rams on the arm contribute to the total force.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader The backhoe also has two hydraulic pistons near the base of the boom arm. is capable of. This is simply a rating of how deep the backhoe arm can dig. This is another measure of a backhoe's general capacity. but the dig depth is still a useful measure because it also indicates how far out the backhoe can reach. Breakout force describes the maximum force that the arm can apply on a load. grading. Backhoe models with greater dig depth usually have more horsepower. Another important rating is horsepower. dig depth is somewhere between 12 and 16 feet (3 to 5 m). Increasing both of these factors expands the backhoe's abilities.such as digging foundations. Backhoes designed for residential construction applications -. Most backhoe jobs don't require operators to dig ditches and holes more than 10-feet deep. A backhoe horsepower rating tells you how much power the engine provides for all of the systems in the backhoe.generally have a 14. the boom is attached to a side-shift mechanism. If you've read How Horsepower Works. Many backhoes have an extendible stick that lets them increase this dig depth a few feet when needed.have a dig depth greater than 17 feet (5 m) and at least 100 horsepower. It's measured by how hard the end of the bucket can push. and is especially useful for Dept of Mechanical Engg 9 MESCE Kuttippuram .

If you filled the crate with oranges when the see-saw was level.712-lb (65. This stabilizes the loader bucket. a 6. Carrying a full load with a backhoe loader makes for a fairly bumpy ride because the wheel base is so small compared to the total inertia of the equipment and the load -. it pushes down on the oil in the hydraulic cylinders. the loader would be something like a seesaw with a crate nailed to one end. In this system. To make the ride a bit smoother. Parallel-lift loaders have an eight-bar-linkage design that improves loading performance. Caterpillar has two types of loaders on its backhoes -. HYDRAULICS IN THE LOADER We've mostly focused on the backhoe here. A parallel-lift system allows for more efficient loading because it keeps more of the material in the bucket as it lifts. This piston pair is attached to the tractor and the arms holding the bucket. The rams lift the bucket in exactly the same way you would lift a heavy box -. which has Dept of Mechanical Engg 10 MESCE Kuttippuram . the two main sets of parallel bars that hold the bucket move together so that they keep the bucket level with the ground. Parallel-lift loaders use a second pair of rams attached to the loader arms and the bucket itself. The valve system pumps the same amount of oil to each ram in the pair so that they move in unison.a single tilt (yellow) and a parallel lift (black).the weight on one end rocks the whole structure back and forth. The pistons extend to raise the arms and retract to lower them.830-kg) stick lift capacity and a 3. Single-tilt loaders do this with only one central ram. as the bucket bounces. Its hydraulic rams are configured in a slightly different way -.940-lb (1. a lot of them would fall out when you tilted the seesaw up. The backhoe in the pictures above has a 14. The oil flows to another piston cylinder. Basically.787-kg) boom lift capacity.250-lb (2. different sets of bars in the loader are connected in such a way that the bucket doesn't tip as it rises.4-kN) breakout force.you grab both sides and lift with both arms. These rams extend to dump the bucket and retract to tilt it back up.they work as pairs.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader contractors who plan to use the backhoe as a sort of crane for lifting heavy loads. backhoes with ride control use the loader lift hydraulics as a shock-absorber system. Another cool function in some backhoe loaders is a technology called ride control. Both types use a piston pair to lift the loader arms. Without parallel lift. Basically. but the loader is also driven by hydraulics. the accumulator.

Unlike oil. The energy expended to force the oil through the opening is converted into heat. Additionally. Dept of Mechanical Engg 11 MESCE Kuttippuram . How does one person do all of this? The main controls for a Caterpillar backhoe are two computer-style joysticks. which gives you an idea of how well a loader will be able to push and lift a load. This rating tells you the maximum force the loader's hydraulic rams can apply to the front bucket. Here are the functions of the joysticks:  The joystick on the left moves the boom and swings the entire backhoe from side to side. the oil would simply be pushed back and forth. the operator controls the stabilizer arms and moves the tractor around while loading. the backhoe arm swivels on four different hinges (some bucket designs have five) and the loader moves on two to three hinges. and pushing the joystick away moves the boom or stick farther out.when the incompressible oil from the loader rams pushes down on one side of the piston. so the bucket would keep bouncing. The damping mechanism that accomplishes this is a small orifice in the hose carrying the oil from the lift ram to the ride control accumulator. OPERATING THE BACKHOE LOADER When you stop and think about all the different moving parts in a backhoe loader.  Pulling the joystick toward you moves the boom or the stick closer to you. the ride control system has to absorb some of that energy as the oil flows. With each bounce of the loader bucket. Like backhoe arms. To create a smooth ride. This energy loss essentially absorbs the bouncing energy.  The joystick on the right moves the stick and the bucket. As we saw in the last two sections. With just this mechanism. making for a smoother ride.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader compressed nitrogen gas on the other side. it seems unbelievable that you need only one person at the controls. loaders are rated by their breakout force. this nitrogen gas can be compressed. oil is squeezed through this small opening. so it acts like a spring -. the gas compresses a little before pushing back up on the piston.

To dump out the bucket. you move the joystick to the right. the first set of hydraulic rams pushes out to lift the arms up. knowing when to move the boom and when to move the stick and getting a sense of what arm positions provide the best leverage. The tractor basically handles like a car. To get much use out of it.they know exactly how to move the Dept of Mechanical Engg 12 MESCE Kuttippuram . with a steering wheel. brake pedal and gear shift. To scoop the bucket in. Backhoe operators reach this same level. like learning to drive a car. accelerator. An experienced driver doesn't even think about most of the things he or she is doing while driving. raises and lowers. When you push it away from you. and pushing it to the right dumps the bucket out. But in addition to learning the controls. you move the joystick to the left. For an extra boost in loader force. The main loader control is a joystick on the right-hand side of the operator. the operator can put the tractor in neutral so that most of the engine's power goes directly to the hydraulic system. The hardest part of learning to drive is usually paying attention to all of the different things going on. If you pull the joystick back toward you. The loader and the tractor are powered by the same engine. Experienced backhoe operators use the backhoe loader in much the same way you would use a shovel or wheelbarrow at home -. which has a variable speed control. With enough practice. That means knowing the best angle for the bucket as it sinks into the dirt.  Pushing the right-hand joystick to the left scoops the bucket in. So the loader is pretty easy to learn compared to the backhoe.Seminar Report ’05  Backhoe Loader Pushing the left-hand joystick to the left swings the entire backhoe to the left. It takes a lot of practice to keep all of the various controls in your mind at once. however. Learning how to operate a backhoe is the same way. Picking up something with your arm is incredibly easy because you move every muscle automatically. you have to be able to operate it while moving the tractor around the site. But imagine how hard it would be if you had to stop and think about every muscle you were moving in that one motion. the controls become second nature. Digging effectively with a backhoe requires practice. the arms lower. Operating the loader is relatively simple because it only dumps. the operator must also learn to position the arm so that it will dig efficiently. and pushing the joystick to the right swings the arm to the right.

The disadvantage of gear pumps is that pressure rises and falls with engine speed. It has a series of piston cylinders fixed in a ring inside a barrel. planning their strategy. where they are attached to an angled swash plate. This pump is especially cool because you can very easily adjust how much oil it pumps. As the plate pushes the piston in. there isn't as great a difference between the size of a cylinder's fluid compartment on the left side and the size of the compartment on the right Dept of Mechanical Engg 13 MESCE Kuttippuram . All you have to do is change the angle of the swash plate. Just as with driving. it's holding the maximum amount of oil. the cylinder pumps oil out into the hydraulic system. As it rotates from the hydraulic-system side to the intake side. As the barrel spins around.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader controls to dig and load quickly and effectively. the angle of the swash plate pushes the pistons in and then pulls them out.the real skill is in knowing how to use the backhoe to accomplish different tasks. a pair of inter-meshing gears pressurizes the hydraulic oil. you're already deciding how you're going to navigate it. This pressurizes the oil so that it is pumped out with great force. You can see in the diagram that as the swash plate pulls the piston out. the cylinder sucks in oil from the tank. Just before a cylinder rotates from the intake side to the discharge side. When the swash plate is pressed closer to the barrel. THE HYDRAULIC PUMP All of the hydraulic systems on a backhoe get their hydraulic pressure from a hydraulic pump. A variable-displacement pump is more sophisticated. This is also something like driving a car: When you see traffic jam ahead of you on the road. it's holding the minimum amount of oil. The engine spins the barrel around so that the cylinders revolve. and the only way to get high pressure is to run the engine at full power. The cylinder pistons extend out the back of the barrel. And they're always thinking ahead to their next few moves. learning how to operate the backhoe is only the first step -. There are two types of pumps in common use:  Gear pumps  Variable-displacement pumps In a gear pump.

In a backhoe. Dept of Mechanical Engg 14 MESCE Kuttippuram . First of all. The pressure is determined by the operation being performed -. When none of the hydraulic rams are operating. Consequently. the system always pumps the amount of oil needed for maximum pressure. the pump simply stops pumping oil. the flow rate is constant at any particular engine speed. the variable-displacement pump is more efficient because it only pumps the amount of oil that the hydraulic system needs. Relief valves determine the maximum pressure in the hydraulic system. On backhoes with fixed-displacement pumps. Since the flow rate multiplied by the maximum pressure can't exceed the available engine power. the backhoe has less available power. Special circuits monitor the pressure on the various hydraulic rams and adjust the flow rate to the necessary level. Some oil is used by the hydraulics and the rest goes to the tank. So. the pump doesn't pump as much oil. the system has to make intelligent use of the available power. Most backhoes have several different engine-speed options. When the engine is at a reduced speed. the backhoe has the most power to work with.lifting heavy objects or busting through hard ground requires higher pressure than does moving an empty bucket. Secondly.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader side. When the engine is at maximum speed. power is just flow rate multiplied by hydraulic pressure. the engine will stall. This reduces the fuel consumption of the backhoe a good deal. this sort of system makes the best use of available engine power.so that it isn't at an angle at all -. If the pump tries to draw more power than the engine can produce (at a particular speed). This load-sensing hydraulic system has a couple of significant advantages over a system using a fixed-displacement pump. to provide maximum pressure to the hydraulics at all times. This means that if you are not demanding full pressure. The angle of the swash plate is determined by the needs of the hydraulic system. When the swash plate is pressed all the way up against the barrel -. you're wasting available engine power and wearing out the system for no reason.the system doesn't pump any oil.

In this section. All sorts of tools are available. including:  Hydraulic hammers for breaking up asphalt  Augers for digging circular holes  Asphalt grinders for milling the surface of the road  Grapples for gripping and pulling rooted material (such as tree stumps) The ability to attach different tools expands the backhoe's versatility a great deal. Different tools include specialized buckets. backhoe loaders have all sorts of things you would find in any tractor. The system monitors the pressure of all the hydraulic rams and controls the angle of the swash plate to meet the demands of the ram that has the highest pressure level. street sweepers and pallet forks. Dept of Mechanical Engg 15 MESCE Kuttippuram . As you can see in the video below.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader Backhoes with variable-displacement pumps don't have this problem. backhoe loaders are filled with hydraulic valves and cylinders. the operator must secure the tool to the backhoe stick with a connecting pin. ATTACHING DIFFERENT TOOLS Some backhoe-loaders let you connect a wide variety of tools to either the backhoe stick or the loader in place of the standard buckets. the pump will increase its displacement (which increases flow rate). INSIDE A BACKHOE LOADER As you've seen. Caterpillar backhoe-loaders have an integrated tool carrier (IT) that hooks up very easily to a number of compatible components. The different tool attachments let the backhoe loader do a number of different things on the job site. the pump will decrease its displacement so that it can provide the pressure without exceeding the engine's available power. If you are not demanding full pressure. we'll look at some of the components that make a backhoe work. car or truck. When the system demands full pressure. making the tools move faster. The backhoe arm also connects very easily to different tools. In addition.

self-adjusting disc brakes to stop the tractor.  Axles . It also features a dry-type. Dept of Mechanical Engg 16 MESCE Kuttippuram . It has forward and reverse hydraulically shifted shuttle clutches. but some Caterpillar backhoes have a turbocharged design. They have a separate parking brake that the operator applies with a hand lever.To apply the engine power to the tractor and the backhoe and loader hydraulic systems. The Caterpillar standard rear axle shown below has a special enclosed design that protects it from the elements.  Brakes . Caterpillar backhoes use hydraulically-actuated.  A transmission . radial-seal two-stage air filter and a thermal starting aid that allows the engine to start up even at -20 degrees Fahrenheit (-29 C). as well as forward and backward. In any backhoe. The Caterpillar 80-horsepower 3054 engine below has a 4-cylinder. 4-stroke. A backhoe transmission does the same basic job as the transmission in your car. backhoe loaders need brakes in order to stop moving. even in extremely harsh environments. The Caterpillar power-shuttle transmission below provides four speeds. you'll find:  An engine . the tractor. loader and backhoe are all powered by a diesel engine.Just like your car.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader All backhoe loaders have a set of standard components. Backhoe loaders come with either automatic or manual transmissions. which let the operator change direction and travel speed on the go. This lets the backhoe operate reliably. direct-injection design.In a typical backhoe loader. The basic model is naturally aspirated.The wheels in a backhoe loader are turned by axles. you need a transmission. It also has a torque converter that enables maximum power efficiency.

Sound pollution is the main disadvantage of this machine. Also for the enhancement of the product. Dept of Mechanical Engg 17 MESCE Kuttippuram . After analyzing some of its construction and working. reliability and performance. Further researches on these machines are going on to decrease the sound pollution. From its varied specialties. some of the major companies are giving services after sales. These machines have long been favorites of governmental agencies because of their durability. when compared to other machines. now-a-days usage of this machine is more enhanced. it has a rugged construction that anyone can operate it with a little practice and no machines would replace in its position. we can conclude that rather than its size.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader CONCLUSION The above explained features compelled the machine to compare with a highly talented worker.

howstuffworks. Kothandaraman and Khajuria Dept of Mechanical Engg 18 MESCE Kuttippuram .com Text book: “A Course in Thermal Engineering” by Domkundwar.Seminar Report ’05 Backhoe Loader REFERENCES Web site: www.