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Planning and Scheduling

Dr. Ir. HM. Agung Wibowo, MM, MSc


Jati Utomo Dwi Hatmoko, ST, MM, MSc, PhD

Gantt Chart
(Mawdesley, 1997)

Linked Bar Chart (Mawdesley, 1997)

Techniques of Scheduling

List of Activities
Bar chart / Gantt Chart
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Precedence Diagram Network (PDM)
PERT (Programme Evaluation & Review
Technique)
Line of Balance Method
Time Chainage Diagram (Mass Haul
Diagram)

Network
A network is a diagram showing all
activites which are needed to complete a
project and the order of which they
must be done.
It therefore comprises two parts :
The activities
Some method of displaying the
technological logic of construction.

Scheduling techniques
1. Bar chart (Gantt chart)
2. Network
Activity on Arrow (CPM - Critical Path Method)
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)

Activity on Node (PDM Precedence Diagram


Method)

Network (Mawdesley, 1997)


Activity on Arrow

Activity on Arrow (CPM - Critical Path Method)

North
21 wwalls

North
stem

3 21

12

North
backfill

33
36

15

North
0 base

1 0

South
6 base

2 6

South
21 stem

4 21

15

South
36 wwalls

6 36

12

South
48 backfill

7 50

Deck
20

56
8 56

Kerbs
2

Surfacing
60
10 60

58
9 58

Activity on Node
(PDM Precedence Diagram Method)

KEY
earliest
start

latest
start
N
21
6
stem
6 2 15 21

N
21 wwall 33
26 4 12 38

N
33
b/fill 39
50 8 6 56

activity
name

earliest
finish

N
33 b/fill 39
50 8 6 56

latest
finish

activity
duration
reference

N &S
12
bases
0 1 12 21
12
0

S
36
stem
21 3 15 36

21

S
36 wwall 48
38 5 12 50

S
48 b/fill 54
50 7 6 56

36 Deck 56
36 6 20 56

56 Kerbs 58
56 9 2 58

Sur60
facing
58 10 2 60
58

Project Scheduling

Steps
Define activities
Sequence activities
Estimate time /duration
Develop schedule

Excavate base
4d

Blind base
2d

Excavate base

(4d)

Blind base

(2d)

Formwork

(5d)

Reinforcement

(4d)

Concrete

(1d)

Formwork

Reinforcement

Concrete

5d

4d

1d

Linking Activities in the project


Bar Chart

Activity on the arrow


network

Precedence diagram

A
A

predecessor

successor

Activity on B depends on activity A

Linking Activities in the project


Bar Chart

Activity on the arrow


network
A

Precedence diagram

A
C

C
B

Activity on C depends on activities A and B

Linking Activities in the project


Activity on the arrow
network

Bar Chart
A
B

Precedence diagram

C
D

Activity on C and D depends on activities A and B

Linking Activities in the project


Activity on the arrow
network

Bar Chart
A

A
B

C
D

Precedence diagram

Dummy
B

Activity on C depends on activity A and D depends on both activities A and B

Only one activity is allowed for two events

Concurrent Activities
Lay foundation

Lay
foundation

Order material

(a) Incorrect precedence


relationship

Copyright 2006 John Wiley


& Sons, Inc.

Dummy
2

0
1

Order material

(b) Correct precedence


relationship

9-16

Using dummies in the network


The Project : 100 m Brickwall
Excavate (A)

Excavate (A)
Foundation (B)

Wall (C)

Foundation (B)

Wall (C)

Activity A

(Excavate base 100m)

A1 = Excavate base (40m)


A2 = Excavate base (30m)
A3 = Excavate base (30m)

Activity B

B1 = Foundation (40m)
B2 = Foundation (30m)
B3 = Foundation (30m)

Activity C

C1 = Wall (40m)
C2 = Wall (30m)
C3 = Wall (30m)

(Foundation 100m)

(Wall 100m)

Excavate (A)
Foundation (B)
Wall (C)


Only one event at the start, and at the end of the network

CPM

ES
LS

Event i

Event j

Activity A
Duration (d)

EF
LF

(ES) Early start : the earliest the event i (activity A) can start
(EF) Early finish : the earliest the event j can start or - the earliest the activity A can finish
(LS) Latest start : the latest the event i (activity A) can start without delaying the project
(LF) Latest finish : the latest the event j can start or the latest the activity A can finish
without delaying the project

(ES) Early start = EST (Early Start Time) = EETi (Early Event Time)
(EF) Early finish = EFT (Early FinishTime) = EETj (Early Event Time j)
(LS) Latest start = LST (Latest Start Time) = LETi (Latest Event Time i )

(LF) Latest finish = LFT (Latest FinishTime) = LETi (Latest Event Time j )

ES

Activity A

LS

Duration (d)

EF
LF

Forward Pass
i

ES

Activity A
Duration (d)

EF

EF = ES + duration

Backward Pass
i

Activity A
LS

Duration (d)

LS = LF - duration

LF

NORTH ABUTMENT
wingwalls

deck
stem

backfill

finished ground
profile

embankment
already
constructed
existing ground
profile

SOUTH ABUTMENT

base

Activity Name
North base
South base
North abutment stem
South abutment stem
North wingwalls
South wingwalls
North backfill
South backfill
Deck
Kerbs
Surfacing

embankment
already
constructed
existing ground
profile

Activity Reference
1
2
3
4
5
8
7
6
9
10
11

Activity duration (days)


6
6
15
15
12
12
6
6
20
2
2

Resource constraint: only one set of formwork is available for


base, one set for abutment stems and one set for wingwalls

12

Activity on Arrow (CPM - Critical Path Method)


FORWARD PASS

North
21 wwalls

North
stem

3 21

12

North
backfill

33
36

15

North
0 base

1 0

South
6 base

2 6

South
21 stem

4 21

15

South
36 wwalls

6 36

12

South
48 backfill

7 50

Deck
20

56
8 56

Kerbs
2

Surfacing
60
10 60

58
9 58

Activity on Arrow (CPM - Critical Path Method)


BACKWARD PASS

North
21 wwalls

North
stem

3 21

12

North
backfill

33
36

15

North
0 base

1 0

South
6 base

2 6

South
21 stem

4 21

15

South
36 wwalls

6 36

12

South
48 backfill

7 50

Deck
20

56
8 56

Kerbs
2

Surfacing
60
10 60

58
9 58

Activity on Arrow (CPM - Critical Path Method)


North
stem
15

North
0 base

1 0

6
FF = 0
TF= 0

North
21 wwalls

3 21
FF = 0
TF=0

South
6 base

2 6

12

FF =0
TF=3

FF =9
TF=9

15
FF =0
TF=0

33

5 36

South
21 stem

4 21

North
backfill
6

FF =17
TF=17

South
36 wwalls

6 36

12

South
48 backfill

7 50

FF =0
TF=2

6
FF =2
TF=2

56
8 56

Kerbs
2

Surfacing
60
10 60

58
9 58

FF =0
TF =0

FF =0
TF=0

Deck
20

FF =0
TF =0

Free float (FF) : the maximum time an activity can be delayed without delaying any subsequent
activities that are starting at their earliest times

FF = EFj duration - ESi


ES
i
LS

Activity A
Duration
(d)

EF
LF

Activity on Arrow (CPM - Critical Path Method)


North
stem
15

North
0 base

1 0

FF = 0
TF= 0

North
21 wwalls

FF = 0
TF=0

3 21

South
6 base

2 6

12

South
21 stem

4 21

FF =9
TF=9

FF =0
TF=3

15

North
backfill

33
36

South
36 wwalls

6 36

FF =0
TF=0

FF =17
TF=17

12
FF =0

South
48 backfill

7 50

FF =2
TF=2

TF=2

Deck
20

56
8 56

Kerbs
2

FF =0
TF =0

Surfacing
60
10 60

58
9 58

FF =0
TF=0

FF =0
TF =0

Total float (TF) : the maximum time an activity can be delayed without delaying the whole project

TF = LFj duration - ESi


The Total float is shared by activities in the network.

Interferent float (TF) = TF FF

ES
i
LS

Activity A
Duration
(d)

EF
LF

We can use a table for this


Activity
Name

Activity
Reference

North base

Activity
duration
(days)
6

South base

North
abutment
stem
South
abutment
stem
North
wingwalls

15

15

12

South
wingwalls

12

North
backfill

South
backfill

Deck

20

Kerbs

10

Surfacing

11

ES i

LSi

EFj

LFj

FF

TF

IF

Critical Path

The longest path


It determines the programme
Any delay on the critical path means that the project will be delayed
There could be > 1 critical path in the network
North
21 wwalls

North
stem

3 21

12

North
backfill

33
36

15

North
0 base

1 0

South
6 base

2 6

South
21 stem

4 21

15

South
36 wwalls

6 36

12

South
48 backfill

7 50

Deck
Path 1 = NB+SB+SS+SW+SB+K+S = 49
Path2 = NB +NS+NW+NB+K+S= 43
Path 3 = NB+SB+SS+D+K+S=51
Path 4 = NB+NS+SS+SW+SB+K+S=58
Path 5 = NB+NS+NW+SW+SB+K+S=55
Path 6 = NB+NS+NW+D+K+S=57
Path 7 = NB+NS+SS+D+K+S=60 the critical path

20

56
8 56

Kerbs
2

Surfacing
60
10 60

58
9 58