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81

References
1. C.A Bayly writes in Imperial Meridian: the British
Empire and the World 1780-1830, London, 1989, p. 48;
'Emerging from out of the brief Afghan Empire of the
Durranis, magnates from tribal backgrounds in Sindh
(the Talpur emirs) had built up a viable political system
by the 1790s' thus signalling a considerable shift in
current historio-graphical views on pre-colonial Sind.
2. For an altogether favourable account of Napier, see H.
T. Lambrick, Sir Charles Napier and Sind, Oxford,
1952.
3. See C. L. Mariwalla, History of the Commerece of Sind
(From Early Times to 1526 AD), Jamshoro, 1981, p. 16.
4. See Wink, Al Hind, vol. I, p. 51: 'The desire to expand
traffic along the Persian Gulf route was... the main
motivation for the conquest of Sind.' The suppression
of piracy in particular was a crucial objective for the
Muslim conquerors.
5. Ibid., p. 181.
6. Ibid., p. 52.
7. On Debal, see S. Q. Fatimi, 'The Twin Ports of Daybul'
in H. Khuhro (ed.) Sind Through the Centuries,
Karachi, 1981, pp. 97-105
8. Ibn Battuta, Voyages, translated from the Arabic by C,
Defremery and B. R. Sanguinetti, Paris, 1854, p. 112.
He calls 'Lahary' 'une belle place situee sur le rivage
de I'ocean' and mentions that 'elle possede un grand
port, ou abordent des gens du Yaman, du Fars' .
9. Wink, Al Hind, p. 173.
10. Allen, 'The Indian Merchant Community of Masqat'.
11. See S. Subrahmanyam, 'The Portuguese, Thatta and the
External Trade of Sind, 1515-1635', Revista de
Cuitura, nos. 13-14, 1991,pp. 48-58.

82

12. See. S P. Chablani, Economic Conditions in Sind 1592,


to 1843, Bombay, 1951,p. 52.
13. A. Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies,
London, 1744, quoted in A. Duarte, A History of
British Relations with Sind, Karachi, 1976, p. 39.
14. Allen, 'The Indian Merchant Community of Masqat'.
15. See A Forgotten Chapter of Indian History as
Described in the Memoirs of Seth Naomal Hotchand, C.
S. I Of Karachi 1804-1878, Karachi, 1982 (15tedn,
Exeter, 1915) p. 36. These memoirs, which were
written in Sindhi by Seth Naomal himself, were
translated into English by his grandson, Rao Bahadur
Alumal Trikamdas Bhojwani, and 'edited' by Sir H.
Evan M. James, who was commissioner in Sind in
1891-9, and had them privately published. This
document, in spite of having been translated and
'edited' is an extraordinary and in many ways unique
source on the world of the Hindu banias of Sind.
16. MiRodinson, Islam et Capitalisme, Paris, 1966.
17. See Dale, Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, p.
128.
18. J.1. L. Gommans, The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire,
1710-1780, Leiden, 1995.
19. See Allen, 'The Indian Merchant Community of
Masqat'
20. See A. B. Advani, 'Hyderabad: a Brief Historical
Sketch', Sindhian world, vol. 1, no. 6, 1940, pp. 35669.
21. On the Malwa opium trade, see, for an overview, D. F.
Owen, British Opium Policy in China and India, New
Haven, CT, 1934, pp. 80-112, Parliamentary Papers,
House of Commons, 1831-32, vol. VI, Appendices to
the reports of the Committee on the East India
Company affairs, Appendix IV, 'Abstract of
correspondence regarding Malwa opium, commencing
from the Year 1818 to the Year 1828', pp. 26-59, Royal

83

Commission on Opium, 1894-1895, vol. VII, Final


Report, part II, Historical Appendices, London, 1895,
'Appendix B, Historical Memorandum, by R. M. Dane'
pp. 28-63. For details of the route, see in particular
lOR, Bengal Board of Revenue (Miscellaneous)
Proceedings, Opium, Consultation 8A, 8 March 1824,
enclosing letter from opim agent in Malwa to Board of
Revenue, 17 February 1824, enclosing Memorandum
respecting the export of opium to Pahlie and Demaun'
and Consultation 18, 22 April 1824, from ibid.,
enclosing information collected at Pali by a native
informant.
22. Statistics bearing on opium exports to China from
Daman between 1820-1 and 1828-9 show widespread
fluctuations, a peak being reached in 1827-8 with a
quantity of almost 4,000 chests. See C. Pinto, Trade

and Finance in Portuguese India: a Study of the


Portuguese Country Trade 1770-1840, Delhi, 1994,
Table 5.2, p. 132.
23. See J. Y. Wong, 'British Annexation of Sind in 1843;
an Economic Perspective' Modern Asian Studies, vol.
31, no. 2, 1997, pp. 225-44. That some correlation
existed between British opium policy on the one hand
and the decision to annex Sind seems indubitable, but it
does not prove that the desire to close the Sind route to
Malwa opium was the main motive of the annexation.
24. See enclosure 8 B. 'Memorandum respecting the export
of opium to Pahlie and Demaun' in opium agent in
Malwa to Board of Revenue, Customs and Salt
(Opium), 17 February 1824, Consultation no. 8 A, 9
March 1824, Bengal Board of Revenue (Miscellaneous)
Proceedings, Opium, 9 March to 22 June 1824, and
enclosure in ibid. to ibid., 22 April 1824, Consultation
no. 18, ibid.
25. Native agent in Sind to Colonel H. Pottinger, 27
November 1830, trans, by A. Burnes, assistant resident,

84

20 December 1830, Bombay Revenue Proceedings,


December 1830, no. 135.
26. A Burnes, 'On the Commerce of Hyderabad and Lower
Sind', in Reports and Papers, Political, Geographical
and Commercial Submitted to Government by Sir
Alexander Burnes, Lieutenant Leech, Dr Lord and
Lieutenant Wood Employed on Mission in the years
1835-36-37 in scinde, Afghanistan and Adjacent
Countries, Calcutta, 1839,p. 21.
27. In 1848, Captain Rathbone, the magistrate of
Hyderabad, answering queries regarding trade in the
Hyderabad Collectorate, stated: 'The Hyderabad
merchants ... had till within a year or two of the
conquest a large opium trade across from Pali, which
has been stopped under orders conveyed from the
Supreme Government. Enclosed in minute of Sir
George Clark, 24 April 1848. Parliamentary Papers
(House of Commons 1854, East India (Scinde), p. 293.
28. 'Report on the trade between Shikarpur and Marwar',
Reports and Papers, Commercial, pp. 68-70. Leech
gives the names of six Shikarpuri merchants engaged in
the trade with a total capital of Rs 340,000 while he
informs us that trade in the major commodities,
assafoetida and saffron, is but a small share of what it
was two decades earlier, one of the major reasons for
the decline being the growing inroads of British goods
in the markets of Rajputana.
29. See Memoirs of Seth Naomal Hotchand, pp. 41-5.
30. J. Burnes, A Narrative of a Visit to the Court of Sinde,
Edinburgh, 1831, 2nd edn, (I" edn, Bombay, 1829), p.
76.
31. The mir is supposed to have exclaimed, in the face of
evidence of treachery by a Hindu servant: 'You' do not
know the Hindus of Sinde; they are all blackguards and
rascals'. Ibid., p. 86.

85

32. F. B. Eastwick A Glance at Sind before Napier or Dry


Leaves from Young Egypt, Karachi, 1973, reprint (lst
edn, London, 1849), pp. 214-15.
33. Memoirs of Seth Naomal, p. 68.
34. See L. M. M. Thakurdas, 'Hindus and Talpurs of Sind', .
Modern Review, vol. 51, 1932, pp. 265-72.
35:.See, however, B. M. Advani, Sindh-je-Hindus-je-Tarikh
(History of Sindh Hindus) (in Sindhi) Hyderabad.
36. Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, compiled by E. H.
Aitken, Karachi, 1907.
37. U.T. Thakur, Sindhi Culture, Bombay, 1959.
38. Calculated from Appendix A, 'Comparative Tables
showing the number and distribution of various Hindu
castes (1891 to 1931) in Sind' in ibid., pp. 207-33.
39. For an interesting although controversial analysis of
this question, centered on the Punjab, see H. Oberoi,
The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture,
Identity and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition, Delhi,
1994. To the best of my knowledge, no study has been
done of the history of Sikhism in Sind.
40. According to the 1881 Census, there were in Sind 126,
976 Sikhs (including 68, 655 in Shikarpur distric and
42,940 in Hyderabad district). as against 305, 079
Hindus (93,341 in Shikarpur and 89, 114 in
Hyderabad), suggesting that he majority of Lohanas in
Shikarpur district and large minority in Hyderabad
district returned themselves as Sikhs. Census of India,
1881, Operations and Results in the Presidency of
Bombay including Sind, J. A. Baines, vol. II, Tables,
Bombay, 1882, Table III, pp. 3-6. However, by the time
of the 1891 Census, the situation had been totally
. reversed, as only 720 Sikhs were enumerated in the
whole of Sind, as against 567,536 Hindus. Census of
India, 1891, vol. VIII, Bombay and its Feudatories, part
II, Imperial Tables, W. W. Drew, bombay, 1892, Table
VI, pp. 26-7. Commenting on this puzzling change, the

86
census commissioner attributed it to the fact that in the
1891 Census 'religion'
and 'sect' were distinct
categories, but that only the former had been taken into
account. He surmised that most of those who had
previously enumerated themselves as Sikhs returned
themselves in 1891 as of Hindu religion and Sikh sect,
which explained that they figured under the heading
'Hindus'. Census of India, 1891, vol. VIII, part I,
Report, W. W. Drew, Bombay, 1892, p. 40.
41. On Uderolal or Lal Udero, see 'Something about Lal
Udero', in Sigma (Dayaram Gidumal) Something about
Sind, Karachi, 1882, pp. 27-31.
42. On the role of the sufi pirs in Sindhi Islam, see S. F. D.
Ansari, Sufi Saints and State Power: the Pirs of Sind,
1843-1947, Cambridge, 1992, pp. 19-35. Ansari
mentions, p. 20, that Suhrawardi sufis, who were the
first to be active in Sind, acquired Hindu followers 'in
part as a result of the religious tolerance engendered by
their belief in the doctrine of wahdat-al-wujud' (Unity
of Being). Although this doctrine was later attacked by
the Naqshbandis, sufis in Sind continued to accept
Hindu disciples. The most influential of the pirs, the Pir
Pagaro Sibghatullah Shah II (1921-43) systematically
tried to win the trust of local Hindus by such gestures as
the organization of a shudhhi ceremony for a Hindu
who had converted to Islam and wished to be
readmitted to his original faith. Mentioned in ibid., pp.
137-8.
43. Hari P. Vaswani, in his biography of his father Sadhu
T.L. Vaswani, who was the main spiritual guide of
Sindhi Hindus in the twentieth century, mentions that
'Hindus in Sind participated in the Muharram, the
festival of the Muslims. They considered the tabut to be
so very holy that they brought their new-born babes to
it to be blessed. They also covered the tabut with their

87

kerchiefs as a mark of respect and reverence.' H.P.


Vaswani, A Saint of Modern India, Poona, 1975, p. 4.
44. See N. Boreham, 'Decolonisation and Provincial
Muslim Politics: Sindh, 1937-47', South Asia, new
series, vol. 16, no. 1, 1993,pp. 53-72.
45. See S. Anand, National Integration of Sindhis, Delhi,
1996, in particular ch. 2, 'Partition and Mass Exodus',
pp.22-60.
46. The most significant episode of communal violence in
Sind occurred in 1939 around the so-called Manzilgah
agitation in Sukkur. See H. Khuhro, 'Masjid
Manzilgah, 1939-40: Test Case for Hindu-Muslim
Relations in Sind', Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 1,
1998, pp. 49-89
47. R. F. Burton, Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the
Valley of the Indus, with Notices of the Topography and
History of the Province, London, 1851, in particular
chapter 12, 'The Hindoos ofSindh', pp. 309-37.
48. R. F. Burton, Sindh Revisited, London, 1877, in
Particular vol. I, chapter 14, significantly entitled 'The
Hindus of Sind- their Rascality and their
Philoprogenitiveness', pp.269-95, from where I extract
this passage about the banias, pp. 283-4: 'he then takes
his place in the shop, where, if you please, we shall
leave him to cheat and haggle, to spoil and'" adulterate,
and to become as speedily rich by the practice of as
much conventional and commercial rascality, barely
within the limits of actual felony, as he can pass off
upon the world' .
49. See R. D. Choksey, The Story of Sind (An Economic
Survey), 1843-1933, Poona, 1983,pp. 130-1.
50. D. Cheesman, Landlord Power and Rural Indebtedness
in Colonial Sind 1865-1901, London, 1997. See also H.
Khuhro, The Making of Modern Sind: British Policy
and Social Change in the Nineteenth Century, Karachi,
1978. .

88
51. See N. Bhattacharya, 'Lenders and Debtors: Punjab
Countryside, 1880-1940', Studies in History, new
series, vol. 1, no. 2, 1985, pp. 305-42.
52. See Cheesman, Landlord Power, p. 164.
53. For some instances, see ibid., pp. 186-8.
54. According to the Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, p.
331, the average price of bajra, the staple grain crop in
Sind, went up from Rs 1-1-10 per maund during 184450 to Rs 2-7-0 in 1896-1905.
55. On the growth of the port of Karachi and its
connections with the Punjab, see A. F. Baillie,

Kurrachee (Karachi), Past, Present and Future,


London, 1890, and 1. Banga, 'Karachi and its
Hinterland under Colonial Rule', in 1. Banga (ed.),
Ports and their Hinterlands in India (1700-1950),
Delhi, 1992, pp. 337-58.
56. In the second half of the nineteenth century it was
Bombay
revenue- which largely paid for the
construction of a port which served primarily the
Punjab. For Punjab finances it was a very good
operation, and it explains why Punjab officials were
never particularly keen to have Sind become part of
their province. In 1903, when Sir Denzil Ibbetson,
having been made lieutenant-governor of the Punjab,
tried to have his domain (which had been diminished by
the separation of the North-West Frontier Province in
1901) increased by the inclusion of Sind, Lord Curzon,
whose grasp of interprovincial financial transfers was
better than Ibbetson' s quashed his attempt. See P.
Mahto, 'The Separation of Sind from Bombay
Presidency' in M. Y. Mughul (ed.), Studies in Sind,
Jamshoro, 1989.
57. See H. Feldman, One Hunderd Years of Karachi,
Kharachi 1960.
58. On the Parsis in Karachi, see T. R. Metcalf and S. B.
Freitag,
'Karachi's
Early
Merchant
Families:

89

entrepreneurship and community', in D. K. Basu, The


Rise and Growth of the Colonial Port Cities in Asia,
Berkeley, CA, 1985, pp. 55-9.
59. On the role of the Shikarpuris in Karachi, see Banga,
'Karachi and its Hinterland's pp. 357-8: 'The
Shikarpuri Banias... migrated to Karachi to take over
its grain and cotton trade as brokers which placed them
in a position of dominance in the commodity export
trade... Their firms of bhaibands played an important
role in the Buyers and Shippers Chamber- and
organization of firms engaged in maritime trade. They
dominated the Karachi Indian Merchants Association
founded in 1902 and played an important role in the
Karachi Cotton Association founded in 1933.

91

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