I.

PROJECT TITLE:
“GULOD” Evacuation Centre
A proposed Local Weather and Calamity Rescue Centre that
could withstand and adapt from the natural calamities
that endanger the lives of native and local residence
within the community. Development of 3 shelter prototypes
that is stable, resilient, and adaptive to natural
calamities.

PURPOSE
The primary purpose of the Evacuation Centre Plan is to
provide guidance to municipalities for the consideration of
public health matters during the establishment and monitoring of
an evacuation centre. It considers the physical requirements,
health protection, and health promotion amongst evacuees housed
in an evacuation centre.

KEY PRINCIPLES
Planning for an evacuation centre needs to address many
public health concerns. These include the physical amenities and
space required for well-being, minimizing the risk of different
calamities and the need to promote the health of evacuees to
prevent the acute exacerbation of diseases.
The Community Emergency Control Group is ultimately
responsible for the activation of an evacuation centre in the
event that resources are not equipped to manage the accommodation
requirements following a decision to evacuate a population.
Activation of an evacuation centre will require multi-agency
consultation and response.

USE OF THE GUIDELINE
Preparing for and responding to a public health emergency
is a Health Unit wide responsibility. This document serves as a
reference to organizers of an evacuation centre in order to
mitigate and prevent different calamities.

However, as in any emergencysituation, there may be
factors which cannot be covered by a single set of guidelines.
This document should be used as a guide for consideration
rather than a mandatory directive. It does not replace the need
for the application of expert judgment to each individual
situation.

Introduction

Planning for an evacuation centre needs to address many
public health concerns. These include the physical amenities and
space required for well-being, minimizing of the risk of
communicable disease outbreaks, and the need to promote the
health of evacuees to prevent the acute exacerbation of chronic
diseases.
The Municipal Emergency Response Plans detail emergency
preparedness, response and recovery arrangements for the
community to ensure the coordinated response to emergencies by
all agencies, which have responsibilities and functions in
emergencies.
The Municipality’s Community Control Group is ultimately
responsible for the activation of an evacuation centre in the
event that normal resources are not equipped to manage the
accommodation requirements following a decision to evacuate a
population. Activation of an evacuation centre will require
multi agency consultation and response.
This document provides guidance regarding public health
matters that may need to be considered in the establishment and
monitoring of an evacuation centre. It will not consider
provision of medical or mental health services, although these
too will have a significant impact on the health of the evacuee
population.

I.

STATEMENT PROBLEM:

A National Government-owned and controlled
decided that one thousand eight hundred (1,800
property located in Almeda Highway, Naga City
Evacuation Centre to serve as their shelter
calamities that usually occur within the place.

corporation has
square meters)
shall host an
during natural

A) SPACE REQUIREMENTS:
A.1. Physical Amenities
Areas Required:
1. Administration / Staff Areas
2. Registration Areas
3. Mud/Disinfecting Areas (to prevent mud and debris
being tracked into the building
This will simply cleaning and also reduce the risk
of falls on wet floors)
4. Sleeping Areas (including “addresses” within the
sleeping area so that evacuees can be easily
located for follow-up of social or medical issues)
5. Eating Area
6. Shower and toilet facilities
7. Kitchen/food preparation Area
8. Garbage collection Area
9. Laundry
10.Special Purpose Areas (e.g. prayer area)
11.Storage
12.Hand washing stations
13.Clinic area
14.Isolation area for potentially infectious people
15.Recreation areas (e.g. play area)
16.Child Care
17.Pet holding area (Refer to Section 5)

First Building (Evacuation Centre)
Ground Floor
Space Requirements :
1.
2.
3.
4.

Clinic Admin
Eating Area
4. Storage/Utility
Isolation Room

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Laundry Area
Restrooms
Hand wash Area
Admin Area
Disinfecting Area

Second Floor:
10.
11.
12.

Staffs Area
Shower Room
Hand Wash Area

Second Building (Rescue Centre)
Space requirements:
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Offices
Restrooms
Sleeping Quarters
Storage
Lobby
Rescue Equipments

Third building (Local Weather Station)
Space Requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sleeping Quarters
Lobby
Offices
Storage
Restrooms

Physical amenities
Selection of an evacuation center site and management of the
center is the responsibility of other agencies. The information
below provides guidance for public health services if they are
asked to provide advice as to the adequacy of planned facilities.

Mud/disinfecting area
Often evacuees may come from an area that has been
contaminated (e.g. by sewage) or is muddy or dusty. In order to
maintain the cleanliness of the facility and reduce the chance of
introduction of disease an area at the entrance to the facility
should be put aside for cleaning mud from shoes and clothes.
Toilets
Ideally there should be a maximum of 20 people for each
available toilet. In the initial phases of the emergency a figure
of 50 people per toilet may be used until additional facilities
are available. Use of toilets could be arranged by households
and/or segregated by sex. The allocation of toilets may depend on
the demographics of the evacuees (e.g. predominantly male vs.
predominantly female). A regular cleaning roster should be
established and maintained. Toilet facilities should include
provision for the disposal of women’s sanitary products (e.g.
bins with tight fitting lids). Toilets should be sited in such a
way as to minimize threats to users (particularly children and
females). This includes appropriate lighting, or provision of
torches to those in the evacuation
center. There should be one
wash basin per 10 people. Soap, water and hand towels should be
available in the toilets for hand washing. Posters promoting hand
washing should be available in the toilet block. Refuse bins with
tight fitting lids should be located in the toilet block.
Facilities for changing infants and for the safe disposal of
children’s used nappies should be established, including hand
washing facilities next to the changing station/s.
Major Evacuation Center: Public Health Considerations Guideline
GL2011_011 Issue date: August 2011 Page 7 of 32
Recreation area
A safe, secure recreation area should be put aside for
children and adults. Children and adults will need an area for
physical activity such as sport and games. Children may also
require an indoor area for more passive activities.

including disposal of regulated clinical waste such as needles and syringes. should comply with local requirements. the garment may be laundered by washing in a washing machine using normal temperature settings and laundry detergent. Garbage receptacles should be lined with plastic bags that can be securely tied shut. Many people who use needles and syringes may be reluctant to disclose their need publicly. If laundry facilities are provided there should be one wash stand per 100 people. If feces can easily be removed using toilet paper. nor should they be compressed by hand to expel excess air. Garbage bins should have tight fitting lids to discourage vermin.g. however public Health services may be asked for advice. This will require at least two sets of essential items.Laundry (where available) Laundry should be processed off-site as far as possible. All affected people should have access to sufficient changes of clothing to ensure their thermal comfort. clinic areas) should have some capacity for the safe disposal of needles and syringes. hence all evacuation center facilities (e. dignity. Containers designed for sharp waste disposal should be placed where needles and syringes are used. Garments heavily soiled with feces should be handled carefully. Major Evacuation Centers: Public Health Considerations Guideline GL2011_011 Issue date: August 2011 Page 9 of 32 Garbage should be placed in an area separated from the living spaces. to enable laundering. wearing gloves.daily. If daily pick-ups are not occurring. Any donated clothing must be washed and screened for appropriateness before distribution. ensure the garbage is stored in a . Facilities should be provided for the proper disposal of needles and syringes used for medications. and placed in a plastic bag for disposal. preferably in garbage bins. Garbage (solid waste management) Local council is responsible for waste management in an emergency. Waste disposal. Garbage bags should not be overfilled. health and well-being. particularly underclothes. or undertaken in an area separate to personal hygiene facilities. There is no need to disinfect the tubs of washers or tumblers of dryers if cycles are run until they are completed. Sharps containers must be AS/NZS compliant. Waste pick-ups should be frequently scheduled . if possible. toilet blocks.

shady location in secure bins. they should be: • located outdoors. There should be 2. equipment and programs may be possible through contacts and relationships with area schools. Children may also require an indoor area for more passive activities. Access to gyms. refer to the Smoke Free Ontario Act and local municipal bylaws. There should be at least one 100L bin per 40 people. Tobacco use reduction and cessation support may be offered. Training for evacuation centre staff and volunteers regarding substance use prevention and awareness may be valuable as an anticipatory measure or upon identification of concerns regarding substance use or abuse by evacuees. Evacuees will need an area for physical activity such as sport and games. must be There is no legal obligation to provide designated smoking areas. Assistance or support in accessing or using nicotine-replacement therapy may be available from the Health Unit. Recreation Area A safe.5 garbage collectors for litter control per 1000 residents. sports fields. clearly designated and well-ventilated with no possibility the resultant smoke will contaminate indoor areas • located away from cross-traffic and where people may be congregated • provided with garbage cans and ash cans For more information regarding tobacco regulations. However. Age-appropriate physical activities can be recommended based on available resources. secure recreation area should be designated. . Smoking The Smoke Fee Ontario Act and local bylaws adhered to in and around the evacuation centre. if it is decided such areas are to be provided. The bin should have a tight fitting lid and be changed every 2 days.

locks. F. To design a building that can easily adapt from the local weather and natural calamities occurring in the vicinity. Reaction time (travel distance to refuge and activation time for emergency support systems). L. resiliency and adaptability. DESIGN OBJECTIVES : A. G. E. tropical design. K. III. H. Duration of occupancy C. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: A. C. B. D. To design a building applying vernacular architecture. Security/ Safety of the E. sustainable architecture. Privacy D. green architecture. doors. To design a building that will serve as a quick reference for the people in the community when setting up temporary shelters and evacuation centre during emergencies / calamities. windows/view ports) Isolation areas for ill or contaminated occupants or equipment Adaptability to the effects of climate change Water Supply Vernacular Architecture Tropical Design Green Architecture Sustainable Architecture Energy Conservation . To design a 3 prototype evacuation building showing stability. F. To design a building using the available materials within the vicinity. J. building (secure storage. energy conservation. I. and proper space planning. To design an evacuation centre that shall be expressive of the national government desire to render excellence public service B.II.

1. TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM     (WOOD.3   RECOMMENDATIONS Provide adequate ties for joints & frames Provide additional. CONCRETE.NIPA.ANAHAW) CONCRETE- CONSTRUCTION A. STEEL) ROOFING SYSTEM & MATERIAL WIND EFFECTS ON BLDGS LOCATION & ORIENTATION OF BLDGS A. CHARACTERISTICS       A. Local Weather & Calamities Climate Resiliency I. ties on joints or framing connections   .M. INDIGENOUS (BAMBOO.COCOLUMBER.2 Lightweight Temporary Least stiff W/ height limitation Most economical Prone to infestation EFFECTS  Severe damage like uplifting of the roof or even the entire structure due to lightness & lack of stiffness A. support & bracings on existing structural frames Increase dead load by using heavier materials especially for bamboo construction Provide additional. CONCRETE-WOOD. STEEL. WIND & WATER EFFECTS ON BLDGS.

STEEL C. CONCRETE B.2 EFFECTS .3 CHARACTERISTICS  Heavy and sturdy  Permanent  Cost effective because of abundance of aggregates in the locality EFFECTS  Minimal damage like cracks due to rocking & vibration. Provide emergency anchorage like concrete.1 B.2 B. stone pegs.  For worst cases crumbling of building due to poor structural design RECOMMENDATIONS      Practice appropriate mixture proportion for the different structural elements Observe standard structural anchorage Provide allowance for movements like control joints Evaluate existing structure for possible defects and damage Avoid using sub-standard materials C.1 CHARACTERISTICS        Lightweight and strong Lasts longer when properly primed and painted Subject to corrosion under salty environment Pest resistance Less construction time required More expensive than concrete Availability is a problem C. or trees to tie structure when the need arises B.

1 CHARACTERISTICS  Cost effective as selection of materials is an option  Most preferred type of construction  Allows flexibility in design D.1 Effect   Hip type is more stable form than gable Shed is economical yet most vulnerable uplift wind effect to . MIXED (Concrete. Shed. Wood) D. bracings. Provide proper anchorage Avoid using sub-standard materials Evaluate existing structure for defects and damage possible ROOFING SYSTEM A. Types (Gable. Curved) A. Hip. Steel. stiffeners and joints must be fully welded or properly bolted Apply rust protection coatings Evaluate existing structure for possible defects and damage D.3 RECOMMENDATIONS    II.3 RECOMMENDATIONS    Provide additional.2 EFFECTS   Incompatibility of materials may result to structural collapse Separation at joints due to weak or lack of anchorage D. Minimal damage like twisting and buckling under high wind velocity conditions C.

2 RECOMMENDATIONS   Use roof shapes that are less resistant to wind Avoid low pitch roof form B. roofing Provide add’l. fasteners at roof sheet lapping Provide nets for indigenous roofing Concrete decks must be water tight and with sufficient over flow drains Use if possible concrete gutters w/ overflow provision Provide & secure screen over concrete gutters to prevent clogging from foreign materials Provide adequate stainless ties for clay & concrete roof tiles Roof vents must have smaller slots to diffuse wind C.I. Materials (G. Concrete.I. Clay) B..I.2 RECOMMENDATIONS         Invest on thicker gauge for G. roofing if of a lower gauge is prone to ripping and uplift Concrete deck is subject to water seepage B. WIND EFFECTS ON BLDGS       DIRECT PRESSURE DRAG SUCTION ROCKING. Indigenous. BUFFERING VIBRATION CLEAN-OFF EFFECT .1 EFFECTS    Indigenous roofing materials have poor wind resistance and subject to water leaks G. Curve roofs is less vulnerable to aerodynamic drag  A.

makes recommendations and initiates remedial action in areas of accommodation standards related to: i. . sanitation. as in an evacuation centre or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance.) Public Health Role and Responsibilities Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease. prolonging life and promoting health”. ii. distribution iv.     Open & relatively flat terrain has high risk probability for wind effects Projecting elements are subject to clean-off Buildings at coastal areas are prone to flooding & high wind pressure Consider geographic & geologic factor for site selection (some areas are subject to liquefaction. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people. The Health Unit does not provide acute care medical services for evacuees. erosion. food handling. in the case of a pandemic). It is concerned with threats to the overall health of the community based on population health analysis. storage. preparation. LOCATION & ORIENTATION OF BLDGS. appropriate infection and control practices b) Liaises with local social service agencies on areas of mutual concern regarding evacuation centres related to public health information. flooding. overcrowding. and service. etc. iii. air quality. monitoring of water supply. sewage and waste disposal.D. The Health Unit is responsible for the following with respect to an evacuation centre: a) Provides inspection of evacuation centres. The municipal emergency response plans outline numerous responsibilities of the Medical Officer of Health/Health Unit during an emergency.

evacuees should be accommodated near to their homes. The health information system would include a component to ensure the timely detection of and response to infectious disease outbreaks. it would be generated and shared with all relevant agencies. social services) may be used to assist in the interpretation of surveillance data and to guide decisionmaking. electricity. If the nature of the emergency is such that the evacuation site is likely to be affected (e. power. Responsibility for the production of the epidemiological report is that of the Health Unit Research. Physical Space and Air Circulation . management of If a regular epidemiological report is needed. police. Any building should be structurally sound and have sufficient emergency exits. Surveillance and Evaluation team at the time of the health emergency.c) Provides surveillance and Public Health infectious disease cases and outbreaks. decision-makers and the community. those using mobility aids and those with very young children. This should be considered when planning an evacuation site. Confidentiality of the data stored would be ensured and reporting performed in a non-disclosive fashion. Supplementary data from other relevant sources (e. Ensure that gas.g. water and/or sanitation failures) then it is preferable to move people to a site of safety. The frequency of the report will vary with the emergency and the stage of the emergency.g. The facility will likely be housing individuals with limited physical mobility – including those in wheelchairs. water and sewerage systems have been checked by the relevant authorities. Location Where possible and safe.

The floor-to-ceiling height is also a key factor.72 m2per person will often be required to meet these considerations. 2011) . Materials to screen personal space and opportunities for internal subdivision within the evacuation centre should be provided. The internal floor-to ceiling height should be a minimum of two meters at the highest point. Individual spaces can aid the provision of adequate privacy and safety. All care will be provided in a manner that shows courtesy and consideration for a person’s culture. Lower temperatures may leave vulnerable persons prone to hypothermia. issues arising from a disability and right to privacy (New South Whales. A lower height is preferable in cold times of the year to minimize the internal volume that requires heating. Safety. religious beliefs. Population Health .Living areas should be well ventilated with a reasonable supply of fresh air available. People should have sufficient covered living space providing thermal comfort. High temperatures may lead to heat stress. People seeking or receiving assistance in an evacuation centre and those who provide that care have the right to be treated with respect. safety and health and enables essential household and livelihood activities to be undertaken. Well-planned access routes through the evacuation centre should be highlighted.11) and cooking shall only occur in the food preparation area. This ensures their privacy. Rights and Responsibilities Where possible. with greater height being preferable in hot and humid times of the year to aid air circulation. There shall be no smoking in the evacuation centre (Refer to Section 3. families should be accommodated together. Privacy. fresh air and protection from the climate. A covered floor area in excess of 3. Department of Health. sexual orientation.Disaster Management. The ambient temperature of the building should ideally be 17-21°C.

their religious and cultural practices. and so on. The very young and the elderly are at the highest risk of dehydration. Consider the number of people per tap and the water flow. the clothes they wear.Baby Friendly Environment It is important to establish. Women should be welcomed to breastfeed anywhere and privacy should be accommodated if desired. A rough guide is 250 people per tap when the water flow is 7.5L/min. support and information can be offered to assist families in achieving optimal health. In an absolute emergency. Excessive waiting time suggests that there is inadequate water availability. the sanitation facilities available. People in the centre should be provided with information regarding any water quality concerns. at least 15L per person per day should be supplied for drinking. Water Requirements The quantities of water needed for domestic use may vary according to the climate. Ideally. People should have to queue for no more than 15 minutes to access water and it should take no more than three minutes to fill a 20L container. The following table advises basic survival water needs: .g. containers dedicated to water collection should be provided for family groups). people's normal habits. maintain and support an environment that is welcoming and accommodating to families and breastfeeding mothers. Steps should be taken to minimize post-water delivery contamination (e. cooking and personal hygiene requirements. the food they cook. The allocated amount may need to be increased in hot conditions or where heavy work is being carried out. Regardless of a family’s infant feeding decision. 7L per person per day of water should be provided.

A ratio of one shower per 50 people is suggested if the weather is temperate and one shower per 30 people in hot weather. and obtained from a source approved by the Medical Officer of Health or Public Health Inspector. dignity and well-being must be accessible (e. in sufficient quantity to meet the needs of the occupants.5-15 litres per day Water supplied to the evacuation centre shall be potable. Cleaning of Living Areas Rosters of personnel (either volunteers or evacuees) should be developed and systematic cleaning undertaken. Cleaning materials should be made available to all residents and residents encouraged to keep the evacuation centre clean and . feminine hygiene products). Hand hygiene and good respiratory etiquette (covering coughs and sneezes) should be promoted with education materials and distribution of equipment (e. A supply of personal hygiene products should be available to evacuees and additional items essential for ensuring personal hygiene. incontinence pads.Simplified table of basic survival water needs Survival needs: 2.g. alcohol-based hand cleanser. and waste containers) if possible. Personal Hygiene Good personal hygiene should be promoted throughout the centre. Separate handwashing stations should be set up near toilet and meal areas and there should be systems in place to ensure high compliance.5-3 litres per day Depends on: the water intake climate and (drinking and food) individual physiology Basic hygiene 2-6 litres per day Depends on: social practices and cultural norms Basic cooking needs 3-6 litres per day Total basic water Depends on: food type. Each individual should have access to a supply of soap. tissues. social as well as cultural norms 7.g.

tidy. emesis.g. Household bleach and detergents are dangerous and should be stored securely away from children. apron and a face shield should be worn.e. If using bleach. People should not eat in the sleeping area to facilitate ease of cleaning and reduce the attraction of insects. Any cleaning materials designated. Kitchens and bathrooms should be cleaned at least daily and as necessary (e. Cleaning of high-risk surfaces High-risk surfaces include: is particularly important. Where needed. Because of the potentially high ratio of residents to toilets. It is preferable to wear disposable gloves while performing cleaning activities. Bed frames. Designated centre personnel should ensure surfaces are wiped down with disinfectant at least hourly while the premises are occupied and basic supplies such as hand soap. . reduce microbial contamination to safer levels) high-risk surfaces using a household disinfectant or a mixture of 1 teaspoon of household bleach in 1 liter of clean water.g. temporary evacuation centres have a particular need for frequent and supervised cleaning and maintenance of washroom facilities. Keeping surfaces and items clean helps reduce the spread of infections among people living or working at the evacuation centre. Sleeping areas must be kept neat and tidy to facilitate cleaning activities. secure cupboard. blood. electrostatically mopped or vacuumed daily. after use). and toilet paper are maintained in each washroom. Spills should be cleaned up immediately. paper towels. Other furniture should be cleaned weekly and as needed. gloves. Surfaces should be cleaned with a household cleaner when visibly dirty and on a regular schedule. should be safely stored in a All floors should be swept. Sanitize (i. feces). mixed fresh daily. mattresses and pillows should be cleaned and their coverings laundered between occupants. disinfectant solutions should be made up as required and then discarded by being flushed with copious amounts of water down the sink (down a dedicated sink for cleaners if available). • food preparation surfaces • surfaces used for diaper changing • surfaces soiled with body fluid (e.

Food Preparation Area Where possible. they should be encouraged to consume it entirely or throw out the leftovers. Dining tables should be cleaned and sanitized after each use. Pets and Public Health The Health Unit does not recommend pets be allowed into the evacuation centre with the exception of service animals. pets may pose a risk to public health through transmission of disease. Donation of foods prepared in home kitchens should not be served. It is preferable to have a Public Health Inspector from the Health Unit inspect the food preparation area prior to its use to ensure it meets the appropriate standards. An exception to this rule would be low-risk baked goods. food should be prepared on-site in a dedicated food preparation area where food preparation standards are observed. A separate dining area should be made available to assist in keeping the evacuation centre clean. When people bring their own hot food into the evacuation centre. The dining area floors should be washed daily and maintained in a sanitary condition. The appropriateness of housing pets in public evacuation centres should be carefully considered (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While having a pet nearby may provide a source of comfort for those who have been evacuated. 2005). . risk of injury and loss of amenity (noise and smell).Food Safety All foods served in the evacuation centre should be prepared in a Health Unit approved facility. Food should not be consumed in sleeping areas. There is a risk to public health if people refuse to evacuate because of concern for a pet’s welfare and the municipality should be prepared to provide advice.

feathers.g. the following guidelines developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. disposal of feces) and frequently washing their hands.g. Pregnant women or immunocompromized people should not have contact with used litter. Children younger than 5 years old should not handle reptiles without adult supervision. Control of Communicable Diseases . Dogs should be walked regularly on a leash outside the centre to allow them to urinate and defecate in designated areas. Animals must be kept out of food preparation areas. If this is done. as well as the safety of the people in the evacuation centre. either via caging or a leash. Hand washing should be monitored by an adult. Animal evacuation centres or foster homes may be good alternatives. Anyone bitten by an animal should speak with a healthcare provider to discuss associated concerns (e. People caring for pets in evacuation centres should practice good hygiene by cleaning up after their pets (e. rabies). tissue trauma. may help reduce risk of injury or disease: • •  • • • • • If a pet is kept at a human evacuation centre. Any feces should be immediately collected and disposed of. Cats should be kept in a cage with a litter box that is cleaned frequently. If there is no alternative to having pets in the evacuation centre. This is for the animal’s safety. infection.Sometimes separate areas can be established for pets. Bites and scratches should be thoroughly cleaned with soap and water. Furred or feathered pets should be housed in areas separate from people with allergies or asthma triggered by fur. then these areas should be staffed with animal care personnel who have been trained in the handling of animals. as well as appropriate approaches to infection control. it should not be allowed to roam freely around the facility and should be kept under control at all times. at least once every 24 hours. or dander. and should always wash their hands after doing so.

These posters should be placed in prominent locations in the evacuation centre. there is an increased chance of wound contamination. Bathing and laundry resources are also likely to be limited. They should be aware of the procedures required to manage a person with a potentially infectious disease. Vaccinations The organization of a vaccination campaign requires good management ability and technical knowledge. Good infection control. In areas that have been flood-affected. Responsibilities for each component of the vaccination program rest with the Health Unit. plans for effective sanitation. The centre staff should ensure that appropriate hygiene and cleaning facilities are available.Any evacuation centre should provide a focus on preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Numbers of mosquitoes can increase significantly following floods in warmer months. Public health services may need to provide advice or basic training of this topic. Control measures should ensure that water holes or containers capable of holding water are regularly checked for evidence of mosquito breeding. safe food handling and what people should do if they become ill. The Health Unit’s Vaccine Preventable Diseases Program is experienced in setting up vaccination clinics and managing immunization needs. . Posters should be posted emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. and plans for the isolation of people with infectious disease can mitigate the risk of a large-scale infectious disease outbreak. people should have their tetanus vaccination status assessed and be immunized if their vaccination is not up to date or unknown. Residents should be encouraged to clean wounds appropriately. Evacuation centres may have limited capacity for providing sanitary and food preparation facilities. People should be discouraged from preparing food or laundry on-site as this may lead to unsanitary conditions. Where puncture or other contaminated wounds have occurred. careful attention to food handling and storage.

dispose of tissues in the garbage after one use • wash hands or use alcohol-based hand cleanser after coughing. Routine vaccines will be considered first. waste receptacles and facilities in evacuation centre living areas hand hygiene • prepare food hygienically. volunteers and evacuees can reduce the spread of infectious diseases. Before entering an evacuation centre. or towels • have sharps disposal containers available Management of People with Infectious Diseases in Evacuation Centres The arrival of people who may have symptomatic infections. Encourage good personal hygiene practices by adopting the following: • cover coughs/sneezes with tissues or sleeves. toothbrushes. sneezing. The vaccination program will consider each person individually in the context of the presenting situation. This is particularly true of respiratory infections and enteric diseases. all residents should be requested to report the following conditions: • fever • cough (new or changed) . General Infection Control for Evacuation Centres Use of appropriate infection control measures by all staff. after going to the toilet and before eating • provide tissues. • do not share eating utensils or drinking containers • do not share personal care items such as combs.There is no predefined list of vaccines for any single emergency. razors. and/or unrecognized or incubating infectious diseases. combined with potential for crowding and limited sanitary infrastructure increases the risk of infections spreading among residents and between residents and staff. If possible. Further vaccines will be considered according to the presenting risk. all evacuees should be up-to-date with current standard vaccine recommendations.

• vomiting • diarrhea • rash People with any of the above conditions should be admitted to the evacuation centre only after appropriate medical evaluation and care. However. the ill individual(s) should be separated from other residents or transferred to a special accommodation centre or “sick bay” (see Section 6. Ensure that the area is kept clean and appropriately supplied. If several people with similar symptoms are identified. in order to consult health authorities in a timely fashion. but should seek medical evaluation by their own healthcare provider for assessment and clearance prior to returning to work. an area for people with an enteric illness and another area for people with respiratory illness. they may be housed together in one area. Residents of the centre should be instructed to report any of the above conditions to the centre staff. beds should be separated by at least 2 metres and preferably screened. A system for identifying and notifying the staff at the receiving . Each separate area will have to have health staff cohorted to monitor and care for the people housed there. More than one separate area may be needed if more than one illness is identified in the population. A dedicated toilet facility should be identified and reserved for use of the ill individuals only. The sick bay should ideally be a room where the sick person can be isolated. either within the centre or nearby.5). Evacuation centre staff with any of the above symptoms should not work in the centre. For example. 2009). If a communicable disease is identified in a person already residing at the centre. Each evacuation centre should have a clear plan for transferring individuals with potentially infectious diseases from the centre to an appropriate “sick bay”. but which can be closely monitored by centre staff. (Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Ill individuals with respiratory symptoms should wear a surgical mask if in close proximity to others while awaiting evaluation or transfer. A separate area or room to house potentially infectious people should be identified in advance. A waiting area should be designated that is separate from the main centre living areas. Evacuation centre staff should be actively and regularly asking residents of the centre about the presence of above syndromes in order to identify illness.

noting that people in this situation only need the level of care that family or friends would usually provide. It is strongly recommended that such facilities are planned for. The use of Standard Precautions aims to protect residents and staff from exposure to recognized and unrecognized sources of infection. whether or not gloves are worn • when hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with respiratory secretions. or after touching the patient’s respiratory secretions.4) for any interactions that require potential contact with body fluids and should place particular emphasis on hand hygiene. and that centre staff. be in place.“sick bay” must accessible. body fluids or respiratory secretions • change gloves and gowns after each patient encounter and wash hands or use alcohol-based hand cleanser immediately after removing gloves • wash hands or use alcohol-based hand cleanser before and after touching a patient. respiratory secretions or potentially contaminated surfaces • wear a disposable gown if clothes might become soiled with a patient’s blood. body fluids. Hand hygiene stations must be Centre staff working with people who have symptoms of illness should use Routine Practices (defined in Section 6. but does require a separate room because of the nature of the disease or because of the potential to infect others. Public health services should be prepared to make recommendations for the appropriate placement of affected people. after touching the patient’s environment. some with health care experience . wash hands with soap (either plain or antimicrobial) and water • cover any cuts or sores prior to patient care • wear a mask and protective eye wear if there is a risk of splash of bodily fluids. ‘Sick Bays’/Special Temporary Accommodation Centres There will be circumstances where a person becomes unwell and does not require hospital-level care. Routine Practices and Additional Precautions: • wear gloves if hand contact is expected with blood.

food. Provision should be made to accommodate at least up to 2% of people in this fashion. registered nurses). Coordination of lab testing in the event of an outbreak would be done in consultation with the Health Unit.g. the very young. PPE). those who are unimmunized or who have incomplete immunization. who are willing to care for sick people are identified. Susceptible groups (e. the Health Unit should be immediately informed.e. and provided with the appropriate instruction and supplies (i.g. Surveillance and Detection When a communicable disease outbreak is suspected among the residents. However. that source must be controlled in consultation with the Health Unit. and the very old) may need particular protection. Control of Non-Communicable Diseases/Chronic Illness Management Injury The health information system should identify any injuries related to the evacuation centre and implement injury prevention programs to minimize the risk of injury in evacuees. water. will be If a source is suspected. (e. in a closed environment the prevalence is likely to be higher and greater space may be required should an outbreak occur.g. environment). This is an estimate based on the prevalence of infectious diseases during the winter period in the population. in consultation with the Health Unit.(e. A clear referral pathway to hospital care (if required) and for reporting disease outbreaks should be made available during the accommodation planning. Case definitions and thresholds for notification developed. .

Therefore. Alcohol-based hand cleanser is an effective addition to hand washing and a reasonable temporary substitute when soap and clean water are not readily available. Sample posters are also provided for information. additional attention should be paid to positioning alcoholbased hand cleanser dispensers in convenient locations. such as: • the entrance to the facility. • throughout the living areas (depending on the size of the venue). Evacuation centres are likely to have limited availability of and/or accessibility to sinks for hand washing. Ensure all arriving residents are instructed on their use and availability. Returning Home Information . Hand Hygiene It is important for residents to wash their hands regularly and to dry them with a paper towel to avoid illness. • at the beginning of food service lines and • in toilet facilities. Staff and residents should wash their hands with soap and running water for at least 10 seconds after using the toilet and before handling food. Posters are available from the Health Unit.Hygiene Promotion A hygiene promotion campaign should be established within the centre. Hand hygiene messages are provided in Appendix 4 and 6. This should be included in the evacuee induction.

More and more experts acknowledge that while we must continue to do all we can to slow . or other natural disaster.g. insulin and refrigeration) • specific medical equipment oxygen cylinders. General Practitioner. evacuees are transferred to longer-term accommodation • provide information to evacuees on the current situation and actions to take regarding recovery from the incident (e. clean up information. blood glucose monitor. utilities supply) • information and advice about whom to contact if any ill health effects develop (e. Climate Adaptation Climate scientists have been speaking out for decades about the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to avoid a significantly warmer and less livable future. bandages) (e. local hospital) Specific assistance and advice may be required for people with existing illness or injuries prior to returning home. disease or injury to individuals and families from hazards resulting from the disaster.g. if considered unsafe. such as: • adequate prescription medication supply and storage facility (e. flood.g.g. the Health Unit will provide information and guidance in order to reduce the probability of illness. Designing energy- efficient buildings is an important step toward preventing more drastic warming. We need to redouble these efforts—the 2030 Challenge goal of carbon-neutral buildings by 2030 will be a difficult yet critical standard to meet. the future is already here—and it’s only getting warmer. The criteria for evacuees returning home may include: • the incident is under control and not expected to escalate • residential premises are considered safe by the relevant authorities or.When it is time for people to return home after a cyclone. Now that climate change is finally part of the public discussion. safety precautions.

based on modeling of a variety of greenhouse gas emissions levels. A report issued in June 2009 by the U. co-director of the Institute of the Environment at the University of Arizona and a co-author of the USGCRP report. mitigation efforts. “The reality of climate change is unequivocal—we see it in many aspects of the Earth’s climate system.1ºC–6. or even whether it is happening at all.S. Climate Change Science Program from 2002 through 2008 under the George W. Ph. by most accounts. but the scientific consensus is overwhelmingly clear. be very different by the end of this century from the one we know today. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)—which coordinates climate change research of 13 federal agencies and operated as the U.” said Stephen Schneider. and economic scenarios. we must also begin designing buildings that will work in a changing climate.D. professor of biology and interdisciplinary environmental studies at Stanford University and a leading proponent of climate change adaptation. The Reality of Climate Change Debate may continue in some circles about whether humans are causing climate change. “Where it gets a bit more speculative is with questions like how many ..5ºF average (0. “The confidence that something is going to happen is exceedingly high. A matter of degrees The question in the scientific community seems to be not whether we will see change but how much we will see.S.1ºC) by the end of this century.8ºC) temperatures since before have the risen Industrial Revolution and could rise another 2ºF–11ºF (1.greenhouse gas emissions. Bush presidency— estimates that approximately global 1. Ph..D. This article examines the science of global climate change and looks at how we can adapt the built environment to a world that will.” said Jonathan Overpeck.

rising sea levels due to melting glaciers and land-based ice sheets. longer.0 meters (15–40 inches) if CO 2concentrations . hotter.000 emphasized years after that if emissions atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise to anywhere between 450–600 ppm (from their current levels around 385 ppm). Ph. These changes will vary from region to region. and colleagues in February 2009 reported that these changes to the earth’s systems due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will stop.meters of sea level rise we will see and what the changes in rainfall will look like. of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). the ability of the oceans and land-based ecosystems to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. such as melting sea ice decreasing the capacity of the northern oceans to reflect solar radiation back out of the atmosphere. and the robustness of our efforts to curb the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Susan Solomon.4 and 1. and further consequences are on their way..D. Some effects of the warming planet are already being felt. and “positive feedback loops”— consequences of warming that cause further warming. He suggests that the extent of change depends on a few primary factors. and more frequent heat waves. loss of both sea ice and protective snowpack in coastal areas. we will see permanent decreases in dry-season rainfall and “inexorable sea level rise”— between 0. be largely The irreversible authors for 1. including the speed with which the climate responds to varying concentrations of greenhouse gases. or “climate sensitivity”.” Schneider told EBN. even in areas where overall precipitation will decline. Alarmingly. stressed water sources due to drought and decreased alpine snowfall. but general trends include changing precipitation patterns and heavier downpours.

The implications are clear: no amount of mitigation will prevent potentially devastating impacts. we cannot stop greenhouse gas emissions on a dime.000 ppm—the consequences of which would be catastrophic. believe that we must reduce CO2 levels to below 350 ppm or risk “irreversible catastrophic effects. which means we are looking at changes to the earth’s systems that could radically alter our way of life.” Adaptation: ‘Not an either-or proposition’ Much of what we already do in green building is related to mitigating (preventing or slowing) our impact on climate change. and 0. but he argues that ultimately. Ph. Other scientists. as in the case of New Orleans.reach 600 ppm.” says Schneider. “What should be done about [climate change] is a legitimate debate. These policy efforts have been slower than some climate scientists feel is necessary. it’s necessary for us to adapt. climate more Some adaptation provisions into their long-range planning.D. The human tendency to adapt reactively is well documented. including James Hansen.. director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. and in August 2009 California unveiled the first statewide strategy to adapt to climate change.6 to 1. But proactive adaptation widespread impacts municipalities have will of begun be necessary climate to to change incorporate avoid far elsewhere. and some of this may be due to a perception that adaptation initiatives will take time and resources away from mitigation programs.9 meters (24–75 inches) if concentrations rise above 1. mitigation and adaptation must . But given the slow pace of climate policy changes and the stillcontentious political climate. where the destruction of Hurricane Katrina laid bare the city’s vulnerability to extreme storms.

will be very different from what makes sense in the Arctic. reduced emissions. Many of these strategies make sense for other reasons. Warmer temperatures Increasing temperature is at the heart of climate change. this is not a comprehensive list. incorporate high insulation levels to reduce conductive heat gain.complement each other. incorporate exterior shading devices above glazing.” he told EBN. but providing resilience to the effects of a changing climate may prove to be the easiest way to justify—or mandate—such changes. and air-conditioning injuries.and west-facing glazing. There changing are many climate. ways The in which strategies we can described plan today below for a provide a sampling of ideas. Alaska. climate—what more and Heat-adaptive makes sense in Phoenix. according to John Davies. specify glazings tuned to the orientation (glass with a low solar heat gain coefficient on east and west façades). where melting permafrost is already affecting foundation design. Ph. research director at the Cold Climate Housing Research Center in Fairbanks. such as reduced operating costs.” Jonathan Overpeck agrees: “Adaptation and mitigation are not an either-or proposition. provide high- .D. and responding to this change is a critical component of any climate-change adaptation frequent waves heat increase heat-related strategies differ strategy. “The bottom line is that you’ve got to adapt to what won’t get mitigated—and unfortunately that’s going to be a few degrees—and mitigate what you can’t adapt to.. for and by hotter. limit the area of east. Design cooling-load-avoidance measures into buildings. where temperatures in the summer of 2009 have exceeded 115°F (46°C). Use building geometries to limit solar gain on east and west façades. and greater durability. raise demands deaths markedly Longer.

In some climates. Model energy performance with higher cooling design temperatures. in higherhumidity climates natural ventilation may be more practical as a backup cooling strategy that can be used during power outages as a passive survivability measure or during periods when bringing in outside air will not introduce excessive moisture. the less waste heat is generated. vines. cooling design temperatures used in energy modeling should be raised. office equipment. Design natural ventilation into buildings. Limit internal gains by specifying high-efficiency lighting and equipment.) Provide landscaping to minimize cooling requirements. Carefully designed landscaping can also help to channel cooling breezes into buildings to enhance natural ventilation. and mechanical equipment. Involve landscape architects or designers at the earliest stage of planning with a . (We’re still likely to see cold winters. and green roofs can all help control heat gain and minimize cooling demands on a building. buildings can be designed to rely entirely on natural ventilation. In general. so don’t raise the heating design temperatures. and provide optimized daylighting to minimize the use of electric lighting. appliances. annuals. The higher the efficiency of lighting. particularly those with low relative humidity.albedo (reflective) roofing. With a climate that is projected to become warmer. This will help to justify higher investments in cooling-loadavoidance measures. equipment choices are less important than design decisions since equipment is replaced more frequently. Trees.

drought can occur. (higher-albedo) and pavement installation and walkway of light- surfaces. commonly imposed during Emergency drought. Even in places that receive relatively high levels of precipitation. Neighborhood participation and policies that address urban heat islands will help communities achieve the greatest benefit. Urban heat islands increase cooling requirements and produce localized smog. so designing for drought is a high priority in many regions. Termite ranges are extending north. as we learned in 2007 when Lake Lanier. according to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. the Atlanta area’s primary water source. Address urban heat islands in building design and landscaping. shrank to historically low levels.S.new building so that existing vegetation can be preserved to aid in these uses. It is not unusual for urban heat islands to maintain temperatures 6°F–8°F (3°C–4°C) above that of surrounding rural land. Places that have not traditionally had to deal with drought are less prepared to respond. 2000). so measures to exclude or control these insects should be implemented in the northern U. Specific measures to reduce urban heat islands include tree planting. as these strategies are most effective with widespread implementation. Drought and water shortages Changes in precipitation patterns are an expected outcome of climate change. installation of green roofs on buildings. and parts of Canada (see EBN Sept.. water-use but there restrictions are design- are and . such as the southeastern U. roofing with reflective colored membranes or coatings.S. Plan for termite ranges extending north.

The wait time (and water waste) can be significantly reduced by running a 3⁄8"-diameter (10 mm) line to this feature. Plumb buildings with water-conserving fixtures in mind.planning-related measures that can reduce the risk and lessen the difficulty or long-term impacts of response. For example. . but remarkably rare. Most water fixtures and equipment are replaced relatively often—many cycles within the lifespan of a typical building—but this doesn’t mean you shouldn’t install state-of-the-art water-conserving products when any new building is constructed or an existing building is renovated. there will be a long wait for hot water. It is likely that much broader building moratoriums will become necessary in many areas in the future.5 gallon per minute (1. if a water-saving. lavatory faucet is supplied by a 3⁄4" (19 mm) pipe. Building owners should ensure that any replacements are state-of-the-art as well. Specify water-efficient fixtures and appliances. in which individual piping lines (PEX tubing) run to each fixture or appliance from a central manifold. An obvious.9 lpm). allows smaller-diameter lines to feed water-conserving fixtures. Avoid new development in the driest regions. structured plumbing (sometimes referred to as “home-run” systems). response to expected water shortages and drought is to restrict affected. In homes. and it makes sense for municipalities to establish procedures today that will enable such measures to be instituted when and if they become necessary. 0. new development California has a in areas provision most requiring likely to be developers of large projects (over 500 housing units) to demonstrate that there will be an adequate water supply for 20 years before a building permit is issued.

it may be possible to locate cisterns high on the building to critically facilitate important gravity during distribution—which power outages or can be emergency situations. such vegetation often dies. and such turf is being planted from Arizona to Maine. the Such local practice climate is and often able to referred survive to periodic as xeriscaping. A better and lower-risk approach is to plant vegetation that is adapted to droughts. it makes sense to plumb wastewater lines to simplify the installation of a graywater system in the future. rainwater can be collected and stored for outdoor irrigation.Plumb buildings for graywater separation. climatically appropriate trees and other vegetation. Similarly. with proper filtration and treatment. Plant native. but that is changing as water shortages become a reality. Even if graywater collection is not permitted today. Areas of turf needed as play areas or for aesthetic reasons can be irrigated with harvested rainwater or graywater regulations allow. distributed evenly over the growing season. In many climates. and. Conventional turf requires about 40 inches (1 m) of rainfall per year. Harvest rainwater. flooding. potable uses. unable to survive without irrigation. and rising sea levels as local . When drought emergencies are imposed. More intense storms. Rainwater collection is still illegal in some states. By addressing rainwater harvesting during design. particularly in the West. no matter what the climate—often locking building owners into decades of watering. the same few dozen trees and shrubs are being planted nationwide. toilet flushing.

to 100-year seeking civil floods. To landscapes complicate less able to matters. changing precipitation patterns are expected to deliver more rainfall in intense storms that result in river flooding. who is writing a book on “design for resilience. and other ecologically based systems to manage storm water.” Watson told EBN. Instead of designing floods.” says Watson. consider engineering or designing surveyor to 500-year assistance as needed. “Restore the ecological services of the landscape. we need to prepare for rising sea levels and restoring the ability of our land to absorb water. the most visible and imminent effects of climate change will likely be the increasing severity of storms. and try to rely on natural features. Expand storm water management capacity and rely on natural systems. Flood zones are expanding—often faster than revisions to zoning regulations. absorb development rainfall. Provide larger storm water conveyance and detention basins. meaning that simply following the law relative to the siting of buildings may not be enough. In the longer term. Adapting to climate change will require making our buildings more resilient to storms and flooding. As water temperatures rise in the South Atlantic. Elsewhere. Avoid building in flood zones.” “We’ve taken away all the absorptive capacity of our landscapes. . has says made our architect Don Watson. constructed wetlands. FAIA. resulting in higher-magnitude hurricanes on the Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard.According to some experts. More intense storms will strain the capacity of standard storm water management infrastructure in some areas. tropical storm systems will pick up more energy.

designing walls to resist shear and lateral forces using engineered wall bracing or shear panels for frame walls and proper use of re-bar for masonry walls. Specify materials that can survive flooding. Especially in locations where flooding or hurricane damage is likely. designing roof geometries (such as hip roofs) that are less prone to wind damage than gable roofs. raised floors are notoriously difficult to insulate and seal. installing outward-opening doors that are less likely to be pushed inward in intense wind. and specifying roofing that has been tested to ASTM standards for wind resistance. The Miami-Dade County Hurricane Code has done a great deal to lessen storm damage in Florida. Examples of specific measures that impart good wind resistance to a building include installing impact-resistant windows (compliant with Miami-Dade Protocols PA 201. properly installing high-strength roof sheathing (such as 5⁄8" plywood) that will resist uplift. anchoring walls properly to foundations or frost walls. use materials that can get wet and then dry out with . use great care to ensure that energy performance and airtightness are not compromised. designing walls to resist uplift using hurricane strapping and other metal fasteners that provide a continuous load path from foundation to roof (see photo above). and PA 203) or exterior shutters. Raise buildings off the ground. PA 202.Design buildings to survive extreme winds. In flood-prone areas—even where flooding is only remotely possible—raise buildings or living spaces above ground level to minimize damage in the event of flooding. This sort of code should be adopted much more widely (not just in hurricane-prone areas) to protect buildings from the more severe storms that are expected. installing continuous roof underlayment. With any type of pier foundation.

Some of our largest population centers and a number of resort developments are located in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to rising sea levels. flooding. These prevent floodwaters from backing up into drains in a building—which can occur when sewers or combined storm sewers are overloaded. fiberglass-faced rather than paper-faced drywall.floodbarriers. Breakaway wall panels on pier foundations in flood-prone areas can destroying allow it. Begin planning for rising sea levels in coastal areas.net). Install check valves in sewer lines. can keep rising floodwaters out in certain situations. In some areas. Considerable planning will be needed to protect buildings and infrastructure in such places— ranging from construction of levees and flood walls to reconfiguring entire coastal landscapes in ways that minimize risks from rising sea levels.minimal damage. it will be necessary . and tile or resilient flooring rather than carpeting. and other elevate equipment above a reasonably expected flood level. Elevate mechanical and electrical equipment. floodwaters Flood vents to pass (permanent under a openings house in without foundation walls) allow floodwaters to escape. danger—from electrical panels. Specialized flood barriers. Such materials include preservative-treated sills and wood framing (choosing environmentally friendly treatments like sodium silicate and borate). To minimize mechanical damage—and equipment. Install specialized components to protect buildings from flooding or allow flooding with minimal damage. such as products made by Savannah Trims (www.

according to the Center for Fire Research and Outreach at the University of California. Wildfire In certain climates and ecosystems. We need to begin planning for such monumental efforts in a serious way. climate change will increase the risk of wildfire—particularly in the West but also in other areas where it is not common today. Berkeley. Measures described here largely concern residential buildings. Standard tile roofs are particularly vulnerable to wildfire.to move entire cities and towns. which addresses both the roofing and underlying components. To reduce risk. Eliminate gutters or design and maintain them to minimize fire risk. Specify Class A roofing. which comprise most of the structures being built in wildfire-prone areas. thus . and other architectural features increase risk because pine needles and other debris accumulate in these places and can catch fire from blowing embers. Most homes that are ignited by wildfires catch fire from airborne embers (firebrands) that may extend ahead of a wildfire by a mile or more. Both which metal can and then vinyl impinge gutters on are the roof-edge problematic— noncombustible metal gutters stay in place when burning.” for roofing. because wind-blown embers can enter attics through gaps in the tile. should be specified (based on ASTM E-108 testing). gutters. The roof is the most vulnerable component of a house to wildfire. Embers can quickly ignite pine needles and other debris caught in assembly. a Class A “assembly rating. valleys. Complex rooflines with dormers. The concern is exacerbated by development that has sprawled into chaparral areas that are managed by periodic fire.

Plastic and wood-plastic composite decks are fairly vulnerable to fires (see EBN Nov. Diligent cleaning of gutters by homeowners is of paramount importance. Solid wood decking is surprisingly resistant to wildfire. Generally more important than the decking materials is the management of the deck area and . and tempered or reinforced glass further helps prevent breakage. this conflicts with moisture-control benefits of deep overhangs. Where vents are used in wildfire areas. Avoid vented roofs or protect vents from ember entry. If gutters are used. though some treated decking products. Eliminating gutters and providing moisture management in some other way is one option in fire-prone areas. offer significantly better fire resistance. maximum 1⁄8" (3 mm) screening should be used. screening and other features can help keep gutters free of debris. Double. 2002). great care is required to control air leakage and moisture entry. though some trap debris above the gutter. Choose deck materials carefully.exposing the roof edge to fire.and triple-glazed windows are less prone to breakage during a fire than single-glazed windows. The best option is to design—and carefully build—an unvented (or hot) roof. exposing siding to fire. and the Berkeley Center for Wildfire Research and Outreach recommends maintaining deep overhangs. tempered windows. While some wildfire design guides suggest limiting roof overhangs (soffit depths) because they can trap pockets of heated air. allowing fire to enter the house. while vinyl gutters typically melt and fall off but continue burning on the ground. Install high-performance. Window glass breaks from thermal stresses during a fire. but even this can admit some embers. Specialized soffit venting products are available to minimize risk. Embers entering a roof through soffit vents are one of the leading causes of home ignition during wildfires. such as Timber SIL.

important. While siding is less often the point of home ignition in a wildfire than the roof.three-coat stucco. and brick. including Firewise. or vents. such as intense storms and flooding. and dead leaves at least 30 feet (10 m) from the house (more on a slope). pruning trees to maintain at least 10 feet (3 m) between branches and the roof. such an extreme measure should not be required in most places. metal siding. maintaining instead a barren “mulch” of crushed stone. Some homeowners go so far as to keep all vegetation away from a home. Drought can also cause power outages indirectly if lack of cooling water for power plants results in rolling blackouts or brownouts. and pruning lower branches of trees near homes to eliminate “fire ladders” that allow fires to reach tree canopies. This is one of the key in EBN May 2006. high-moisture-content plants. detailed . it can be the weak point if these other components are particularly fire-safe or if an adjacent structure catches fire. See references. tenets of passive survivability. Install noncombustible siding. brush. Wood siding can be made “ignition-resistant” by treating it with an exterior fire- retardant chemical. can cause power outages directly.keeping combustible vegetation and other material away from it. Non-combustible options include fiber-cement siding. Recommended practices include keeping dry grasses. Power interruptions Some of the likely impacts of climate change. maintaining firefighter access around the house. for more recommendations. In around a home wildfire-prone is very areas. Patios provide a safer alternative to decks. selecting drought-tolerant. Adapting buildings to climate change should include measures that will make those buildings less affected by power outages. Manage fire-safe vegetation around landscaping homes.org. windows.

Provide site-generated electricity from renewable energy. they can be more easily switched to non-grid power. and passive solar heating. or shortages of water —a design criterion strategies include known an as passive extremely survivability. motors. Provide dual-mode operability with high-rise buildings. Design mechanical systems to operate on DC power. which could be provided by backup generators or renewable energy systems. Provide systems. In the passive mode. so that the building could maintain limited functionality rather than having to be evacuated. passively solar Especially or that hot water. and fans. fire suppression systems. heating system pumps and fans. natural ventilation. If mechanical systems are designed with DC-powered pumps. Incorporate photovoltaic panels into buildings or link buildings with other nearby renewable energy sources such as stand-alone wind turbines or small hydropower facilities. and in an emergency passive mode during power outages or when site-generated power is used. etc. electricity flow would be limited to critical needs such as elevators.Design buildings to maintain passive survivability. apartment buildings. and so forth. ventilation fans. Install appropriate rely on are integral solar systems water-heating that photovoltaic can operate modules to operate pumps so that functionality is maintained during power outages. Homes. Look into designing tall buildings that will operate in normal mode when utility power is available. cooling-load-avoidance features. Specific high-performance building envelope (high insulation levels. triple-glazed windows in cooler climates. and certain other public buildings should be designed to maintain livable conditions in the event of loss of power or heating fuel. . critical lighting.). schools. hospitals.

and being able to retrofit buildings for solar electricity.In urban and suburban sun. power municipal outages planning pedestrian-friendly. Looking to the Future Most effects of of these strategies climate change are for adapting relatively buildings to the straightforward—and eminently doable. . and stronger neighborhood and community networks will make us more resilient to changes and uncertainty in a way that simply building better buildings cannot. requiring significant cultural and economic shifts if we are to adapt to a future that is not only warmer but must transportation function systems. It makes sense to incorporate these into our design palette today. agricultural Alternate practices and food systems. electricity and maintain access solar-thermal to energy the will become increasingly important with climate change. and general shortages Providing functionality through during effective high-density. gasoline zoning. The good news is that many of these measures also help to mitigate climate change—and quite a few reduce building operating costs or improve durability. Solar access should be mandated by zoning and other provisions. Site-generated areas. access to key services. Plan and zone communities to maintain functionality without power. new without petroleum. Incorporate measures for ensuring mobility. or and mixed-use communities surrounded by farmland and open space should be a high priority among planners. benefiting building owners as well as the future of the planet. There are other challenges that are likely to be far more complex. and absorption or evaporative cooling will depend on solar access. more localized economies. space heating. water heating. The adaptive measures addressed here give us something we can think about and act upon today.

blasting caps. and plastic explosive containing ammonium salt or chlorate. • High-piled or widely spread combustible stock. black powder. marine or mineral products which may undergo spontaneous combustion. • Hot ashes. organic peroxide. • Corrosive liquids. handling of hazardous materials involving: • Cellulose nitrate plastic of any kind. or cryogenic materials or poisonous gases as well as material compounds which when exposed to heat or flame become a fire conductor. and • Agriculture. nitro methane. oxidizing materials. • Cellular materials such as foam. • Combustible fibers. sponge r plastic foam • Flammable and combustible liquids or gases classifications. • Matches in commercial quantities. FIRE SAFETY. or generate excessive smoke or toxic gasses. vegetable. explosives and special industrial explosive materials. liquid nitro-glycerin. • Metallic magnesium in any form. live coals and embers. • Combustible waste materials for recycling or resale. nitro-cellulose. fulminates of any kind. • Fireworks materials of any kind or form. • Blasting agents. hypergolic. . WARINING SYTEMS Safety measures for Hazardous Materials Fire Safety shall be required for the storage. pyrophoric.FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. • Mineral. ammonium nitrate. or any amount of highly toxic. dynamite. 1185 FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES SAFETY MEASURE. or animal oils and other derivatives/by products. • Explosive dusts and vapors. forest. stains and organic coatings. varnishes. • (Flammable paints. rubber.

• Provisions for confining the fire at its source such as fire resistive floors and walls extending up to the next floor slab or roof. • Fire alarm systems. or tolerating or allowing said violations. • Roof vents for use by fire fighters. • Self-closing fire resistive doors leading to corridors. • Constructing gates. • A fire exit plan for each floor of the building showing the route from each other room to appropriate exits. . any part of stairways. such as but not . displayed prominently on the door of such room. • Termination of all exit in an area affording safe passage to a public way or safe dispersal area. vestibule. • Stairway. or warehouses and storage areas from other occupancies in the same building. hose reels or strand pipe systems and other firefighting equipment. curtain board and other fire containing or stopping components. horizontal exits.• Fire protection features such as sprinkler systems. corridors. • Firewalls to separate adjoining buildings. • Fire dampers in centralized air-conditioning ducts. and other meals of egress sealed from smoke and heat.limited to aisles in interior rooms. entrances and walkways to buildings components and yards which obstruct the orderly and easy passage of fire fighting vehicles and equipment. hose boxes. vertical shafts . and • Properly marked lighted exits with provision for emergency lights to adequately illuminate exit ways in case of power failure PROHIBITED ACTS The following are declared as prohibited act and emission • Obstructing or blocking the exit ways or across to building clearly marked for fire safety purposes. balconies or bridges leading to a stairway or exit of any kind. hallways.

Corridors shall have a minimum clear width of 1.80 m. Turn about spaces should also be provided at or within 3. Accessible public washrooms and toilets shall permit easy passage of a wheelchair allow the occupant to enter a stall. • Auditoriums or other public assembly buildings. Accessible water closet stall shall have a minimum area of 1. 8. waiting areas and other facilities or spaces shall not obstruct the minimum clearance requirement. 8.4 Parking spaces for the disabled should never be located at ramped or sloping areas 7. PARKING 2. 2.25 square meter with a minimum dimension of 1. corridors should be maintained level and provided with slipresistant surface. 2.50 meter for wheelchairs shall be provided outside .50 m of dead end. A turning space of 2. Any plant rendered. coliseums.3 A walkway from accessible spaces of 1.1 Accessible parking spaces should be located as close as possible to building entrances or to accessible entrance. 9.2 Accessible parking slots should have a minimum width of 3.70 m x 1. interference are obstruction of any operation of the fire service. except on other assembly areas on the ground floor with open sides or open doors sufficient to provide safe exits. • Locking fire exits during period when people are inside the building. theaters. • Use of fire protective of firefighting equipment of the Fire Service other than for firefighting except in other emergencies where their use are justified. WASHROOMS AND TOILETS 7. • Prevention or obstruction of the automatic closure of fire doors or smoke partitions or dampers. • Obstructing designated fire lanes or access to fire hydrants.20 m clear width shall be provided between the front ends of parked cars. close the door and transfer to the water closet from either a frontal or lateral position. or of duly organized and authorized fire brigades.70 m. 9. As in walk-ways. Government reserves the right to reject the entire lot or lots of plants represented by the detective samples. unsuitable for planting because of the inspection will be considered as samples and will not be paid for. • Overcrowding or admission of person beyond the authorized capacity in movie houses. Parking Areas 2. 2.20 m.• Prevention.

IDENTIFIED DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL . Maximum height of lavatories should be 0. Urinals should have an elongated lip or should be troughtype. Minimum parking space/slot requirements shall be at one (1.0) m at the front. APPLICABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTROL The following development controls apply to the Project site: a. a. IV.e. It is located along a twenty meters (20. 12. 10. zoning classification is GI (general institutional development). PROJECT SITE FEATURES The 1800 square meters total lot area is an inside lot with a 20% open space. 2. The minimum setbacks at ground floor are at five (5. The minimum number of accessible water closet on each floor level or on that part of a floor level accessible to the disable shall be one (1) where the total number of water closets per six on that level is twenty (20). inclusive of all AFSU areas. b.80 meter with a knee recess of 0.50 meter depth.70 vertical distance and a 0. It has a five meter (5m) wide frontage facing the southeast. i. To the left side is a river.48 meter. the property has a legislated.0 sqm of GFA or fraction thereof. 11. the maximum height of the tip should be 0. and 3. based on the NBCP 2004 R-IRR.water closet stalls.60 – 0. V. An Allowable Maximum TGFA of up nine hundred forty-seven (947.0) parking slot for every 70. the Project site has the following development limitations: 1. To the rear side are mountains. VI. b. and two (2) where the number of the water closets exceed twenty (20).0 m) wide Right Road of Way.0) sqm.

processes to facilitate safe and voluntary return or relocation elsewhere. VII. the potential duration of evacuees’ displacement and evolving needs. up to three (3. for example. Variables might include. a five point five (5.The Project potentials: site has the following development a.0) m floor to ceiling height. the potential scale and location of evacuation zones and areas of refuge. to be constructed above the podium development. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS Various approaches to evacuations have been taken in different countries around the world. and from a variety of countries.5) level/floor building development i. . or administrative procedures and budgetary allocations linking evacuation to post-disaster recovery. access to safe transport. It should be noted. to provide a generic template for creating an evacuation plan. that the template must be adapted to take into account specific variables important to different contexts. best practices and guidance from a wide range of different sources. b. age and gender-specific needs for protection.0) floors at eleven point five (11. cultural. Assessments of risk require systematic collection and analysis of data and should consider the dynamic nature of hazards and vulnerabilities that arise from socio-economic conditions and changing environment. therefore. This guide relates to emergencies resulting from natural disasters and incorporates considerations.5) m floor to floor height. shelter options available. public information and basic services. at four (4.e. social.

Site Development Plan at scale 1 : 200 Meters (M) and showing the following key information: 1. Should the requirements exceed the development controls and potentials under items VI and VII above. the necessary adjustments have to be made to fully comply with the stated development controls. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS The stated Project requirements are as follows. Longitudinal Section (at long axis of the building) at scale 1 : 100 M D. Floor Plans at scale 1 : 100 M. the template below can be used by practitioners as a tool for developing their own plans. This development also assumes that evacuation is a measure of last shelter: it should not expose people in transit to more danger than if they had sheltered from the danger. Different hazards and their risks may require different courses of action. Elevations at scale 1 : 100 M. In the event that hazard mapping and risk assessments point to the need to develop an evacuation plan. if rooms/areas are typical. . III. provide furniture/ equipment layouts only as necessary. DRAWING REQUIREMENTS A.Hazard and vulnerability information is central to almost every aspect and every stage of natural disaster risk management8. provide furniture layout only for a representative room/area to save time. highlight all introduced accessibility features and fire exits. outline of the building footprint. C. II. B.

800 sqm TLA. ground-mounted signage locations (if any). 8. driveway and parking ramps (as needed).g. The street. pedestrian access systems. the area of the building footprint and its percentage with respect to the 1. 4. and indicate the northing and the directions of the sun path.. the major winds (habagat and amihan).2. particularly the sidewalks. etc. open parking. 6. guard outpost (as necessary). sources of noise and odors and available views (if any are clearly identifiable). perimeter wall/ fence. gate. site perimeter security features e. accessibility features (disabled). BUBBLE DIAGRAM . pedestrian/ vehicular barriers. 10. The adjoining land uses. 9. call out/indicate areas to be landscaped (hardscape and softscape). 5. 7. 3.

RESCUE CENTER RESTROO M OFFICES LOBBY SLEEPING QUATERS RESCUE EQUIPMENTS STORAG E BUBBLE DIAGRAM LOCAL WEATHER STATION .

LOBBY OFFICES SLEEPING QUARTERS STORA GE RESTROO M BUBBLE DIAGRAM EVACUATION CENTER ISOLATION ROOM HANDRESTR WASH OOM AREA LAUDR CLINIC Y AREA KITCHEN / FOOD PREPARATION EATING AREA AREA ADMINISTRATI REGISTRATIO STORAGE/U STAIR ON OFFICE UP N TILITY .

DISINFECTING AREA GROUND FLOOR PLAN BUBBLE DIAGRAM EVACUATION CENTER HANDWASH AREA BATHROOM / SHOWER ROOM .

STAIR DOWN STAFF S AREA SECOND FLOOR PLAN .

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