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Abstract:

In this experiment a paving mixture is extracted with benzene using the extraction
equipment by 3600 rotation per min, this centrifugal method gives the ability to know
asphalt content which calculated by the difference from the mass of extracted
aggregate, moisture content and mineral matter in the extract.
In the Engler specific viscosity of tar products, the time is seconds is measured for a
fixed volume of liquid material to flow through an efflux tube under an accurately
reproducible head and at a closely controlled temperature. The Engler specific viscosity
is then calculated by dividing the efflux time by the viscometer calibration factor as
determined by making the same efflux measurement for water.

Introduction:
This test method is used to determine the quantity of asphalt in the paving mixtures and
pavement samples for specification acceptance, service evaluation, control and
research. The method prescribes the solvents or any other agents than can be used in
the test method. This test method depends mainly on the centrifugal concept, which
made the mixture divided in to two parts; the first part is asphalt which dissolved with
benzene, and the second part is the aggregate (coarse and fine), which sieves at sieve #
4 and sieve # 200. Then the percent of asphalt is determined depending on the sample
size. And also the asphalt percent in aggregate was determined for the total weight of
aggregate.
The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for determination of specific viscosity of
tar and their fluid products, which is useful in characterizing the consistency of tar and
tar distillates by measuring their flow properties, which considered an empirical test.

Objectives:
1. To determine the asphalt content and asphalt percent in aggregate in a paving
mixture.
2. Knowing the effect of aggregate on the asphalt content.
3. Comparing the asphalt content with the specifications.
4. To be familiar with the Engler viscosity measurement.
5. Determination of the viscosity of a material like tar or one of its products.

Material used:
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Concrete bituminous mixture sample.


Centrifugal machine.
Benzene.
Pan.
Spatula.
Balance.

7)

Filter.
Engler viscosity for tar products:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Engler viscometer.
Cup.
Timer, (watch).
Stopper, to stop the flow of liquid.
Thermometer.
Flask.
The tar (or its product) that is wanted to find its viscosity.

Procedure:
1.
Put the test specimen on a flat pan and separate the mix, then quarter the material
until the mass of material required in obtained.
2.

Balance 500 gm sample with fine and coarse aggregate.

3.
Put the sample in the extraction machine and dissolve the asphalt in it with
benzene. Thin turn the machine on for a few minuets, after putting the filter paper above
it.
4.
Cover the test specimen another time with benzene and fit the filter above the edge
of blow.
5.
Start the centrifugal revolution slowly and gradually increase the speed to a
maximum of 3600 rev. per min. until solvent flow from the drain.
6.

Repeat the last step another time by adding 200 ml of benzene to the sample.

7.

Remove the filter ring from the bowl and dry it, weight it.

8.

Carefully remove all the content of the bowl in to a metal pan and dry it.

9.

Sieve the content of bowl on sieve # 4 and # 200.

Engler viscosity of tar products:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Sustain the temperature at 25C, using water placed in the cup.


Use the water as the standard liquid to calibrate the device, fill the cup with water,
open the outlet tube, the water will drop and fill a flask at the bottom of the device.
Measure the time needed to fill the flask with water.
Empty the cup and the flask from water, and fill it with or tar or any liquid wanted to
measure its Engler viscosity.
Open the outlet, and allow the liquid to flow and fill the flask.
Measure the time needed to fill the flask.
Engler viscosity equal the time needed to fill the flask with the liquid over the time
needed to fill the flask with water.

Results:

Test results:
Asphalt content for sample 1 = 4.58%, % of C.A =48.63,% of F.A =46.12,% of filler =5.04
Asphalt content for sample 2 = 5.67%, % of C.A =50.23, % of F.A =44.97,% of filler =4.98
Average Engler viscosity for the oil used = 13.09
.

Discussion:
As seen from the result table above the asphalt percent for sample one is nearly 5% and
this value may be correct because this value was used in marshal sample preparation.
But for the other sample the asphalt percent value was around the 6 % and this value can
be wrong because such value was not used in the preparation of the marshal samples.
Sine both samples have the same size aggregate fraction, the percentages of the coarse,
fine and filler for the samples should be the same. And this is obvious in table two.
From table 2 it can be seen that the percentages of coarse, fine and filler dose not match
with the reality since the true percentages are 64, 31 and 5 for coarse, fine and filler
respectively.
The reasons for that bay be because the selected sample quarter was not representative
(containing more fine and filler quantity).
Some errors happened in this experiment such as:
The loss of some aggregate during sieving and balancing because of rush and careless
from the students.
Some aggregate, especially filler, may go out with the benzene.
No enough drying for the specimens after extraction so the benzene dose not evaporates
completely.
The viscosity can be defined as the resistance to flow of a fluid, from this, it can be
noticed that this test is used to determine the consistency of a liquid material (asphalt
here), which affect mainly on the uses of the asphalt.
The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for determination of specific
viscosity of tar and their fluid products, which is useful in characterizing the
consistency of tar and tar distillates by measuring their flow properties, which
considered an empirical test.
as:

conclusion
1.
2.
3.

The asphalt content for sample 1 was 4.58 % and for sample 2 is 5.67 %.
The use of benzene in this test because of the solubility of asphalt in it.
The centrifugal force works to through the asphalt away from the aggregate.

Reference:
American society of testing and materials, D 2172, test standard method for
quantitative extraction of bituminous paving mixtures, pages (274-290), 1988.

Appendix:
Table 1: sieve analysis of aggregate.
Group
Weight of coarse
Weight of fine
aggregate (g)
aggregate (g)
1
256.6
243.4
2
256.6
243.4
3
283.9
252.5
4
283.9
252.5

Weight of
filler (g)
26.63
26.63
28.15
28.15

Total weight of
aggregate (g)
526.44
526.44
563.46
563.46

Table 2: calculation of asphalt content.


Weight of
Dry weight
Total
Weight of
% of
Group
filter
of filter
weight of
asphalt (g)
asphalt by
before test
after test
aggregate
total
(g)
(g)
(g)
weight
1
8.8
10
527.64
24.19
4.58
2
8.8
10
527.64
24.19
4.58
3
8.47
10.15
565.14
32.06
5.67
4
8.47
10.15
565.14
32.06
5.67
Sample of calculation: group 3:
Total weight of aggregate = weight of aggregate (table 51) + dry weight of
filter after test weight of
filter before test
= 563.46+ 10.15 8.47
= 565.14 g
Weight of asphalt = 563.46 total weight of aggregate
= 597.2 565.14
= 32.06 g
Asphalt content = weight of asphalt / total weight of specimen * 100 %
= 32.06 / 565.14 * 100 %
= 5.67 %
C.A percent = 283.9/565.14 *100
=50.23%
F.A percent = 252.5/565.14 *100
=44.67%

Wt of sample
551.83
551.83
597.2
597.2

% of
c.a

% of
f.a

% of
filler

48.63
48.63
50.23
50.23

46.12
46.12
44.67
44.67

5.04
5.04
4.98
4.98

Group

Table 3: calculation of Engler viscosity.


Time to fill 50 ml flask
Time to fill 50 ml
by water (sec)
flask by oil (sec)

1
15
2
15
3
15
4
15
Sample of calculation: group 3:
Viscosity = time to fill 50 ml flask by oil / time to
= 196/ 15
= 13.06
Average viscosity = 13.09

195
198
196
197

Viscosity
13
13.2
13.06
13.13

fill 50 ml flask by water