I.

PROJECT TITLE:
“GULOD” Evacuation Centre
A proposed Local Weather and Calamity Rescue Centre that
could withstand and adapt from the natural calamities
that endanger the lives of native and local residence
within the community. Development of 3 shelter prototypes
that is stable, resilient, and adaptive to natural
calamities.

PURPOSE
The primary purpose of the Evacuation Centre Plan is to
provide guidance to municipalities for the consideration of
public health matters during the establishment and monitoring of
an evacuation centre. It considers the physical requirements,
health protection, and health promotion amongst evacuees housed
in an evacuation centre.

KEY PRINCIPLES
Planning for an evacuation centre needs to address many
public health concerns. These include the physical amenities and
space required for well-being, minimizing the risk of different
calamities and the need to promote the health of evacuees to
prevent the acute exacerbation of diseases.
The Community Emergency Control Group is ultimately
responsible for the activation of an evacuation centre in the
event that resources are not equipped to manage the accommodation
requirements following a decision to evacuate a population.
Activation of an evacuation centre will require multi-agency
consultation and response.

USE OF THE GUIDELINE
Preparing for and responding to a public health emergency
is a Health Unit wide responsibility. This document serves as a
reference to organizers of an evacuation centre in order to
mitigate and prevent different calamities.

However, as in any emergencysituation, there may be
factors which cannot be covered by a single set of guidelines.
This document should be used as a guide for consideration
rather than a mandatory directive. It does not replace the need
for the application of expert judgment to each individual
situation.

Introduction

Planning for an evacuation centre needs to address many
public health concerns. These include the physical amenities and
space required for well-being, minimizing of the risk of
communicable disease outbreaks, and the need to promote the
health of evacuees to prevent the acute exacerbation of chronic
diseases.
The Municipal Emergency Response Plans detail emergency
preparedness, response and recovery arrangements for the
community to ensure the coordinated response to emergencies by
all agencies, which have responsibilities and functions in
emergencies.
The Municipality’s Community Control Group is ultimately
responsible for the activation of an evacuation centre in the
event that normal resources are not equipped to manage the
accommodation requirements following a decision to evacuate a
population. Activation of an evacuation centre will require
multi agency consultation and response.
This document provides guidance regarding public health
matters that may need to be considered in the establishment and
monitoring of an evacuation centre. It will not consider
provision of medical or mental health services, although these
too will have a significant impact on the health of the evacuee
population.

I.

STATEMENT PROBLEM:

A National Government-owned and controlled
decided that one thousand eight hundred (1,800
property located in Almeda Highway, Naga City
Evacuation Centre to serve as their shelter
calamities that usually occur within the place.

corporation has
square meters)
shall host an
during natural

A) SPACE REQUIREMENTS:
A.1. Physical Amenities
Areas Required:
1. Administration / Staff Areas
2. Registration Areas
3. Mud/Disinfecting Areas (to prevent mud and debris
being tracked into the building
This will simply cleaning and also reduce the risk
of falls on wet floors)
4. Sleeping Areas (including “addresses” within the
sleeping area so that evacuees can be easily
located for follow-up of social or medical issues)
5. Eating Area
6. Shower and toilet facilities
7. Kitchen/food preparation Area
8. Garbage collection Area
9. Laundry
10.Special Purpose Areas (e.g. prayer area)
11.Storage
12.Hand washing stations
13.Clinic area
14.Isolation area for potentially infectious people
15.Recreation areas (e.g. play area)
16.Child Care
17.Pet holding area (Refer to Section 5)

First Building (Evacuation Centre)
Ground Floor
Space Requirements :
1.
2.
3.
4.

Clinic Admin
Eating Area
4. Storage/Utility
Isolation Room

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Laundry Area
Restrooms
Hand wash Area
Admin Area
Disinfecting Area

Second Floor:
10.
11.
12.

Staffs Area
Shower Room
Hand Wash Area

Second Building (Rescue Centre)
Space requirements:
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Offices
Restrooms
Sleeping Quarters
Storage
Lobby
Rescue Equipments

Third building (Local Weather Station)
Space Requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sleeping Quarters
Lobby
Offices
Storage
Restrooms

Physical amenities
Selection of an evacuation center site and management of the
center is the responsibility of other agencies. The information
below provides guidance for public health services if they are
asked to provide advice as to the adequacy of planned facilities.

Mud/disinfecting area
Often evacuees may come from an area that has been
contaminated (e.g. by sewage) or is muddy or dusty. In order to
maintain the cleanliness of the facility and reduce the chance of
introduction of disease an area at the entrance to the facility
should be put aside for cleaning mud from shoes and clothes.
Toilets
Ideally there should be a maximum of 20 people for each
available toilet. In the initial phases of the emergency a figure
of 50 people per toilet may be used until additional facilities
are available. Use of toilets could be arranged by households
and/or segregated by sex. The allocation of toilets may depend on
the demographics of the evacuees (e.g. predominantly male vs.
predominantly female). A regular cleaning roster should be
established and maintained. Toilet facilities should include
provision for the disposal of women’s sanitary products (e.g.
bins with tight fitting lids). Toilets should be sited in such a
way as to minimize threats to users (particularly children and
females). This includes appropriate lighting, or provision of
torches to those in the evacuation
center. There should be one
wash basin per 10 people. Soap, water and hand towels should be
available in the toilets for hand washing. Posters promoting hand
washing should be available in the toilet block. Refuse bins with
tight fitting lids should be located in the toilet block.
Facilities for changing infants and for the safe disposal of
children’s used nappies should be established, including hand
washing facilities next to the changing station/s.
Major Evacuation Center: Public Health Considerations Guideline
GL2011_011 Issue date: August 2011 Page 7 of 32
Recreation area
A safe, secure recreation area should be put aside for
children and adults. Children and adults will need an area for
physical activity such as sport and games. Children may also
require an indoor area for more passive activities.

Sharps containers must be AS/NZS compliant. Garbage bins should have tight fitting lids to discourage vermin. clinic areas) should have some capacity for the safe disposal of needles and syringes. nor should they be compressed by hand to expel excess air. health and well-being. the garment may be laundered by washing in a washing machine using normal temperature settings and laundry detergent.daily. should comply with local requirements. There is no need to disinfect the tubs of washers or tumblers of dryers if cycles are run until they are completed. or undertaken in an area separate to personal hygiene facilities. Waste disposal. Garbage receptacles should be lined with plastic bags that can be securely tied shut.g. hence all evacuation center facilities (e. Many people who use needles and syringes may be reluctant to disclose their need publicly. Waste pick-ups should be frequently scheduled . however public Health services may be asked for advice. Garbage bags should not be overfilled. if possible. Major Evacuation Centers: Public Health Considerations Guideline GL2011_011 Issue date: August 2011 Page 9 of 32 Garbage should be placed in an area separated from the living spaces. Garbage (solid waste management) Local council is responsible for waste management in an emergency. preferably in garbage bins. If daily pick-ups are not occurring.Laundry (where available) Laundry should be processed off-site as far as possible. wearing gloves. If laundry facilities are provided there should be one wash stand per 100 people. Facilities should be provided for the proper disposal of needles and syringes used for medications. Containers designed for sharp waste disposal should be placed where needles and syringes are used. All affected people should have access to sufficient changes of clothing to ensure their thermal comfort. ensure the garbage is stored in a . and placed in a plastic bag for disposal. to enable laundering. particularly underclothes. dignity. This will require at least two sets of essential items. toilet blocks. Garments heavily soiled with feces should be handled carefully. If feces can easily be removed using toilet paper. Any donated clothing must be washed and screened for appropriateness before distribution. including disposal of regulated clinical waste such as needles and syringes.

. Access to gyms. However. Recreation Area A safe. Assistance or support in accessing or using nicotine-replacement therapy may be available from the Health Unit. Evacuees will need an area for physical activity such as sport and games. secure recreation area should be designated.shady location in secure bins. Smoking The Smoke Fee Ontario Act and local bylaws adhered to in and around the evacuation centre.5 garbage collectors for litter control per 1000 residents. Training for evacuation centre staff and volunteers regarding substance use prevention and awareness may be valuable as an anticipatory measure or upon identification of concerns regarding substance use or abuse by evacuees. Children may also require an indoor area for more passive activities. There should be 2. clearly designated and well-ventilated with no possibility the resultant smoke will contaminate indoor areas • located away from cross-traffic and where people may be congregated • provided with garbage cans and ash cans For more information regarding tobacco regulations. equipment and programs may be possible through contacts and relationships with area schools. There should be at least one 100L bin per 40 people. The bin should have a tight fitting lid and be changed every 2 days. they should be: • located outdoors. refer to the Smoke Free Ontario Act and local municipal bylaws. Tobacco use reduction and cessation support may be offered. must be There is no legal obligation to provide designated smoking areas. sports fields. if it is decided such areas are to be provided. Age-appropriate physical activities can be recommended based on available resources.

doors. G.II. green architecture. F. windows/view ports) Isolation areas for ill or contaminated occupants or equipment Adaptability to the effects of climate change Water Supply Vernacular Architecture Tropical Design Green Architecture Sustainable Architecture Energy Conservation . To design a building that can easily adapt from the local weather and natural calamities occurring in the vicinity. Security/ Safety of the E. C. B. To design a 3 prototype evacuation building showing stability. To design a building that will serve as a quick reference for the people in the community when setting up temporary shelters and evacuation centre during emergencies / calamities. locks. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: A. K. building (secure storage. To design a building applying vernacular architecture. To design a building using the available materials within the vicinity. F. I. sustainable architecture. DESIGN OBJECTIVES : A. To design an evacuation centre that shall be expressive of the national government desire to render excellence public service B. and proper space planning. Reaction time (travel distance to refuge and activation time for emergency support systems). J. H. E. tropical design. Duration of occupancy C. D. energy conservation. III. Privacy D. L. resiliency and adaptability.

Local Weather & Calamities Climate Resiliency I.3   RECOMMENDATIONS Provide adequate ties for joints & frames Provide additional. CONCRETE. CONCRETE-WOOD. STEEL.COCOLUMBER.ANAHAW) CONCRETE- CONSTRUCTION A. WIND & WATER EFFECTS ON BLDGS.M. support & bracings on existing structural frames Increase dead load by using heavier materials especially for bamboo construction Provide additional. ties on joints or framing connections   . INDIGENOUS (BAMBOO. CHARACTERISTICS       A.2 Lightweight Temporary Least stiff W/ height limitation Most economical Prone to infestation EFFECTS  Severe damage like uplifting of the roof or even the entire structure due to lightness & lack of stiffness A. TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM     (WOOD.NIPA.1. STEEL) ROOFING SYSTEM & MATERIAL WIND EFFECTS ON BLDGS LOCATION & ORIENTATION OF BLDGS A.

2 EFFECTS .1 CHARACTERISTICS        Lightweight and strong Lasts longer when properly primed and painted Subject to corrosion under salty environment Pest resistance Less construction time required More expensive than concrete Availability is a problem C. CONCRETE B. or trees to tie structure when the need arises B. STEEL C.  For worst cases crumbling of building due to poor structural design RECOMMENDATIONS      Practice appropriate mixture proportion for the different structural elements Observe standard structural anchorage Provide allowance for movements like control joints Evaluate existing structure for possible defects and damage Avoid using sub-standard materials C.2 B. stone pegs.1 B. Provide emergency anchorage like concrete.3 CHARACTERISTICS  Heavy and sturdy  Permanent  Cost effective because of abundance of aggregates in the locality EFFECTS  Minimal damage like cracks due to rocking & vibration.

1 Effect   Hip type is more stable form than gable Shed is economical yet most vulnerable uplift wind effect to . bracings. Minimal damage like twisting and buckling under high wind velocity conditions C. Hip.3 RECOMMENDATIONS    Provide additional. Curved) A. Shed. Wood) D.1 CHARACTERISTICS  Cost effective as selection of materials is an option  Most preferred type of construction  Allows flexibility in design D.3 RECOMMENDATIONS    II. Types (Gable. stiffeners and joints must be fully welded or properly bolted Apply rust protection coatings Evaluate existing structure for possible defects and damage D. Provide proper anchorage Avoid using sub-standard materials Evaluate existing structure for defects and damage possible ROOFING SYSTEM A.2 EFFECTS   Incompatibility of materials may result to structural collapse Separation at joints due to weak or lack of anchorage D. Steel. MIXED (Concrete.

Clay) B.I. Concrete. BUFFERING VIBRATION CLEAN-OFF EFFECT .2 RECOMMENDATIONS   Use roof shapes that are less resistant to wind Avoid low pitch roof form B. Materials (G. fasteners at roof sheet lapping Provide nets for indigenous roofing Concrete decks must be water tight and with sufficient over flow drains Use if possible concrete gutters w/ overflow provision Provide & secure screen over concrete gutters to prevent clogging from foreign materials Provide adequate stainless ties for clay & concrete roof tiles Roof vents must have smaller slots to diffuse wind C.I.I.2 RECOMMENDATIONS         Invest on thicker gauge for G. roofing Provide add’l.1 EFFECTS    Indigenous roofing materials have poor wind resistance and subject to water leaks G. Indigenous. Curve roofs is less vulnerable to aerodynamic drag  A. WIND EFFECTS ON BLDGS       DIRECT PRESSURE DRAG SUCTION ROCKING. roofing if of a lower gauge is prone to ripping and uplift Concrete deck is subject to water seepage B..

etc. monitoring of water supply. The Health Unit does not provide acute care medical services for evacuees. . The Health Unit is responsible for the following with respect to an evacuation centre: a) Provides inspection of evacuation centres. appropriate infection and control practices b) Liaises with local social service agencies on areas of mutual concern regarding evacuation centres related to public health information. prolonging life and promoting health”. makes recommendations and initiates remedial action in areas of accommodation standards related to: i. sanitation. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people. as in an evacuation centre or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance. storage. overcrowding.     Open & relatively flat terrain has high risk probability for wind effects Projecting elements are subject to clean-off Buildings at coastal areas are prone to flooding & high wind pressure Consider geographic & geologic factor for site selection (some areas are subject to liquefaction.D. air quality. iii. sewage and waste disposal. erosion. flooding. ii. LOCATION & ORIENTATION OF BLDGS. It is concerned with threats to the overall health of the community based on population health analysis. and service. preparation. The municipal emergency response plans outline numerous responsibilities of the Medical Officer of Health/Health Unit during an emergency. food handling. in the case of a pandemic). distribution iv.) Public Health Role and Responsibilities Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease.

social services) may be used to assist in the interpretation of surveillance data and to guide decisionmaking. evacuees should be accommodated near to their homes. police. power. water and sewerage systems have been checked by the relevant authorities. Confidentiality of the data stored would be ensured and reporting performed in a non-disclosive fashion. Location Where possible and safe.g. The facility will likely be housing individuals with limited physical mobility – including those in wheelchairs. management of If a regular epidemiological report is needed.g. Surveillance and Evaluation team at the time of the health emergency. Any building should be structurally sound and have sufficient emergency exits. electricity. The health information system would include a component to ensure the timely detection of and response to infectious disease outbreaks. those using mobility aids and those with very young children. Responsibility for the production of the epidemiological report is that of the Health Unit Research. decision-makers and the community. If the nature of the emergency is such that the evacuation site is likely to be affected (e. Ensure that gas. water and/or sanitation failures) then it is preferable to move people to a site of safety. This should be considered when planning an evacuation site. The frequency of the report will vary with the emergency and the stage of the emergency. Physical Space and Air Circulation .c) Provides surveillance and Public Health infectious disease cases and outbreaks. it would be generated and shared with all relevant agencies. Supplementary data from other relevant sources (e.

safety and health and enables essential household and livelihood activities to be undertaken. The floor-to-ceiling height is also a key factor. families should be accommodated together. High temperatures may lead to heat stress. This ensures their privacy. People seeking or receiving assistance in an evacuation centre and those who provide that care have the right to be treated with respect. Well-planned access routes through the evacuation centre should be highlighted. with greater height being preferable in hot and humid times of the year to aid air circulation. The internal floor-to ceiling height should be a minimum of two meters at the highest point. The ambient temperature of the building should ideally be 17-21°C. Lower temperatures may leave vulnerable persons prone to hypothermia. fresh air and protection from the climate. 2011) . sexual orientation. Materials to screen personal space and opportunities for internal subdivision within the evacuation centre should be provided.Disaster Management. Safety. religious beliefs. Rights and Responsibilities Where possible. There shall be no smoking in the evacuation centre (Refer to Section 3. issues arising from a disability and right to privacy (New South Whales. Department of Health. All care will be provided in a manner that shows courtesy and consideration for a person’s culture.11) and cooking shall only occur in the food preparation area. Privacy.72 m2per person will often be required to meet these considerations. A covered floor area in excess of 3. People should have sufficient covered living space providing thermal comfort. A lower height is preferable in cold times of the year to minimize the internal volume that requires heating.Living areas should be well ventilated with a reasonable supply of fresh air available. Individual spaces can aid the provision of adequate privacy and safety. Population Health .

Regardless of a family’s infant feeding decision.Baby Friendly Environment It is important to establish. support and information can be offered to assist families in achieving optimal health. Ideally.g. 7L per person per day of water should be provided. and so on. The very young and the elderly are at the highest risk of dehydration.5L/min. containers dedicated to water collection should be provided for family groups). The allocated amount may need to be increased in hot conditions or where heavy work is being carried out. their religious and cultural practices. The following table advises basic survival water needs: . the food they cook. Water Requirements The quantities of water needed for domestic use may vary according to the climate. Excessive waiting time suggests that there is inadequate water availability. Women should be welcomed to breastfeed anywhere and privacy should be accommodated if desired. Consider the number of people per tap and the water flow. People in the centre should be provided with information regarding any water quality concerns. Steps should be taken to minimize post-water delivery contamination (e. at least 15L per person per day should be supplied for drinking. people's normal habits. In an absolute emergency. the sanitation facilities available. maintain and support an environment that is welcoming and accommodating to families and breastfeeding mothers. cooking and personal hygiene requirements. A rough guide is 250 people per tap when the water flow is 7. People should have to queue for no more than 15 minutes to access water and it should take no more than three minutes to fill a 20L container. the clothes they wear.

Hand hygiene and good respiratory etiquette (covering coughs and sneezes) should be promoted with education materials and distribution of equipment (e.g. social as well as cultural norms 7.5-3 litres per day Depends on: the water intake climate and (drinking and food) individual physiology Basic hygiene 2-6 litres per day Depends on: social practices and cultural norms Basic cooking needs 3-6 litres per day Total basic water Depends on: food type. incontinence pads. Each individual should have access to a supply of soap. Cleaning materials should be made available to all residents and residents encouraged to keep the evacuation centre clean and . and waste containers) if possible.Simplified table of basic survival water needs Survival needs: 2. Separate handwashing stations should be set up near toilet and meal areas and there should be systems in place to ensure high compliance. in sufficient quantity to meet the needs of the occupants. Cleaning of Living Areas Rosters of personnel (either volunteers or evacuees) should be developed and systematic cleaning undertaken. alcohol-based hand cleanser. A supply of personal hygiene products should be available to evacuees and additional items essential for ensuring personal hygiene. A ratio of one shower per 50 people is suggested if the weather is temperate and one shower per 30 people in hot weather. Personal Hygiene Good personal hygiene should be promoted throughout the centre. tissues. feminine hygiene products).5-15 litres per day Water supplied to the evacuation centre shall be potable. and obtained from a source approved by the Medical Officer of Health or Public Health Inspector. dignity and well-being must be accessible (e.g.

paper towels. feces).g. gloves. . People should not eat in the sleeping area to facilitate ease of cleaning and reduce the attraction of insects. Surfaces should be cleaned with a household cleaner when visibly dirty and on a regular schedule. Cleaning of high-risk surfaces High-risk surfaces include: is particularly important. Spills should be cleaned up immediately. electrostatically mopped or vacuumed daily. reduce microbial contamination to safer levels) high-risk surfaces using a household disinfectant or a mixture of 1 teaspoon of household bleach in 1 liter of clean water. Household bleach and detergents are dangerous and should be stored securely away from children. apron and a face shield should be worn.tidy. Kitchens and bathrooms should be cleaned at least daily and as necessary (e. Because of the potentially high ratio of residents to toilets. temporary evacuation centres have a particular need for frequent and supervised cleaning and maintenance of washroom facilities. Other furniture should be cleaned weekly and as needed. Keeping surfaces and items clean helps reduce the spread of infections among people living or working at the evacuation centre. Sanitize (i. secure cupboard. disinfectant solutions should be made up as required and then discarded by being flushed with copious amounts of water down the sink (down a dedicated sink for cleaners if available).e. mattresses and pillows should be cleaned and their coverings laundered between occupants. blood. mixed fresh daily. It is preferable to wear disposable gloves while performing cleaning activities. Bed frames. Sleeping areas must be kept neat and tidy to facilitate cleaning activities. Where needed. Any cleaning materials designated. should be safely stored in a All floors should be swept.g. emesis. and toilet paper are maintained in each washroom. If using bleach. • food preparation surfaces • surfaces used for diaper changing • surfaces soiled with body fluid (e. after use). Designated centre personnel should ensure surfaces are wiped down with disinfectant at least hourly while the premises are occupied and basic supplies such as hand soap.

Food should not be consumed in sleeping areas. While having a pet nearby may provide a source of comfort for those who have been evacuated. 2005).Food Safety All foods served in the evacuation centre should be prepared in a Health Unit approved facility. Pets and Public Health The Health Unit does not recommend pets be allowed into the evacuation centre with the exception of service animals. food should be prepared on-site in a dedicated food preparation area where food preparation standards are observed. A separate dining area should be made available to assist in keeping the evacuation centre clean. The dining area floors should be washed daily and maintained in a sanitary condition. An exception to this rule would be low-risk baked goods. When people bring their own hot food into the evacuation centre. There is a risk to public health if people refuse to evacuate because of concern for a pet’s welfare and the municipality should be prepared to provide advice. It is preferable to have a Public Health Inspector from the Health Unit inspect the food preparation area prior to its use to ensure it meets the appropriate standards. they should be encouraged to consume it entirely or throw out the leftovers. Food Preparation Area Where possible. The appropriateness of housing pets in public evacuation centres should be carefully considered (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). pets may pose a risk to public health through transmission of disease. Dining tables should be cleaned and sanitized after each use. . risk of injury and loss of amenity (noise and smell). Donation of foods prepared in home kitchens should not be served.

or dander.g. Children younger than 5 years old should not handle reptiles without adult supervision. the following guidelines developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Furred or feathered pets should be housed in areas separate from people with allergies or asthma triggered by fur. Hand washing should be monitored by an adult. and should always wash their hands after doing so. Cats should be kept in a cage with a litter box that is cleaned frequently. then these areas should be staffed with animal care personnel who have been trained in the handling of animals. Any feces should be immediately collected and disposed of.g. If this is done. Dogs should be walked regularly on a leash outside the centre to allow them to urinate and defecate in designated areas. it should not be allowed to roam freely around the facility and should be kept under control at all times. Animals must be kept out of food preparation areas. Anyone bitten by an animal should speak with a healthcare provider to discuss associated concerns (e. disposal of feces) and frequently washing their hands. Pregnant women or immunocompromized people should not have contact with used litter. Animal evacuation centres or foster homes may be good alternatives. This is for the animal’s safety. rabies). If there is no alternative to having pets in the evacuation centre. feathers. infection. at least once every 24 hours. either via caging or a leash. Control of Communicable Diseases . Bites and scratches should be thoroughly cleaned with soap and water. tissue trauma. as well as the safety of the people in the evacuation centre. as well as appropriate approaches to infection control. may help reduce risk of injury or disease: • •  • • • • • If a pet is kept at a human evacuation centre. People caring for pets in evacuation centres should practice good hygiene by cleaning up after their pets (e.Sometimes separate areas can be established for pets.

Where puncture or other contaminated wounds have occurred. Good infection control. Evacuation centres may have limited capacity for providing sanitary and food preparation facilities. and plans for the isolation of people with infectious disease can mitigate the risk of a large-scale infectious disease outbreak. The Health Unit’s Vaccine Preventable Diseases Program is experienced in setting up vaccination clinics and managing immunization needs. Vaccinations The organization of a vaccination campaign requires good management ability and technical knowledge. The centre staff should ensure that appropriate hygiene and cleaning facilities are available. Bathing and laundry resources are also likely to be limited. . Posters should be posted emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. Responsibilities for each component of the vaccination program rest with the Health Unit.Any evacuation centre should provide a focus on preventing the spread of infectious diseases. In areas that have been flood-affected. Residents should be encouraged to clean wounds appropriately. people should have their tetanus vaccination status assessed and be immunized if their vaccination is not up to date or unknown. there is an increased chance of wound contamination. safe food handling and what people should do if they become ill. careful attention to food handling and storage. They should be aware of the procedures required to manage a person with a potentially infectious disease. Numbers of mosquitoes can increase significantly following floods in warmer months. Control measures should ensure that water holes or containers capable of holding water are regularly checked for evidence of mosquito breeding. These posters should be placed in prominent locations in the evacuation centre. People should be discouraged from preparing food or laundry on-site as this may lead to unsanitary conditions. Public health services may need to provide advice or basic training of this topic. plans for effective sanitation.

There is no predefined list of vaccines for any single emergency. The vaccination program will consider each person individually in the context of the presenting situation. dispose of tissues in the garbage after one use • wash hands or use alcohol-based hand cleanser after coughing. after going to the toilet and before eating • provide tissues. all evacuees should be up-to-date with current standard vaccine recommendations. General Infection Control for Evacuation Centres Use of appropriate infection control measures by all staff. or towels • have sharps disposal containers available Management of People with Infectious Diseases in Evacuation Centres The arrival of people who may have symptomatic infections. razors. all residents should be requested to report the following conditions: • fever • cough (new or changed) . Routine vaccines will be considered first. Encourage good personal hygiene practices by adopting the following: • cover coughs/sneezes with tissues or sleeves. This is particularly true of respiratory infections and enteric diseases. and/or unrecognized or incubating infectious diseases. If possible. • do not share eating utensils or drinking containers • do not share personal care items such as combs. Before entering an evacuation centre. combined with potential for crowding and limited sanitary infrastructure increases the risk of infections spreading among residents and between residents and staff. waste receptacles and facilities in evacuation centre living areas hand hygiene • prepare food hygienically. sneezing. volunteers and evacuees can reduce the spread of infectious diseases. toothbrushes. Further vaccines will be considered according to the presenting risk.

The sick bay should ideally be a room where the sick person can be isolated. but which can be closely monitored by centre staff. Evacuation centre staff should be actively and regularly asking residents of the centre about the presence of above syndromes in order to identify illness. A dedicated toilet facility should be identified and reserved for use of the ill individuals only. 2009). Each separate area will have to have health staff cohorted to monitor and care for the people housed there. A separate area or room to house potentially infectious people should be identified in advance. Each evacuation centre should have a clear plan for transferring individuals with potentially infectious diseases from the centre to an appropriate “sick bay”. in order to consult health authorities in a timely fashion.5). but should seek medical evaluation by their own healthcare provider for assessment and clearance prior to returning to work. Ensure that the area is kept clean and appropriately supplied. either within the centre or nearby. beds should be separated by at least 2 metres and preferably screened. A waiting area should be designated that is separate from the main centre living areas. Evacuation centre staff with any of the above symptoms should not work in the centre. (Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. More than one separate area may be needed if more than one illness is identified in the population. However. If several people with similar symptoms are identified. Residents of the centre should be instructed to report any of the above conditions to the centre staff. Ill individuals with respiratory symptoms should wear a surgical mask if in close proximity to others while awaiting evaluation or transfer. If a communicable disease is identified in a person already residing at the centre. an area for people with an enteric illness and another area for people with respiratory illness. A system for identifying and notifying the staff at the receiving . the ill individual(s) should be separated from other residents or transferred to a special accommodation centre or “sick bay” (see Section 6. they may be housed together in one area. For example.• vomiting • diarrhea • rash People with any of the above conditions should be admitted to the evacuation centre only after appropriate medical evaluation and care.

4) for any interactions that require potential contact with body fluids and should place particular emphasis on hand hygiene. after touching the patient’s environment. ‘Sick Bays’/Special Temporary Accommodation Centres There will be circumstances where a person becomes unwell and does not require hospital-level care. or after touching the patient’s respiratory secretions. some with health care experience . It is strongly recommended that such facilities are planned for. be in place. Routine Practices and Additional Precautions: • wear gloves if hand contact is expected with blood. wash hands with soap (either plain or antimicrobial) and water • cover any cuts or sores prior to patient care • wear a mask and protective eye wear if there is a risk of splash of bodily fluids. noting that people in this situation only need the level of care that family or friends would usually provide. body fluids or respiratory secretions • change gloves and gowns after each patient encounter and wash hands or use alcohol-based hand cleanser immediately after removing gloves • wash hands or use alcohol-based hand cleanser before and after touching a patient. whether or not gloves are worn • when hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with respiratory secretions. body fluids. respiratory secretions or potentially contaminated surfaces • wear a disposable gown if clothes might become soiled with a patient’s blood. The use of Standard Precautions aims to protect residents and staff from exposure to recognized and unrecognized sources of infection. Hand hygiene stations must be Centre staff working with people who have symptoms of illness should use Routine Practices (defined in Section 6. Public health services should be prepared to make recommendations for the appropriate placement of affected people. and that centre staff.“sick bay” must accessible. but does require a separate room because of the nature of the disease or because of the potential to infect others.

Control of Non-Communicable Diseases/Chronic Illness Management Injury The health information system should identify any injuries related to the evacuation centre and implement injury prevention programs to minimize the risk of injury in evacuees. those who are unimmunized or who have incomplete immunization. Case definitions and thresholds for notification developed. the Health Unit should be immediately informed.g. and the very old) may need particular protection. in consultation with the Health Unit.g.e. and provided with the appropriate instruction and supplies (i. will be If a source is suspected.g. PPE). Surveillance and Detection When a communicable disease outbreak is suspected among the residents. Provision should be made to accommodate at least up to 2% of people in this fashion. that source must be controlled in consultation with the Health Unit. This is an estimate based on the prevalence of infectious diseases during the winter period in the population. Susceptible groups (e. the very young. However. in a closed environment the prevalence is likely to be higher and greater space may be required should an outbreak occur.(e. water. . environment). food. (e. Coordination of lab testing in the event of an outbreak would be done in consultation with the Health Unit. A clear referral pathway to hospital care (if required) and for reporting disease outbreaks should be made available during the accommodation planning. who are willing to care for sick people are identified. registered nurses).

Hygiene Promotion A hygiene promotion campaign should be established within the centre. Sample posters are also provided for information. Evacuation centres are likely to have limited availability of and/or accessibility to sinks for hand washing. Staff and residents should wash their hands with soap and running water for at least 10 seconds after using the toilet and before handling food. This should be included in the evacuee induction. Ensure all arriving residents are instructed on their use and availability. Returning Home Information . such as: • the entrance to the facility. • at the beginning of food service lines and • in toilet facilities. additional attention should be paid to positioning alcoholbased hand cleanser dispensers in convenient locations. Therefore. Posters are available from the Health Unit. • throughout the living areas (depending on the size of the venue). Hand Hygiene It is important for residents to wash their hands regularly and to dry them with a paper towel to avoid illness. Hand hygiene messages are provided in Appendix 4 and 6. Alcohol-based hand cleanser is an effective addition to hand washing and a reasonable temporary substitute when soap and clean water are not readily available.

Designing energy- efficient buildings is an important step toward preventing more drastic warming.g. utilities supply) • information and advice about whom to contact if any ill health effects develop (e. evacuees are transferred to longer-term accommodation • provide information to evacuees on the current situation and actions to take regarding recovery from the incident (e. clean up information. General Practitioner.g. such as: • adequate prescription medication supply and storage facility (e. if considered unsafe. the Health Unit will provide information and guidance in order to reduce the probability of illness.g. blood glucose monitor.When it is time for people to return home after a cyclone. The criteria for evacuees returning home may include: • the incident is under control and not expected to escalate • residential premises are considered safe by the relevant authorities or. insulin and refrigeration) • specific medical equipment oxygen cylinders. More and more experts acknowledge that while we must continue to do all we can to slow . safety precautions. local hospital) Specific assistance and advice may be required for people with existing illness or injuries prior to returning home. Now that climate change is finally part of the public discussion. or other natural disaster. the future is already here—and it’s only getting warmer. bandages) (e. flood. We need to redouble these efforts—the 2030 Challenge goal of carbon-neutral buildings by 2030 will be a difficult yet critical standard to meet. disease or injury to individuals and families from hazards resulting from the disaster.g. Climate Adaptation Climate scientists have been speaking out for decades about the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to avoid a significantly warmer and less livable future.

co-director of the Institute of the Environment at the University of Arizona and a co-author of the USGCRP report. Ph.8ºC) temperatures since before have the risen Industrial Revolution and could rise another 2ºF–11ºF (1. or even whether it is happening at all. professor of biology and interdisciplinary environmental studies at Stanford University and a leading proponent of climate change adaptation.5ºF average (0. and economic scenarios. “The reality of climate change is unequivocal—we see it in many aspects of the Earth’s climate system. A report issued in June 2009 by the U. “The confidence that something is going to happen is exceedingly high.D. be very different by the end of this century from the one we know today.S. by most accounts. A matter of degrees The question in the scientific community seems to be not whether we will see change but how much we will see. mitigation efforts. but the scientific consensus is overwhelmingly clear. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)—which coordinates climate change research of 13 federal agencies and operated as the U.” said Jonathan Overpeck.1ºC–6.” said Stephen Schneider. based on modeling of a variety of greenhouse gas emissions levels. Bush presidency— estimates that approximately global 1.S.. we must also begin designing buildings that will work in a changing climate. This article examines the science of global climate change and looks at how we can adapt the built environment to a world that will. Ph. Climate Change Science Program from 2002 through 2008 under the George W.. “Where it gets a bit more speculative is with questions like how many .greenhouse gas emissions. The Reality of Climate Change Debate may continue in some circles about whether humans are causing climate change.D.1ºC) by the end of this century.

These changes will vary from region to region.D. longer. He suggests that the extent of change depends on a few primary factors.meters of sea level rise we will see and what the changes in rainfall will look like. and more frequent heat waves. and colleagues in February 2009 reported that these changes to the earth’s systems due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will stop. including the speed with which the climate responds to varying concentrations of greenhouse gases.. loss of both sea ice and protective snowpack in coastal areas.4 and 1. rising sea levels due to melting glaciers and land-based ice sheets. and the robustness of our efforts to curb the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. we will see permanent decreases in dry-season rainfall and “inexorable sea level rise”— between 0. Ph. even in areas where overall precipitation will decline. Alarmingly.” Schneider told EBN. and “positive feedback loops”— consequences of warming that cause further warming. a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Susan Solomon. stressed water sources due to drought and decreased alpine snowfall. Some effects of the warming planet are already being felt. hotter. but general trends include changing precipitation patterns and heavier downpours. of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). and further consequences are on their way. such as melting sea ice decreasing the capacity of the northern oceans to reflect solar radiation back out of the atmosphere.000 emphasized years after that if emissions atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise to anywhere between 450–600 ppm (from their current levels around 385 ppm). or “climate sensitivity”. the ability of the oceans and land-based ecosystems to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.0 meters (15–40 inches) if CO 2concentrations . be largely The irreversible authors for 1.

including James Hansen. but he argues that ultimately. But proactive adaptation widespread impacts municipalities have will of begun be necessary climate to to change incorporate avoid far elsewhere.reach 600 ppm.000 ppm—the consequences of which would be catastrophic.9 meters (24–75 inches) if concentrations rise above 1. Other scientists. and 0.D.. These policy efforts have been slower than some climate scientists feel is necessary. But given the slow pace of climate policy changes and the stillcontentious political climate. and in August 2009 California unveiled the first statewide strategy to adapt to climate change. director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. “What should be done about [climate change] is a legitimate debate. The implications are clear: no amount of mitigation will prevent potentially devastating impacts.6 to 1. we cannot stop greenhouse gas emissions on a dime. where the destruction of Hurricane Katrina laid bare the city’s vulnerability to extreme storms. it’s necessary for us to adapt. The human tendency to adapt reactively is well documented. mitigation and adaptation must .” Adaptation: ‘Not an either-or proposition’ Much of what we already do in green building is related to mitigating (preventing or slowing) our impact on climate change. and some of this may be due to a perception that adaptation initiatives will take time and resources away from mitigation programs. climate more Some adaptation provisions into their long-range planning.” says Schneider. which means we are looking at changes to the earth’s systems that could radically alter our way of life. believe that we must reduce CO2 levels to below 350 ppm or risk “irreversible catastrophic effects. as in the case of New Orleans. Ph.

limit the area of east. climate—what more and Heat-adaptive makes sense in Phoenix. where temperatures in the summer of 2009 have exceeded 115°F (46°C). Warmer temperatures Increasing temperature is at the heart of climate change. and air-conditioning injuries. will be very different from what makes sense in the Arctic. Design cooling-load-avoidance measures into buildings. Alaska.and west-facing glazing. incorporate exterior shading devices above glazing. but providing resilience to the effects of a changing climate may prove to be the easiest way to justify—or mandate—such changes. and greater durability. raise demands deaths markedly Longer. ways The in which strategies we can described plan today below for a provide a sampling of ideas. such as reduced operating costs. incorporate high insulation levels to reduce conductive heat gain. this is not a comprehensive list.complement each other. and responding to this change is a critical component of any climate-change adaptation frequent waves heat increase heat-related strategies differ strategy. for and by hotter.” he told EBN. Use building geometries to limit solar gain on east and west façades. according to John Davies. reduced emissions. Many of these strategies make sense for other reasons. research director at the Cold Climate Housing Research Center in Fairbanks.. There changing are many climate. where melting permafrost is already affecting foundation design. provide high- . Ph.D.” Jonathan Overpeck agrees: “Adaptation and mitigation are not an either-or proposition. specify glazings tuned to the orientation (glass with a low solar heat gain coefficient on east and west façades). “The bottom line is that you’ve got to adapt to what won’t get mitigated—and unfortunately that’s going to be a few degrees—and mitigate what you can’t adapt to.

and mechanical equipment. (We’re still likely to see cold winters. and provide optimized daylighting to minimize the use of electric lighting. With a climate that is projected to become warmer. equipment choices are less important than design decisions since equipment is replaced more frequently.) Provide landscaping to minimize cooling requirements. Model energy performance with higher cooling design temperatures. appliances. and green roofs can all help control heat gain and minimize cooling demands on a building. This will help to justify higher investments in cooling-loadavoidance measures. cooling design temperatures used in energy modeling should be raised. annuals. Carefully designed landscaping can also help to channel cooling breezes into buildings to enhance natural ventilation. In general. office equipment. Limit internal gains by specifying high-efficiency lighting and equipment. Design natural ventilation into buildings. the less waste heat is generated.albedo (reflective) roofing. buildings can be designed to rely entirely on natural ventilation. Trees. Involve landscape architects or designers at the earliest stage of planning with a . The higher the efficiency of lighting. In some climates. so don’t raise the heating design temperatures. particularly those with low relative humidity. vines. in higherhumidity climates natural ventilation may be more practical as a backup cooling strategy that can be used during power outages as a passive survivability measure or during periods when bringing in outside air will not introduce excessive moisture.

Plan for termite ranges extending north. It is not unusual for urban heat islands to maintain temperatures 6°F–8°F (3°C–4°C) above that of surrounding rural land. according to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Specific measures to reduce urban heat islands include tree planting. drought can occur. Termite ranges are extending north. Urban heat islands increase cooling requirements and produce localized smog. and parts of Canada (see EBN Sept. Address urban heat islands in building design and landscaping. the Atlanta area’s primary water source. Places that have not traditionally had to deal with drought are less prepared to respond. water-use but there restrictions are design- are and . Neighborhood participation and policies that address urban heat islands will help communities achieve the greatest benefit. as these strategies are most effective with widespread implementation. installation of green roofs on buildings. shrank to historically low levels. Drought and water shortages Changes in precipitation patterns are an expected outcome of climate change. so designing for drought is a high priority in many regions. commonly imposed during Emergency drought. so measures to exclude or control these insects should be implemented in the northern U. (higher-albedo) and pavement installation and walkway of light- surfaces. roofing with reflective colored membranes or coatings.S. as we learned in 2007 when Lake Lanier. such as the southeastern U.new building so that existing vegetation can be preserved to aid in these uses. Even in places that receive relatively high levels of precipitation..S. 2000).

but remarkably rare. An obvious. allows smaller-diameter lines to feed water-conserving fixtures. The wait time (and water waste) can be significantly reduced by running a 3⁄8"-diameter (10 mm) line to this feature. there will be a long wait for hot water.planning-related measures that can reduce the risk and lessen the difficulty or long-term impacts of response. response to expected water shortages and drought is to restrict affected. structured plumbing (sometimes referred to as “home-run” systems). It is likely that much broader building moratoriums will become necessary in many areas in the future. Most water fixtures and equipment are replaced relatively often—many cycles within the lifespan of a typical building—but this doesn’t mean you shouldn’t install state-of-the-art water-conserving products when any new building is constructed or an existing building is renovated. new development California has a in areas provision most requiring likely to be developers of large projects (over 500 housing units) to demonstrate that there will be an adequate water supply for 20 years before a building permit is issued.9 lpm). 0. if a water-saving. For example.5 gallon per minute (1. Avoid new development in the driest regions. Building owners should ensure that any replacements are state-of-the-art as well. . in which individual piping lines (PEX tubing) run to each fixture or appliance from a central manifold. Specify water-efficient fixtures and appliances. and it makes sense for municipalities to establish procedures today that will enable such measures to be instituted when and if they become necessary. Plumb buildings with water-conserving fixtures in mind. In homes. lavatory faucet is supplied by a 3⁄4" (19 mm) pipe.

Harvest rainwater. particularly in the West. Similarly. Even if graywater collection is not permitted today. By addressing rainwater harvesting during design. Conventional turf requires about 40 inches (1 m) of rainfall per year. the same few dozen trees and shrubs are being planted nationwide. toilet flushing. it makes sense to plumb wastewater lines to simplify the installation of a graywater system in the future. with proper filtration and treatment. climatically appropriate trees and other vegetation. unable to survive without irrigation. the Such local practice climate is and often able to referred survive to periodic as xeriscaping. flooding. and such turf is being planted from Arizona to Maine. More intense storms. Plant native.Plumb buildings for graywater separation. When drought emergencies are imposed. Rainwater collection is still illegal in some states. no matter what the climate—often locking building owners into decades of watering. such vegetation often dies. In many climates. A better and lower-risk approach is to plant vegetation that is adapted to droughts. rainwater can be collected and stored for outdoor irrigation. and. Areas of turf needed as play areas or for aesthetic reasons can be irrigated with harvested rainwater or graywater regulations allow. and rising sea levels as local . potable uses. distributed evenly over the growing season. it may be possible to locate cisterns high on the building to critically facilitate important gravity during distribution—which power outages or can be emergency situations. but that is changing as water shortages become a reality.

Expand storm water management capacity and rely on natural systems. Provide larger storm water conveyance and detention basins. Flood zones are expanding—often faster than revisions to zoning regulations.” “We’ve taken away all the absorptive capacity of our landscapes. Avoid building in flood zones. More intense storms will strain the capacity of standard storm water management infrastructure in some areas.” says Watson. tropical storm systems will pick up more energy. Elsewhere. constructed wetlands. to 100-year seeking civil floods. In the longer term.” Watson told EBN. Adapting to climate change will require making our buildings more resilient to storms and flooding.According to some experts. and try to rely on natural features. meaning that simply following the law relative to the siting of buildings may not be enough. As water temperatures rise in the South Atlantic. resulting in higher-magnitude hurricanes on the Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard. Instead of designing floods. To landscapes complicate less able to matters. we need to prepare for rising sea levels and restoring the ability of our land to absorb water. changing precipitation patterns are expected to deliver more rainfall in intense storms that result in river flooding. consider engineering or designing surveyor to 500-year assistance as needed. “Restore the ecological services of the landscape. FAIA. who is writing a book on “design for resilience. has says made our architect Don Watson. . the most visible and imminent effects of climate change will likely be the increasing severity of storms. and other ecologically based systems to manage storm water. absorb development rainfall.

This sort of code should be adopted much more widely (not just in hurricane-prone areas) to protect buildings from the more severe storms that are expected. use materials that can get wet and then dry out with . Specify materials that can survive flooding. and specifying roofing that has been tested to ASTM standards for wind resistance. Raise buildings off the ground. properly installing high-strength roof sheathing (such as 5⁄8" plywood) that will resist uplift. installing outward-opening doors that are less likely to be pushed inward in intense wind. anchoring walls properly to foundations or frost walls. Especially in locations where flooding or hurricane damage is likely. The Miami-Dade County Hurricane Code has done a great deal to lessen storm damage in Florida. designing roof geometries (such as hip roofs) that are less prone to wind damage than gable roofs. use great care to ensure that energy performance and airtightness are not compromised. and PA 203) or exterior shutters. Examples of specific measures that impart good wind resistance to a building include installing impact-resistant windows (compliant with Miami-Dade Protocols PA 201. With any type of pier foundation.Design buildings to survive extreme winds. designing walls to resist shear and lateral forces using engineered wall bracing or shear panels for frame walls and proper use of re-bar for masonry walls. installing continuous roof underlayment. designing walls to resist uplift using hurricane strapping and other metal fasteners that provide a continuous load path from foundation to roof (see photo above). In flood-prone areas—even where flooding is only remotely possible—raise buildings or living spaces above ground level to minimize damage in the event of flooding. raised floors are notoriously difficult to insulate and seal. PA 202.

and tile or resilient flooring rather than carpeting. danger—from electrical panels. floodwaters Flood vents to pass (permanent under a openings house in without foundation walls) allow floodwaters to escape. and other elevate equipment above a reasonably expected flood level. Install specialized components to protect buildings from flooding or allow flooding with minimal damage. Specialized flood barriers. To minimize mechanical damage—and equipment.floodbarriers. fiberglass-faced rather than paper-faced drywall. flooding. can keep rising floodwaters out in certain situations. In some areas. Considerable planning will be needed to protect buildings and infrastructure in such places— ranging from construction of levees and flood walls to reconfiguring entire coastal landscapes in ways that minimize risks from rising sea levels.minimal damage. it will be necessary . Install check valves in sewer lines. such as products made by Savannah Trims (www. Breakaway wall panels on pier foundations in flood-prone areas can destroying allow it. Such materials include preservative-treated sills and wood framing (choosing environmentally friendly treatments like sodium silicate and borate).net). Some of our largest population centers and a number of resort developments are located in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to rising sea levels. Begin planning for rising sea levels in coastal areas. Elevate mechanical and electrical equipment. These prevent floodwaters from backing up into drains in a building—which can occur when sewers or combined storm sewers are overloaded.

a Class A “assembly rating. The concern is exacerbated by development that has sprawled into chaparral areas that are managed by periodic fire. Berkeley. Standard tile roofs are particularly vulnerable to wildfire. Both which metal can and then vinyl impinge gutters on are the roof-edge problematic— noncombustible metal gutters stay in place when burning. which addresses both the roofing and underlying components. To reduce risk. Complex rooflines with dormers. should be specified (based on ASTM E-108 testing). Most homes that are ignited by wildfires catch fire from airborne embers (firebrands) that may extend ahead of a wildfire by a mile or more. Wildfire In certain climates and ecosystems. and other architectural features increase risk because pine needles and other debris accumulate in these places and can catch fire from blowing embers.to move entire cities and towns.” for roofing. climate change will increase the risk of wildfire—particularly in the West but also in other areas where it is not common today. gutters. because wind-blown embers can enter attics through gaps in the tile. We need to begin planning for such monumental efforts in a serious way. valleys. Measures described here largely concern residential buildings. The roof is the most vulnerable component of a house to wildfire. Specify Class A roofing. according to the Center for Fire Research and Outreach at the University of California. Eliminate gutters or design and maintain them to minimize fire risk. thus . Embers can quickly ignite pine needles and other debris caught in assembly. which comprise most of the structures being built in wildfire-prone areas.

screening and other features can help keep gutters free of debris. 2002). tempered windows. exposing siding to fire.and triple-glazed windows are less prone to breakage during a fire than single-glazed windows. The best option is to design—and carefully build—an unvented (or hot) roof. maximum 1⁄8" (3 mm) screening should be used. Diligent cleaning of gutters by homeowners is of paramount importance. Eliminating gutters and providing moisture management in some other way is one option in fire-prone areas. allowing fire to enter the house. Avoid vented roofs or protect vents from ember entry. Install high-performance. Where vents are used in wildfire areas. Embers entering a roof through soffit vents are one of the leading causes of home ignition during wildfires. Generally more important than the decking materials is the management of the deck area and . this conflicts with moisture-control benefits of deep overhangs. Solid wood decking is surprisingly resistant to wildfire. and the Berkeley Center for Wildfire Research and Outreach recommends maintaining deep overhangs.exposing the roof edge to fire. While some wildfire design guides suggest limiting roof overhangs (soffit depths) because they can trap pockets of heated air. great care is required to control air leakage and moisture entry. Choose deck materials carefully. Specialized soffit venting products are available to minimize risk. but even this can admit some embers. such as Timber SIL. while vinyl gutters typically melt and fall off but continue burning on the ground. though some treated decking products. If gutters are used. Window glass breaks from thermal stresses during a fire. Double. though some trap debris above the gutter. offer significantly better fire resistance. Plastic and wood-plastic composite decks are fairly vulnerable to fires (see EBN Nov. and tempered or reinforced glass further helps prevent breakage.

high-moisture-content plants. While siding is less often the point of home ignition in a wildfire than the roof.keeping combustible vegetation and other material away from it. and dead leaves at least 30 feet (10 m) from the house (more on a slope). detailed . it can be the weak point if these other components are particularly fire-safe or if an adjacent structure catches fire. selecting drought-tolerant. can cause power outages directly. Recommended practices include keeping dry grasses.three-coat stucco. brush. See references. In around a home wildfire-prone is very areas. maintaining firefighter access around the house. This is one of the key in EBN May 2006. Adapting buildings to climate change should include measures that will make those buildings less affected by power outages. and pruning lower branches of trees near homes to eliminate “fire ladders” that allow fires to reach tree canopies. tenets of passive survivability.org. Power interruptions Some of the likely impacts of climate change. such as intense storms and flooding. windows. Patios provide a safer alternative to decks. maintaining instead a barren “mulch” of crushed stone. Manage fire-safe vegetation around landscaping homes. and brick. Drought can also cause power outages indirectly if lack of cooling water for power plants results in rolling blackouts or brownouts. Non-combustible options include fiber-cement siding. pruning trees to maintain at least 10 feet (3 m) between branches and the roof. Wood siding can be made “ignition-resistant” by treating it with an exterior fire- retardant chemical. Install noncombustible siding. or vents. Some homeowners go so far as to keep all vegetation away from a home. metal siding. for more recommendations. including Firewise. important. such an extreme measure should not be required in most places.

. motors. etc. In the passive mode. Specific high-performance building envelope (high insulation levels. apartment buildings. and certain other public buildings should be designed to maintain livable conditions in the event of loss of power or heating fuel. If mechanical systems are designed with DC-powered pumps. Look into designing tall buildings that will operate in normal mode when utility power is available. Incorporate photovoltaic panels into buildings or link buildings with other nearby renewable energy sources such as stand-alone wind turbines or small hydropower facilities. ventilation fans. natural ventilation. and passive solar heating. heating system pumps and fans. or shortages of water —a design criterion strategies include known an as passive extremely survivability. and fans. Install appropriate rely on are integral solar systems water-heating that photovoltaic can operate modules to operate pumps so that functionality is maintained during power outages. hospitals. they can be more easily switched to non-grid power. schools. electricity flow would be limited to critical needs such as elevators. Provide site-generated electricity from renewable energy. so that the building could maintain limited functionality rather than having to be evacuated. passively solar Especially or that hot water. which could be provided by backup generators or renewable energy systems. Provide dual-mode operability with high-rise buildings. Provide systems. and in an emergency passive mode during power outages or when site-generated power is used. fire suppression systems. triple-glazed windows in cooler climates. critical lighting.).Design buildings to maintain passive survivability. Homes. Design mechanical systems to operate on DC power. cooling-load-avoidance features. and so forth.

and stronger neighborhood and community networks will make us more resilient to changes and uncertainty in a way that simply building better buildings cannot. and absorption or evaporative cooling will depend on solar access. electricity and maintain access solar-thermal to energy the will become increasingly important with climate change. benefiting building owners as well as the future of the planet. gasoline zoning. power municipal outages planning pedestrian-friendly. and being able to retrofit buildings for solar electricity. or and mixed-use communities surrounded by farmland and open space should be a high priority among planners. agricultural Alternate practices and food systems. and general shortages Providing functionality through during effective high-density. The adaptive measures addressed here give us something we can think about and act upon today. It makes sense to incorporate these into our design palette today. Plan and zone communities to maintain functionality without power. access to key services. Looking to the Future Most effects of of these strategies climate change are for adapting relatively buildings to the straightforward—and eminently doable. more localized economies. . space heating. water heating. requiring significant cultural and economic shifts if we are to adapt to a future that is not only warmer but must transportation function systems.In urban and suburban sun. Site-generated areas. There are other challenges that are likely to be far more complex. Incorporate measures for ensuring mobility. new without petroleum. The good news is that many of these measures also help to mitigate climate change—and quite a few reduce building operating costs or improve durability. Solar access should be mandated by zoning and other provisions.

or animal oils and other derivatives/by products. oxidizing materials. • Explosive dusts and vapors. nitro methane. FIRE SAFETY. nitro-cellulose. 1185 FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES SAFETY MEASURE. handling of hazardous materials involving: • Cellulose nitrate plastic of any kind. organic peroxide. sponge r plastic foam • Flammable and combustible liquids or gases classifications. forest. • Mineral. dynamite. and • Agriculture. vegetable. pyrophoric. • Metallic magnesium in any form. • Matches in commercial quantities. rubber. and plastic explosive containing ammonium salt or chlorate. ammonium nitrate. • (Flammable paints. WARINING SYTEMS Safety measures for Hazardous Materials Fire Safety shall be required for the storage. marine or mineral products which may undergo spontaneous combustion. or generate excessive smoke or toxic gasses. • Hot ashes. • Cellular materials such as foam. explosives and special industrial explosive materials. black powder.FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. varnishes. • Corrosive liquids. liquid nitro-glycerin. or any amount of highly toxic. . • Fireworks materials of any kind or form. blasting caps. stains and organic coatings. • High-piled or widely spread combustible stock. or cryogenic materials or poisonous gases as well as material compounds which when exposed to heat or flame become a fire conductor. hypergolic. • Combustible waste materials for recycling or resale. • Blasting agents. live coals and embers. fulminates of any kind. • Combustible fibers.

. corridors. • Fire alarm systems. hallways. such as but not .• Fire protection features such as sprinkler systems. • Roof vents for use by fire fighters. and • Properly marked lighted exits with provision for emergency lights to adequately illuminate exit ways in case of power failure PROHIBITED ACTS The following are declared as prohibited act and emission • Obstructing or blocking the exit ways or across to building clearly marked for fire safety purposes. • Constructing gates. hose reels or strand pipe systems and other firefighting equipment. • Provisions for confining the fire at its source such as fire resistive floors and walls extending up to the next floor slab or roof. • Stairway. • Firewalls to separate adjoining buildings. displayed prominently on the door of such room. hose boxes. and other meals of egress sealed from smoke and heat. • Termination of all exit in an area affording safe passage to a public way or safe dispersal area. balconies or bridges leading to a stairway or exit of any kind. curtain board and other fire containing or stopping components. • Self-closing fire resistive doors leading to corridors. or tolerating or allowing said violations. vestibule. vertical shafts .limited to aisles in interior rooms. • Fire dampers in centralized air-conditioning ducts. entrances and walkways to buildings components and yards which obstruct the orderly and easy passage of fire fighting vehicles and equipment. • A fire exit plan for each floor of the building showing the route from each other room to appropriate exits. horizontal exits. or warehouses and storage areas from other occupancies in the same building. any part of stairways.

• Use of fire protective of firefighting equipment of the Fire Service other than for firefighting except in other emergencies where their use are justified. unsuitable for planting because of the inspection will be considered as samples and will not be paid for.20 m. • Auditoriums or other public assembly buildings.20 m clear width shall be provided between the front ends of parked cars.• Prevention.2 Accessible parking slots should have a minimum width of 3. • Locking fire exits during period when people are inside the building. • Prevention or obstruction of the automatic closure of fire doors or smoke partitions or dampers. WASHROOMS AND TOILETS 7. Any plant rendered. 9. Parking Areas 2. As in walk-ways. 2. Accessible public washrooms and toilets shall permit easy passage of a wheelchair allow the occupant to enter a stall. 9. 8.70 m x 1. coliseums. • Obstructing designated fire lanes or access to fire hydrants. interference are obstruction of any operation of the fire service. • Overcrowding or admission of person beyond the authorized capacity in movie houses. waiting areas and other facilities or spaces shall not obstruct the minimum clearance requirement.80 m. except on other assembly areas on the ground floor with open sides or open doors sufficient to provide safe exits. Government reserves the right to reject the entire lot or lots of plants represented by the detective samples. A turning space of 2. Corridors shall have a minimum clear width of 1. 2. Turn about spaces should also be provided at or within 3. Accessible water closet stall shall have a minimum area of 1. corridors should be maintained level and provided with slipresistant surface. PARKING 2. 8. close the door and transfer to the water closet from either a frontal or lateral position.3 A walkway from accessible spaces of 1. or of duly organized and authorized fire brigades. 2. theaters.70 m.25 square meter with a minimum dimension of 1.50 meter for wheelchairs shall be provided outside .50 m of dead end.1 Accessible parking spaces should be located as close as possible to building entrances or to accessible entrance.4 Parking spaces for the disabled should never be located at ramped or sloping areas 7.

It has a five meter (5m) wide frontage facing the southeast. PROJECT SITE FEATURES The 1800 square meters total lot area is an inside lot with a 20% open space. 12. and two (2) where the number of the water closets exceed twenty (20). and 3.48 meter. V. inclusive of all AFSU areas. the maximum height of the tip should be 0. i.80 meter with a knee recess of 0. b.70 vertical distance and a 0.60 – 0. It is located along a twenty meters (20. IV.0) sqm.e. Maximum height of lavatories should be 0. the property has a legislated.0 sqm of GFA or fraction thereof. the Project site has the following development limitations: 1.0 m) wide Right Road of Way.50 meter depth. 2. based on the NBCP 2004 R-IRR. b. 10. APPLICABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTROL The following development controls apply to the Project site: a. IDENTIFIED DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL .0) parking slot for every 70. Urinals should have an elongated lip or should be troughtype. To the left side is a river. Minimum parking space/slot requirements shall be at one (1. a. 11. zoning classification is GI (general institutional development). To the rear side are mountains. VI.water closet stalls. The minimum number of accessible water closet on each floor level or on that part of a floor level accessible to the disable shall be one (1) where the total number of water closets per six on that level is twenty (20). An Allowable Maximum TGFA of up nine hundred forty-seven (947. The minimum setbacks at ground floor are at five (5.0) m at the front.

or administrative procedures and budgetary allocations linking evacuation to post-disaster recovery. VII.5) level/floor building development i.0) m floor to ceiling height. best practices and guidance from a wide range of different sources.e. This guide relates to emergencies resulting from natural disasters and incorporates considerations. therefore. age and gender-specific needs for protection. public information and basic services. for example. to provide a generic template for creating an evacuation plan.0) floors at eleven point five (11. to be constructed above the podium development. a five point five (5. cultural. that the template must be adapted to take into account specific variables important to different contexts. social. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS Various approaches to evacuations have been taken in different countries around the world. the potential duration of evacuees’ displacement and evolving needs. processes to facilitate safe and voluntary return or relocation elsewhere. at four (4. shelter options available. b. the potential scale and location of evacuation zones and areas of refuge.5) m floor to floor height.The Project potentials: site has the following development a. Variables might include. Assessments of risk require systematic collection and analysis of data and should consider the dynamic nature of hazards and vulnerabilities that arise from socio-economic conditions and changing environment. It should be noted. . up to three (3. access to safe transport. and from a variety of countries.

Elevations at scale 1 : 100 M. . Different hazards and their risks may require different courses of action. II. provide furniture layout only for a representative room/area to save time. C. provide furniture/ equipment layouts only as necessary. highlight all introduced accessibility features and fire exits. the template below can be used by practitioners as a tool for developing their own plans. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS The stated Project requirements are as follows. III. if rooms/areas are typical. This development also assumes that evacuation is a measure of last shelter: it should not expose people in transit to more danger than if they had sheltered from the danger. Should the requirements exceed the development controls and potentials under items VI and VII above.Hazard and vulnerability information is central to almost every aspect and every stage of natural disaster risk management8. Site Development Plan at scale 1 : 200 Meters (M) and showing the following key information: 1. Longitudinal Section (at long axis of the building) at scale 1 : 100 M D. the necessary adjustments have to be made to fully comply with the stated development controls. In the event that hazard mapping and risk assessments point to the need to develop an evacuation plan. DRAWING REQUIREMENTS A. Floor Plans at scale 1 : 100 M. outline of the building footprint. B.

9. pedestrian access systems. open parking. 6. and indicate the northing and the directions of the sun path. pedestrian/ vehicular barriers. etc. 3.. 5. accessibility features (disabled). 8. BUBBLE DIAGRAM . the area of the building footprint and its percentage with respect to the 1. particularly the sidewalks.2. 4. perimeter wall/ fence. sources of noise and odors and available views (if any are clearly identifiable). ground-mounted signage locations (if any). site perimeter security features e. call out/indicate areas to be landscaped (hardscape and softscape). guard outpost (as necessary). 7. The street.g. gate. The adjoining land uses. driveway and parking ramps (as needed).800 sqm TLA. the major winds (habagat and amihan). 10.

RESCUE CENTER RESTROO M OFFICES LOBBY SLEEPING QUATERS RESCUE EQUIPMENTS STORAG E BUBBLE DIAGRAM LOCAL WEATHER STATION .

LOBBY OFFICES SLEEPING QUARTERS STORA GE RESTROO M BUBBLE DIAGRAM EVACUATION CENTER ISOLATION ROOM HANDRESTR WASH OOM AREA LAUDR CLINIC Y AREA KITCHEN / FOOD PREPARATION EATING AREA AREA ADMINISTRATI REGISTRATIO STORAGE/U STAIR ON OFFICE UP N TILITY .

DISINFECTING AREA GROUND FLOOR PLAN BUBBLE DIAGRAM EVACUATION CENTER HANDWASH AREA BATHROOM / SHOWER ROOM .

STAIR DOWN STAFF S AREA SECOND FLOOR PLAN .

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