TECHNICAL
MEMORANDUM
NASA
TM77379
i
,L
, _,
i
,
d
t"
I
,
Translation
of
"Uber den anschaulichen
Inhalt der
quantentheoretischen
Kinematik
und Mechanik",
Zeitschrift fur Physik, v. 43, no. 34, pp. 172198, 1927.
"
!i
.
!18_ 170 _6
(lIISkTB773791
Tile ICTaAL COIJTEIJT OF
QU&IITUB THEOiigTZCaL KZlfEH&TICS &lid BKCiikJZCS
(18ational
aeronautics
and Space
&dminist_ation)
35 p iIC &O3/_F &OI CSCL 126 63/77
Uncla8
18109
s
L
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS
AND SPACE
WASHINGTON
D.C, 20546
..
ADMINISTRATION
DECEMBER
1983
i
o
,,
_1
:
"
I I
II
II
a. _,,_
III
_,_ioi_i_i_
i.
_classlJ_l_ _mdUnllmited
u. I,,,,_.,_kRRI,
II_
.....
Ul
W"
"I
THE ACTUAL
MECHANICS
By W
' _
CONTENT
OF QUANTUrl THEORETICAL
Heisenberg,
Institute
University,
Copenhagen,
KINEMATICS
AND
Physics
of the
for Theoretical
1172"
Denmark
'[
_ i
_
!
_
=!
_
_
:_"
SUMMARY
First,
exact
supplied in this
paper
for definitions
the terms: are
position,
velocity,
energy, etc. (of the electron,
for
instance),
such that they are valid also in
quantum mechanics;
then we shall show that
canonically
conjugated
variables
can be determ,ned simultaneously
only with a characteristic uncertainty
_I]. This uncertainty
is the intrinsic reason for the occurrence
of statistical
relations
in quantum mechanics. Their mathematical
formulation
is made
possible by the DiracJordan
theory (2). Beginning from the basic principles
thus ohrained, we shall show how macroscopic
processes can be understood
from the viewpoint
of quantum mechanics
(3). Several imaginary
experiments
are discussed
to elucidate
the
theory (4).
_
_
"
We believe
ple cases
to understand
a theory
we can qualitatively
intuitively,
imagine
1*
:
if in all
the theory's
sim
experi
.i
mental
consequences
and if we have
._I
J
4l
concept
cause
of a finite
we can
concept
without
contradict
'
imagine
simultaneously
threedimensional
space
the experimental
contradictions.
our customary
intuitively,
consequences
Of course,
intuitive
realized
these
spacetlme
be
of this
consequences
beliefs.
But we
_
I""
Numbers
in the margin
indicate
foreign
pagination
I
ORIGINAL PAGE Ig
OF POOR QUALITY
interpretation
of quantum
contradictions,
_
ions
and
on the theory
waves.
tation
'
which
after,
customary
tions
appears
quantum
mechanics
small
choice
ics can
quired
be made
seems
of quantum
will
small
the
mechanics.
in our customary
immediately
Given
and
"velocity".
a mass
of the center
_,
times
discontinuities
of the concepts
immediately
are
precisely
plausible:
that
somehow
and
The
concepts
the basic
for
since
times.
of
hand.
geometry
to speak
by a
mechanas
fact
is re
equations
understand
of the position
of gravity
of that mass m.
h
PqqP:'f__i
exists
We thus have good reasons
of the
for very
for instance,
terms
small
typical,
of "position"
if,
structure
it is readily
application
If we admit
Since
as closely
mechanic
understanding,
the uncritical
values.
of quantum
laws
from
rela
on the other
the laws
and
those
with
be necessary,
spaces
in the
Quantum
with
them
derived
the classic
of the kinematic
to follow
to break
replace
not
corpuscles
concepts.
of the spacetime
masses
to approach
of opin
to be possible
revision,
also
heavy
how
and
then
and
we
"position"
spaces
and
the failure
"velocity"
imagine
become
the uni
it_
_1.
dimensional
motion
of
..q.z
a mass
point,
then
in
an interpre
the mathematical
require
a revision
times
no matter
a revision
able,
succeeded,
of arbitrarily
desired,
'
and
the attempt
experimentally
won't
token,
spaces
that
concrete,
going
that
mechanical
of kinematics
to have
By the same
and
from
of internal
and discontinuums,
is not
of kinematic
full
in the battle
us to believe
mechanics
concepts
is still
apparent
tempts
derives
between
,i
alone
terms
theory,
become
of continuums
of quantum
customary
this
This
mechanics
a continuum
theory
117___3
it will
be possible
the particle's
mass)
trajectory
(see Fig.
dicating
to trace
ry,
:_
of points
(or rather,
I, above),
the velocity,
in contrast,
with
that
_ase.
of its
x(t)
to the
we shall
(s_e Gig.
for
center
curve
In a discontinuum
of the curve
distances
curve
the tangent
in each
instead
at finite
the trajectory
have
2, above).
of
in
theo
a series
In this
means
different
corresponded
to each
it might
of those
._
of two positions
chanical
velocities
concepts,
and consequently
to clear
and
inversely,
two
point.
not be possible,
by
kinematic and me
up the contradictions
currently
mechanics.*
The
In order
of any
and
concepts:
to be able
object,
the
position,
path,
to follow
the
it is necessary
interactive
forces
with
velocity,
energy
quantummechanical
to know
any
/174
behavior
the
object's
mass
and
fields
or other
objects.
._lh_
"
II
l II
III
.,
,.,,m,,,
shall
in general
since
the laws
pletely
yet.*
._
Ject's
"gestalt"
_'_
active
forces
If we want
"position
tive
i
_
the
quantum
electrodynamics
No further
statements
are necessary:
the
totality
by the term
to clearly
understand
what
object"
experiments
"position
system},
by means
!
!
less
In principle,
there
permit a determination
any desired precision,
th_n we must
is no shortage
But
let us
(relathe
is meaning
of experiments
by the wavelength
in principle,
a rray
that
determined
build
to determine
the word
inter
indicate
we intend
" Otherwise
ob
by the word
an electron
of which
of the electron
the
com
"gestalt".
is meant
 for instance,
reference
are not
of those
designated
of the
mechanics,
regarding
is best
co a given
definite
to nonrelativistic
of quantumtheory
known
refer
to
e
microscope
light
used.
and by means
"
of it determine
this determination
the Compton
coming from
the position
as precisely
a secondary
as desired.
circumstance
becomes
But
in
essential:
of the scattered
light
eye, onto a photographic
plate,
into a photocell}
presupposes
a photoelectric
effect,
i
I
)
 deflected
triggering
once
the light
of its
quantum
discontinuously
i
by the microscope's
the photoelectric
determination
'i
again
pronounced,
effect.
position
 i.e.,
is diffracted
its
impulse.
the smaller
the
wavelength
 finally
instant
the instant
That
at which
will
light
be more
used,
is to be.
i.e.
precise
iii
i
!
'
* However, significant
progress was made very recently
through
the work of P. Vlrac [Proc. Roy. Soc. (A), 114, 243 (1927)
and subsequent
studies.]
In the
i,
determination
of the
 the electron
change
of the
/17__55
the more
position
At the
by the electron
changes
the
lense
...........
,i
.i
;
ORIGINAL PAGE g
'
OF POOR qUALITY
instant at which the electron's
position is known, therefore,
its impulse can become known only to the order of magnitude
corresponding
.Ji
!4
_
_
_"
precisely
to that
discontinuous
the position
will
the impulse
with
a direct,
be known,
. Let
of _ is known
or here,
is determined,
intuitive
Pq qP__i
change.
and
viceversa.
the wavelength
imprecisely
This
provides
to which
the average
of the light;
us
error
Pl is the
of _),
precision
iF
discontinuous
change in _ during the Compton effect. According to the basic equations of the Compton effect, the rela
relation
describe
Other
(I) above
expression
by dividing
experiments
lectron's
stands
for
in a direct
since
 which
according
Broglle
waves
such
a precise
determination
a precise
position
the equations
This
and
of
measurement
a simple
to
cells
of size
h.
to determine
A very
impacts
with
a consequence
the Ramsay
very
the electron's
estimate
waves
of
 preclude
once
again
impulse
again
fast
the de
of the precision
once
de
phenomena
effect)
Thus,
the e
precise
the diffraction
the position.
of the de Broglie
for
changes
with
leads
to e
(1).
discussion
electron"
electrons
instance
sought
tests.
requires
are
we once
into
be performed
to Einstein
mathematical
conh
PqqP_;i
shall
that equation
(I) is
that
space
as impact
for slow
(see for
disontlnuously
fact
the phase
of the position
particles,
quation
the
can also
position,
termination
the
(l)
case,
Pl and ql is then
P,_l _ _'.
That
or in this
to
which
between
be determined,
the value
tion
of _ can
of the relation
be the precision
(ql is approximately
the value
the more
clarification
That
clearly
seems
to define
enough
and
the concept
we only
need
"position
to
add
of the
a word
about
the
"size"
of the electron.
the electron
sequentially
then
positions
the two
particles
From
lie very
the laws
be reduced
ficiently
Let
together,
and
meaning,
whose
radius
on to the concept
By path
or trajectory
a given
reference
system)
Since
we already
time"
there
&re
readily understood
"the
IS orbit
sense,
from
IS orbit,
that
one
quantum
reason
defined,
sible
more
than
hence
here.
possibilities,
shorter
out
the word
This
can
"path"
no
this
light
such
108 cm.
But
be sufficient
to
(for which
"path"
could
is not very
be easily
even without
makes
with
"orbit"
of this
instance,
to measure
than
would
of its
point
It is still
atom"
the atom
(in
sucessive
for
in order
of light
a single
and
or meaningful,
derived
sen
from
any knowledge
be
the
of the
theories.
In contrast,
formed
ary"
the imaginary
for many
state,
tance
electron's
the
1S,
atoms
of
experiment.)
an
atom,
positions,
classical
position
measurements
in a IS state.
for instance,
SternGerlach
to
kind
the electron
in space)
experimental
new
is considerably
of this
throw
never
to illuminate
cm.
at a certain
expression,
Because
have
as
here.
of view.
1012
in space
"position
out point
/176
electron."
adopts
in the hydrogen
suf
the e
than
of points
electron
we would
completely
used
AI.
AI can
are
that
of the
the electron
the often
that
greater
of the
its wavelength
light
we say
"path
what
two
by a distance
no new difficulties,
that
by these
selected
is not
know
At,
when
a series
that
"positions."
means,
of
strike
interval
we conclude
of the
we mean
time
separated
the particles
is the
particles
defined
of the order
small
is a particle
us move
brief
for mparticles
to a magnitude
That
fast
of the electron
observed
fast.
lectron
in the very
close
At is sufficiently
If two very
can
in principle
Thus,
trajectory
that
over
function
it
phases,
"station
be isolated
state,
must
corresponds,
all
be per
in a given
for a given
a probability
such
(Atoms
can
for
ins
exist
on
and
by the
the
that
for
the
average,
can
be
established
ing
by measurements
to Born*
this
to any desired
function
is given
matrix
S(E,q)
fact
that
from
, if
function corresponding
to the
and Jordan*, in view of sub
in quantum
instance
IS  only
position
can
feature
want
the
be given,
of quantum
contrast
E to _,
we may
theory,
and as
which
is given
the trans
corresponds
this:
been
of a certain
classically,
determined
is impossible,
would
either
"state"
electron
know
destroy
aud
to E =
the
 for
the electron
statistical
Jordan,
quite
hand,
statistics
could
phases.
in
if we
came
theory
position
in via
only
the
be given,
Rather,
mechanics
consists
assume
the phases
to have
experiment
the atom.
phases
are
But
in reality
to determine
in
this
the phase
In a definite
indetermined
if
the
quantum
experiment.
or modify
of the atom,
the
the atom's
always
every
and
in classical
in a previous
because
state
for
On the other
that
also
classical
we can
function
as do Born
Dirac
Because
between
for a given
see a characteristic
theory.
long as we do not
difference
theory
probability
to the classical
probability
ary
_is(q)$1s(q)
Accord
(E = energies).
In the
our
by
pre_ision.
stationin
* The statistical
meaning of the de Broglie waves was first
formulated
by A. Einstein
[Sitzungsber.d.preuss.Akad.d.
Wiss. 1925, p.3). This statistical
element then plays a
slgnifT_t
role for M. Born, W. Helsenberg
and P. Jordan,
"Ouantum mechanics
II." [Z.f.Phys. 35, 557 (1926)], especially chapter 4, 3, and P. Jordan_Z.f.Phys.
37, 376
(1926)]; it is analyzed mathematically
in a fun_amental
paper by M. Born [Z.f.Phys. 38, 803 (1926)] and used for
the interpretation
of the coIIislon
phenomena.
The foundation for using the probability
theorem from the transformation theory for matrices can be found in: W. Helsenberg
[Z.
f. Phys.
40,
501 (1926)],
P. Jordan
[ibid.
40,
661 (1926)],
W. PaullTAnm.
in Z.f.Phys.
41, 81 (1927)]_P.
Virac
[Proc.
Roy.Soc.(A)
113,
621 (1926)],
P. Jordan
[Z.f.Phys.
40,
809
(1926)]. The_atistical
side of quantum mechanics i_ general is discussed
by P. Jordan (Naturwiss. 15, 105 (1927)]
and M. Born [Naturwlss.
15, 238 (1927)].
/177
a@
i
ORIGINAL PAGE [8
OF POOR QUALITY
of the
known equations
El fE = _ h
=D
(] : action variable,
w:
or
3w w3=
_=;
angular variable).
!
The word "velocity" of an object is easily defined by measuremerit, if it is a forcefree motion. For instance, the object
can be illuminated with red light and then the particle's velocity can be determined by the Doppler effect of the scattered light. The determination of the velocity will be the more
precise, the longer the wavelength of the light used is, since
then the particle's velocity change per light quantum due to
Compton effect will be the smaller. The position determination
becomes correspondingly
corresponds to E = EIS.
the
discontinuous
change of
the
energy
or
or J.
The
FranckHertz
collision
experiments
moving
the energy
this
in a straight
theorem
measurement
we
forego
tion,
on atoms
can
permit
to the
the
tracing
energy
back
of
measurements
of
line,
because
of the validity
in the quantum
theory.
In principle,
be made
the simultaneous
as precise
as desired,
determination
if only
of the electron
posiJ
i.e.,
of the phase
(see above,
the determination
of _),
k
ttE_z3 The Sterndetermination
of the magnetic
corresponding
to the relation
Gerlach experiment
permits the
or an average
ment
electric
of magnitudes
phases
is not
responds
instant.
to the
measurement
during
either
which
forcem.
force
inside
the
ray beam
the energy
t I is the
means
deflection
period
of
of time
same order
of
by diffraction
also
W. Pault,
magnitude
in
the
of
the
the
time
interval
of the deflecting
force
of that
is
deflecting
by quantities
differences
time
the width
atom
during
the effect
of the deflecting
force,
in the direction
of the beam. This
u Cf.
of the energy
If E I is the quantity
by
(measurable
where
caused
at a
this cor
that
of the
of the stationary
(E I at the same
it
states'
of energy
that
is a measure
of
The angular
the
only
sensible
instant,
experiment
energy
J. The
of an atom
if a determination
condition
used.
of
energy
influence
can vary
than
variables
at a given
the shorter
the
the measure
it is not
the precision
limit
of rays
is to be possible.
that
wave
the potential
smaller
states,
the precision
maximum value
the
that
beam
considerably
satisfies
that
is under
an upper
by the fact
If
of the
be the smaller,
given
stationary
in principle.
to speak
i.e.,
the action
In the SternGerlach
the atom
Because
only
of a light
situation
will
of the atom,
depend
frequency
possible
particular
energy
that
remain undetermined
to talk of the
are
moment
as
slit,
of the slit
beam Is
which
then
the atoms
1tl/dP,
are
_ the impulse
of the
deflection
must be at
the
in
naturaZ
order
under.
atoms
least
/179
beam broadening
for
a measurement
1.c.p.61
OF POOR QOALFrV
to be possible. The angular deflection due to diffraction is
approximately _/d, where R is the de Broglie wavelength, i.e.,
a _ dp
., ;
"_
':
cr since __.
_t, _ h.
This
equation
corresponds
(_)
to equation
(1)
and it
shows that
10
Is
similar
in
regard
to the
_efinttlon
of
the
ORIGINAL PAGE_
OF POOR QUALITY
'
to e
/IBO
i
@
PvqP
"
meaning
of
the
variables
I
t
E and _.
For those physical phenomena for which a quantum theory formulation is still
unknown (for instance,
electrodynamics),
equation (1) represents
a demand that may be helpful
in finding
the
new laws.
from
the
ization.
can determine
cision
bility
for
formulation,
a certain
the
equation
position
value
_ of
(1)
can be derived
by means of
a minor
n of an arbitrary
the electron
at
general
parameter
q'
with
we
a pre
ql' then we can express this fact by means of a probaam_lltude $(n,q) that wlll be noticeably different from
dimension
ql around
q'.
We
i.e.,
We thus
have for
the
probability
amplitude
correspondtn8
wlth
Jordan,
:S(q,p)
to p:
(4)
:hat
,(,,.)=
1'1
ORIG,,._
=
Pj
OF POGR 4UALITY
ii
,tq,
i.e.,
=l,=
_ +h'_I"_
S{_,p)prop
_!
'v,'
that
S_prope
is
pt*
where
"
(6)
4
/181
Thus,
The purely
mathematical
formulation
of quantum
assumption
S(n,q) corresponds
p,,E
(3) for
, etc.,
characteristic
mechanics
eral matrices,
such
theory
as the diagonal
appears
a notation
seem
that
tensors
(for instance,
spaces,
among
the
which
coordinate
are expressed
of these
system
tensors.
It is after
relation
of transformation
these
as
in multidimensional
exist.
The axes
of
relations
axis
all always
possible
to character
formulae
along
ented
along
the main
axis of B.
ponds
to $chroedinger's
12
of such
the main
oriented
must
by quantum
mathematical
between
the main
theory.
two
that
The
tensors
will
axis
a system
of A, into
latter
Dirac's
of
formulation
the truly
of one
A and B by
convert
In contrast,
be considered
._i
gen
along
coordinates
of the qnumbers
very
the matrices
relations
be placed
between
between
feasibility
of inertia)
in which
can always
The
if we visualize
mathematical
mess_
!
!
indicated
matrix.
moments
q' of _ were
the relations
as equations
any variable
reasonable
to the experiment
of the DiracJordan
is that
can be written
cortesnotation
"Invarlant"
'"
!
'_
formulation
nate
of quantum
systems.
mechanics,
If we wanted
that mathematical
model,
to the quantum mechanics
independent
to derive
physical
of all
coordi
results
from
values
(or
i
!
l
"tensors" in multidimensional
space). This is to be understood
as meaning that in that multidimensional
space a certain direction
kind
is arbitrarily
of experiment
matrix
is asked
inertia,
tion
will
with
picturel,
one
deviates
tions,
we can still
but
little
theory
variable,
coordinates.
exists
one system
for that
variables:
rather,
and
ables),
in a manner
results
of two
other
only
ables
in the same
the
when
tensors
multidimensional
visualization
are
experiments.)
If two
tions
into
"known"
of the results
only
"known"
"viewed"
from
experiments
and
of those
"unknown"
the probable
error
experiment
mechanics
into
known
"unknown"
space
already
from
variThe
each
vari
(i.e.,
used
direction,
two different
can be given
/182
can
the physical
then
sys
there
precisely
variables,
experiments
on the
and
cause
with
that experiment.
the same
thus
quantum
precisely
divide
of
We can
variables
can be derived
into
error,
by
variable
quantum
or less
direc
given
depends
mechanics
on all
in that
error
for
there
main
its "value",
a given
characteristic
manner
co
case
to every
the physical
{or: more
experiments
chosen
chosen.
for which
information
"unknown"
ques
in that
probable
provides
Thus,
of
This
imprecision,
a number
quantum
If the direction
a certain
The probable
it divides
"known"
axes:
a certain
coordinates
precise
chosen.
which
variable.
of the moment
if the direction
in the direction
For each
of
the value
main
to assign
error.
tem of
provide
of the
with
or matrix,
probable
never
the "value"
from
of the matrix
it is possible
vanishes,
then
only
talk with
state:
certain
and
to the question.
inclination,
"value"
by the
in the direction
meaning
answer
chosen
the
established
of the matrix'
be an exact
the relative
is,
(for instance,
has unequivocal
incides
(that
performed),
for
in that
chosen
the
if
for
in both
distriburelation
appropriately
statistically.
13
'
ORiGiNAL _A_
_
OF POOR QUALITY
Let us perform an imaginary experiment,
to more precisely discuss these statistical
relations
We shall start by sending a
SternGerlach
beam
of atoms
through
a field
F I that
is so in
homogeneous
in the beam direction,
that it causes noticeably
numerous transitions
due to a "shaking effect". The atom beam
._
is then
allowed
to run unimpeded,
but then
a second
field
shall
i!
the
After
 for
instance,
indetermined
passing
in pspace
phase
through
 with
a certain
energy
Ep
Sn
field
FI, the
function
will
have
_.
' _ _:,_(. __)
S(E., _),. _]c.,. _(E.,, _)
h
become*
_.7)
Jl
Let us assume
that
the Cnm
Cnm
transforms
that after
termination
that
here
is unequivocally
the energy
* See
has actually
calculations
P. Dirac,
Z. f. Phys
14
determined
value
magnetic
a probability
of Cnm_nm
state _ to the state _.
sequent
arbitrarily
before
fixed,
by F]. The
passing
such
matrix
through
F I to
of an inhomogeneous
the atom
the 8m are
167
 then
we shall
find,
acquired
we shall
Proc.Roy.Soc.
40,
field
(1926).
the state
have
m,
to assign
(A)112,
661
then
the
that
in the sub
it the
(1926)
with
and
function
M. Born,
/183
[,
ORIGINAL PACT _
OF POOR QUALITY
Sm with an indeterminate
phase, instead of the function
_c_,.Sm . Through the experimental
determination
"state
whatever
When
cedure
after
the beam
used
formation
remained
of phase
passes
through
matrix
F2. If no determination
of the state
the eigenfunction
pattern:
s(E.,p) r_
' _.,..s(_.,p)
m
Let
_=g._e._
is determined,
bability
after
F I and
If
F2, we
F2,
then
the
by dml_ml . Repeating
(determining
then
the state,
_,
of the
the
stationary
shall
find
before
is performed
time,
behind
. This
state
bet
the
_ with
experiment
atom
a pro
"state
for _ behind
between
accord
(8)
of
the state
pro
F2 to those
we determined
the entire
trans
is transformed
probability
each
the same
__
" _.
_,_.._.,S(E,,
_,).
m
I
between
given
F2, we repeat
the energies
(Cnm) , a
explain
in the variables
be the coefficients
that converts
relations
m"
m"
F2 is
several
F I and
times
F2) we shall
suffers no disturbance
between F I and F21 in the other
disturbed
by the equipment
that makes the determination
stationary
is that
states
the
possible.
"phase"
uncontrollable
of the atom
in principle,
in the determination
magnetic
field
The consequence
changes
of this
by quantities
of the electron's
position
was
(cf.
of the state
it is
of the
equipment
that
are
changed
/18__4
I). The
between
FI
the atoms
will
be slowed
down
in different
degrees,
15
statistically,
quence,
and
the final
in an uncontrollable
values before
by
3_,_
addition,
an
transformation
matrix
enl
As a conse
manner.
phase
value
to be equal
factor.
Hence,
all
we can
over
all
eventual
of enlenl,
to Znl.
A simple
calculation
expect
phase
shows
this
draw
conclu
to be the case.
Thus,
following
sion3,
for
based
all
The
other
for all
wave
oe all solutions
meaning
of the
linearity
t!ey
can be understood
ttis
same
these
equations
several
reason
 for
electrons)
I believe
the analyses
the terms
"electron
_croscopic
view
processes
of quantum
mechanics
instance,
_as already
been
because
S, or
the sum
the deeper
and hence
space;
for
to replace
relativistic
"velocity",
case
as doomed
(for
to fail.
also
transition
with
14, 664
etc.,
theory
micro
of
to macro
by Schroedinger*,
(1926)
have
of the
from
of
kinemat
understanding
be possible,
dealt
sections
"energy",
of quantum
an intuitive
Naturwiss.
inter
matrix
in the preceding
the concepts
The
limiting
This
phase
equations
from
to macromechanics
performed
must
thus
r's equations
any attempt
possible
and
we can see
in the
in the
micro
mechanics.
* E. Scnroedinger,
16
consider
so that
one,
only
Here
as waves
position",
clarified
is possible
of Schroeding,
from
by itself
experiments.
a solution.
only
results
the transformation
 by nonlinear
The transition
sufficiently
for
we would
the
one particular
equation,
is also
we can
selects,
subsequent
of the equation
Schroedinger's
rules,
regarding
experiment
the possibilities,
the possibilities
pretation
statistical
on one experiment,
_nother.
among
certain
but
do not believe
essence
that
of the problem,
to Schroedinger,
i
vibrations
will
its turn,
under
periodic
ij
s
]
Schroedinger's
in highly
yield
motions
properties
as described
frequencies
spectral
emitted
Thus
the harmonic
If the wave
Schroedinger's
oscillator
according
in the course
space
surrounding
consideration
of time
the atom.
emitted
The higher
the
multiples
of the
multiples
mechanics
is applicable
packet
/185
by
in which
integer
while
such
of the harmonic
by him,
the wave
had
to quantum
case
the
frequencies
never
in
following
are integer
are
considered
The
series
the
that
performs
radiation
Instead,
by the atom
according
packet,
packet
a Fourier
of the special
cases
the
vibrations
frequency,
wave
"electron".
then
the
of its size,
into
fr_4uency.
the exception
lator.
here,
be developed
of a fundamental
with
here:
of the harmonic
lines
large
address
reasons:
states
of the classical
can be raised
could
excited
changes
objections
the atom
the following
a not overly
periodic
of the fundamental
:
for
considerations
oscilonly
to
in all other
spreads
the atom's
over
all
excitation
!_v?
_"
above
'.
time
against
all
quantum to classical
this reason, it used
ment
by pointing
states;
emitted
attempts
by an atom
of a direct
be used,
transition
for the
from
mechanics,
for high quantum numbers. For
to be attempted
to circumvent
that argu
to the natural
certainly
can
improperly,
beam
since
width
of the
in the first
b _
_
stationary
place
I. _
this
I_
, ,
way
insufficient
out is already
radiation
blocked
at higher
for thestates;
hydrogenin atom,
the second
because
place,
of
l\__'i
the transitionwithout
from quantum
to classical
mechanics
must
be understandable
borrowing
from electrodynamics.
Bohr*
has
_0 [_
repeatedly
pointed
that make a direct
;_{[
",
1,%I., $
.o.
theory
difficult.
* N. Bohr,
Basic
Postulates
them here
of Quantum
again
Theory,
,_.
in such
l.c.
17
_:,
F
!
detail,
it is because
I believe
apparently
the genesis
ly formulated
thus:
they
have
of the classical
the
"orbit"
been
only
"orbit"
comes
forgotten.
can
into
be precise
being
by our
observing
it. Let us assume an atom in its thousandth
excitation state. The dimensions
of the orbit are relatively
large
here,
already,
to determine
so that
the
electron's
ly long wavelength.
position
is not
it is sufficient,
position
in the sense
with
If the determination
to be too uncertain,
a light
of I,
of relative
of the electron's
then one
consequence
of
!
Compton
recoil
be in some
will
state
be that
between,
after
say,
the collision,
the
950th
and
the atom
the
1050th.
will
At
fact
packet
a variable
tially
so obtained
 or better,
given
composed
can
be characterized
probability
by the wavelength
of
of eigenfunctions
packet
by means
of
 in qspace,
by
the light
between
used,
the 950th
can
to the
be expressed
only
those
within
lable
probability.
sical
theory,
ond
same
This
since
could
and
the
also
in the
system's
would
orbits
are
packet.
different,
second
position
possible,
thus
determinations.
results
assigning
18
would
also
However,
in quantum
limiting
After
for later
the laws
measurements
to the electron
a _ from
wave
due
all
The
those
subsequent
determination,
packet
the
themselves
among
for all
to
similarly
theory.
can be calculated
a "smaller"
of the sec
theory
classical
position
a calcu
In addition,
of statistics
the possibilities
are all
in clas
statistically,
and
selected
the second
result
in classical
mechanics
determination
the
determination;
spread
with
be different
theory
only
positions
packet,
in no way
be given
first
wave
in
is
to 2, its result
possible
spread
in classical
the uncertainty
According
statistically;
position
to the wave
precision.
only
/186
essen
1050th eigenfunction,
and through the corresponding
packet
pspace. After a certain time, a new position determination
performed,
i
i
the
by again
of dimension
_
_;_
_ (wavelength
of the
each
determination
position
its original
and
il
i_
ORIG.,_AL =_'4"
OF POOR OUALI'P[
light
dimension
are known
used
reduces
i. The
the wave
"values"
to a certain
Thus,
packet
again
of the variables
precision,
during
to
all experi
dH
#H
P=
q=
But as we mentioned,
the orbit can only be calcu]%ted
statistically from the initial conditions,
which we may consider a
consequence
uncertainty
conditions.
The laws
mechanics
can
to gross
quantum
theory.
to show
by means
theory.
macroscopic
Before
of a mass
in principle,
of statistics
and classical
lead
motion
existing
are different
Under
certain
differences
discussing
point
the transition
Since
time
there
are
tion
to
can
be treated
no external,
this
as a parameter
p, and _
At time
ured
t=O
with
the values"
impulse
[see equations
of
and
I want
forcefree
to the classical
mathematically.
motion)
The
/18__/7
(as
(1o)
a "cnumber")
then
the
if
solu
is:
represent
precision
this,
 the
forces,
1 t
q ._p, + q, ;
where
this
classical
timedependent
equation
of
system
conditions,
an example
mechanical
initial
for quantum
between
of a simple
 how
in the
q1'
and
(3) to
Po
p  p,,
and
position
(6)],
= p' with
at
let qo
precision
we are to derive
(11)
the
and Jordan
transforms
time
t=O.
= q' be measp;.
If from
"value"
of
we must find
all matrices
19
ORIGINALPAGE_J
'
OF POOR QUALITY
,_{:
g
in which
q
which
tern
qo appears as a diagonal
appears
in which
i' __
_.._
replaced
equation
I;
i_
sought,
as
into
matrices
in
matrix.
In the
_atrlx
pat
the diagonal
matrix,
the diagonal
qo appears
as
matrix,
p,
can be
by the operator
_k d
. According
to Dirac [l.c.
(11)] we then have for the transformation
amplitude
S(qo,q)
':
"_c
, the differential
equation
li k 0
!
I,,,_ __q,_
+eoj s(q.,e)= es(q.,_)
:,
,,,,
(1_)
__
(,,).
S(qe, e) _
const.e .....
_.t.....
of qo'
i.e.,
(IS)
Thus
known
S_ is independent
exactly,
qually
nite
likely,
range,
then at any
i.e.,
time
if at time
t > 0
the probability
is generally
zero.
This
t : 0, qo
all values
of q
that _ lles
within
is quite
clear,
is
are
e
a fi
intuitive
"
of any mechanical
system.
However,
if at time
ql and Po to precision
function
for
We obtain
t Bdm
If
20
we introduce
the
t = 0
,%
abbreviation
_ will
PI'
, qo
then
i_
[cf.
_'_,
have
be calculated
/18_8
" oRIGINALpAGE_
_:
OF PoOR QUALITY
then
the exponent
in

'_
.P
}
The
term
in q,2
pendent of
(,
by integration
$(_,,j)  eou.t.e
in the constant
factor
(inde
we obtain
, l,'
lqt=
!
J
;,))+""I
can be included
g);
_:i
_{,_,,)r
(141 becomes
(16
(,_;,,_.,,)(,From
onst. e "
follows
which
s qL'(I
(,,._,.)'

.
.
S(e_._J]._(_,__ eonst.e
Thus, at time
a precision
e_t(i"+P_".
(IT)
.,
"
(tlm)p' + q'
to
or better, the
"probabilityto p_c_:et"
become largerto bythea time
factort, ofinversely
}:I_.
According
(15), 13 has
is proportional
proportional
to the mass  this is immediately
plausible
 and
inversely proportional
to q2I. Too great a precision
in qo has a
,""
greater
leads
uncertainty
to an
in Po as a consequence
increased
we introduced
above
all equations,
here,
in _[.
uncertainty
for
formal
since
reasons,
it does
not
and hence
The
n,
parameter
could
enter
al.qo
which
be eliminated
in
in the calcula
,o .
tions
of
As statistics
an example
and
from quantumbetween
theory thecanclassical
lead
to
that those
the difference
macroscopic
differences
in
der
conditions,
shall
certain
reflection
of
an
electron
the
flow
results
be
from
briefly
by a grating.
both
theories,
discussed
If
gross
laws
for
the
unthe
lattice
!
'
!
i
discrete
'_
grating.
Here,
_4
thing
.'!
tion against
_i
We could
_4
certain
grossly
directions
classical
location
did not
mine
i
{
occur
the electron's
atually
without
According
tempted
wavelength
in this
"quantum
 occur
in a concrete
manner,
for
The
be determined
change
of
2 at time
tion.
(7),
We could
the
i i
m See
,?.2
t=O,
gl
should
el
W. Pauli,
to a
that
the
to deter
we could
such
say
at
return
then
1.c.,
p.12
theory.
of quantum
a point
(2) as hlAEI,
transition.
to
the
Let
state
atom,
in
theory
 the
states,
in time
can
if AE is the
We are
thinking
an atom,
in
I by emitting
analogy
at
determinable
to which
following:
.:.0_
transitions
of stationary
the
be
experiments
at which
to its normal
assign
of quantum
such
would
by classical
be experimentally
the
be reduced
the electron
prescribed
by equation
as
would
as energies
precision
eigenfunctton
i i
that
imaginary
in time
accompanying
an experiment
if we want
interpretation
such
is given
in energy
electron.
establish
electron
the laws
special,
the points
instance.
But
of the
in the direction
of some
Jumps"
find a contradic
of a single
there
approximation,
to the intuitive
here,
and
at a
some
the electron
so precisely
contradicting
Discussion
not
direct
classically.
light
/189
grating line it would impact, then the elecsuch a velocity, due to this determination,
reflected
theory,
that
line
position
the de Broglie
point
we can
we could
the
macroscopically
in the orbit
on a grating
to the
theory
as does
yields
And yet,
do it, if somehow
reflection
that
theory
different.
classical
in space,
to
state
radia
equation
'
'
ORIGINAL PAGE
OFPOORQUALrrf
A + _1  e '"_(E,,p)e
s(t,p) = _.,_(_,_e
T' (18)
'I
)
'_
_i
'
acceleration could be
:_
)
!
;
:=_
correspond,
_I
,
atom,
partlal
for the
also to division into
time
intervals At. According to I, equation (2), to the interval
At corresponds a precision in the energy of h/At.
The probabll
(a + I)_/
Imd&J
&
m4t
I", then from then on we must assign to the atom the elgenfunction
Thus,
in a series
of
2 e, then continuously
the
two states
possible,
Intervals
estate
At must
not
fall
observe
"state
a differentiation
below
h/AE.
of
Thus,
the
23
transitionpoint
We conceive
in time
of the experiment
the old
_nterpretation
Planck,
Einstein
change
in principle,
Since
when
such
agreement
basic
above
of quantum
and Bohr
of energy.
In Bohr's
can be determined
entirely
theory,
we speak
that
in the
precision.
sense
as explained
of
results
can always
be given.
This
etc.)
must
privileged
the energy
J,
as
value
by energy
its numerical
position
be possible,
theory,
that
can be performed,
of the quantum
of the electron,
I

by
of a discontinuous
an experiment
as to its
postulate
with
held
J

over
other quantum mechanics
magnitudes
is owed strictly
to
the circumstance
that in a closed system, it represents
an
integral
have
has
of the equation
E = const.).
no preference
particular,
in which
mined,
In contrast,
over
it will
the atom's
for which
then
of motion
other
in open
quantum
be possible
phases
the energy
corresponding
w are
will
precisely
remain,
variables.
In
of experiments,
measurable
and
in principle,
to a relation
Indeter
JwwJ.:_s i
an
etgenfrequency
of say,
v12 : (E 2  E1)/h,
then the atom will
vibrate in phase wlth the external radiation,
in whlch case
in principle
It is senseless
to ask,
in which
state
 E I or
of
ment).
IF
diation,
lng
the
one does
the
precise
24
not
for
then
want
relation
to
use
a "wave
the
relatlve
(for
many
function"
Involving
be measured
In
sense
to the
atoms).
such
atom
by
(Woods experi
experiments
can also
times,
Illumination
assign
measurements
at different
used
we could
phase
relations
position
electron,
ltsht
phase
by
ra
perform
oF J 1 For
phase
of the
To each
as
we
the energy
mechanics
to conceive
matrix
atom
the
/191
(Z"
ORIGINAL PAGE
OF POOR QUAL_P(
+ I/T  ,'7v,,(_,, _) e
,, (l_) .
_i
tion is
s(q,o
The periodic
from
the
+ (,4),,,
*,erm in
(20)
nonperiodical,
be performed
at
can be experimentally
since
different
In a known imaginary
a SternGerlach
the
phases
experiment
position
of
the
determi_
_.ion can
illuminating
proposed
initially
separated
by Bob,,
excited
light.
Lhe atoms of
to
resonance
fluorescence, at a certain location, by means of light irradiation. After a certain length, the atoms pass throush an Inhomogeneous magnetic field; the radiation emitted by the atoms can
be observed over the entire length of their path, before and
behind the magnetic fleld.
that
by the
only
excited
centers.
cept
ltght
ot
absorption
the resonance
stands
of
a light
radiation
quanta
come from
be tempting
can be called
upon here
tmpulse
states
"in
reality"
all
spherical
magnetic
field,
that
Intensively
used to
balance;
It
energy
would
Thus,
to an "upper
_11 of
radiating
to say:
only
state"
the
for
the
atoms radiate
In
conlower
wave.
there
can hardly
b_
/1_
any doubt
left
that
the atom
beam
has split
were
radiating,
the energy
t
contained
theorem,
in the
can be no doubt
beam with
light,
because
fraction
that
the upper
at that
the upper
developed
the phases
sense
has left
the radiation
field
From
In the
and
in which
car only
be given
ly performed
magnetic
hence
we can not
field
phases
by atoms
imaginary
of the
fact
"in reality,
not
tion applies
to the matrix
of the energy,
a number,
as precisely
an
experiment
that
field
the atom
it is in a
of this
state.
destroys
provides
is actualBehind
the
and
is incoherThe magnetic
the
phase
re
a beautiful
of the atom
and hence
is also,
law of conservaalso
as it is measured,
to the value
in each
case.
Analytically,
the cancellation
of the phase relations
followed approximately
thus: let Q be the coordinates
can be
of the
atom's
(instead
of
26
center
of mass;
we can
then
assign
experiment
are determined
but a matrix."The
energy
!
I
ex
after
radiation
the energy
Bohr'S
Even
that
of the
radiation
field.
in the upper
and hence
the application
experiment
The
makes
magnetic
undetermined.
experiment
is no
the result
Such
in
there
say
of the atoms
the energies
Bohr's
clarification
are
only
determined
is;
inhomogeneous
the energies
emitted
lations.
the atom
statistically.
by the
field,
their
ent and
state
atoms
hence
of the atom.
noncoherent
to discuss
outer
there
the atom
the conception
certain stationary
state, if we are asking
teristics of the radiation.
But experiments
test
 and
be with
determined
of the energy
only
imaginary
is
Rather,
radiating
it is easy
any difficulty.
in talking
this
state".
are
light
we must
here,
of the atoms
field,
of
energy
state.
intensively
how careful
infringement
excitation
the higher
showed,
quantum
without
of the
is emitting
the few
"stationary
periment
be a gross
the magnetic
states
of the concept
theory
with
As Bohr
clear
all
behind
 from
state.
particularly
this would
to the atom
/193
OR,GINAL PAG_ ?_
OF POOR QUALITY
ent
and
_}
of
S(Q,t)
is a function
is differ
the beam.
some
values
The
probability
Q is given
The eigenfunction
integral
Q,
over
behind
in (1611
amplitude
q for
of
i.e.,
(21), however,
field in a calculable
flection of the atoms
become,
[as S(n,q)
of a relative
by the
S(Q,q,t)S(O,q,t)
have
that
('_D
will
_
(20).
via
change
"
in the magnetic
the magnetic
S(Q,_,t) = %s,(0,t),/,,(,_;,v)e
field,
i,
_=l,t
S1(Q,q,t)
and S2(Q,t)
from
only
zero
will
in a small
periodic
sibility
term
area
mined.
We may
ry has
not yet
sults
regarding
(22)
in Qspace
surrounding
a phase
relation.
differing
the point.
for S 2. Hence
of a relative
of measuring
tistical
position
less
of the
phase
be functions
point is different
for S1_%nd
where. Hence, the probabilzty
definite value 0 is
The
q)
But
that
experiments
and with
The
been
fully
elaborated
the phase
with
will
result
it, the
radiation
yield
relations
of atoms
the relation
between
pos
of the sta
determination
always
be the itsame,
of
the incidentwill
light
for which
was
assume
this
regarddeter
whose
the same
to the
theo
re
incident
light.
Finally,
let us examine
equation
(2),
'
27
mm
 ...................
!
{
i
in two
important
quantization"
by quantum
papers**.
when
jumps
can not
Eflrenfest and
a quantifiea
or other
periodic
disturbances,
motion
is subdivided,
into
intervals
period. Supposedly,
energy values from
priori
probability
that
values
that
do not differ
In quantum
to the
be qualitatively
too much
mechanics,
such
from
system's
indicated
the quantum
a behavior
/I__9_
can
in relation
time
of "weak
that
i
:
long
speak
values.
be considered
Tolman
 energy
theorybased
is to be inter
to be performed
in the interval
if it is to be unequivocal.
in the sense
of I. Thus
This
between
provides
the energy
two disturbances,
an upper
value
limit
to t I
Eo of a quantified
only
to the uncertainty
of the
measurement,
is pointless,
in principle.
If t I is smaller than the system's period, then
there is no longer any sense in talking of discrete stationary
states
or discrete
In a similar
energy
context,
following
paradox:
the shape
of a gear
f revolutions
further
just
linearly
assume
ber of revolutions,
wheel,
u,
to reverse
and Breit
us imagine
wheel
 fitted
reverses
that
displaced
values.
Ehrenfest
let
._.
"_
between
wheel
with
acts
two blocks.
the blocks
direction.
a rotator
force
The true
point
out
the
 for instance,
in
a mechanism
the direction
the gear
(l.c.)
that
of rotation.
on a rack
After
Let
us
can
be
the specified
the rack,
period
that
and
hence
T of the
after
numthe
system
is
, ii
long in relation
energy steps are
T is. Since
the point
ry all
i _
from
stationary
a sufficiently
with the same
states
of view
have
of a consistent quantum
the same
statistical
large T practically
all energy
frequency  in contrast to what
for
_
r
when we consider our points of view. Because in order to establish whether the system will adopt the discrete energy val
_ _
corresponding
frequency,
values
same
ii
to a pure
or whether
corresponding
probability,
for such
this paradox
weight,
ues
Initially,
theo
rotator
it will
singly
adopt
to the small
a time
measurements
becomes
or with
all possible
energy
steps
t_ is sufficient,
never
even
becomes
special
values
h/T)
which
effective,
sharper
{i.e.,
with
the
is small
in
it apparently
relation toitself
manifests
T (butin that
_). all
That possible
is, although
energythe
values
large can
period
occur.
We believe
system's
that
total
values
with
large
period
the system
ponds
experiments
energy
the same
would
T, but to the
should
acting
find
on the rack
rotatorrack
istics
that are
different
to measure
have
classical
of
therefore
equated
in a state
it can
simply
from
could
the energy
of the rotator
due
to the
rack.
Even
energy
taken
of
corres
to states,
periodicity
small
occur
without
the total
(for a small
rack.
first_
In
of the rack
energy
system
rack
solu
we shall
and
mass
The
if we wanted
then
rotator
The
character
of the rotator.
alone,
if
of external
in the following:
between
energy
quantification*.
has
those
lies
is not
whose
be easily
of the
possible
by means
for a sufficiently
there
this
all
displaceable
of the rotator
the coupling
to that
,
linearly
the coupling
theory,
dissolution
and
rather
the energy
to dissolve
and
to the rotator
system
the paradox
yield
quantification,
do not correspond
of
actually
itself
coupled
tion
probability;
to the rotator
forces
that
such
/195
changes
could
mass).
the
be
In
ii
* According_to
Ehrenfest and Breit, this can occur not
or only rarely, due to forces acting" on the wheel.
at all,
29
J
i
wheel
at least ofthetheinteraction
same order energy
of magnitude,
quantumis mechanics,
between
as
rack one
and of
,_
the rotator's
mass,
energy
steps
(even
for a small
rack
a high
wheel
and rack!}
Once
the coupling
is dissolved,
the rack
and
the
wheel individually
adopt
quantum interaction
theory energy
zeropoint
energy remains
for their
the elastic
between
values. Thus, to the extent that we can measure the energy
i!
!_
values
i
i
of the rotator
rotator.
'
The energy
sible values
probability
Ouantum
from
(those
alone,
of the coupled
allowed
system
can
adopt
by Tquantification)
with
pos
the same
i
6
theory
classical.
kinematics
But
and
mechanics
the applicability
are
vastly
different
of classical
kinemati=
_ _
and mechanical
concepts can not be deduced either
laws that govern our thinking, or from experience
the impulse,
all
position,
energy,
etc.,
from the
We are en
of an electron
are
we shall
tive
experimental
no longer
or abstract*.
have
consequences,
to view
If we admit
quantum
this,
in all simple
mechanics
then
we would
cases,
as not
intui
of course
* Schroedinger
described quantum mechanics
as a formal theory,
of frightening,
even repulsive unintuitiveness
and abstraction. The value of the mathematical
(and to that extent, intuitive) penetration
of the laws of quantum mechanics
accomplished by Schroedinger
can certainly not be praised highly
enough. However, in terms of the principled,
physical questions, I believe the popular intuitiveness
of wave mechanics
has deflected
it from the straight path that had been _erked
"
3O
e
.._.
='."
pre
"_
i__
[
&
0
also
like
to be able
tum mechanics
directly
essentially,
from
ed to interpret
laws
principle
the
can
intuitive
We can
( 2}.
this
laws
of quan
foundations,
reason
foundations.
no
longer
experimentally,
from
i.e.,
Jordan
is a diagonal
attempt
possible
that
with
the
according
simplicity,
starting
quanti
with,
not contradict
term
however,
we believe
to begin
equation
[that does
not agree,
Rather,
be understood,
of the electron
dinate
(I). For
relation.
of the greatest
assumption
the intuitive
relation
interpretation
tative
from
the quantitative
the equation
as a probability
that
to derive
from
the X coordinate
 as can be concluded
the simplest
(I)] is that
of a matrix
to the
whose
imaginary
this
X coor
nondiagonal
terms
are expressed
in an uncertainty,
or respectively,
by other kinds
of transformations
(cf. for instance
4). Perhaps the statement
that
the velocity
in the
Xdirection
"in reality"
is not a num
of the spacetime
description
of natural
world.
phenomena
The expression
in mathematical
"in
reality"
terms.
_v
_T
is
As soon
variables
"in reality" are
here as it is for any other
I<_
"
l,i=
ii
We have
..
that
not
starting
assumed
from
that
exact
by the works
of Einstein
by quantum
mechanics,
on
quantum
theory
data
we can
and
the
de Broglie
other.
 in contrast
only
draw
on
the
to clas
statistical
one
hand,
"::'
and
,,
31
,
ii
conclusions.
Bothe
speak
in which
i!
__
",
Among
others,
against
such
relations
ergy
theorems).
causality
"''.
the future"
an assumption.
exist
between
But
by Geiger
Rather,
variables,
in the rigorous
 "If we know
premise.
in all
and
cases
in classical
We simply
totality
can not
Therefore
is so closely
Since
know
all
_i
tions,
one could
_'
served,
statistical
:
the law
of causality
theo
perception
the statistical
believe
pointless.
The
world
to conclude
a "real"
such
only
task
of what
observations
that
of physics
theory
in which
to state
explicit
fruitless
and
the relation
'i
betweenobservationseThetruesituationcouldratherbedescribed
better by the following:
:i,
_
the
invalidity
all
from
the ob
is hidden,
is to describe
Because
in all
or percep
behind
to be both
the
is possible
of quantum
We want
speculations
but
is a selection
world
is applicable.
we can calculate
is faulty,
nature
in all
law of
in principle
and a limitation
be tempted
ly that we
that
the present
to the u_certainty
of the
precisely,
the conclusion
of possibilities
in the future.
formulation
the present
 it is not
its parameters.
experiments
_;T
the known
experiments
are
i'_
p
'
i
4
i
Addendum
at the time
new
considerable
mechanics
'
led my attention
to the fact that I had overlooked
tial points in some discussions
of this work. Above
investigations
uncertainty
existence
by Bohr
broadening
relations
have
and
attempted
of discontinuities,
of doing
experiences
expressed
Justice
After
led
closing
this
paper,
to viewpoints
that
allow
refining
in the observation
requirement
32
of correction.
here.
of the analysis
In this
is not
but
due
context,
simultaneously
by corpuscular
of quantum
;.
Bohr
,_.:
some
all,
exclusively
is directly
theory
related
calessenthe
!i
t.
to the
to the
:_.
to the different
I_
on the one
,_,_
hand,
and by wave
theory
an imaginary
rray
on the other.
microscope,
must
be taking
that
in the observation
tion
of the Comptom
tainty,
more
which
not
into
will
As professor
above
all
lead
Bohr
only
that
can
made
of the uncertainty
to macromechanics.
are
discussion
Finally,
not
with
rigorously,
clear,
the
direc
some
uncer
the simple
only
to free
the care
relationship
because
elec
necessary
in
is essential
of the transition
correct,
is
(I). It is further
the considerations
entirely
beam
of this
position,
be applied
very
of the ray
be known
/19.8
in the use of
consequence
to relation
effect
in a general
fluorescence
will
stressed
trons.
first
of the electron's
then
of the Compton
the application
The
recoil
theory
instance,
the divergence
account.
sufficiently
For
from
micro
on resonance
the
relation
electrons is not as simple as assumed here. I am greatly inbetween the phase of the light and that of the motion of the
debted to professor Bohr for being permitted
to know and discuss
during
their
gestation
tioned
above,
dealing
theory,
and
those
with
to be published
new investigations
the conceptual
by Bohr,
structure
men
of quantum
soon.
33
Mucho más que documentos.
Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales.
Cancele en cualquier momento.