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Primera Prueba de Evaluacin Continua (PEC-1)

Literatura Norteamericana I: Siglos XVII-XIX


Curso 2015-16
Instrucciones:
Las PECs se deben enviar a travs del curso virtual utilizando un documento en
Word que contenga, adems del ttulo de la asignatura y el nmero de la prueba,
los siguientes datos del remitente: 1) apellidos, 2) nombre, 3) Centro Asociado.
Se recomienda guardar el archivo siguiendo como modelo para el ttulo:
Apellido1_Apellido2_Nombre_PEC1_Centro Asociado
Por ejemplo: Rovira_Cano_Laura_PEC1_Albacete
Las PECs se respondern en ingls, de modo discursivo (no esquemtico). Cada
una de las dos respuestas se desarrollar en 300-400 palabras aproximadamente, sin
exceder 500 palabras para cada respuesta, es decir, empleando un mximo de 1.000
palabras para cada una de las PECs. Las instrucciones especficas para responder
adecuadamente a las preguntas se encuentran en las pginas de A Study Guide for
American Literature to 1900 que se indican al final de cada enunciado. Vanse
tambin los documentos titulados Basic Guidelines for Academic Writing y Advice
on Writing PECs, a los que se accede desde el curso virtual pulsando sobre el icono de
navegacin de Exmenes anteriores.
Aunque en el material didctico bsico de esta asignatura se ofrece informacin
suficiente para elaborar las pruebas de evaluacin continua, los estudiantes podrn emplear
bibliografa complementaria. Si se cita o parafrasea informacin, debern hacerse constar
las fuentes bibliogrficas utilizadas mediante referencias entre parntesis, o en notas
finales, o en notas a pie de pgina, teniendo en cuenta que no podrn superar tales pruebas
quienes recurran a los diversos tipos de plagio (por ejemplo, copiando de la bibliografa
bsica o de la complementaria, de pginas web, o de los trabajos de otros estudiantes). El
profesorado-tutor de la asignatura dispone de herramientas antiplagio y ha recibido
instrucciones precisas para actuar en caso de que detecte un plagio total o parcial de las
respuestas a las PECs. Las dudas concretas sobre las PECs no se consultarn al equipo
docente de la asignatura, sino a los profesores-tutores encargados de corregirlas.

Primera Prueba de Evaluacin Continua

Plazo de envo: 10/12/2015

1) Compare and contrast how John Smith, Mary Rowlandson and Jonathan
Edwards use quotations, focusing on the texts selected in units 1, 4, and 5.
See A Study Guide for American Literature to 1900, pages 17-18 (exploratory
question 9), and pages 40-41 (exploratory question 11).
Firstly, they are three very different types of writer. Whereas that John Smith is an
adventurer, Mary Rowlandson and Jonathan Edwards are religious people which
determines the quotations.
John Smith shows an absence of religious thought. He depicts his history as an
adventure in which he represents the role of a hero, conquering distant and exotic lands
in the name of destiny and with clear political intentions. He uses a self-confident tone
and garnishes his narrative with classical quotations. Smith reflects, quoting Senecas
Atheomastix in relation to his Indian captors, he didn't understand their behavior: As if
neare led to hell / Amongst the Devils to dwell.
Unlike Mary Rowlandson, John Smith captivity was narrated in just a short account of
his long book. Rowlandson captivity, on the other hand, is narrated in the full lenght
book.
She was, surely, a great knower of Bible but, probably, she re-read it during her
captivity and, I firmed believe, she found a new meaning among her pages. When she
quotes Psalm (27:13) I had fainted, unless I had believed to see the goodness of the
Lord in the land of the living she expresses her confidence in God, and exhorted others
to trust in the Lords deliverance, as David did.
When she quotes Psalm (81: 13-14) Oh that my people had hearkened to me, and
Israel had walked in my ways, I should son have subdued their enemies and turned my
hand against their adversaries she tried to explain why God withdrew his grace and
the English army did not succeed in crossing the river, I think.
And when she quotes Exodus (14:13) Do not be afraid. Stand firm and you will see
the deliverance the Lord will bring you today. The Egyptians you see today you will
never see again. Words uttered by Moses when he encouraged the Israelites to be calm
and trust God, she tries to encourage the other prisoners and not to fall into despair
Finally, Jonathan Edwards develops a main idea using a in crescendo tone from the
Psalm to the lecture. It is important to understand that are writes sermons (no intention
to publication) so he uses biblical allusions with horrible image of hell and its tortures,
to awaken dormant audience. When he uses Psalm (73:18) Surely you place them on
slippery ground; you cast them down to ruin. tries to explain that everything was based
on Gods providence from a negative point of view, in order to be didactic and
terrifying. Terrify rather than confort to explain you are constantly suspended by the
spider web over the abyss which means hell.

2)
Compare and contrast how Olaudah Equiano and Phillis Wheatley portray
themselves in their writings, illustrating your points with short quotations drawn
from the texts you have read. See the Activity Comparing an authors
iconographical and verbal self-representations in A Study Guide for American
Literature to 1900, pages 57-60.
In the title of his autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah
Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself the author emphasized
that he had written it himself, and this was a way of asserting his authorship and an
expression of his desire to refute claims that blacks had no ability to write. The fact that
he used his two names, both the African ad the one imposed upon him in the Western
World, supports the thesis that his double identity was an extremely serious concern for
the autor. Still commenting on the title, it should be noted that, when referred to himself
using the epithet the African, Equiano used the definite article (the) instead of the
indefinite which other writers of African descent were currently using. Apart from the
title, the portrait used as the frontispiece of Equianos autobiography also merits
attention. It displays an African elegantly dressed as an English gentleman and holding
and open Bible.
As far as I know, Equiano narrative has a three-part structure and it has three differents
Equianos:
The first part of the narrative, which it is the part that concerns us, includes terrible
scenes, but it also filled with comic anecdotes of the picaresque behaviour that the
young slave was forced to practise for survival purposes. For instance, in line 11,
Equiano describes how childhood of his village watched every day to detect potential
intruders: and commonly some of us used to get up a tree to look out for any
assailant, or kidnapper, that might come upon us. I firmed believe Equiano also
presented himself as a child, with the innocence of a illiterate that never went abroad,
when he wrote in line 95 "I asked them if these people had no country, but lived in this
hollow place (the ship)"
In contrast, in the second part of the narrative, from the moment the author gains
freedom the character changes and, since he is no longer slave, he takes full
responsibility for his life as a mature religious man, not a picaresque hero any more.
Now the Ethiopian was willing to be saved by Jesus Christ, the sinner's only surety,
and also to rely on none other person or thing for salvation.
Here, Equiano reveals the nature of his faith; it is one of humility and acceptance of his
sinfulness. He had finally converted to "true" Christianity (in his case, Methodism)
Finally, in the third part of the narrative, the tone of work becomes even more pious,
and the style is characteristic of the spiritual biographies.

Otherwise, referring to Phillis Wheatley, she doesn't portray herself as a character in her
poems but she talks about her cause (slavery) through three different ways to portray
negroes. In the Preface the collection she was presented as the work of a native of
Africa whose genius had unanimously impressed the many members of the English
nobility and gentry she had met in London. I firmly believe that because of this
promotion she was cast aside as an oddity as literary history and her poetry was
relegated to a marginal status.
In On Being Brought from Africa to America the poet expresses her gratitude for
being introduced to Christianity. Although the attitude, expressed in the first quatrain,
may sound subservient, she basically deplores the paganism of her homeland.
'TWAS mercy brought me from my Pagan land,
Taught my benighted soul to understand
That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too:
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew
In the second quatrain the author suddenly adopts and accusatory tone that abruptly
reverses the movement of the poem. She makes a direct challenge to racial prejudice
through and allusion to injustice in line 5 some view our sable race with scornful eye
which is morally censorious of those who show contempt for blacks because of the
colour of their skins.
In To the University of Cambridge, New England although a superficial reading of
this poem would suggest that she was ashamed of her blackness, a more thoughtful
analysis of its third stanza might reveal how subtly she expressed that she took pride of
it. The use of the term Ethiop in a very effective disclosure near the end of the poem
is a positive allusion to her racial identification because within a biblical context, it
brings to mind Moses Ethiopian wife Zipporah, the Queen of Sheba.
In To His Excellency General Washington, I consider she tries to create a parallel
between the pursuit of freedom of the American people from England and the pursuit of
freedom of black people from slavery. She only talk in first person in paragraph "Shall I
to Washington their praise recite?" but she portray several abstract concepts as
animated tems using literary similes; Celestial choir as Heaven, Columbia as America,
etc.
1 Celestial choir! enthron'd in realms of light,
2 Columbia's scenes of glorious toils I write.
Unlike Olaudah, who had to do everything by himself, Wheatley was very well
educated within a white family and almost considered a member of it. His master
supported her with her book and she was helped, in general. They both consider sin a
much worse bondage than enslavement and criticise Christians prejudice against blacks.
They both refer themselves as Ethiopians, sign of a pride of an ancient kingdom.