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Published online 21 November 2006 in Wiley InterScience

(www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/cem.994

Sylvie Chevallier1*, Dominique Bertrand2, Achim Kohler2,3 and Philippe Courcoux2

1

Unite de Sensometrie et de Chimiometrie, ENITIAA-INRA, BP 82225, 44322 NANTES CEDEX 3, France

3

Center for Biospectroscopy and data modelling, Norwegian Food Research Institute, MATFORSK, 1430 AS, Norway

2

A simple imaging system has been developed for acquiring multivariate images in order to characterise the heterogeneity of food materials. The objective of the present work is, first, to demonstrate the

capability of this acquisition system to discriminate food products of different natures. Secondly, our

goal is to apply Partial Least Squares regression on these multivariate images and to evaluate the

interest of various strategies of classification. A data set containing 24 images (702 T 524) acquired at

different wavelengths for four food products is analysed. After the establishment of the PLS2 models

employed for predicting the indicator variables, four strategies of classification of observations are

tested. The first classification is done by selecting the largest component of the indicator variables. The

others are based on the measurement of distances to the barycentres of the qualitative groups.

Distances calculated can be either Euclidian distances or Mahalonobis distances. Except the strategy

based on the Euclidian distance on scores, the strategies are rather equivalent, with a slight advantage

to the Euclidian distance on predicted indicators. Another possibility addressed by the use of linear

discriminant analysis (LDA) on multivariate images is to represent the qualitative groups as artificial

images. The largest confusion appears between both cereal products while others are well classified.

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEYWORDS: partial least squares discriminant analysis; PLS-DA; multivariate images; classification; segmentation

1. INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, powerful analytical techniques such as spectroscopic methods allow to obtain high dimensional data sets

from which we may extract valuable information using

multivariate analyses. For example, automatic grouping of

data having a similar feature is an important problem in a

variety of research area such as biology, chemistry and

medicine [1]. Classifying data in different groups (clusters)

can be done in an unsupervised way if no information is

known about the classes, or in a supervised way. Several

techniques of clustering are available and are thoroughly

described in the literature [2]. In recent years, considerable

effort has been expended on exploiting the data compression

or reduction methods of principal component analysis (PCA)

prior to apply a range of discriminant analysis techniques to

solve classification problems [3]. This reduction is achieved

by a linear transformation to a new set of variables, the

principal components (PC) scores, which are uncorrelated

and ranked such that the first few retain most of the variation

present in all of the original variables. Afterwards, a subset of

NANTES CEDEX 3, France.

E-mail: sylvie.chevallier@enitiaa-nantes.fr

analysis (LDA) [4].

Clustering techniques can also be applied to multivariate

images. Multivariate imaging appears in all experimental

fields of science and technology. It consists in constructing

images of a material for different radiation energies or

frequencies using various techniques. The images can be

macroscopic or microscopic. For example, different imaging

systems based on multispectral fluorescence [5] or on nearinfrared microscopy [6] have been developed for the

identification of food products. The combination of images

recorded at different wavelengths, frequency or energy gives

a multivariate image as defined by [7]. Besides pixel

information generally recorded as intensity, images provide

also spatial information in the form of X and Y coordinates.

To extract information from this large amount of data,

multivariate analysis is required. A widely used approach is

to apply an unsupervised classifier to a small sample of the

image data for the estimation of the classes and then classify

the entire multivariate image using a supervised classifier

trained with the estimated model [8,9]. A procedure for

selecting a representative training set and test set from

multivariate images is based on PCA [7]. Recent works [1,10]

were carried out using other procedures for the estimation of

classes in multivariate images.

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

needed and discrimination is sought, may be the use of

Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) [11].

The basics of PLS-DA consist firstly in the application of a

PLS regression model on variables which are indicators of

the groups. The link between this regression and other

discriminant methods such as LDA has been shown [11]. The

second step of PLS-DA is to classify observations from the

results of PLS regression on indicator variables. The more

common used method is simply to classify the observations

in the group giving the largest predicted indicator variable.

Some authors [12] have shown that this strategy is not the

best, and often performs less well than more common

methods such as simple LDA. The objective of the present

work is to apply PLS regression for a discrimination problem

with a particular focus on multivariate images and to

evaluate the interest of various strategies of classification.

2. BACKGROUND

2.1. Multivariate images

A multivariate image, as acquired by spectrometers or

multichannel cameras, is represented by a three-way data

structure (a cube), noted A. An element almn of A is a positive

number representing some intensity value measured at

location {l, m} for the image channel labelled by the index n.

The locations where the measurements are carried out are

regularly spaced. The indices l and m range from 1 to L and

1 to M, respectively. When working in spectroscopy,

the n index (ranging from 1 to N) often corresponds to the

wavelengths of the illuminating light. In the illustrative

example that will be presented here, n simply indicates a

condition of acquisition. In a given cube image A, the vector

[alm1; alm2; . . . ; almN], noted aTlm and referred as pixel-vector in

the following, thus represents the N intensity values

measured at location {l, m} of a given studied sample. For

processing such a cube image, it is often useful to reorganise

the intensity values as a new data matrix, A fain g,

including LM rows and N columns by a procedure of

unfolding the images. The row index of A are obviously

chosen in order to allow a simple univocal correspondence

between the elements of A and A.

purpose [13]. As PLS well handles rank-deficient matrices,

it is well suited to multiway images in which the number of

spectral conditions N may be large and in which the matrix of

predicting variables is rank-deficient. As the classical PLS

regression is very well known, we will not describe it in the

present article. Only the point related to PLS discriminant

analysis (PLS-DA) will be presented.

Let X (dimensioned I J) be a (centred) matrix of

predictive variables of the calibration set. Let g be a vector

of I integer values coding the qualitative groups, such as gi

gives the group number associated with the observation i. G

will denote the total number of qualitative groups. From g, it

is possible to build an indicator matrix Y, dimensioned I G

such as yig is equal to 1 if the observation of index i is

belonging to group g, and 0 otherwise [13]. The classical PLS2

regression model can then be applied on X and Y by varying

the PLS dimensions. For a given number of dimensions K, the

application of PLS2 regression basically gives several output

matrices. The PLS scores denoted T and dimensioned I K

represent a set of latent variables, which are linear

combinations of the original variables in X. The coefficients

of the linear combinations are gathered in the matrix of

loadings P, such as T XP. The regression model associated

with K dimensions gives a prediction of Y, gathered in the

matrix Y^ and a matrix of estimated regression coefficients B

such as Y^ XB. The PLS2 models can obviously be applied

on unknown data using the same matrix calculations.

It must be noticed that applying PLS2 on indicator

variables is not, in principle, totally logical. If the number

of qualitative groups G is greater than 2 and the matrix X has

a low rank, situations depicted on Figure 1 may often occur.

Even if the groups are actually easily separable in the

multidimensional space, some of the indicator variables may

be impossible to be accurately predicted using a linear

model. For example, on Figure 1, the indicator variable

associated with group A, which is surrounded by other

groups, is not linearly dependant on the variables x1 and x2.

This problem is perhaps to be related with the conclusions of

images

2.2.1. Principle of PLS-DA

The purpose of the acquisition of multivariate images is often

to identify, on the surface of the studied samples, the group

belongings associated to each of the pixel vectors. The

eventual results of such studies could be artificial images of

the sample, in which each predicted group is represented by

an arbitrary symbolic colour. Such an objective can lead to

unsupervised approaches, when it is impossible to create

learning set of pixel vectors, or to supervised ones, when the

creation of a learning set is possible. In the second case,

which is addressed in the present article, linear discriminant

approach can be carried out via a regression analysis with an

indicator matrix reflecting the classes of the training set

observations. This remark leads naturally to the utilisation of

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

linearly predict some indicator variables in a vector space

having a small number of dimensions. Codes (0 or 1): value of

the indicator variable associated with group A.

J. Chemometrics 2006; 20: 221229

DOI: 10.1002/cem

Indahl et al. [12] and ours [14] who found, on real data set,

that PLS-DA often performs less well than other discriminant

methods such as LDA. However, providing that the data are

projected in a relevant space (such as the space of the PLS

scores), it seems possible to find other strategies of discri^

mination based on the knowledge of T and Y.

In the particular case of PLS-DA, Y^ is a prediction of the

indicator variables, and is thus not directly a prediction of the

qualitative nature of the observations. Four strategies of

classification of observations are tested:

(i) The first one and the more usual method for classifying

an anonymous observation xT (1 J) is to first compute

the vector of predicted indicator variables y^ (G 1)

using the PLS2 regression model. The classification of

x is done by selecting the group corresponding to the

largest component of y^. This strategy will be referred

further as the Max indicators strategy. As mentioned

previously, the possible drawback of this strategy is

that it will give poor results if a group is not linearly

separable in the projection space defined by T.

(ii) For the others strategies, it appears interesting to involve

the measurement of distances to the barycentres of the

qualitative groups. Following the remarks of Indahl et al.

[12], we have tested the use of PLS2 scores T as a new

data matrix for linear discrimination, in replacement of

X. Let t Ti be the PLS2 scores of the ith observations of the

calibration set. For r 1 . . . G, we can define the baryPr

centres such as mr n1r ni1

t i for the nr observations

belonging to group r. For classifying an anonymous

observation xT, we will first project it in the PLS2 space,

leading to a vector t Tx . Some distances such as d(tx, mr)

with r 1 . . . G can then be computed and the anonymous observation is classified in the group for which

the distance takes the smallest value. Following this

general strategy, it is possible to vary the way of calculating the distance. The first possibility, corresponding

to our second strategy and referred as Euclidian distance

on scores, is to use Euclidian distance de such as

d2e t x ; mr t x mr T t x mr

with

V TT T:

Mahalanobis distance on scores.

(iv) A last strategy, which follows the logic of PLS-DA is to

consider again the relationship Y^ XB. The predicted

indicators are actually linear combinations of the variables in X. Moreover, it is interesting to remark that the

information on group belongings brought by y^ may lie

not only in its largest component, but also in the other

ones: the fact that a given observation is far from some

groups, and thus have low value of the corresponding

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

yx ; pr ^

yx pr T ^

yx pr

d2P ^

As previously, the anonymous observation is classified in the group for which the distance takes the

smallest value.

Let A1; A2; A3; . . . ; AG be multivariate calibration images

(L M N) which are each representative of a single

qualitative group. In each of this image, H pixel vectors

are randomly selected, and gathered in a matrix of

calibration Xcal, dimensioned (GH N). The PLS-DA models

are established on Xcal. For testing the accuracy of the models,

pixel vectors of the images of the verification set are sampled

in a similar way, and gathered in a matrix Xval. The four

proposed strategies are applied on this validation set varying

the dimensions K of the PLS-DA models. It is also possible to

build synthetic images showing the predicted qualitative

groups. For this purpose each of the studied anonymous

multivariate image is first unfolded, and the predicted

groups g^ (LM 1) are computed using the chosen PLS-DA

model and strategy. g^ can then be refolded, in order to form a

single-channel image (L M) showing the predicted group

of each pixel. Such a group image can be displayed using

arbitrary symbolic colours for representing each group. In

this way, it is easy to emphasise the spatial organisations in

images in which several predicted groups are represented.

suggested by another study [12]. It consists in performing a classical LDA using T as the set of predictive

variables. This leads to the use of the Mahalanobis

distance:

d2m t x ; mr t x mr T V 1 t x mr ;

this reason, we have tested the possibility of making use

of an Euclidian distance on the predicted estimator

(Strategy Distance on indicators). Let y^i be the vector of

predicted indicator variables of the ith observations of

the calibration set. For r 1 . . . G, it is possible to compute the barycentres of the predicted indicators such as

Pr

pr n1r ni1

y^r for the nr observations belonging to

group r. For classifying an anonymous observation xT,

appropriately centred, its predicted indicator variables

are first calculated using y^x xT B. The Euclidian distance on predicted scores dp is given by:

3.1.1. Description of the system

The acquisition system, shown schematically in Figure 2,

includes a camera, light sources and a computer. Digitised

images, coded on 12 bits, are acquired by a digital colour

camera (DX20, KAPPA, Germany) with a zoom lens (focal

lengths of 5.632 mm, COMPUTAR, Bioblock, France). This

model of camera is equipped with double-s stage Peltier aircooling which makes it suitable for fluorescence imaging. A

large spectrum of adjustable integration times, from a few

milliseconds to several seconds, allows photon accumulation

and to display correctly from extremely dark to bright scenes.

The light sources consist of eight sets of easily available LEDs

of different wavelengths ranging from 400 to 950 nm

(Table I). Each set comprises 12 LEDs distributed at the

four points of a square in order to light up the sample evenly.

J. Chemometrics 2006; 20: 221229

DOI: 10.1002/cem

Table I. Wavelengths of the different LEDs and integration

time of the camera chosen for the acquisition of multivariate

images

LED

Near-IR1

Near-IR2

Red

Amber

Green

Blue

UV

White

Wavelength (nm)

950

875

626

592

524

470

400

N/A

0.250

0.080

0.040

0.110

0.250

0.110

3.500

1.850

interference from the laboratory. The system is connected to a

PC via a PCI interface board. A specific software has been

developed to define and control the different parameters of

the image acquisition: integration time of the camera and

type of LEDs switched on.

The samples are placed in the cell of the dark enclosure under

the camera as shown in Figure 2 and the zoom lens are

focused once and for all experiments. Integration time can

vary from 0.1 ms to about 100 min and eight different light

sources are available from near-IR to UV (see Table I) and

white LED. A procedure consists of the acquisition of a series

of defined images. An example of procedure is given in

Figure 3. As can be read in this procedure, the image named

image1.dat is acquired with the following chosen parameters:

TIC 0.110: integration time of the camera (s)

LED 00100000: binary value for red lightning

Each acquisition for a given illumination condition results

in a colour image that has a spatial resolution of 702 524

pixels with three camera channels (red, green and blue).

From the successive acquisition of individual images of the

same sample, it is thus possible to build a cube image by

merging all the RGB images associated with the same

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

by the LEDs) and three camera channels, the resulting cube

images are thus dimensioned 702 524 24. Experimental

designs with the two acquisition parameters (integration

time of the camera and type of LEDs switched on) have been

applied on reference samples (different pure organic or

mineral compounds) to study the physical response of the

system. The statistical analysis of the multivariate images

collected in this way showed that the system was sufficiently

repeatable for practical applications. No interaction was

highlighted between the two parameters: integration time

and nature of the LED. This preliminary study also made it

possible to optimise the floodlighting conditions according to

each LED (see Table I) and to confirm the linearity of the

response with regards to the integration time.

As an illustrative example, four powdered raw materials

(maize, pea, soya bean meal, wheat) are studied. The raw

materials were placed in the sample-cell. The surface of the

sample is compressed and levelled using a flat cylinder, and

multivariate images are acquired, in random order. For each

studied raw material, four multivariate images are acquired.

In order to build the PLS-DA models, one multivariate image

of each raw material is selected to form the calibration set. In

each calibration multivariate image, 400 pixel vectors are

J. Chemometrics 2006; 20: 221229

DOI: 10.1002/cem

Figure 4. Example of the construction of calibration and validation matrices for one raw

material. This sampling is repeated for each of the raw materials.

the pixel vectors selected in this way could be eventually

gathered in the matrix of the calibration set Xcal, dimensioned

1600 (400 pixel vectors 4 raw materials) 24 (8 LEDs 3

channels). The validation set is built in a similar way using

the 12 remaining multivariate images, and selecting 400 pixel

vectors in each image. The validation matrix Xval is thus

dimensioned 4800 (400 pixel vectors 4 raw materials 3

validation multivariate images) 24. The PLS-DA models

are tested with dimensions ranging from 1 to 20, making use

of the four defined strategies of discrimination. After the

selection of the most relevant PLS-DA model, the group

images of the validation set can be built and examined.

4. RESULTS

Images of the four reference products (maize, pea, soya bean

meal and wheat) are shown in Figure 5. When observing

images acquired with the white light (Table I), it appears a

certain heterogeneity within each product because of the

different nature of the grains constituents (pericarp,

endosperm, aleurone) which are ground and mixed during

the sample preparation. When compared with images

acquired using near-infrared LEDs, it can be seen that these

fractions appear differently under different light sources.

The complex nature of these raw materials will make the

classification more difficult.

PLS-DA is first applied on the sampled pixel vectors.

Figure 6 shows the plot of the two first PLS scores obtained

using the indicator variables as predictive variables. For the

sake of clarity, only 15 of randomly chosen observations are

shown on this graph, but the examination of the whole set

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

materials are partly separated on this graph, with the

observations associated with soya bean meal (S) on the left

and the wheat (W) on the right. The qualitative groups are

overlapping with respect to the first two scores, but are

logically positioned according to the biological nature of the

samples. The protein-rich raw materials (soya bean meal and

pea) are close together and rather well separated from the

two cereals (wheat and maize), which are partly overlapping.

The PLS-DA model is tested with varying the PLSdimensions from 1 to 20. The number of correct classification

both in the calibration and the validation sets are taken as a

criterion of the accuracy of the tested model. Figure 7 shows

the evolution of the number of observations in the calibration

set correctly classified (maximum: 1600) as a function of the

PLS dimensions of the model. As expected, the number of

correct classifications increases as a function of the number of

dimensions. The strategy Euclidian distance on scores gives

very poor results in comparison with the other strategies,

with less than 1100 observations correctly classified. The

other strategies give higher results, with a slight advantage

for the strategy Euclidian distance on predicted indicators.

The strategies Mahalanobis distance on scores and Max

indicators are very similar. Figure 8 shows the same kind

of evolution on the validation set, including 4800 observations. The models seem to show a plateau from 8 to

17 components and thus appear to be rather stable. The

examination of this graph leads to the same conclusions as

for the calibration set. The Euclidian distance on scores gives

again poor results with a success rate of about 65%. The other

strategies are more efficient, with again an advantage to the

Euclidian distance on predicted indicators. Taking the models

J. Chemometrics 2006; 20: 221229

DOI: 10.1002/cem

under white LEDs (left-hand side column) and near infra-red LEDs at

875 nm (right-hand side column).

#2. M: maize; P: pea; S: soya bean meal; W: wheat. For the

sake of clarity, only 1/5 of the points are shown.

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

with eight dimensions, the success rates are about 84% for

Mahalanobis distance on scores and Max indicators. This figure

reaches 86% for the Euclidian distance on predicted indicators,

which corresponds to an increase of about 100 in the number

of observations correctly identified. Table II shows the

confusion matrix computed on the 4800 observations of the

validation set, from the PLS-DA model with eight components

and using this last strategy. This table is in accordance with the

examination of Figure 6. The largest confusion is between the

pixel vectors of maize (M) and wheat (W) which are both

cereals. The two protein-rich raw materials (pea: P; soya bean

meal: S) are also partly confounded one with each other. The

pixel vectors of soya bean meal (S) build the most clearly

separated group; indeed, this material is issued from a

complex industrial process, whereas the other materials are

simply ground seeds or grains.

Figure 9 shows the histograms of the distances of the

observations to each of the four barycentres of the observed

J. Chemometrics 2006; 20: 221229

DOI: 10.1002/cem

Figure 7. PLS-DA discrimination. Number of correctly classified observations of the calibration set as a function of the PLS

dimensions. The four strategies are described in paragraph

2.2. Total number of observations: 1600.

Figure 8. PLS-DA discrimination. Number of correctly classified observations of the validation set as a function of the PLS

dimensions. The four strategies are described in paragraph

3.2. Total number of observations: 4800.

groups. On this graph the dark points correspond to

observations belonging to the depicted group. The histograms associated with soya bean meal and pea show clearly a

bimodal distribution associated to group separation. On the

contrary histograms for maize and wheat show a larger

confusion between the groups. The exploitation of such

histograms obtained on the calibration set may logically

leads to the development of confidence tests. From these

histograms, experimental repartition functions can be built

up, which will make it possible to evaluate the probability of

Predicted groups

Actual groups

M

P

S

W

74.8

4.3

0.2

11.0

10.7

90.3

12.1

1.6

0.5

1.0

87.2

0.8

14.1

4.5

0.6

86.6

expressed as percentages. Codes (nature of the raw material): M:

maize; P: pea; S: soya bean meal; W: wheat.

observed groups. Euclidian distances based on the predicted indicator variable.

M: maize; P: pea; S: soya bean meal; W: wheat. The darker colour indicates

the belonging of the observation to the actual group.

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI: 10.1002/cem

pixels are shown in dark colour.

group.

An important issue of the application of discriminant

analysis on multivariate image is the possible representation

of the qualitative groups of the pixel vectors (observations)

on artificial images. For this purpose, the chosen PLS-DA

model is applied on anonymous unfolded images. The

predicted groups are then refolded in order to form a singlechannel image of the groups, which can be examined. As an

example, some group images of the four raw materials in the

validation set are shown on Figure 10. In this example, the

observations of the validation set include 702 524, that is

367 848 pixels for each raw material. On Figure 10, the

correctly classified pixels are shown in black, whereas the

others are coloured in white. On this particular set of images,

the proportion of correctly identified observations was

slightly different than the one observed on the validation

set (Table II), with 75%; 83%; 98%; 89% of correct

classification for respectively M, P, S and W. This slight

variation may be due to some uncontrolled systematic error

related to the lightning conditions.

5. CONCLUSION

The use of PLS-DA on multivariate images acquired with a

simple experimental device may offer a large range of

applications in which it is needed to characterise the spatial

organisation of heterogeneous materials. In many situations,

the data are collinear or quasi-collinear, and PLS-DA is

therefore appropriate. After the establishment of the PLS2

models employed for predicting the indicator variables, four

strategies of classification of observations have been tested.

Except the strategy based on the Euclidian distances on scores,

the strategies are on overall rather equivalent, with a slight

advantage to the Euclidian distance on predicted indicators. This

is in accordance with previous studies [14] showing that the

more commonly used strategy, Max indicators was never the

Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

using the Max indicators strategy seem to show that in the

multidimensional space of PLS, each group can be individually separated from all the others contrary to what was

mentioned in Figure 1. Indeed, the number of qualitative

groups was smaller than the number of optimal dimensions

(about 8) in the PLS model.

The possibility of unfold and refold images in order to

build synthetic images showing the location of qualitative

groups is particularly useful for the characterisation of

heterogeneous samples such as vegetal or animal tissues.

Moreover, this processing can be a first step in the extraction

of features from the shapes corresponding to each qualitative

groups. On the computed group images, adapted methods

such as mathematical morphology [15] will give a way to

efficiently summarise the spatial and spectral information of

multivariate images.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Region des Pays de la Loire for its financial

support and P. Papineau and A. Sire for their technical help.

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