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Visvesvaraya Technological University

Belgaum, Karnataka-590 014


Seminar Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Submitted by





This is to certify that the seminar entitled “MULTI-MEGAWATT
carried out by Mr.Harshith J (USN: 1DS11EE044) a bonafide student of
Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, in partial fulfillment for the award
of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical and Electronics department of the
Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum during the year 20142015. It is certified that all corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal
Assessment have been incorporated in the Report. The seminar report has
been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of Project
work prescribed for the said Degree.



B.E, M.Tech

B.E, M.Tech, Ph.D.

Dept. of EEE

HOD, Dept. of EEE

motivation and encouragement to come up with this work. I would like to express my immense gratitude to our head of the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. timely suggestion and constructive criticism in successful completion of my seminar in time. yet I attempt to thank a selected few who have helped me in diverse ways. .K. Department of Electrical and Electronics engineering. Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering for his skillful guidance.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Naming all the people who have helped us in achieving this goal would be impossible.Shanmukha Sundar for his constant support. assistant professor.Satish B. Dr.A. I express my warm thanks to my guide Mr. Finally I also take this opportunity to thank all the staff members of Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering who have rendered their whole hearted support at all the time for successful completion of the seminar. constant supervision.

such as directed energy weapon (DEW) and airborne radar (AR). particle beam weapon. These generators are nowadays necessary for new aerospace missions. ferromagnetic materials for magnetic circuits.5 MW) has been outlined. airborne high-speed synchronous generators rated in the power range of megawatts have been discussed. Requirements. DEWs such as high power microwave. The technology challenges faced to achieve these possible applications have also been mentioned. . First prototype (2. electromagnetic design and cooling technique for high speed multi-megawatt generators have been discussed.ABSTRACT In this paper. lasers have been explained.

CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….. FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS…………………..……………..10 6. REFERENCES………………………………………………………………..20 ...16 9.... ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN………………………………………………. COOLING TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH SPEED ELECTRIC MACHINES…….…2 3..1.1.CONTENTS 1..2.3.... FIRST PROTOTYPE……………………………………………………………. TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES…………………………………………………9 6.3..11 7. DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS……………………………………………....4 3. REQUIREMENTS ……………………………………………………………. PARTICLE BEAM WEAPON…………………………………….1 2.12 8....13 6.…5 3. STATOR……………………………………………………………..2..19 10..11 6.5 3.... ROTOR………………………………………………………………. AIRBORNE RADAR………………………………………………………………8 5.6 4. HIGH POWER MICROWAVE…………………………………….. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………. LASERS …………………………………………………………….

directed energy weapon (DEW) and airborne radar (AR).c..  All cryogenic generators (synchronous or homopolar). e. the maximum power of high speed (over 5000 rpm) aerospace synchronous generators does not exceed 500 kW. The electromagnetic torque is proportional to the electromagnetic power and number of pole pairs and inversely proportional to the frequency.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The speed of a. New high power airborne and mobile military systems will require 1 to 6 MW of electrical power generated at speeds 10 to 20 krpm or higher. At present.g. machines increases with increase in the input frequency. High speed and high frequency armature current reduce the volume and mass of electrical machines and increase their power density.  synchronous generators with high temperature superconducting (HTS) excitation winding. Several airborne power missions are now evolving that will require lightweight multi-megawatt electrical power systems. Potential candidates as multi-megawatt generators are:  high power density classical synchronous generators with electromagnetic excitation. HARSHITH JOHN 1 .

The stator laminations are about 0.000 h).MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER TWO REQUIREMENTS Basic design requirements for high speed machines include.  Need to drive a rectifier without significant impact on the efficiency. The rotor is often protected against centrifugal forces with the aid HARSHITH JOHN 2 .e. high-saturation.  Low sub transient time constant (pulse operation). but are not limited to:  High power density (output power-to-mass). Reliability data of airborne high-speed generators are very scattered and limited to generators rated at maximum 250 kVA.  Minimum number of components. It is also desired that modern airborne generators have some fault tolerance capability. i.  Low total harmonics distortion (THD). . The mean time between failure (MTBF) values up to approximately 47. Low-loss.000 h as calculated from short-term maintenance record. However.  Minimum cost–to–output power ratio and cost–to–efficiency ratio.  Compact design.. To minimize the sub transient time constant.  High efficiency over the whole range of variable speed.  Brushless design.1-mm thick for frequencies above 700 Hz. to eliminate eddy-current effects in the rotor pole shoes. generating mode with one damaged phase winding of a three phase machine and then normal operation after the fault clears is normally impossible. the rotor – similar to the stator .  High reliability (the failure rate < 5% within 80.  Ability to withstand high temperature. thin silicon steel laminations or iron-cobalt laminations are used for stator and rotor stacks.must be in most cases laminated instead of made of solid steel.2-mm thick for frequencies below 400 Hz and about 0.

high thermal conductivity.. Application of direct liquid cooling results in further increase of power density (output power-to-mass or output-power-to volume). the smaller the volume and mass.g. Good materials for retaining sleeves have high permissible stresses. The lower the losses. inconel 718 (alloy based on NiCoCr) or carbon-graphite composites.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS of retaining sleeves (cans). and low specific density. The retaining sleeve can be made of non-ferromagnetic metals. e. stainless steels. very low electric conductivity. The higher the speed (frequency) and more efficient the cooling system. the lower the temperature rise of a generator and easier the thermal management. titanium alloys. HARSHITH JOHN 3 . High efficiency means the reduction of the input mechanical power (prime mover) through the reduction of power losses.

it will begin to heat up and even burn out. which are both made up of photons. Watson-Watt1 was asked by the Committee for Scientific Study of British Air Defense to investigate the ability of transmitting radio frequency waves of high enough power to boil the blood of German pilots and soldiers. and λ is the length of wave. They can be adopted for ground.e. sea. The so-called fluence is the energy density.. approximately 1000 × 104 are required. c = 299.. gyrotrons. armored trucks. Once the target has absorbed this energy. The photon energy is a function of the frequency f. fabrics. tanks.A. i.. DEWs irradiate the target with electromagnetic energy. t is the duration of the DEW pulse. The only difference between HELs and HPMs. and A is the spot area on the target.. but extremely hard targets. high-energy lasers (HEL). gridded tubes HARSHITH JOHN 4 . MTs include klystrons. also called S 1:0 ratio. mine resistant vehicles. To destroy soft targets. where is the DEW output power. The power generation capabilities of microwave tubes (MTs) operating at 300 MHz to 300 GHz range from watts to megawatts. might require 100 000 104 . For example.458 m/s is the speed of light.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER THREE DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS It was believed before the World War II that electromagnetic waves could be used to destroy aircraft. plastics.. i. in 1935. Directed energy weapons (DEW) take the form of high powered microwaves (HPMs). and particle beams (PBs). and space warfare. etc.e.792. is their energy level. air. i.e. 0 is the dimensionless transmission number. Sir R. where h = 6:626 × 10-34 Js is Planck’s constant. etc.

Gigawattclass HPM sources include magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO). A klystron is a specialized vacuum tube called a linear-beam tube. Only a burning pain is produced which forces the affected person to escape. and = 0:4π×10-6 H/m. and the end of the word electron. HARSHITH JOHN 5 .1 High Power Microwave HPM weapons produce either beams or short pulses of high frequency energy in the megawatt range. current in them. it induces a. the equivalent depth of penetration = 2 S/m = 2:05 mm. The high frequency electric current causes the equipment to malfunction without injuring the personnel. the microwaves can permanently burn out the equipment. The tissue is not damaged.5 kW of power. relativistic magnetron. is the relative magnetic permeability is the electric conductivity. Assuming the conductivity of human tissue at f = 3 × 1010 Hz = 30 GHz.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS and cross field tubes. The pseudo-Greek word klystron comes from the stem form klys of a Greek verb referring to the action of waves breaking against a shore. ultra short bursts of electrical energy. and reltron.c. If the energy is high enough. The term HPM denotes sources producing coherent electromagnetic radiation from 1 GHz to over 100 GHz with an instantaneous power of at least 100 MW. When the microwave energy encounters unshielded current conducting bodies. a typical microwave oven generates less than 1. and = 1. The equivalent depth of penetration of electromagnetic wave into human skin is √ where f is the frequency. 3. relativistic klystron oscillator (RKO). Current HPM research focuses on pulsed power devices that create intense. Klystrons are the most efficient MTs and are capable of the highest peak and average powers. For comparison. semiconductors or electronic components. relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA).

and artillery projectiles. 1A1 A-60 flying in 1981. HELs can particularly be used against moving targets such as fighters. Electric circuits and electronic devices targeted by an electron PB weapon are disrupted. while average power outputs of 300 W to 1 kW are commonly used for industrial laser cutting. missiles. The power output necessary for a weapons-grade high-energy laser (HEL) ranges from 1 kW to 10 MW. intense pulses of light in every spectrum from infrared to ultraviolet. X-ray lasers may be possible in the not–too–distant future. two demonstrators were built. Since the laser beam travels at the speed of light. while human beings and animals caught by the electric discharge of an electron beam weapon are likely to be electrocuted. For comparison.2 Particle Beam Weapon A PB weapon is a type of DEW which directs an ultra-high energy beam of atoms. 1A2 A-60 HARSHITH JOHN 6 . and thus disrupting its atomic and molecular structure.3 Lasers Lasers produce either continuous beams or short. So far. 3. The Beriev A60 Russian research program which started in the 1970s was aimed to demonstrate an airborne HEL DEW capability and provide baseline for the development of operational weapon. a resistive heating occurs and an electron beam weapon can damage or melt its target. i.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS 3. In the case of electric current conductive target. rockets.. The use of space-based PB weapons was first explored in the late 1960s in the Soviet Union. the energy from the photons in the beam heats the target to the point of combustion or melting. The target is damaged by hitting it. Most HELs being developed and tested for military applications have laser powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to 100 kW for tactical-level employment and up to multimegawatt for strategic class applications. electrons or protons in a particular direction by a means of particle projectiles with mass. a power laser pointer that emits less than 1 W can cause permanent eye damage in less than 1 s.e. When a laser beam strikes a target. The high-velocity PB weapon can target satellites or intercontinental ballistic missiles.

1.1.1 MW were mounted at each side of the fuselage. acquire. Russian Beriev A-60 (modified IL-76MD) with HEL turret and nose mounted radar. and engage an enemy missile or aircraft. The ability of aircraft to conduct counter air warfare is greatly enhanced by a HEL weapon3. the US Army formally recognized the potential of HEL technology for future weapons by awarding a contract to Boeing for the HEL technology demonstrator. 1). The nose mounted turret is equipped with Ladoga-3 radar for detecting aerial targets. A large bulge on the upper back of A-60 is a sliding port for a 1-MW laser turret. Figure 2. A HEL weapon can automatically identify.Directed energy weapon mounted on a military vehicle HARSHITH JOHN 7 . two turbo alternators AI-24WT rated at 2. Figure 1 Fig.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS flying in 1991 and again in 2009 (Fig.1-MW HEL turret. 2 — radar for detecting aerial targets. For feeding the laser. In 2008. 3 — compartment for 2.1 MW turbo alternator. target.

ARs generally operate in the C or X bands. i. respectively.  Both civil and military applications include but are not restricted to:  Accurate terrain measurements for assisting in low altitude flights.  Assisting in weather assessment and navigation.  Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) for ground reconnaissance and surveillance. GMTI radar picks up moving targets or vehicles. SAR.  Nose-mounted fighter radars.  Targeting of ground targets for bombing missions. HARSHITH JOHN 8 .  Mapping and monitoring the Earth’s surface for environmental and topological study.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER FOUR AIRBORNE RADAR Airborne radar (AR) systems can be carried by military. primarily is used for two-dimensional (2D) ground mapping. Radar images of an area help detect fixed targets. special mission and research aircraft. an active all-weather sensor. is an Xband radar that can see from about 100 km away. called HiSAR. A commercial version of SAR-GMTI. Airborne early warning (AEW) systems and weather radars use megawatt klystrons.. around 6 GHz or around 10 GHz. Military applications of AR include:  Targeting of hostile aircraft for air-to-air combat. The latter is the smallest sector of the airborne radar market and is dominated by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) sensors.  Detection and tracking of moving ground targets.e. AR includes three major categories:  Air-target surveillance and cueing radars mounted in rotodomes.

 A large amount of heat rejected from DEW system during operation must be managed. So far. So far. Large power. System block diagram for a generic electrically powered airborne DEW system. The electrical power and thermal management subsystem of a conceptual generic airborne electrical DEW system is shown in Fig. i. if available. 3. Synchronous generators with HTS rotor excitation windings are investigated as a possible solution. the temperature of liquid nitrogen.e. would be lighter and more compact than conventional copper wire-wound or permanent magnet rotor generators. The thermal management challenge becomes difficult when the large heat flux is coupled with a small airframe.. which increase the mass of airborne power plant. HARSHITH JOHN 9 .. Classical wound-field synchronous generators in the range of megawatts for airborne applications are rather heavy..e.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER FIVE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES There are two technically difficult challenges:  The high voltage continuous electric power required for DEW systems must be in the range of megawatts. e.g. the electrical power and thermal management systems for airborne DEWs are in early development. the research is oriented towards airborne generators of classical construction. high speed HTS generators. This requires refrigeration systems. windings of HTS generators operate at cryogenic temperature of 77 K. i. Fig 3. a fighter. not requiring cryogenic installation. On the other hand.

0.1 Ferromagnetic Materials To minimize the overall dimensions of airborne multi-megawatt generators. the iron-cobalt alloys have the highest Curie temperatures of any alloy family and have found use in elevated temperature applications.05% Si. 1. 2. PA. Similar to Hyperco 50 is Vacoflux 50 (50% Co) cobalt-iron alloy from Vacuumschmelze. typically used for manufacturing very high flux density pole-cores and poles hoes of synchronous generators.g. where mass and space saving are of prime importance. thermal conductivity 29. 48. The stator double-layer winding is distributed in slots.. is 49% Fe.34 T at 16 000A/m. specific core loss about 44 W/kg at 2 T.22 T at 1600 A/m. high saturation. Hanau. 6. modulus of elasticity 207 GPa. electric conductivity 2. 0. low core loss ferromagnetic thin laminated materials are used.14 T at 800 A/m.A. Curie temperature 940 .05% Nb and 0. for Hiperco 50 from Carpenter. 2. 2.S.15 to 0.5×106 S/m at room temperature.4 T at room temperature. The rotor field winding has a form of concentrated-parameter coils wound on salient ferromagnetic poles. Hiperco 50 has the same nominal composition as Vanadium Permendur and Permendur V.31 T at 8000 A/m and 2.75% Co. Germany.8 W/(m K). U.05% Mn.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER SIX ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN Multi-megawatt generators are typically three-phase salient pole synchronous generators with outer stator and inner rotor.36 mm. about 2. Iron-cobalt alloys with cobalt contents ranging from 15 to 50% have the highest known saturation magnetic flux density. HARSHITH JOHN 10 . 400 Hz and thickness from 0. The specific mass density of Hiperco 50 is 8120 kg/m3. They are the natural choice for applications not only as aerospace generators but also as aerospace motors. e. transformers and magnetic bearings.26 T at 4000 A/m.9% V. Additionally. The magnetization curve of Hiperco 50 is as follows: 2. The nominal composition.

i. Rotor coils are protected against centrifugal forces with the aid of metal wedges between poles. Sometimes.72-slot multimegawatt generator as obtained from the 2D FEM. Parallel paths are common. The number of stator slots per pole per phase is from 4 to 10. The outer surface of the stator core is sometimes corrugated to improve the heat transfer from the stator core surface to the stator enclosure or the liquid jacket. very often single turn coils must be designed in order to adjust the induced EMF to the terminal voltage. on the rotor critical speed. The number of salient rotor poles is typically from 4 to 12.3 ROTOR Rotor pole cores are highly saturated (Fig.e. The rotor outer diameter and shaft diameter depend. amongst others.4.. Fig. Pole shoes have round semiclosed slots to accommodate the damper.2 STATOR The magnetic flux distribution in the cross section area of a salient pole multi-megawatt generator is shown in Fig. because the volume envelope of an airborne generator must be as small as possible. At high speeds (high frequency) coils have low number of turns and large number of parallel wires. Large number of stator slots per pole per phase and double layer chorded windings allow for reducing the contents of higher space harmonics in the air gap magnetic flux density waveform. in addition to wedges. Magnetic flux distribution in the cross section area of a 12-pole. rotor retaining nonmagnetic sleeves are used. The rotor core is made of the same material as the stator core. which also participate in the cooling system of the rotor.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS 6. 4). 6. HARSHITH JOHN 11 . 4. The stator slots are semi-closed trapezoidal or semi-closed oval slots. iron-cobalt thin laminations. Problems of rotor dynamics are much more serious than in low speed synchronous machines. At speeds 15 000 rpm and higher.

 Aircraft fuel. Since the current density in the rotor field winding is high. liquids are much better coolants than air in terms of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity. The stator is cooled with the aid of an oil jacket and the rotor is cooled by pumping oil through the shaft (Fig.  Water/glycol mixture. Direct air cooling in high power density generators is rather insufficient.e. The air is exhausted through a perforated screen around the periphery of the housing or special air outlet.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER SEVEN COOLING TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH SPEED ELECTRIC MACHINES High speed multi-megawatt generators can be cooled by the following media:  Air. oil or water is pumped through the stator jacket or through the stator hollow conductors (direct cooling system) and cooled by means of a heat exchanger system. A typical liquid loop consists of an air-liquid heat exchanger.. In most airborne multi-megawatt generators a liquid cooling must be employed. i. In a direct air cooling system the air enters through the housing or end bell and passes through the ducts between conductors.  Refrigerant. 4). Heat transfer properties of liquids and gases are compared in Table I. This hydraulic circuit employs a pressure sensing relief valve to regulate external circuit oil flow at minimum 40 liter/min = 0:67 liter/s. Hollow conductors and direct liquid cooling seem to be economic solution for generators rated at 1 MW and above. The oil flow is proportional to the power losses. In general. which is used to dump the heat load being carried by the liquid into the air conditioning system. a pump and reservoir. The liquid coolant. the rotor also must be HARSHITH JOHN 12 .  Oil. air gap and sometimes through rotor channels.

providing partially the wing deicing. The cooling can be intensified by adding a fuel-oil heat exchanger also called fuel-oil cooler (Fig. 5 — primary coolant (oil). the fuel temperature will rise significantly. 2 — rotor of synchronous generator. 4 — pump. Fig. 9 — fuel temperature control. Refrigerant is directed to cool the stator core outer surface and/or stator core inner surface (air gap). Oil reservoir is not shown. The secondary coolant has lower temperature than the primary coolant. When the fuel flow is low. 1 — stator of synchronous generator.5.g. 5).MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS cooled by pumping the oil through the hollow shaft. 7 — fuel-oil heat exchanger. a refrigerant. 6 — secondary coolant (air). e. Simplified diagram of oil cooling system for a multi-megawatt aircraft synchronous generator with two heat exchangers.. HARSHITH JOHN 13 . but allows transfer of heat energy between them. 3 — oil-air heat exchanger. A fuel is used to cool the generator oil and then the hot fuel can be pumped back to the wing fuel tanks. R-12 or R-134a can also be used for cooling multi-megawatt generators. The primary coolant has lower temperature than machine parts. Fuel is much better cooling medium than the air (Table I). Similar to high-speed compressors and microturbines. The heat exchanger is a component that keeps two coolants separate. so recirculation lines are used to pipe the hot fuel back into the fuel tank. 8 — fuel (secondary coolant).

One of the methods is to use aluminum cold plates between the field coils and rotor pole core. Typical current densities for electrical machines with different cooling systems are given in Table II. the rotor cooling problems become difficult.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS With increase in the output power. HARSHITH JOHN 14 . Those values must be verified with analysis of internal temperature distribution using the thermal equivalent circuit or better – with the finite element method (FEM).

Thus. cooling system and duty cycle (continuous. short time or intermittent). The direct cooling system with hollow conductors is the most intensive cooling system (up to 30 A/mm2). Using cold plates between pole cores and coils.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS Table III shows a comparison of selected cooling techniques for high speed electric machines. the spray oil-cooled rotor windings allows for maintaining higher current density than cold plates. Spray-oil cooling (28 A/mm2) is almost as intensive as direct cooling. the estimated maximum current density should not exceed 22 A/mm2. The current density in the windings depends on the class of insulation. The current density values given in Table III are for 220 (maximum operating temperature of windings). Spray cooling of the rotor wire together with intensive cooling of the stator winding will theoretically lead to smaller size and weight than application of cold plates. HARSHITH JOHN 15 .

6-pole. It was a three-phase. continuous-duty.1.92. 6). power factor 0. 13 600-rpm synchronous generator The first lightweight. under contract with Westinghouse Electric Corporation. multi-megawatt synchronous generator for helicopter application was built and tested in 1976 by Aerojet Electrosystems Company. 2887-5000-V.5-MVA.84/0. The architecture was the same as that of a conventional brushless aicraft synchronous generator.5-MVA. The frequency was 680 Hz. 2.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CHAPTER EIGHT FIRST PROTOTYPES 8. Fig. Air-cooled 2. full-load current 421/271 A. CA.e. and permanent magnet generator (PMG) – the so-called subexciter. mass 680 kg.6. and power density 3. high-speed. i. The generator was designed to be driven by the T64 GE turboshaft engine (prime mover). main generator. aircooled synchronous generator (Fig. HARSHITH JOHN 16 .5-MW. OH. The 6-pole rotor was also laminated. 13 600-rpm. 13 600-rpm.15 kW/kg. brushless exciter. Lima. air cooled lightweight generator. USA . Azusa.127-mm thick punchings.. The 650-mm long stator stack was made of 0. USA. 2.

5 MW synchronous generator Electrodynamics Associates. Inc. in 2011. The prime mover is planned to be a Rolls Royce T406 (AE 1107CLiberty) turboshaft engine that would be capable of providing full power at altitude. Multi-megawatt oil-cooled synchronous generator rated at 2.. Oil-cooled 2.. demonstrated.7. 15. oil cooled multi-megawatt synchronous generator (Fig. 7). FL. Details are given in Table IV. Inc. Oviedo. Photo courtesy of Electrodynamics Associates.Oviedo.5 MW. FL.000 rpm. USA The generator is a salient-pole (2p = 12).1 kW/kg for hogged aluminum housing and 16. 1500 Hz. 15 000rpm.2. The power density is 14.7 kW/kg for magnesium housing. Fig. HARSHITH JOHN 17 . a 2.5-MW.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS 8. wound-rotor synchronous machine with an exciter embedded in the rotor and oil-cooled rotor and stator. The load would be a rectifier and ultimately some kind of DEW. 1500-Hz.

MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS The duty cycle is 6 min on and 12 min off. The inlet oil temperature is 65. The rotor field winding end turns are oilsprayed. The oil cools the stator back iron with some incidental end turn wetting.5 . HARSHITH JOHN 18 .5 liter/min. The generator is oil-cooled with maximum oil flow rate of 115.

Intensive oil cooling system of both the stator and rotor is required to minimize the size and mass of the generator. classical rather than HTS airborne multi-megawatt generators are preferred. Potential candidates are (a) wound-field.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION High speed synchronous generators in the megawatt power range are necessary for new airborne missions as DEW and AR. The desired efficiency should be at least 95%. Cooling systems with primary and secondary cooling media and heat exchangers are required. and (d) all cryogenic generators. salient pole synchronous generators. HARSHITH JOHN 19 . low envelope volume and low mass.  Thermal management and heat dissipation. (c) homopolar generators with stationary HTS winding. (b) synchronous generators with HTS field excitation system. It is necessary to point out that high current density in the stator and rotor winding reduces the effciency. At present time. There are two difficult challenges in construction of high speed multi-megawatt generators:  High power density.

2012.A Quarterly Newsletter for MDA Technology Transfer.F.S. pp. Vilamoura. [10] E. Gieras. 1st Quarter. HARSHITH JOHN 20 . [6] J.‖ Naval Symp on Electr Machines. London-Boston.‖ Int Conf on Electr Machines ICEM’08. Gieras. [2] Cascio A.ndu.F. Koenig. ―Megawatt generator addresses space and electricity needs for next generation of commercial and military aircrafts. NDU Press. 2005.‖ www. Vanek. Angel. Summer 2006. Springer.J.‖ Journal of Aircraft. 64. ―Superconducting Electrical Machines .edu. Portugal.‖ Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review).A. ―Design of a high speed permanent magnet brushless motors for microturbines.State of the Art. Day. 2008. pp. 16(1). 115-121. Gieras. pp. Wahsington DC. paper ID 1061. Advancements in electric machines. 2009. July. [3] D.F.‖ Electromotion. 1-19.C. [7] J. ―A 2. p. RI. Jonsson. USA. 55-61. W.thespacereview. pp. ―The high-energy laser: Tomorrow’s weapon to improve force protection. analysis and testing of orthotropic stator structures. 1997. 2/3. Gieras. ―Calculation of eddy current losses in conductive sleeves of synchronous machines. 2008. W.: ―Modeling. Felton.‖ Aviation Week & Space Technology. 85(12). 55-60. [9] J. Newport.Dordrecht.5-MVA high-voltage lightweight generator. [8] J. pp. Neff. [5] ―Flying megawatts.‖ JFQ. 1979. ―Hubble in crosshairs. Shilling. 12. U. A. 91-99.M. www. Sept 11. 2011.D. [4] M.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS REFERENCES [1] A. 2006.F.‖ TechUpdate . Hammond.

M. S. USA. 2003. [12] E. Rhoads .J. Barnes. C. Scherzinger. ―Superconducting generators: enabling airborne directed energy weapons.R.P. Secunde. P. Liebermann. [13] I. Portsmouth. 3rd edition. 1990. IECEC03. HARSHITH JOHN 21 . [16] J. ―Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power. 2001. J.. TM C-2579. G.M. Liquid cooled salient pole rotor support wedges. T.S. No.Adams. Wiley & Sons.‖ 1st Int. Chu.MULTI-MEGAWATT SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS [11] High-power microwave sources and technologies. Seabridge. IEEE Press . L. USA.‖ NASA Report. [15] R. 2003. edited by Barker R.Wiley Interscience. A.Repas. Energy Conversion Eng. 1972. Aircraft systems. Rotor cooling arrangement. Cleveland. Tolliver. D. Kasdan. OH. Moir. New York. 2008. US Patent No. VA. R. [14] W. Macosco. 6661133B2. Conf. Chichester. and Schamiloglu E. NASA Lewis Research Center. Oberly. US Patent No 4943746.