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The self, though omnipresent, when puts on a body becomes restricted to his own
tactile sense organ. That is why he is incapable of perceiving all senses and those
pertaining to all bodies.
The self is omnipres3ent because he is all-pervasive and great. Hence if he
concentrates his mind he can perceive even the hidden (object). That associated for ever
with mind in accordance with the action of the body should be taken as pervading all
species even though (apparently) stationed in one species.
There is no beginning of the self and the continuity of the (created) body. Hence,
both being beginningless, it is impossible to say which is earlier.
Only the one having knowledge can be witness not the ignorant one that is why
the self is said as an observer. All the entities of all the living beings are observed by the
** The single self can not be perceived by the signs because the single and the
imperceptible has no distinguishing character. Nevertheless, the aggregate self has got
differentiation due to sensations. Where there is sensation, differentiation is caused by it.
That physician treats all the painful conditions in all the 3 times (past, present and
future) is held by certain scholars with the reasoning which may be understood (by you).
Again that headache (came), That fever relapsed, That severe cough has recurred-by such popular statements the recurrence of the past (disorders) is indicated. *The time
for recurrence of the past disorders has approached considering this when a physician
applies remedy at that time to avert the recurrence, it is said as alleviation of past
sufferings. ** [interesting statement/ concept.]
The floods which damaged the crop earlier may not come again with this view as
bundh [a type of dam/ wall] is constructed so is the preventive treatment in the body.
The treatment which is adopted after observing the premonitory symptoms of the wouldbe disorder (in order to prevent it), in fact, averts the future suffering.
By following the code of health the continued association of the suffering ceases
and happiness (health) comes forth. The dhatus which are in balanced state do not go
into imbalance and vice versa. They are produced according to the cause according to
this reasoning the physician treats the suffering of all the 3 times.
The supreme treatment is that which is devoid of allurement. Allurement is the
greatest cause of misery and the abode of miseries (body) and renunciation of all
allurements eliminates all miseries. ** As silkworm brings forth threads leading to its
own death, the ignorant and ever-ill person creates allurement from the sense objects.


One who is wise enough to identify the fire-like sense objects and readily withdraws
from them, is not attacked by miseries due to absence of initiation and conjunction. *
Derangement of intellect, restraint, and memory; advent of time and action and
contact with unsuitable sense objects should be known as the causes of misery.
* Adherence to wrong discrimination between eternal and non-eternal as well as
wholesome and unwholesome is known as derangement of intellect because by nature the
intellect sees rightly.
* Due to derangement of restraint it is not possible to control the mind indulged in
sensual pleasures from the unwholesome object because the function of restraint is to
When on covering of the self by rajas and tamas the recollection of the knowledge
of reality is impaired, it is known as derangement of memory because the thing to be
recollected is deposited in memory.
The unwholesome action performed by one whose intellect, restraint and memory
are deranged is known as intellectual error. It vitiates all the dosas. (forcible) Propulsion
of urges or their suppression, indulgence in exertive actions and women, excessive or
delayed action, wrong initiation of actions, disappearance of modesty and good conduct,
rebuking the respected ones, use of unwholesome things though already known as such,
use of the factors causing severe derangement of mind, movement in wrong place and
time, friendship with the wicked, avoidance of the code of noble conduct described in the
chapter on introductory description of senses; envy, conceit, fear, anger, greed,
ignorance, narcosis and confusion, troublesome action taken under their spell,
troublesome bodily action and other such action arisen from rajas and tamas is said as
intellectual error by the nobles which is the cause of diseases.
Wrong understanding by the intellect and wrong actions (accordingly) should be
known as intellectual error which is committed by mind.
** Genesis of diseases due to time factor is already said in the chapter on
enumeration of disorders and also accumulation, aggravation and pacification of P etc.
[the doshas]. The seasons ending with the rainy one having characters as perverted,
excessive or undermined which are cause of disorders, timely and untimely condition of
food having been digested, ingested and being digested, 3 divisions of day forenoon,
midday and afternoon, similar ones [3 divisions] of the night the diseases related to
these times are known as caused by time factor.


* (For instance) various forms of malarial fever such as quotidian, severe

tertian[,] tertian and quartan, arise in their respective times because they attain strength in
those particular times.
These and other various time-caused diseases should be treated before they arise
with due consideration of their strength and time.
By the succession of time, natural disorders caused by old age and approaching
death occur because nature can not be counteracted.
The deed of the past life known as daiva (fate) is also observed as the cause of
diseases in (particular) time.
* There is no major action the fruit of which is not enjoyed. The diseases caused
by the deeds (of past life) neutralize the therapeutic measures and subside only on
destruction of the deeds.

Unsuitable use of the sense objects is of 3 categories: insufficient use, over-use, and
wrong use. This will vitiates the doshas.
Unsuitable Use of the Senses:
Wrong Use/ Conjunction:
By hearing intense sound, no sound or too feeble sound, the auditory sense organ is
deranged. The contact of the ear with harsh, frightening, inauspicious, disliked and
mishap-denoting sound is known as perverted conjunction.
The lack of touch, excessive or diminished touch of the objects, in brief, deranges
the tactile sense organ. Touch of the organisms, poisonous winds and untimely
touch of the uncting substance, cold and hot [[measures]] is known as the perverted
By excessive gazing at brilliant objects, looking at very minute object and not seeing
[not looking at all] at all, the visual sense organ is damaged. Looking at disliked,
fierce, loathsome, distant, too near and dark objects is known as the perverted
Excessive or avoidance of intake, faulty intake, in respect of habitual suitability etc.
and little intake of food is harmful.
Inhaling too mild or too irritant odors or completely abstaining from them injures
olfactory sense organ. The contact with fetid, infested with organism and poisonous
and disliked smells and also with those which are unseasonal.


That which is not suited to the person is known as asatmya (unsuitable).

The disease arisen due to perverted, excessive and diminished use of sound etc. is
known as Aindriyaka (related to sense organs).
These are the cause of painful sensations [the cause of disease-induced pain] .
The cause of happiness (health) is only one balanced use (of the senses) which is very
Neither the sense organs nor the sense objects are the causes of happiness and
misery but the 4-fold use (of senses). (This is proved by the reasoning that) in spite of
the existence of sense organs and sense objects, if there be no use there will be neither
misery or happiness hence the 4-fold use itself is the cause.
In fact, there can not be happiness or misery without the self, sense organs[,]
mind, intellect, sense objects or the past deeds. This is being explained here.
The contact with the tactile sense organ and that with mind this 2-fold contact
gives rise to pleasant and painful sensations.
Happiness and misery give rise to allurement in the guise of desire and aversion,
the allurement, in turn, acts as cause of happiness and misery. It collects the entities
which offer resort to sensations. If there be no collection of entities, there can not be
contact and without contact the sensations can not be felt.
The location of sensations is mind, the body equipped with sense organs except
head hairs, body hears, tip of nail, ingested food, excreta, fluids and sense objects.
* All sensations cease to exist in the state of yoga (union with self) and Moksa
(emancipation). In moksa, the cessation is complete while yoga leads to that.
Happiness and misery arise due to contact of the self, sense organs, mind and the
sense objects but when the mind is steadily concentrated to the self, both cease to exist
due to non-initiation and a supernatural power comes forth into the person. This state is
known as yoga by the expert sages.


Entering into others body, knowledge of others mind, doing things at pleasure,
supernatural vision, supernatural hearing, superhuman memory, superhuman brilliance
and disappearance at pleasure these 8 are said as supernatural powers of yogis. All this
is possible only due to concentration of pure mind (in the self).
Moksa (emancipation) is possible by absence of rajas and tamas, destruction of
the potent past deeds and detachment from all the (sources of) conjunction. It is also said
as absence of rebirth.
Keeping in touch with the saints, avoidance of the ignobles, observance of vows,
fasting and other rules, study of religious scriptures, understanding, attachment to lonely
places and detachment from worldly pleasure, effort for emancipation, great restraint,
non-initiation of action, destruction of past deeds, inclination to getting out, from ego,
realizing fear in conjunction [what does this mean?], concentration of mind and body,
critical analysis of the philosophical reality all this arises due to emergence of the
memory of reality (which leads to emancipation).
Memory [of the Self] comes forth by the factors beginning with keeping in touch
with the saints and ending with restraint. After emergence of memory one gets rid off
misery by recollecting the nature of created beings.
(Now I) will mention the 8 factors which help in emergence of memory. These
are perception of the cause, perception of the form, similarity, contrast, predominance of
sattwa, practice, constant thinking and repeated hearing. Memory is defined as
recollection of seen, heard and experienced things.
The power of recollection of the reality is the only way to emancipation as shown
by the emancipated ones, by which one having gone never returns. This is said as the
way to yoga by yogins as well as the philosophers having accurate knowledge of the
virtues and as that of emancipation by the emancipated ones.
All caused is (source of) misery, dependent and non-eternal. That is not
concerned with the self but only a wrong notion of mine-ness arises until the true
knowledge emerges. But hereafter with its help knowing that I am not this (body)
this (body) is not mine, the knower of truth transcends all.
In that state of final renunciation, all sensations with their roots (causes) along
with consciousness, knowledge and understanding cease completely.
** Hereafter the personal self because of being identified as Brahman is not


perceived as being devoid of all entities he possesses no sign. Her there is scope only for
the knowers of Brahman and not the ignorant one who is incapable of grasping that.

The absolute self is devoid of abnormality and characters in all beings, hence the
characters are found only due to specific features of psyche and body.

The 3 Mind (Psychic) Humors:

There are 3 dosas in body V, P and K. They affect the body. There are 2 dosas
in psyche rajas and tamas. They affect the psyche when psyche or body or both is/are
affected, the morbidity arises otherwise not. -Sa4#34
The psyche is of 3 types pure(sattvic), rajas and tamasa. The pure is said as
devoid of defects due to having beneficial fraction whereas rajasa and tamasa are
defective because of the fractions of agitation and ignorance respectively. Out of these 3
types of psyche, each one has got innumerable subdivisions due to relative degrees and
variations in interaction of psyche and body according to species. Body follows psyche
and vice versa. Hence some of the types of psyche (the 7 sattvic, 6 rajasic and 3 tamasic)
are described here as illustrations by showing their similarity with some well-known
Tamas -Vi6#5
They cause these disorders: passion, anger, greed, confusion, envy,
conceit, narcosis, anxiety, excitement, fear, exhilaration, etc..
There is constant association of Rajas and Tamas together, because tamas cant
move without the help of Rajas.
The 2 psychic doshas:

Personality Types:
Personality Types:
Some of the personality types of psyche are described here as illustrations by
showing their similarity with some well-known symbols: -Sa4#36.0


The 7 Sattvic (Good) Personality Types:

Clean, true to his word, having controlled his self, distributing shares, endowed
with learning, understanding, speaking and contradicting; and with memory,
devoid of passion, anger, greed, conceit, confusion, envy, exhilaration and
intolerance, equal to all creatures. -Sa4#36.1
Engaged in sacrifices, study, vow, oblations and celibacy; devoted to guests,
having overcome pride, conceit, attachment, aversion, confusion, greed and anger;
(similar to
and endowed with power of imagination, speaking, understanding and
One having supremacy and his words agreeable, engaged in sacrifices, brave,
vigorous, subduing, un-obstructed in his actions, foresighted, devoted to virtue,
(similar to
wealth and enjoyment.
Keeping account of the conduct, acting in opportune moment, unstrikable,
(similar to
endowed with promptness and memory, acquiring supremacy, free from
Yama god attachment, envy, dislike and confusion. -Sa4#36.4
of death)
Brave, patient, clean, disliking uncleanliness, engaged in sacrifice, liking for
entertainment in water (swimming etc.), with unobstructed action, opportune anger
(similar to
Varuna, the and pacification.
Endowed with position, conceit, enjoyment and retinue; constantly engaged in
(similar to
virtue, wealth and pleasure, clean, easy movements, manifest anger and. Kubera)
Gandharva Expert in favorite dance, music, musical instruments, jugglery of words, poetry,
(similar to
stories, history and epics; constantly devoted to perfumes, garlands, paste, dress,
Gandharva) sporting and enjoyment (with women).
This is considered as the purest of the 7 sattvic types due to predominance of the
above character.

The 6 Rajasic (Agitated) Personality Types:

Brave, violent, back-biter, having supremacy, deceitful, fierce, cruel, self-praising.
(similar to
Intolerant, with continued anger, striking at weak points, cruel, liking over-eating,
(similar to
having highest desire for meat, indulged in sleep and physical exertions and
Gluttonous, fond of women, desirous for meeting women in privacy, unclean,
(similar to
having dislike for the clean, timid, terrifying, habitually using abnormal diet and.
Brave in angry condition and timid otherwise, sharp, exertive, terrorizing where he
(similar to
goes, indulged in food and pastimes. -Sa4#37.4


(similar to
(similar to

Having longing for food, troublesome conduct, behavior and management, backbiting, not distributing shares to others, greedy and inactive.
Passionate, constantly indulged in food and pastimes, unstable, intolerant, not
having hoarding tendency.

The 3 Types of Tamasa (Ignorant) Personalities:

Pasava (similar to Repudiating, devoid of intelligence, having despised food and behavior,
pasu- animals)
indulged in sexual act and sleep.
Matsya (similar to Timid, unwise, gluttonous, unstable, constantly under the grip of passion
matsya- fish)
and anger, always moving and liking water.
Idle, indulged only in food and devoid of entire intelligence and bodily
(similar to
Vanaspati- plant)

Thus the 3 types of sattwa (psyche), though having innumerable variations are
described with a partial classification. The pure psyche, on the basis of similarity of the
psyche of Brahma, Rsi, Indra, Yama, Varuna, Kubera and Gandharva, has been divided
into 7 sub-types; the rajasa psyche on the same basis simulating with that of daitya,
pisaca, raksasa, sarpa, preta and sakuni has been divided into 6 sub-types and the tamasa
psyche into 3 sub-types according to similarity with psyche of animals, fish and plants.
* The purpose of the descriptions of psyche is to facilitate the treatment of
disorders according to the psyche. -Sa4#40

Protecting the Sense Organs and Mind:

[So] In order to prevent derangements in the sense organs along with mind one
should make effort to maintain the normalcy by these methods such as, with conjunction
of wholesome sense objects one should perform acts well properly and invariably
examining with intellect, and also by regular use of those which are opposite to qualities
of place, time and self.

Discussion: the Relationship of Body, Mind and Spirit:

Lord Punarvasu said Person is equal to universe. Whatever formed entities are
in the universe, the same are in the Person and vice-versa. Having listened thus to Lord


Atreya, Agnivesa said From this brief statement we are unable to grasp the idea
contained in the same, hence we want to hear in more details from you, O Lord!
Lord Atreya replied The constituents of the universe are innumerable and so of
the Person as such I will illustrate certain common entities grossly, hear attentively O
Agnivesa! The aggregate of 6 constituents is termed as universe (macrocosm) such as
prthivi, ap, tejas, vayu, akasa and unmanifest Brahman (principle of consciousness).
These very 6 constituents aggregated are termed as Person.
** In the Person prthivi, ap, tejas, vayu, akasa and brahman are represented by
form, moisture, heat, vital breath, pores (including vacant spaces) and inner self
respectively. ** As is the magnificence of Brahman in the universe so is that of inner self
in the person. * In the universe the greatness of Brahman is represented by Prajapati and
in the Person the same of the inner self is represented by the psyche. ** What is Indra in
the universe is ego in the person, Aditya (the sun) receiving, Rudra agitation, Soma (the
moon) cheerfulness, Vayu happiness, Aswins lustre, Marut enthusiasm, Visvadeva all
sense organs and their objects, darkness ignorance, light knowledge; as initial creation in
case of the universe so impregnation in the person, krtayuga childhood, treta youth,
dwapara old age, kali illness, and end of creation death. Thus by inference commonness
of other unmentioned entities of the universe and the person may also be known.
After Lord Atreya concluded his talk, Agnivesa asked Whatever your lordship
said about commonness between the universe and the person is quite correct.. What is the
purpose of describing the commonness [similarities] between them?
Lord Atreya said O Agnivesa! listen to me. Seeing the entire universe in the
Self and vice versa gives rise to true knowledge. On seeing the entire universe in his Self
one realizes the truth that self alone is the agent of happiness and misery and none else.
Though associated with cause etc. under the influence of previous actions, after realizing
the identity of the Self with the universe, he rises for salvation. Here the word Loka
denotes combination, ordinarily the entire universe is the aggregate of 6 constituents.
It has got a hetu [cause] and stages of transformation such as utpatti, vrddhi,
upaplava and viyoga. Hetu is the cause of birth; utpatti is the birth, vrddhi is growth and
development, upaplava is advent of afflictions and viyoga is disjunctino of the 6
constituents also known as passing away of the life-principle, cessation of vital breath,
breaking away, reverting to the natural state. The root cause of the universe as well as
the advent of all miseries is inclination to worldly affairs while going away from them
leads to their cessation. Inclination is misery and disinclination is happiness. This
knowledge, which comes forth, is true. This is possible from the knowledge of the
commonness with the entire universe. This is the purpose of describing the commonness.
Thereafter Agnivesa further put the query what is the source of inclination, what


are the means for disinclination? O Lord!


Lord Atreya replied the source of inclination are: ignorance, desire, aversion and
action. Inclination, in turn, gives rise to ahankara, sanga, samsaya, abhisamplava,
abhyavapata, vipratyaya, avisesa and anupaya which overcoming the person engulf him
due to which he becomes unable to transcend the worldly existence like a tender tree
subdued by big and excessively branching trees.
[These will now be described.]
Ahankara (ego)- is the feeling that I belong to such high clan and possess
excellence of wealth, conduct, intellect, modesty, learning, fame, age, prowess and
Sanga (attachment)-- consists of the mental, vocal or physical actions which are
not conducive to emancipation.
Samsaya (doubt)-- such as the result of the past deeds, emancipation, persons and
after-life exist or not.
Abhisamplava is the wrong identity of the Self with the body when the person
feels that in all conditions there is none else than myself, I am the creator, I am perfect by
nature and I am the aggregate of body, sense organs, intellect and memory.
Abhayavapata is the sense of ownership or self-based attachment such as
mother, father, brother, wife, children, kins, friends and servants are mine and I am theirs.
Vipratyaya is the opposite thinking between worth doing and otherwise
wholesome-unwholesome, beneficial-nonbeneficial.
Avisesa is the lack of distinction between conscious and unconscious, original
source and products, inclination and disinclination.
Anupaya is the employment of inefficient means such as proksana
(consecration), anasana (fasts), agnihotra (fire worship), trisavana (worship with soma 3
times a day), abhyuksana (wetting), avahana (invocation), yajana (guiding sacrifices),
yacana (begging), entering into water and fire.
Thus the person devoid of intellect, restraint and memory, engrossed in egoism,
attachment, wrong identity, self-based attachment, opposite thinking and lack of
discrimination adopts wrong course and thus becomes like an abode-tree for all the
miseries caused by the defects of the psyche and the body. In this way, being moved
around by the defects like egoism etc. he is unable to transcend the path of inclination
which is the root of all sins.
-all of the above Sa5#10
Disinclination is apavarga (emancipation), this is also known as the Supreme,
Highest bliss, identity with the unchangeable Brahman and freedom from bondage.
Now (I) shall mention the means for ascending for those desiring emancipation:
One who sees defects in the worldly affairs and desires emancipation should follow the
following path in right earnest submission to the teacher, implementing he instructions,
exclusive service to the fire, going through the religious codes, understanding their ideas,
clinging to them and performing actions accordingly, keeping company with saints,
avoiding the wicked abstaining from the company of the mean, speaking words true,
beneficial to all, aunharsh, timely and after careful examination, longing and talking with
all types of women, renouncing all acquisitions, loin cloth for covering up (the private
parts), clothings dyed with red ochre, having a needle case for sewing the robes, water