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Dyadic Communication 1

Communication is inevitable. Even deaf and mute find ways in order to communicate with others.
Learning more about dyadic communication would be an advantage for it is considered as the smallest
form of interpersonal communication. In this paper, the assigned group will carefully gather information
which will satisfy the following:

Definition of Dyadic Communication;

Forms of Dyadic Communication;
Functions of Dyadic Communication; and
General Principles/Guidelines of Interpersonal Communication for Conversation, Dialogue,
and Interview.

Definition of Dyadic Communication

Dyadic communication is an interpersonal communication which consists of two individuals.
Sociologically speaking, dyadic describes the interaction of a dyad, which is the smallest possible group
of people.

Each individual performs source functions and also performs receiver functions. It is

commonly used when interacting with other people.

Dyadic communication is greatly depicted by transactional model because it emphasizes the
dynamism and the multiple roles people assume during the
process (Wood, 2014). The figure on the right side shows







communicators share their field of experience which changes

over time. Meeting new people and have new experience will
change the way individuals interact with each other. As time
goes by, relationship may get informal and intimate.

Figure 1: The Transactional Model of


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Forms of Dyadic Communication

There are three forms of dyadic communication namely, the conversation, dialogue, and
interview. Each of these forms will be defined to identify how it differs from another.
Conversation is a two-person communication, usually following five stages: opening,
feedforward, business, feedback, and closing (Wood, 2014). McLaughlin (1984) defined conversation as
relatively informal social interaction in which the roles of speaker and hearer are exchanged in a nonautomatic fashion under the collaborative
management of all parties.
Dialogue is form of communication in

Figure 2: The Five-Stage Model of Conversation

which each person is both speaker and

listener; communication characterized by involvement, concern, and respect for the other person (Wood,
2014). In dialogic communication there is deep concern for the other person and for the relationship
between the two people. The objective of dialogue is mutual understanding and empathy. Unlike other
forms, dialogue is more concerned on solving a problem that was raised.
According to Wikipedia (2015), Interview is a conversation between two or more people where
questions are asked by the interviewer to gather facts or statements from the interviewee. It is considered
to be the most formal form of interpersonal communication. Interview types may vary on structure,
purpose, etc.
When talking about the structure of the interview, structured interview is one in which there is a
standardized scoring key to evaluate each answer while unstructured interview is one in which
interviewers are free to ask anything they want.

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Functions of Dyadic Communication

This part discusses more on the Functions of Dyadic Communications:

1. Establish self-identity or personal discovery. Help us learn more about ourselves and
also the person we are talking to.To establish self-image that we present to others
2. To gain information about things and events around us.To effectively interact with
other people
3. Establish meaningful relationships. To feel a sense of love and belongingness. To
establish relationship with other people.
4. Change attitudes and behavior . To influence the attitudes and behaviors of others. To
transform individuals Interpersonal Persuasion.
5. Building a context of understanding. To help understand interpersonal relationship

General Principles/Guidelines of Dyadic Communication

This part will discuss more on the principles and guidelines of dyadic communication for
conversation, dialogue and interview.
Guidelines for Conversation is based on the Five-Stage Model of Conversation:

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1. Opening is the stage where to open a conversation. Greeting an individual can be a great
example to this stage. By that, it establishes a connection for two people and opens a channel
for a meaningful interaction.
2. Feedforwarding is the stage where the speaker gives a general idea of the conversations
focus. For example, saying We need to talk about our vacation plans gives a hint to the
listener of what will be conversation about.
3. Business stage is the substance of the conversation. This is where the speaker and the listener
exchange its roles. This is the longest part of the conversation.
4. Feedback stage is where the receiver gives a response from source. The feedback may be
positive or negative. A wink of an eye or a nod of a head while in conversation is an example
of feedback.
5. Closing is the stage where the conversation ends and often reveals how satisfied the persons
were with the conversation. A simple Goodbye or Call you later will do to end up a

Guidelines for dialogue:

1. Dialogue is a two-way process; it involves balancing deep listening and open honest sharing.
2. Everyone is encouraged to speak.
3. Risk trusting other people with your feelings and experience.
4. Share what feels comfortable for you dont go beyond that.
5. You do not need a clear position or to be an expert; it is okay to be confused or to change your

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6. People who listen more than they speak often have more of value to share.
7. Try to be present for the full process as absence can have a negative impact.
8. If you feel uncomfortable, you may need to take time out, but let the facilitator know.
9. Take care to listen well.
10. Feel free to ask if you dont understand.
11. Dialogue is not about agreement it is about deepening understanding.
12. Question what you hear and what you think.
13. Keep an open mind.
14. Help and support each other throughout the process.
15. The facilitator is there to support you.

Guidelines of Interview:
1. Determine your employment objectives
The objectives of the specific hiring situation should control the shape and content of the
interview. Interviewers who proceed on the basis of the known objectives of a given employment
project have a head start in developing plans for the individual interviews. From the beginning,
they have a general picture of their information requirements, the yardsticks for evaluating
candidates and an optimum profile for the winning applicant.
2. Learn about applicants in advance
Interview time is limited. The interviewer who does not digest the information available from
applications, resumes, test results and references in advance is wasting personal resources.
Further, the interviewer who does not use such data as a basis for fine tuning the interview plan
is wasting the applicants time as well as the companys money. Know your applicants before the
interview begins. It will save time, help you plan productive interviews and indicate to the
applicants that you are interested in them as individuals.
3. Know the job requirements
In addition to knowledge about the applicant, another important area of advance information
needed by the interviewer to ensure successful results is knowledge about the position for which
the applicant is being interviewed. Obviously, knowledge about an applicant can be modified,
expanded and more clearly understood during the interview. However, knowledge about the job
must be acquired before the interview. The knowledge of the job is an essential prerequisite of the
interview. The sources for such knowledge range from readily-available information on file in the

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personnel department such as job descriptions and performance standards, to highly relevant onthe-job insights gained from your experience.
4. Plan the interview
For many positions, little additional preparation may be necessary when the experienced
interviewer knows about the job to be filled and has learned what there is to know about the
candidates in advance. Experience will readily indicate a suitable approach. This is certainly true
with regard to routinely filled positions.
For the interviewer who is not highly skilled, however, it is beneficial and often essential to plan
the interview. Even the experienced interviewer needs to plan when a non-routine or higher-level
position is involved, or when the job is infrequently filled or otherwise unfamiliar. The planning
can range from an abbreviated review to determine key information to be gathered during the
interview, to a detailed plan for handling each successive portion of the interview with each
specific candidate.
5. Create a constructive attitude
Participating in a selection interview on behalf of your company is a responsible role. You must
be positive and professional to represent the company image. You have to work hard and stay
alert during the interview. For the occasional interviewer, it is a somewhat strange and even
uncomfortable process. You are obliged to probe into the personality and makeup of a number of
complete strangers, and this can be time consuming and tiring. Finally, you must recommend or
make a decision.
Approaching the interview with the right attitude, and preparing to create the right atmosphere for
it, can be learned. Skilled interviewers adopt their own methods for being up. Like actors,
athletes or teachers, they must know how to ready themselves for a given occasion. You too, on
the basis of your status as a unique individual, can develop your own particular way of doing this.
But, as a starting point for the novice or a refresher for the jaded interviewer, it may be helpful to
review some donts. Thinking of ways to avoid mistakes and to achieve a positive approach will
encourage a constructive, fruitful interview.
6. Build an interview framework
A great variety of styles and strategies can be used in interviews, either singly or in combination.
Interviews can be designed to fit such descriptive headings as regulated, permissive,
counseling or negotiated. Then there are interviews intended to sell the applicant, the
stress interview, the buddy-buddy approach, the totally professional discussion, the applicantcentered interview, and so on. It is important to understand that an interview should have some
kind of detailed framework for the interviewer to follow in a flexible way and which will be in
keeping with the employment objectives (1) and the interview plan (4). Taken together, these two
techniques will define the broad scope of the interview.
It is highly useful for the interviewer to have in mind a number of configurations and formats
from which to select an interview framework, even when there is little time to prepare.

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7. Develop rapport quickly
A key means of making the interview profitable is to quickly establish a close and sympathetic
two-way understanding. This sort of relationship promotes the channels of interchange, helps to
raise the interview to a meaningful level and produces a greater depth of insight for both
A positive method of building rapport is to treat the applicant as an individual, not just as another
body sitting on the other side of the desk. Words or actions encouraging the belief that the
interview will be a genuine interchange between individuals are always helpful. The interviewer
need not be talkative, overly considerate or super friendly. The interview can be conducted on a
person-to-person basis at virtually any level of formality or friendliness.
8. Listen before you talk
The interview is totally a communication process. All the thinking, emotion and physical effort
that goes into it on both sides should be aimed at communicating that is, interchanging
information and knowledge by oral, visual, sensory or any other possible means. Of course, oral
communication predominates and means both talking and listening. Again, acquiring skill in
getting applicants to speak up, if they are hesitant to do so, is vital. However, there is a far more
basic and insidious communication hurdle that all interviewers face.
The best advice that can be given for acquiring interviewing expertise is to listen more than you
talk. Keep your mind on the applicant and what he or she is saying. Dont spend your time
thinking about your own views on the subject under discussion. If you do, what you will record is
your own thoughts. In this self-centered approach, whatever the applicant says will be filtered
through your own views and you may hear only what you expect to hear.
9. Control the interview
The interviewer should strive to maintain overall control of the interview from beginning to end.
The purpose of this control is not to satisfy the ego of the interviewer or to keep the applicant
properly humbled by showing who the boss is. Rather, control is maintained so that the various
requirements of information acquisition, expenditure of time, satisfaction of the applicants needs
and so on will be met.
The most elementary form of maintaining control is to use a question and answer format. The
interviewer keeps track of the time spent on each area of the interview and, when necessary, shuts
off discussion to move on to the next area. This is a matter of leading the interview in a
positive, open way. By growing more and more practiced and sophisticated, the interviewer
becomes adept at allowing an increasingly free form of discussion. Nevertheless, the interview is
still being controlled so that each major subject area will have adequate coverage within the time
allotted for each applicant.
10. Respect the applicants needs

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Even for the veteran interviewer, there is a temptation to let ones personal needs dominate the
conversation. All interviewers should, of course, be primarily concerned about adequately
satisfying the needs of the company and the applicant. The interviewer who is going to be the
supervisor of the selected applicant should be intent on keeping a balance among the interests of
three parties: the companys, his or her own and the applicants. In any case, a fair share of
attention should be given to what the applicant needs to know.
Job applicants need to know about the organization, its objectives, and its rules and conditions of
work. They need to know about the jobs they are being considered for and the people they will
work with if they are hired. They need to be able to talk about themselves in relation to possible
employment with the organization and to project to the interviewer their own picture of how this
relationship will work out.