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The Battle of Buxar (1764 AD

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The Battle of Buxar was significant event in the rise of British rule in India. The foundation of the
British Empire in India which was led by Clive at Plassey was strengthened at Buxar. The Battle of
Buxar was the outcome of the clash between the British and Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal.
Mir Kasim was the most efficient of all Nawabs of Bengal from 1756 onwards. He suppressed the
rebellious zamindars of Bengal and Bihar, who had challenged the authority of the Nawab. Unlike his
predecessor Mir Jafar, he always tried to maintain his position and dignity by keeping himself away
from the British influence. For that purpose he transferred his capital from Murshidabad to
Monghyr.
To satisfy his ego and vanity he liked to inaugurate his new regime at a new place where there would
be none to interfere in his activities as a Nawab. To strengthen his power he organized his army in
the same way as the Europeans did. He made arrangements for the manufacture of fire arms at
Monghyr with a view to equipping his army adequately. He wanted to remain at a safe distance from
Calcutta so that there would be less of supervision and interference from the British authority. He
wanted to develop an army with a view to overthrowing the power of British. This attitude of Mir
Kasim incurred displeasure of the British.
The matter came to a crisis when Mir Kasim wanted to put an end to all private trade. The company
had been granted the privilege of free sea-borne trade by an imperial Farman in 1717. But after 1756,
the servants of the company also illegally claimed the same privilege for their private trade mainly in
salt and betel leaves. Because of this extensive private trade of the servants of the company, the
Nawab had to suffer the loss of huge amount of revenue. Mir Kasim decided to stop it by taking
drastic action. Under instructions, from the Nawab, his officers in the district began to seize the
boats belonging to the English merchants in spite of their having Dastaks with them.
These English merchants were forced to pay taxes to the Nawab the Nawab ultimately abolished the
system of Dastak and the transit duties which put the Indian and English traders on equal footing.
This created fury among the English. They carried the matter immediately to Vansittart, the then
governor of Bengal. The governor violently reached to this kind of measure of Mir Kasim.
Mir Kasim took few other measures which hampered the interest of the English merchants in India.
He immediately increased the number of customs stations in the country with a view to checking the
private trade of the English. New stations were established in places were there was none before. He
increased the number of soldiers stationed in the Chaukis to stop the English boats effectively. He
also instructed the local Amils to strike off all kinds of commercial relations with the East India
Company. All these measures led to huge financial loss to the company.
The officials of the East India Company tried their best to put a check upon the anti-British activities
of the Nawab which was not at all appreciated by the latter. Mir Kasim wanted to rule independently.
Virtually a quarrel started between the English and the Nawab when their servants began to hurl
abuses on each other. A meeting between the Nawab and the governor of Bengal was arranged in
1762 at Monghyr to discuss over the differences. But nothing could Bengal done to pacify the
situation. The Nawab was unhappy about the illegal trade of the Company's servants and governor
was unhappy about Nawab's interference in the activities of the company.
The measures of Mir Kasim infuriated the British authority in Bengal. Mr. Ellis, the English agent at
Patna got furious with Mir Kasim and as a mark of protest he occupied at Patna. This was sufficient
provocation for Mir Kasim. He immediately launched an attack against Ellis who was defeated and
made a prisoner in the hands of Mir Kasim. At this, the English launched a counter attack against
Mir Kasim who was defeated in three successive battles at Katwa, Gheria and Udaynal.

These three people formed a confederacy against the British. Shah Alam left the cause of Shuja-ud-daula and found shelter in the British camp. the company exercised political power and its relation with India took a major turn. Shah Alam. the Nawab of Oudh. After the flight of Mir Kasim that English immediately placed the aged Mir Jafar on the throne of Bengal. the British exercised their political power to suppress all sorts of resistance and to maintain law and order.To avenge this defeat Mir Kasim ordered a general massacre of all the English prisoners of Patna. the Nawab of Oudh. India had to witness large scale political. Shuja-ud-daula fought until 1765 when he was completely defeated and sued for peace. social and cultural changes under the East India Company. the company rule in India succeeded to transform India into a colony of Britain and the India fulfilled the needs of British economy as the field of plentiful raw materials required for growing British industries and as open market for the British industries goods. The company. Before Mir Kasim went to Oudh. Events of the Battle of Buxar of Brtish Rule Shuja-ud-daula. But he could not venture to attack the English settlements side he felt more encouraged. Social and Cultural Policy of the British from 1757 AD to 1857 AD in India During hundred years between the Battle of Plassey (1757) and Great Revolt of 1857. Now the three disgruntled. Mir Kasim fled to the North-West and died. Ultimately. With the occupation of Bengal. Similarly. Its administrator was Governor in Bengal and became Governor General of India. a peaceful India was the profitable India. Their combined army met the British forces under the command of Major Munro at Buxar on 22nd October 1764. here after. Major Munro inflicted a crushing defeat on their combined forces. For the company. Such policies aimed at protection and promotion of the commercial interests of the company. the company emerged as the paramount power in India from a mere organization of trade and commerce. wanted very much to destroy the English supremacy in Bengal. This policy served the purpose of protecting and promoting the interests of the British trade and industry. economic. united together with a firm conviction to defeat the English. He had already promised the Nawab a great financial assistance in case of a war between the Nawab and the English. used its political power to enhance profits in trade and commerce as well as to maintain Indian empire for the growth of British industry. rulers such as a Shula-ud-daula. There after he fled to Oudh to make a common cause with Shuja-ud-daula. the company adopted cautious policy initially. Its territorial possessions expanded rapidly from Bengal to all parts of India and came to Bengal known as the British Indian Empire. . Shah Alam and Mir Kasim. The Economic. the titular Mughal Emperor had already taken refuge in the court of Nawab Shuja-ud-daula. and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. Therefore. From 1757 onwards the relation of the company with India could not Bengal confined to trade and commerce alone. The process of transformation was complete by 1857. the social and cultural policies of the British transformed Indian society and culture in such a manner that it remained always responsible and favorable to the British interests. They combined declared war against the English in 1764. Profit and loss being the primacy considerations. On the other hand.