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STUDENT MATERIALS

CONTENTS
Simple Algebraic Operations
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Evaluate Formulae expressed in symbols


Manipulate Algebraic Expressions involving Brackets
Factorising Expressions
Solving Linear Equations
Solving Inequalities
Checkup

Graphical Relations
A. Draw a Line given its equation in the form y = ax + b
Checkup
Trigonometry in Right Angled Triangles
A. Solve Right Angled Triangles using Sine, Cosine and Tangent
Checkup
Use Standard Form (Scientific Notation)
A. Interpret Numbers expressed in Standard Form
B. Convert Large and Small Numbers to Standard Form
C. Use Standard Form in Simple Calculations
Checkup
Set of Specimen Questions
Answers

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS


By the end of this set of exercises, you should be able to
(a)

evaluate formulae expressed in symbols

(b)

manipulate algebraic expressions involving brackets


multiply expressions
remove brackets and collect like terms

(c)

factorise expressions common factor

(d)

solve simple linear equations

(e)

solve simple inequalities

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS


A . Evaluating Formulae Expressed in Symbols
Exercise 1
For the following formulae, find the value of the letter asked for:
1.

A = b + c

..............

find A,

when b = 17 and c = 25

2.

R = g t

..............

find R,

when g = 625 and t = 25

3.

F =5 x m x n

find F,

when m = 55 and n = 10

4.

P = 7rq

find P,

when r = 6 and q = 05

5.

V = 2x + 2 y

..........

find V,

when x = 6 and y = 10

6.

M = 4e 40

...........

find M,

when e = 30

7.

Q = 16 + 5r

............

find Q,

when r = 12

8.

find W,

when d = 3

find T,

when h = 9

find U,

when k = 4

11.

W = 8 1 / d ..............
T = 108 12 ......
h
U = 95
.............
(k+1)
..............
B = c /d

find B,

when c = 6500 and d = 65

12.

C = gh + i

..............

find C,

when g = 4, h = 6 and i = 8

13.

D = e + ft

..............

find D,

when e = 90, f = 2 and t = 15

14.

E = jk n

..............

find E,

when j = 3, k = 6 and n = 17

15.

H = x yz

..............

find H,

when x = 50, y = 24 and z = 2

16.

J = L

find J,

when L = 25

17.

M = 8N

find M,

when N = 10000

18.

S = T2

find S,

when T = 35

19.

W = 3a 2 + 4

find W,

when a = 2

20.

T = b2p

find T,

when b = 5 and p = 4

21.

Q = (x y) 2

find Q,

when x = 9 and y = 8

22.

V = (m 2 + n 2 )

........

find V,

when m = 3 and n = 4

23. Z = a 2 + 2ab + c .......

find Z,

when a = 8, b = 3 and c = 18

S = (p 2 q 2 + 160) .....

find S,

when p = 2 and q = 3

9.
10.

24.

.........

..............

..............
..............
..............
............

..............
.............

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

B . Algebraic Expressions with Brackets


Exercise 2
1. Remove the brackets:
(a) 2(a + 4)

(b) 3(b + 1)

(c) 4(c + 5)

(d) 5(d + 9)

(e) 6(e + 7)

(f) 2(f 3)

(g) 4(g 2)

(h) 5(h 1)

(i) 2(i 3)

(j) 7(j 6)

(k) 5(k 9)

(l) 8(1 + x)

(m) 4(3 + m)

(n) 9(1 + n)

(o) 2(1 w)

(p) 3(3 p)

(q) 3(q + v)

(r) 2(r + w)

(s) 7(s y)

(t) 10(t 100)

2. Multiply out the brackets:


(a) 2(2a + 3)

(b) 3(4b + 1)

(c) 5(1 + 2c)

(d) 2(3 4d)

(e) 6(6e 1)

(f) 10(3 8f)

(g) 4(2g + 4x)

(h) 5(3h + y)

(i) 2(4i 5x)

(j)

(k) 7(11k 9x)

(l) 8(2ab c)

(m) a(m + 4)

(n) a(n + 5)

(o) x(y 1)

(p) w(w 9)

(q) a(2q + x)

(r) a(5r + 2w)

(s) 7d(2 3e)

(t) 2t(10t s)

7(10j 3y)

3. Rewrite the following without brackets:


(a) 2(3a + 4b + 2)

(b) 3(4c + 2d + 5)

(c) 5(7e + 2f + 1)

(d) 4(2g + 3h + 4i)

(e) 7(2j + 4k + 6l)

(f) 9(m + n + 2p)

(g) 2(5q 2r 4)

(h) 4(3s + 5t 8)

(i) 6(2u 5v 7)

(j) 7(2x 3y 5z)

(k) 2(10a 2b + 4c)

(l) 5(4d + 2e 8f)

4. Multiply out the brackets and collect like terms:

Show all working.

(a) 3(x + 3) + 5

(b) 2(x + 1) + 4

(c) 4(x + 5) + 1

(d) 2(y + 2) 3

(e) 5(y + 1) 2

(f) 6(y + 5) 20

(g) 2(z + 3) + 4z

(h) 8(z + 1) + 7z

(i) 3(z + 4) 2z

(j) 8(w + 3) 3w

(k) 9(w + 4) 7w

(l) 2w + 3(w + 1)

(m) 4v + 5(v 2)

(n) 5v + 2(4v + 1)

(o) 6v + 4(5v 2)

(p) 3r + (r 1)

(q) 2r + 3(r + 2s)

(r) 4r + 2(5r + 7s)

(s) 6a + 2(7a 10b)

(t) 90b + 10(10a + b)

(u) 7 + 3(d 1)

contd .....
Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

5. Remove the brackets and simplify:

Show all working.

(a)

3(g + 3) + 2(g + 1)

(b)

4(2h + 5) + 2(h + 2)

(c)

5(3k + 4) + 2(6k + 1)

(d)

10(2m + 3n) + 2(3m + 5n)

(e)

3(2p + 4) + 4(p 1)

(f)

6(q 2) + 2(q + 6)

(g)

5(3r 2s) + 2(r + 12s)

(h)

2(5t 2u + 6v) + 3(2t + 2u 4v)

C . Factorising Expressions

Common Factor

Exercise 3
1. Factorise fully :
(a) 6x + 6y

(b) 3a 3b

(c) 5e 5f

(d) 9p + 9q

(e) 3m 15

(f) 8n + 24

(g) 4y + 6z

(h) 14c + 28d

(i) 10r 15s

(j) 4f 24g

(k) 9p + 21

(l) 7x + 56

(m) 24v + 32w

(n) 30m 120

(o) 32r 80z

(p) 2a + 6b + 18c

(q) 12p 30q + 36

(r) 21p 49q 7

(s) 60r + 40s 100t

(t) 33x 44y + 99

(a) 3a + af

(b) 5s rs

(c) xy + yz

(d) a2 + 7a

(e) s2 + 8s

(f) m2 4m

(g) 5xr + 5xs

(h) 3ab 6ac

(i) 5ef 15f

(j) 3e2 + 7e

(k) 9p2 5pw

(l) 3w2 8wg

(m) d2 + 3dg 6d

(n) y2 2yn 7yk

(o) 3va + 8vg + 4vh

(p) 3sm 5sn + 7s

(q) 2f 2 + 4fed fd

(r) 5x2 7xy + 9xyz

(s) 7ax + 7ay a

2. Factorise fully:

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

D . Solving Linear Equations


Exercise 4
1. Find x, y and v by solving these equations:
(a) x + 4 = 7

(b) x 5 = 8

(c) x + 8 = 19

(d) x + 19 = 20

(e) x 8 = 12

(f) x 14 = 1

(g) x 05 = 85

(h) x + 36 = 36

(i) 2y = 10

(j) 3y = 12

(k) 6y = 42

(l) 8y = 80

(m) 4y = 6

(n) 12y = 30

(o) 16y = 20

(p) 62y = 0

(q) 1/3v = 7

(r) 1/2v = 10

(s) 1/4v = 7

(t) 1/5v = 4

(a) 2s + 4 = 6

(b) 3r 1 = 8

(c) 4q + 3 = 15

(d) 9p 4 = 32

(e) 7n + 2 = 37

(f) 5m 6 = 39

(g) 8k 8 = 0

(h) 9j + 7 = 7

(i) 5 + 3h = 11

(j) 7 + 5g = 17

(k) 3 + 4f = 31

(l) 70 = e + 66

(m) 25 = d + 9

(n) 17 = c + 1

(o) 81 = b 19

(p) 100 = a 100

(a) 2x = x + 5

(b) 5x = 4x + 8

(c) 6x = 2x + 4

(d) 7x = 3x + 28

(e) 9x = 6x + 21

(f) 4x 3 = 3x

(g) 9x 8 = 5x

(h) 4x = 24 + x

(i) 7x = 2x + 25

(j) 3x + 1 = 4x

(k) 3x = 18 3x

(l) 4x = 15 x

(m) x + 40 = 5x

(n) 24 + x = 4x

(o) 14 x = 6x

(p) 77 2x = 9x

2. Solve these equations:

3. Solve for x:

4. Solve these equations:


(a) 4a 1 = 3a + 8

(b) 5c + 3 = 3c + 9

(c) 9e + 2 = 2e + 9

(d) 5g 1 = 2g + 20

(e) 4k 2 = 16 2k

(f) 7n 1 = 23 n

(g) 3m 8 = m + 1

(h) 5 + 5p = 26 + 2p

(i) 7q 12 = 5q 3

(j) 6r 14 = r + 1

(k) 5s + 3 = 8s 21

(l) 12u + 7 = 7 u

(m) 9v 4 = 2v + 45

(n) 7 3w = w 1

(o) 3y 8 = y 5

5. Solve these equations by multiplying out the brackets first:


(a) 2(x + 4) = 10

(b) 3(x + 1) = 15

(c) 3(x 1) = 21

(d) 4(x 2) = 12

(e) 6(x + 3) = 60

(f) 7(x + 2) = 49

(g) 5(x 1) = 45

(h) 4(x 3) = 48

(i) 6(x + 3) = 54

(j) 7(x + 1) = 42

(k) 9(x + 7) = 72

(l) 3(2x + 1) = 27

(m) 4(7 + 2x) = 44

(n) 3(7x 6) = 66

(o) 90 = 6(2x 3)

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

E . Solving Inequalities
Exercise 5
1. Use <, >, or = to connect the two numbers in each pair.
Write out the question again with the correct symbol.
(a) 1, 2

(b) 1, 2

(c) 3, 0

(d) 5, 5

(e) 2, 3

(f) 1, 2

(g) 1, 8

(h) 3, 2

(i) 0, 1

(j) 2, (1+ (1))

2. Solve these inequalities, leaving your answer in the form x > 1, x 4, etc.
(a) x + 1 > 3

(b) x 4 < 7

(c) x + 2 9

(d) 4x > 8

(e) 2x < 15

(f) 8x < 10

(g) 2x 3 < 7

(h) 7x + 4 18

(i) 5x + 1 36

(j) 2x 6 13

(k) 5x > 5

(l) 3x + 1 11

(m) 4(x 1) > 2x

(n) 3(x + 1) < 12

(o) 5(x 16) < x

(p) 5x 7 > 3x + 1

3. Solve these inequalities, choosing y from the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} for your answer:
(a) y 5

(b) y 2

(c) y + 4 8

(d) 4y < 6

(e) 5y + 2 > 12

(f) 9y 5 40

(g) 4y 10 2y

(h) 9y 3 5y + 5

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

Checkup for Simple Algebraic Operations


1. For each of these formulae, find the value of the required letter:
(a) M = 2a + 8,
(b) T = uv w,

find M when a = 7.
find T when u = 5, v = 3 and w = 14.

(c) A = d 2 y,

find A

when d = 3 and y = 4.

2. Multiply out the brackets and simplify where possible:

3.

(a) 5(2a + 1)

(b) 7(b 3c)

(c) x(y + 3)

(d) 2p(p + q r)

(e) 5(4v + 2) + 1

(f) 6x + 4(x 2)

(g) 2(8h + 5) 15h

(h) 6(2h + 1) + 2(4h 3)

Factorise these expressions fully:


(a) 2p + 14

(b) 5s 25

(c) 16 + 8r

(d) 77 33f

(e) 6y 9z

(f) 4v + 6vz

(g) ar + 4a

(h) px qx

(i) 4sr + 5st 8vs

(j) x2 + 3x

(k) 14e + 7f 35g

(l) 2y2 6y

(a) x + 5 = 11

(b) x 5 = 2

(c) 4y = 28

(d) 6x = 21

(e) 1/2s = 5

(f) 1/4v = 3

(g) 4n + 3 = 23

(h) 5m 1 = 29

(i) 8n + 3 = 3

(j) 2 + 5k = 37

(k) 5s 1 = 4s

(l) 8x 9 = 5x

(m) 3t + 2 = 2t + 7

(n) 5c + 4 = 3c + 10 (o) 5 + 7e = 35 + 2e

4. Solve these equations:

(p) 5y 4 = 3y + 5 (q) 2(x + 3) = 14

(r) 4(u 1) = 28

5. Solve these inequalities, leaving your answer in the form x > 4, x 5, etc.
(a) x + 3 > 7

(b) x 4 < 9

(c) x + 4 12

(d) 7x > 21

(e) 2x < 11

(f) 4x 5

(g) 2x 4 < 8

(h) 5x + 4 9

(i) 3x + 1 22

(j) 2x 4 16

(k) 11x 1 > 32

(l) 9x + 1 28

(m) 5(x 2) > 3x

(n) 6(x + 1) < 24

(o) 5(x 20) < x

(p) 8x 8 > 2x + 1

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

10

GRAPHICAL RELATIONSHIPS
By the end of this set of exercises, you should be able to
(a)

Draw a straight line given its equation in the form y = ax + b


by making up a table of values.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

11

A . DRAWING LINES
Lines of the form y = ax.
Exercise 1
1. (a) Copy and complete this table:
x
y = 2x

0
0

1
2

2
...

3
...

4
...

(b) Draw a coordinate diagram and plot the five points from the above table.
(0,0), (1,2), (2, ..), (3, ..), (4, ..)
(c) Draw the line through the five points and label it y = 2x .
2. Repeat the three parts of question 1 for the line y = 3x .
i.e. start with the table:
x
0
1
y = 3x

2
...

3
...

4
...

3. Complete each of the following tables and use the results to draw the lines.
x
0
1
2
3
4
(a)
y = 4x
... ...
... ...
...
x

y = 1 /2 x

...

...

...

...

...

(c)

x
y=x

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(d)

x
y = 5x

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(b)

4. Look at the 6 lines you have drawn in questions 1 and 2.


y = 1/2x , y = x (or y = 1x), y = 2x , y = 3x , y = 4x , y = 5x
Copy this sentence and complete it:
;For any line y = ax , the bigger the value a is, the s..........r the line slopes.
5. (a) Copy and complete this table for the line y = 2x:
x
y = 2x

0
0

1
2

2
...

3
...

4
...

(b) Draw a coordinate diagram and plot the five points from the above table.
(0,0), (1,2), (2, ..), (3, ..), (4, ..)
(c) Draw the line through the five points and label it y = 2x .
Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

12

6. Repeat the three parts of question 5 for the line y = 3x .


i.e. start with the table:
x
0
1
2
y = 3x
0
3
...

3
...

4
...

7. Complete each of the following tables and use the results to draw the lines.
(a)

x
y = 4x

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(b)

x
y = x

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(c)

y = 1 / 2 x

...

...

...

...

...

8. Look at the 5 lines you have drawn in questions 5 and 6.


y = 1/2x, y = x (or y = 1x) y = 2x, y = 3x, y = 4x
Copy and complete the following:
(i) For any line of the form y = ax, the bigger the value a is, the
s..........r the line slopes.
(ii) Lines like y =x, y = 2x, y = 4x, etc. always slope u......s from left to right.
(iii) Lines like y = x, y = 2x, y = 4x, etc. always slope d......s from left to right.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

13

Lines of the form y = ax + b


Exercise 2
1. (a) Copy and complete this table:
x
y = 2x + 1

0
1

1
3

2
...

3
...

4
...

(b) Draw a coordinate diagram and plot the five points from the above table.
(0,1), (1,3), (2, ..), (3, ..), (4, ..)
(c) Draw the line through the five points and label it y = 2x + 1
2. Repeat the three parts of question 1 for the line y = 2x + 2, starting with the table:
x
y = 2x + 2

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

3. Repeat the three parts of question 1 for the line y = 2x + 4, starting with the table:
x
y = 2x + 4
4

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

Repeat the three parts of question 1 for the line y = 2x 3, starting with the table:
x
y = 2x 3

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

5. Look at the four lines you have drawn above in questions 1 to 4 and the line y = 2x
from question 1 of Exercise 1.
y = 2x , y = 2x + 4, y = 2x + 2, y = 2x + 1, y = 2x 3 .
Copy the following statements and complete them:
(i) All the lines of the form y = 2x (a number), are p .......l to the line y = 2x.
(ii) For any line of the form y = 2x b , the number b tells you where the line cuts
the ... - axis.
6. For each of the following:
(i)
Copy the table and complete it.
(ii) Draw up a set of axes and plot the points from the table.
(iii) Draw the line through the set of points and label it.
(a)

x
y = 3x + 1

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...
contd ...

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

14

(b)

x
y = 4x 2

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(c)

x
y=x+5

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(d)

y = 1 /2 x + 3

...

...

...

...

...

(e)

x
y = 3x 1

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

(f)

x
y = 4x + 1

0
...

1
...

2
...

3
...

4
...

7. For each of the following:


(i) Make up your own table of values (5 or 6 pairs).
(ii) Draw a new set of axes each time and plot your points.
(iii) Join up the set of points and label the lines.
(a)

y = 2x + 3

(b) y = 3x 4

(c)

y = 1 /2 x + 5

(d) y = 5x 3

(e)

y = 1 /4 x + 2

(f)

y=x1

8. (Harder!)
(a) Copy and complete this table for the line y = 2x + 1
x
y = 2x + 1

0
1

1
1

2
3

3
...

4
...

(b) Draw a set of axes and plot your five points, (0,1), (1,1), (2,3), (3, ..), (4, ..)
(c) Draw the line through the five points and label it y = 2x + 1.
9. Sketch the lines associated with the following equations by completing a table first.
(a)

y = 2x + 3

(b) y = 3x + 1

(c)

y = 4x 2

(d) y = x + 2

(e)

y = 1 / 2 x + 3

(f)

y = 3x 2

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

15

Lines of the form y = k (a number) and x = h (a number)


Exercise 3
1. (a) Complete this table for the line y = 2
x
y=2

0
2

1
2

2
2

3
...

4
...

(note)

(b) Draw a set of axes and plot your five points (0,2), (1,2), (2,2), (3, ..), (4, ..)
(c) Draw the line through the five points and label it y = 2.
(d) Copy and complete this statement:
The line y = 2 is a line which is p .......l to the ... - axis.
2. Without making up a table, sketch the following lines:
(a)
3.

y=5

(b)

y=6

(c)

y = 1

(d) y = 3

Copy and complete the following statement:


Any line of the form y = k (a number), is a line which is p .......l to the ... - axis.

4. (a) Complete this table for the line x = 3


(note)
(note)

x =3
y

3
0

3
1

3
2

...
3

...
4

(b) Draw a set of axes and plot your five points (3,0), (3,1), (3,2), (...,3), (...,4)
(c) Draw the line through the five points and label it x = 3.
(d) Copy and complete this statement:
The line x = 3 is a line which is p .......l to the ... - axis.
5. Without making up a table, sketch the following lines:
(a)
6.

x=1

(b)

x=5

(c)

x = 2

(d) x = 4

Copy and complete the following statement:


Any line of the form x = h (a number), is a line which is p .......l to the ... - axis.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

16

Checkup for Graphical Relationships

1. For each of the following equations:


(i) Make up your own table of values (5 or 6 pairs).
(ii) Draw a new set of axes each time and plot your points.
(iii) Join up the set of points and label the lines.
(a)

y = 5x

(b) y = 2x

(c)

y = 4x + 1

(d) y = 3x 2

(e)

y = 1 /2 x + 3

(f)

(g)

y = 2x + 4

(h) y = 3x 1

(i)

y = 8

(j)

y = 4

(k)

x = 7

(l)

x = 3

y = 1 /3 x + 1

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

17

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

18

TRIGONOMETRY IN RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES


By the end of this set of exercises, you should be able to
(a)

Solve Right-Angled Triangles using sine, cosine and tangent.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

19

TRIGONOMETRY IN RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLES


(Hyp)otenuse

Opp
tan x = Adj

The Tangent Ratio

(Opp)osite

x
(Adj)acent

Exercise 1

1. Use your calculator to look up the following (to 2 decimal places):


(a) tan 37
(b) tan 51
(c)
(d) tan 61
(e) tan 78
(f)
(g) tan 43
(h) tan 39
(i)
(j) tan 27
(k) tan 69
(l)
(m) tan 256
(n) tan 487
(o)
2. Set down each part of this question
in the same way as shown in the
example opposite.

x cm
32
6 cm

Find the values of a, b, c, ...


(a)

(b)

tan 70
tan 17
tan 89
tan 58
tan 65
x
6
=> x = 6 x tan 32
=> x = 375 cm
tan 32 =

(c)
b cm

a cm

c cm

37
12 cm

67
8 cm
(d)

75
7 cm
(e)

d cm

(f)

e cm
f mm
62
11 cm

(g)

10 cm
56

29
105 mm

77
49 cm
h cm
(h)

(i)

i cm
15 cm

g cm

91 cm
43

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

31

20

3. (a) A telegraph pole is strengthened


by a steel wire as shown in the
diagram opposite.
Calculate the height (h) of the pole.

h m
42
76 m

(b)
h m
35

When a boat is 250 metres from the base


of a cliff, the sailor has to raise his eyes
by 35 from the horizontal in order to see
the top of the cliff.
Calculate the height (h) of the cliff.

250 m

(c)

At a point, 85 metres from the base of a tree,


the angle of elevation of the top of the tree
is 29.
Calculate the height (h) of the tree.

h m
29
85 m

(d)

h m
32
75 m
When the sun shines on a wall, it casts a shadow 75 metres long.
The angle of elevation of the top of the wall from the end of the shadow is 32.
Calculate the height (h) of the wall.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

21

Using Tangents in Reverse


Exercise 2
1. Use Shift tan , 2nd
the size of angle x, given:
(a)
(d)
(g)
(j)

tan ,

tan x = 0123
tan x = 1
tan x = 3157
tan x = 10987

(b)
(e)
(h)
(k)

Inv

tan

or

tan x = 0342
tan x = 1732
tan x = 5095
tan x = 16

2. Set down each part of this question


in the same way as shown in the
example opposite.

x
6 cm

tan -1 buttons to find

(c)
(f)
(i)
(l)

tan x = 09
tan x = 2
tan x = 45
tan x = 19081
39
tan x =
39 cm
6
=> tan x = 0515
=>
x = 272

Find the size of angle x each time.


(a)

(b)

(c)

6 cm

96 cm

13 cm

x
12 cm

x
8 cm

(d)

x
11 cm

(e)
10 cm

(f)
71cm

4 mm
x
10 mm

x
49 cm

7 cm
69 cm
(g)

(h)

8 cm

7 cm
x

(i)

15 cm
91 cm
x

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

9 cm

22

(a) A flagpole is 75 metres high.


A strengthening wire is attached from
the top of the pole to a point 6 metres
from the base of the pole.
Calculate the size of the angle between
the wire and the ground.

75 m

x
60 m
25 cm
(b)

The picture shows a shelf support


bracket in the shape of a right
angled triangle.
Calculate the size of the angle marked x .

x
15 cm

(c) A ladder is resting against a wall.


The base of the ladder is 31 metres
from the foot of the wall.
The ladder reaches a point 58 metres
up the wall.
Calculate the size of the angle the ladder
makes with the ground.

58 m

x
31 m

(d) Shown below are two newly designed wheelchair ramps.

STYLE 1

09 m

65 m

13 m
STYLE 2

y
87 m
(i)
(ii)

Calculate the sizes of the angles marked x and y .


Which of ramp is steeper?

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

23

The Sine Ratio

(Hyp)otenuse

Opp
sin x = Hyp

x
(Adj)acent

Exercise 3
1. Use your calculator to look up the following:
(a) sin 37
(b) sin 51
(d) sin 61
(e) sin 78
(g) sin 43
(h) sin 39
(j) sin 47
(k) sin 69
(m) sin 256
(n) sin 487
2. Set down each part of this question
in the same way as shown in the
example opposite.

(Opp)osite

(c)
(f)
(i)
(l)
(o)

sin 70
sin 17
sin 86
sin 58
sin 65
x
8
=> x = 8 x sin 36
=> x = 470 cm
sin 36 =

8 cm

x cm

36
Find the values of a, b, c, ...
(a)

(b)

12 cm

(c)
10 cm

a cm

b cm

c cm

9 cm

33
62

59

(d)

(e)

(f)
60
19 cm

d cm

e cm

31 cm

(g)

h cm

(h)

35

23 cm

72

78

69 cm

f cm

g cm

(i)

i cm

210 cm
41

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

33

07 cm

24

3. (a) A boy flies a kite on the end of a piece


of string 60 metres long.
The string makes an angle of 43 with
the ground.
Calculate the height (h) metres of the kite
above ground.

60 m
hm
43

(b)

A slide in the park is 65 metres long.


It makes an angle of 32 with the ground.
Calculate the height (h) of the slide.
65 m
hm
32

(c) A gate has a strengthening bar across


its diagonal.
The bar is 23 metres long, as shown
in the diagram.
Calculate the height (h) of the gate.

(d)

h m

23

h m

29

A car ramp is 48 metres long. It makes


an angle of 15 with the ground.
Calculate the height (h) of the top of the
ramp above the ground.
48 m
15

(e) An isosceles triangle has each of its two


sloping sides 12 centimetres long.
The sides make an angle of 65 with
the base.
Calculate the height (h) of the triangle.

12 cm

12 cm
h cm

65

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

25

Using Sines in Reverse


Exercise 4
1. Use Shift sin , 2nd
the size of angle x, given:
(a)
(d)
(g)
(j)

sin ,

sin x = 0223
sin x = 0853
sin x = 0866
sin x = 0987

(b)
(e)
(h)
(k)

Inv

sin

or

sin -1 buttons to find

sin x = 0376
sin x = 0732
sin x = 0195
sin x = 0333

2. Set down each part of this question


in the same way as shown in the
example opposite.

(c)
(f)
(i)
(l)

29
52
29 cm
=> sin x = 0558
=>
x = 339
sin x =

52 cm
x

Find the size of angle x each time.


(a)

(b)
10 cm

8 cm

sin x = 09
sin x = 05
sin x = 0445
sin x = 11 (?)

(c)
10 mm

5 mm

9 cm

x
x

(d)

(e)

20 cm

12 cm

(f)
82 cm

18 cm

103 cm

x
2 cm

29 cm

x
59 cm
(g)

(h)
11 cm
x

68 cm

11 cm

(i)
06 cm

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

13 cm

26

(a) A large wooden beam, 83 m long, is used


to shore up a crumbling wall as shown.
Calculate the size of the angle between
the support and the ground.

83 m

72 m

125 m

(b) 18 m

The picture shows a roller skate ramp


built in the local park.
Calculate the size of the angle marked x .

46 cm
(c) Part of a bicycle frame
is in the shape of a
right angled triangle.
Calculate the size of the
angle marked x in the
diagram.

(d) The drawbridge of a castle is 92 metres long.


In the figure, the chain is attached to the tip of
the drawbridge and is horizontal.
If the chain is 34 metres long, calculate the
size of the angle between the drawbridge and
the wall.

60 cm

34 m

92 m x

15 cm

13 cm

(e)
15 cm

An isosceles triangle has its two sloping


sides each 15 centimetres long.
The height of the triangle is 13 centimetres.
Calculate the size of the angle x between
one of the long sides and the base.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

27

The Cosine Ratio

(Hyp)otenuse

Adj
cos x = Hyp

x
(Adj)acent

Exercise 5
1. Use your calculator to look up the following:
(a) cos 57
(b) cos 61
(d) cos 81
(e) cos 18
(g) cos 33
(h) cos 75
(j) cos 26
(k) cos 9
(m) cos 356
(n) cos 583
2. Set each part of this question down
in the same way as shown in the
example opposite.

(a)

(c)
(f)
(i)
(l)
(o)

cos 50
cos 27
cos 88
cos 60
cos 75

x
6
=> x = 6 x cos 32
=> x = 509 cm
cos 32 =

6 cm
32
x cm

Find the values of a, b, c, ...

(Opp)osite

(b)

(c)

9 cm
22 cm
16 cm

31
a cm

72
b cm
(d)

69
c cm

(e)

(f)

f cm
58

13 cm
8 cm
43 cm
55
d cm

(g)
g cm

61
e cm

(h)

(i)

h cm
29

09 cm

130 cm
38

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

81 cm
21
i cm

28

3. (a) A farmers fencepost needs a support.


He attaches a 2 metre wire to it and the
wire makes an angle of 34 to the ground.
Calculate how far the foot of the wire is
from the base of the fencepost.

2m
34
x m

(b)

A door wedge has its sloping side 72


centimetres long.
The sloping side makes an angle of 17
with the base.
Calculate the length (x) of the base.

72 cm
17
x cm

(c) The diagonal of rectangle ABCD is


17 centimetres long.
The diagonal AC makes an angle
of 31 to the base line DC.
Calculate the length (x) of the
rectangle.

B
17 cm
31

x cm

C
(d)

A piece of wire ACB is used to hang


a picture.
Triangle ABC is isosceles.
Triangle BCD is right angled.
Calculate the length of the line BD
and then write the width AB of the picture.

26 cm

47

28 m
(e) A diagram shows the side view of a
garden shed.
Calculate the width (w) of the shed.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

22
w m

29

Using Cosines in Reverse


Exercise 6
1. Use Shift cos , 2nd
the size of angle x, given:
(a)
(d)
(g)
(j)

cos ,

cos x = 0423
cos x = 0573
cos x = 0866
cos x = 0999

(b)
(e)
(h)
(k)

2. Set down each part of this question


in the same way as shown in the
example opposite.

Inv

or

(c)
(f)
(i)
(l)

cos x = 06
cos x = 09
cos x = 0071
cos x = 12 (?)
49
58
=> cos x = 0845
=>
x = 323
cos x =

58 cm
x
49 cm

(b)

(c)

9 cm

12 mm

11 cm

x
7 cm

x
6 mm

x
8 cm

14 cm
x

(d)

cos -1 buttons to find

cos x = 0396
cos x = 0718
cos x = 0225
cos x = 0301

Find the size of angle x each time.


(a)

cos

(e)

(f)
30 cm
93 cm

32 cm

x
4 cm
(g)

22 cm

(h)

(i)
37 cm

09 cm

x
16 cm

13 cm

12 cm

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

45 cm

30

(a) A plank of wood is 65 metres long.


It rests against the top of a wall and
its foot is 52 metres from the base
of the wall.
Calculate the size of the angle between
the plank and the ground.

65 m
x
52 m

(b)

The guy rope of a tent is 23 metres long.


It is attached to the ground at a point
19 metres from the foot of the tent wall.
Calculate the size of the angle marked x .
23 m

TENT

x
19 m

(c) A balloon is 90 metres above ground.


The wire which tethers it to the ground
is 135 metres long.
Calculate the size of the angle marked x
in the diagram.

x
135 m

(d)

90 m

A kite is made up of two identical right


angled triangles.
Calculate the size of the angle marked
x in the figure.

47 cm
36 cm

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

31

Opp
Adj
Opp
sin x = Hyp

A Mixture of Tangents,
Sines and Cosines

tan x =

(Hyp)otenuse

(Opp)osite

x
(Adj)acent

Adj
cos x = Hyp

SOH CAH TOA

Exercise 7
1. Find the values of a, b, c, ...
(a)

(b)

(c)
12 cm
b cm

a cm

7 cm

32
59
10 cm

71
c cm

(d)
d cm

(e)
12 cm

(f)
115 mm

e cm

65

(g)

g cm
58

19
f mm

71
39 cm

h cm
(h)

(i)

i cm
25 cm

111 cm

12 cm

36

41

(j)

10 cm
j

67 cm
(k)

(l)
12 cm

11 cm

91 cm

15 cm

l
contd ...

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

32

(m)

(n)

(o)
105 mm

92 cm

12 cm
o
95 mm

84 cm
m
n
69 cm

60

2. (a) A plastic set-square has one of its angles 60.


The longest side is 115 centimetres long.
Calculate the size of the shortest side marked
x cm.

(b)

115 cm
x cm

A radio mast has a support wire


attached from the ground to a point
153 metres up the mast.
Calculate the size of the angle
between the wire and the ground.
153 m

x
182 m
15
dm

(c) A mine shaft slopes at an angle of


15 with the ground.
The shaft is 220 metres long.
Calculate the distance d metres from the
mine entrance to the top of a vertical
air-shaft which comes up from the foot
of the mine.

220

(d) Shown is a wooden roof support. The vertical strip of wood cuts the shape into 2
right angled triangles.
(i)
Calculate the height (h )metres of the vertical strip.
(ii) Calculate the size of the angle marked x .

18 m
h m
23
Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

14 m
x
33

Checkup for Trigonometry in a Right Angled Triangle

1. Calculate the length of the sides marked x, y and z.


(a)

(b)

(c)
z cm

18 cm
x cm
28
y cm

58
7 cm

33

35 cm

2. Calculate the length of the angles marked a, b and c.


(a)

(b)

72 cm
b

17 cm

(c)
105 mm
57 mm
c

91 cm
a
11 cm
3. (a) The diagram shows a plane coming
in to land.
Calculate the size of the angle the
plane will make with the ground
as it lands.

380 m

x
1300 m
(b)

x m

18 m

A long handled brush is leaning against a wall.


The brush is 18 metres long.
It makes an angle of 72 with the ground.
Calculate how far up the wall the top of the
brush handle reaches.
C

72

30 cm
(c) Triangle ABC is isosceles.
Triangle ADC is right angled.
AC and BC are both 30 centimetres long.
AB is 20 centimetres long.
Calculate the size of the angle marked x .

30 cm

x
A

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

D
20 cm

B
34

USE STANDARD FORM (SCIENTIFIC NOTATION)


By the end of this set of exercises, you should be able to
(a)

interpret numbers expressed in Standard Form

(b)

convert large and small numbers to Standard Form

(c)

use Standard Form in simple calculations.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

35

STANDARD FORM
A . Interpret numbers expressed in Standard Form
Exercise 1
104 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 10 000 (1, followed by 4 zeros)

1. Remember

What is the value of:


(a) 102

(b) 103

(c) 106

(e)

1
1
1
=
=
10 x 10 x 10
1000
103

103 =

2. It can be shown that

(d) 101

105

(f) 1012 ?

= 0001

Copy and complete:


(a) 102 =

1
=
102

1
.....

= 0 ......

(b) 104 =

1
1
=
=
...
10
10 x .. x .. x..

1
.....

= 0 ......

1
10 x ...

(c) 10 6 = ... (d) 10 1 = ... (e) 10 5 = ... (f) 10 7 = ...


3. Find the value of:
(b) 106
(a) 107
(d) 105
(e) 101

(c) 108
(f) 100 (???)

Exercise 2
487 x 104 means 487 x (10 x 10 x 10 x 10) = 48 700

1. Remember:
Find the value of:
(a) 267 x 107
(b) 84 x 106

= 267 x (10 x 10 x 10 x ........) = .............


= 84 x (10 x 10 x ..........) = ..........

(c) 315 x 102

(d) 497 x 105

(e)

(f) 6931 x 108

(g) 726 x 101

(h) 5901 x 109

362 x 103 =

2. Remember:

362
362
3 = 10 x 10 x 10 =
10

2 x 104

362
1000

= 000362

Copy and complete :(a) 64 x 102

64
=
102

64
10 x 10

64
......

= 0 ......

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

contd ....
36

(b) 19 x 104

19
19
=
(10 x 10 x ..)
10 ...

= 19 =
......

0 ........

(c) 23 x 105 = ...

(d) 161 x 103 = ...

(e)

(f) 826 x 104 = ...

(g) 705 x 101 = ...

(h) 9171 x 106 = ...

(b) 855 x 104

(c)

981 x 101

(d) 276 x 103

(e) 39 x 105

(f)

613 x 106

(g) 581 x 108

(h) 92 x 102

(i)

1655 x 104

(k) 68 x 106

(l)

801 x 101

3. Find the value of:


(a) 431 x 102

(j)

798 x 103

493 x 102 = ...

B . Convert large numbers into Standard Form


Exercise 3
1. Remember:

8621

=
=
=
=

8621 x 10
8621 x 10 x 10
8621 x 10 x 10 x 10
8621 x 103

in standard form

Put the following numbers into standard form using the same method:
(a) 369

=
=
=

(c) 5 236

369 x 10
369 x .. x ..
369 x 10...

(d) 965

(e) 87

(b) 23 700

=
=
=
=
=

(f) 17 962

(g) 35 284

2. Write the following numbers in standard form:


(a) 965
(b) 872
(c) 2 324

2370 x 10
237 x 10 x 10
237 x .. x .. x ..
237 x .. x .. x .. x ..
237 x 10...

(d) 5 640

(e) 8 700

(f) 38 260

(g) 59 481

(h) 136 800

(i) 385 000

(j) 1 265 000

(k) 14 860 000

(l) 375 000 000 (m) 123 600

(n) 98 270

(o) 4 502

(p) 375 000

(q) 1 345 000

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

37

Convert small numbers into Standard Form


Exercise 4
1. Remember:

000276 =

00276
10

276
0276
276
=
=
10 x 10
10 x 10 x 10
103

= 276 x 103
standard form

Use the same method to change the following numbers to standard form:
(a) 00813 =

(b) 00061 =
(c) 00761

0813
10
0061
10

813
10 x 10

813
=

10

= 813 x 10 ...

...

........
061
.. . ...
=
=
10 x 10
10 x ... x ...
10 ...

(d) 000931

(e) 0812

(f)

0000687

= 61 x 10 ...
(g) 000052

2. Write the following numbers in standard form:


(a)
(e)
(i)
(m)

00123
000402
00000806
000304

(b)
(f)
(j)
(n)

000815
00062
00203
0000073

(c)
(g)
(k)
(o)

0000612
08
000024
0094

(d)
(h)
(l)
(p)

0943
00000051
000002
057

C . Use standard form in simple calculations


Exercise 5
1. Use the
(a)
(c)
(e)
(g)
(i)
(k)
(m)

EE

or

Exp button on your calculator to find the following:


(Give your answer in standard form).

(21 x 107) x (32 x 105)


253 x (39 x 106)
(585 x 109) (13 x 102)
(35 x 102) x (64 x 108)
(16 x 105) x (385 x 104)
287 500 x (40 x 102)
(1242 x 105) (23 x 103)

(b)
(d)
(f)
(h)
(j)
(l)
(n)

(69 x 104) x (83 x 109)


(21 x 104) 2
(2952 x 1012) (24 x 103)
(52 x 1010) x (75 x 104)
(62 x 107) x (85 x 104)
(17 x 103) 2
(621 x 103) (18 x 109)

2. The distance travelled by a beam of light in 1 year is called a light year.


Light travels at 300 000 kilometres per second !!
Heres how to calculate what a light year is:
(a) How far will a beam of light travel in 1 minute ?
=> (300 000 x 60) = ........ km
(b) How far will it travel in 1 hour ? => (.......... x 60)
= ............ km
(c) How far will it travel in a day ?
=> (.......... x 24)
= ............ km
(d) How far will it travel in a year ? => (.......... x 36525)
= ............ km
(e) Copy and complete

=>

1 light year =

........ x 10 ... km

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

38

3. Use the result on the previous page to calculate how far away the following stars are:
(a) Alpha Centauri 44 light years
(b) Ceti 118 light years
(c) Ross Star 945 light years
(e) Sirius 86 light years
(g) Capella 461 light years

(d) Barnards Star 591 light years


(f) Alpha Bootis 37 light years
(h) Beta Orionis 815 light years

4. The diagrams below show the measurements, in millimetres, of the floors of newly
designed office buildings.
Calculate their areas and give your answers in standard form.
(b)

(b)

(106 x 104 mm)

(75 x 103 mm)

(21 x 103 mm)

(a)

(a)

(96 x 103 mm)


(d)

(d)

(69 x 103 mm)

(11 x 104 mm)

(c)

(c)

(84 x 103 mm)


(271 x 104 mm)

5. Shown opposite were the populations of some


of the countries of the world, recorded in 1979.
(a) Calculate the total combined population of
(i) China and India.
(ii) The U.K. and the United States.
(b) How much greater was the population of
(i) India than that of the U.S.S.R.?
(ii) The U.K. than that of Portugal?

Country

Population

China
India
U.S.S.R.

852 x 108
610 x 108
257 x 108
945 x 106
559 x 107
216 x 108

Portugal
U.K.
United States

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

39

Checkup for Standard Form

1. Find the values of:


(a) 103

(b)

104

(c)

23 x 104

(d)

591 x 106

(e) 672 x 101

(f)

4 x 103

(g)

301 x 102

(h)

8721 x 105

2. Put the following numbers into standard form:


(a) 5 672

(b)

18 300

(c)

234 000

(d)

6 340 000

(e) 00034

(f)

00000675

(g)

086

(g)

0000000081

3. Use your

EE

or Exp button on the calculator to find the values of the following:


(Give all your answers in standard form)

(a) (375 x 106) x (42 x 107)

(b)

(1533 x 108) (42 x 103)

(c) (36 x 105)2

(d)

(87 x 109) (14 x 107)

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

40

SPECIMEN ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS


1. For each of these formulae, find the value of the letter which is asked for:
(a)

Y = 2x 1,

(b)

A = r2 + s, find A when r = 3 and s = 6.


D = a(b c), find D when a = 5, b = 8 and c = 2.

(c)

if x = 5 find Y.

2. Multiply out the brackets:


(a) 2(2x + 5)

(b) 9(3 2y)

(c) 2x(y + 4)

3. Remove the brackets and simplify:


(a) 2(3x 5) + 7x
4.

(b) 3(a + 2b) + 4b

(c) 9x + 5(3 x)

Factorise these expressions fully:


(a) 2x + 12

(b) 6s 8

(c) pq + mp

(d) 9y 15xy

5. Solve the equations:


(a) x 18 = 20

(b) 3n + 2 = 17

(d) 5p + 4 = 3p + 17

(e) 2(v 3) = 8

(c) 7s 12 = 16

6. Solve the inequalities, leaving your answer in the form x > 1, x 2, etc.
(a) x + 6 > 8

(c) 4x 1 25

(b) 3x 4 < 11

7. For each of the following equation:


(i) make up your own table of values (5 or 6 pairs)
(ii) draw a new set of axes each time and plot your points
(iii) join up the set of points and label the lines
(a)

y = 3x

(b) y = 2x

(c)

y = 2x 3

(d) y = 1/2x 2

(e)

y = 3x 2

(f)

(g)

y = 6

(h) x = 3

y = x + 4

8. In each of the following triangles, calculate the length of the line marked x.
(a)

(b)

(c)
x cm

x cm

11 cm
29

64
7 cm

18 cm

75
x cm

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

41

9. In each of the following triangles, calculate the size of the angle marked x .
(a)
(b)
(c)
2 cm
x
10 cm
29 cm

16 cm

13 cm

14 cm

10. The wire cable of a chair-lift is 1300 metres long.


The cable makes an angle of 22 with the ground.
Calculate the height (h metres) of the mountain.

m
00
3
1
h m

22
11. Find the value of:
(a) 106

(b) 103
(f) 896 x 105

(e) 562 x 101

(c) 28 x 104
(g) 7 x 104

(d) 313 x 108

12. Convert the following numbers to standard form:


(a) 3 260

(b) 89 320

(c) 1 276 000

(d) 940

(e) 00614

(f) 000021

(g) 00000006

(h) 057

13. Use the


following:

EE

or

Exp

button on your calculator to find the values of the


(give each answer in standard form)

(a) (28 x 1010) x (35 x 107)

(b)

(225 x 109) (15 x 102)

(c) 2420 x (86 x 1015)

(d)

(54 x 106) 2

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

42

ANSWERS
Simple Algebraic Operations
Exercise 1
1. 42
2. 25
9. 0
10. 19
17. 800
18. 1225
Exercise 2
1. (a) 2a + 8
(f) 2f 6
(k) 5k 45
(p) 9 3p

(b)
(g)
(l)
(q)

2. (a) 4a + 6
(f) 30 80f
k) 77k 63x
(p) w2 9w

5. 32
13. 120
21. 1

6. 80
14. 1
22. 5

8. 27
16. 5
24. 14

(b) 12b + 3
(g) 8g + 16x
(l) 16ab 8c

(c) 5 + 10c
(h) 15h + 5y
(m) am + 4a

(d) 6 8d
(i) 8i 10x
(n) an + 5a

(q) 2aq + ax

(r) 5ar + 2aw

(s) 14d 21de (t) 20t2 2st

4. (a)
(f)
(k)
(p)
(u)

3x + 14
6y + 10
2w + 36
4r 1
4 + 3d

(b)
(g)
(l)
(q)

(a) 5g + 11
(e) 10p + 8

Exercise 3
1. (a) 6(x + y)
(e) 3(m 5)
(i) 5(2r 3s)
(m) 8(3v + 4w)
(q) 6(2p 5q + 6)

(b)
(e)
(h)
(k)
2x + 6
6z + 6
5w + 3
5r + 6s

12c + 6d + 15
14j + 28k + 42l
12s + 20t 32
20a 4b + 8c
(c) 4x + 21
(h) 15z + 8
(m) 9v 10
(r) 14r + 14s

5d + 45
2i 6
9 + 9n
7s 7y

7. 76
15. 2
23. 130

(d)
(i)
(n)
(s)

6a + 8b + 4
8g + 12h + 16i
10q 4r 8
14x 21y 35z

3b + 3
4g 8
8 + 8x
3q + 3v

4. 21
12. 32
20. 100

(c) 4c + 20
(h) 5h 5
(m) 12 + 4m
(r) 2r + 2w

3. (a)
(d)
(g)
(j)

5.

3. 275
11. 100
19. 16

(c)
(f)
(i)
(l)
(d)
(i)
(n)
(s)

(e) 6e + 42
(j) 7j 42
(o) 2 2w
(t) 10t 1000
(e) 36e 6
(j) 70j 21y
(o) xy x

35e + 10f + 5
9m + 9n + 18p
12u 30v 42
20d + 10e 40f

2y + 1
z + 12
13v + 2
20a 20b

(e)
(j)
(o)
(t)

5y + 3
5w + 24
26v 8
100b + 100a

(b) 10h + 24
(f) 8q

(c) 27k + 22
(g) 17r + 14s

(d) 26m + 40n


(h) 16t + 2u

(b)
(f)
(j)
(n)
(r)

(c)
(g)
(k)
(o)
(s)

(d)
(h)
(l)
(p)
(t)

3(a b)
8(n + 3)
4(f 6g)
30(m 4)
7(3p 7q 1)

5(e f)
2(2y + 3z)
3(3p + 7)
16(2r 5z)
20(3r + 2s 5t)

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

9(p + q)
14(c + 2d)
7(x + 8)
2(a + 3b + 9c)
11(3x 4y + 9)

43

2. (a)
(f)
(k)
(o)
(r)

a(3 + f)
(b) s(5 r)
(c) y(x + z)
m(m 4) (g) 5x(r + s)
(h) 3a(b 2c)
p(9p 5w)
(l) w(3w 8g)
(m)
v(3a + 8g + 4h) (p) s(3m 5n + 7)
(q)
x(5x 7y + 9yz) (s) a(7x + 7y 1)

Exercise 4
1. (a) x = 3
(f) x = 15
(k) y = 7
(p) y = 0

(b)
(g)
(l)
(q)

x = 13
x=9
y = 10
v = 21

(c)
(h)
(m)
(r)

x = 11
x=0
y = 15
v = 20

(d) a(a + 7)
(i) 5f(e 3)
d(d + 3g 6)
f(2f + 4ed d)

(d)
(i)
(n)
(s)

x=1
y=5
y = 25
v = 28

(e) s(s + 8)
(j) e(3e + 7)
(n) y(y 2n 7k)

(e)
(j)
(o)
(t)

x = 20
y=4
y = 125
v = 20

2. (a)
(f)
(k)
(p)

s=1
m=9
f=7
a = 200

(b) r = 3
(g) k = 1
(l) e = 4

(c) q = 3
(h) j = 0
(m) d = 16

(d) p = 4
(i) h = 2
(n) c = 16

(e) n = 5
(j) g = 2
(o) b = 100

3. (a)
(f)
(k)
(p)

x=5
x=3
x=3
x=7

(b) x = 8
(g) x = 2
(l) x = 3

(c) x = 1
(h) x = 8
(m) x = 10

(d) x = 7
(i) x = 5
(n) x = 8

(e) x = 7
(j) x = 1
(o) x = 2

4. (a) a = 9
(f) n = 3
(k) s = 8

(b) c = 3
(g) m = 45
(l) u = 0

(c) e = 1
(h) p = 7
(m) v = 7

(d) g = 7
(i) q = 45
(n) w = 2

(e) k = 3
(j) r = 3
(o) y = 15

5. (a) x = 1
(f) x = 5
(k) x = 1

(b) x = 4
(g) x = 10
(l) x = 4

(c) x = 8
(h) x = 15
(m) x = 2

(d) x = 5
(i) x = 6
(n) x = 4

(e) x = 7
(j) x = 5
(o) x = 9

Exercise 5
1. (a) 1 < 2
(f) 1 > 2

(b) 1 < 2
(g) 1 > 8

(c) 3 > 0
(h) 3 < 2

(d) 5 = 5
(i) 0 > 1

(e) 2 > 3
(j) 2 = (1+ (1))

2. (a) x > 2
(f) x < 125

(b) x < 11
(g) x < 5

(c) x 7
(h) x 2

(d) x > 2
(i) x 7

(e) x < 75
(j) x 95

(l) x 31/3

(m) x > 2

(n) x < 3

(o) x < 20

(d) 0, 1
(h) 0, 1, 2

(e) 3, 4, 5, 6

(k) x > 1
(p) x > 4
3. (a) 5, 6
(f) 5, 6

(b) 0, 1, 2
(c) 4, 5, 6
(g) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

44

Check Up
1. (a) M = 22

(b) T = 1

(c) A = 36

2. (a) 10a + 5

(b) 7b 21c

(c) xy + 3x

(f) 10x 8

(g) h + 10

(e) 20v + 11

3. (a) 2(p + 7)
(e) 3(2y 3z)
(i) s(4r + 5t 8v)
4. (a)
(f)
(k)
(p)

x=6
v = 12
s=1
y = 45

5. (a) x > 4
(f) x > 125
(k) x > 3

(b)
(g)
(l)
(q)

(b) 5(s 5)
(f) 2v (2 + 3z)
(j) x(x + 3)
x=7
n=5
x=3
x=4

(c)
(h)
(m)
(r)

(d) 2p2 + 2pq 2pr


(h) 20h

(c) 8(2 + r)
(g) a(r + 4)
(k) 7(2e + f 5g)
y=7
m=6
t=5
u=8

(d) 11(7 3f)


(h) x(p q)
(l) 2y(y 3)

(d) x = 35
(i) n = 0
(n) c = 3

(e) s = 10
(j) k = 7
(o) e = 6

(b) x < 13
(g) x < 6

(c) x 8
(h) x 1

(d) x > 3
(i) x 7

(e) x < 55
(j) x 10

(l) x 3

(m) x > 5

(n) x < 3

(o) x < 25

(p) x > 15

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

45

Graphical Relations
Exercise 1
y

1. (a) 0, 2, 4, 6, 8
(b) (c)

2.
y = 2x

(a) 0, 3, 6, 9, 12
(b) (c)

y = 3x

3.

(a) y

(b) y

(c)

y = 4x

y = 1 /2 x

(d) y
y = 5x

y=x

4. For any line y = ax , the bigger the value a is, the steeper the line slopes.
5. (a) 0, 2, 4, 6, 8
(b) (c)

6.

y = 2x

(a) 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 y
(b) (c)

y = 3x

7. (a)

(b)
y = 4x

(c)

y = 1 / 2 x

y = 1x
x

8. (i) steeper

(ii)

upwards

(iii)

downwards.

Exercise 2
1. (a) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9
(b) (c) see sketch

2.

(a) 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
(b) (c) see sketch

3. (a) 4, 6, 8, 10, 12
(b) (c) see sketch

4.

(a) 3, 1, 1, 3, 5,
(b) (c) see sketch

5. (i) parallel

(ii)

y = 2x + 4
y = 2x + 2
y = 2x + 1

y axis
y = 2x 3
x

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

46

6. (a)

(b)

y=x+5

y = 3x + 1

y = 4x 2

(d)

(e)

(f)

y = 4x + 1

y = 3x 1

(b)

(c)

y = 2x + 3

y = 1 /2 x + 5

y = 3x 4

(d)

y = 1/2x + 3

7. (a)

(c)

(e)
y = 5x 3

x
y

(f)
y = 1 /4 x + 2

y=x1

x
y

8. (a) 1, 1, 3, 5, 7
(b) (c)

y = 2x + 1
x

9. (a)

(b)

y = 2x + 3

(c)
y = 4x 2

y = 3x + 1

(d)

(e)
y = x + 2

(f)
y = 1 /2 x + 3
y = 3x 2

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

47

Exercise 3

1. (a) 2, 2, 2, 2, 2
(b) (c)
(d) ....parallel ..... x axis

y=2
x

2. (a)

(b)

y=5

(c)

y=6

(d)
x

y = 3

y = 1
3. Any line of the form y = k (a number), is a line which is parallel to the x axis.
y

4. (a) 3. 3. 3. 3. 3
(b) (c)
(d) ...parallel ...... y axis

x=3
x

5. (a) y

(b) y
x=1

(c)

(d)

x=5
x

x = 4

x = 2

6. Any line of the form x = h (a number), is a line which is parallel to the y axis.
Checkup
1. (a)

(b)

(c)

y = 5x

y = 4x + 1

y = 2x

(d)

(e)

(f)

y = 1 /2 x + 3

y = 3x 2
x

y = 1 /3 x + 1

x
y

(g)

y = 2x + 4

(h)

(i)

y=8

y = 3x 1

(j)

(k)
y = 4

x=7

(l)

x = 3

x
x

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

48

Trigonometry in a Right Angled Triangle


Exercise 1
1. (a) 075
(f) 031
(k) 261

(b)
(g)
(l)

124
093
160

(c) 275
(h) 081
(m) 048

(d)
(i)
(n)

180
5729
114

(e)
(j)
(o)

471
051
011

2. (a) 1885
(f) 582

(b)
(g)

904
1483

(c)
(h)

2612
849

(d)
(i)

2069
901

(e)

2122

(b)

17505 m (c)

471 m

(d)

469 m

1. (a) 701
(f) 6343
(k) 8642

(b)
(g)
(l)

1888
7242
87

(c)
(h)

4199
7890

(d)
(i)

45
7747

(e)
(j)

60
8480

2. (a) 2657
(f) 5539

(b)
(g)

5019
3717

(c)
(h)

4976
2807

(d)
(i)

5501
5213

(e)

2180

3. (a) 5134

(b)

3096

(c)

6188

(d)

(i) x = 788, y = 850 (ii) 2

1. (a) 060
(f) 029
(k) 093

(b)
(g)
(l)

078
068
085

(c) 094
(h) 063
(m) 043

(d)
(i)
(n)

088
100
075

(e)
(j)
(o)

098
073
011

2. (a) 1060
(f) 199

(b)
(g)

545
396

(c)
(h)

772
13777

(d)
(i)

3032
038

(e)

1807

3. (a) 4092 m

(b)

344 m

(c)

112 m

(d)

124 m

(e)

1088 cm

1. (a) 1289
(f) 30
(k) 1945

(b)
(g)
(l)

2209
60
error

(c)
(h)

6416
1124

(d)
(i)

5854
2642

(e)
(j)

4705
8075

2. (a) 5313
(f) 4360

(b)
(g)

30
6019

(c)
(h)

4859
3306

(d)
(i)

6416
5780

(e)

5276

3. (a) 6017

(b)

828

(c)

5006

(d)

2169

(e)

6007

(b)
(g)
(l)

048
084
050

(c) 064
(h) 026
(m) 081

(d)
(i)
(n)

016
003
053

(e)
(j)
(o)

095
090
099

(a) 684 m

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

Exercise 5
1. (a) 054
(f) 089
(k) 099

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

49

2. (a) 771
(f) 2279

(b)
(g)

494
079

(c)
(h)

788
10244

3. (a) 166 m

(b)

689 cm

(c)

1. (a) 6498
(f) 2584
(k) 7248

(b)
(g)
(l)

6667
30
error

2. (a) 3894
(f) 6432

(b)
(g)

3. (a) 369

(d)
(i)

746
756

(e)

388

1457 cm (d)

3546 cm

(e)

260 m

(c)
(h)

5313
770

(d)
(i)

5504
8593

(e)
(j)

4411
256

4334
4334

(c)
(h)

60
4141

(d)
(i)

6406
3469

(e)

6453

(b)

343

(c)

482

(d)

40

1. (a) 1664
(f) 1087
(k) 474

(b)
(g)
(l)

636
636
369

(c) 228
(h) 728
(m) 501

(d)
(i)
(n)

1088
1816
506

(e)
(j)
(o)

1133
477
252

2. (a) 575 cm

(b)

401

(c)

2125 m

(d)

(i) 703 m (ii) 302

1589
516
171 m

(c)
(c)
(c)

1906
329
705

Exercise 6

Exercise 7

Checkup Exercise
1. (a) 112
2. (a) 497
3. (a) 163

(b)
(b)
(b)

Standard Form
Exercise 1
1.
2.
3.

(a)
(e)
(a)
(e)
(a)
(e)

100
100 000
001
000001
10 000 000
01

(b)
(f)
(b)
(f)
(b)
(f)

1 000
(c) 1 000 000
1 000 000 000 000
00001
(c) 0000001
00000001
1 000 000
(c) 100 000 000
1

(d) 10

(b)
(f)
(b)
(f)
(b)
(f)
(j)

8 400 000
693 100 000
000019
0000826
85 500
6 130 000
000798

(d)
(h)
(d)
(h)
(d)
(h)
(l)

(d) 01
(d) 000001

Exercise 2
1.
2.
3.

(a)
(e)
(a)
(e)
(a)
(e)
(i)

26 700 000
20 000
0064
00493
431
390 000
00001655

(c)
(g)
(c)
(g)
(c)
(g)
(k)

315
726
0000023
0705
981
581 000 000
00000068

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

497 000
5 901 000 000
000161
0000009171
2 760
0092
0801

50

Exercise 3
1.
2.

(a) 369 x 102


(e) 87 x 101
(a) 965 x 102
(e) 87 x 103
(i) 385 x 105
(m) 1236 x 105
(q) 1345 x 106

(b)
(f)
(b)
(f)
(j)
(n)

237 x 104
17962 x 104
872 x 102
3826 x 104
1265 x 106
9827 x 104

(c)
(g)
(c)
(g)
(k)
(o)

5236 x 103
35284 x 104
2324 x 103
59481 x 104
1486 x 107
4502 x 103

(d) 965 x 102

(b)
(f)
(b)
(f)
(j)
(n)

61 x 103
687 x 104
815 x 103
62 x 103
203 x 102
73 x 105

(c)
(g)
(c)
(g)
(k)
(o)

761 x 102
52 x 104
612 x 104
8 x 101
24 x 104
94 x 102

5727 x 1014
123 x 109
527 x 1010
345 x 106

(c) 9867 x 108


(g) 224 x 107
(k) 115 x 104

(d) 441 x 108


(h) 39 x 107
(l) 289 x 106

(d)
(h)
(l)
(p)

564 x 103
1368 x 105
375 x 108
375 x 105

Exercise 4
1.
2.

(a) 813 x 102


(e) 812 x 101
(a) 123 x 102
(e) 402 x 103
(i) 806 x 105
(m) 304 x 103

(d) 931 x 103


(d)
(h)
(l)
(p)

943 x 101
51 x 106
2 x 105
57 x 101

Exercise 5
1.

(a) 672 x 1012


(e) 45 x 107
(i) 616 x 109
(m) 54 x 107

(b)
(f)
(j)
(n)

2.

(a) 18 x 107

(b) 108 x 109

(c) 2592 x 1010

(d) 947.. x 1012

3.

(a) 417 x 1013


(e) 815 x 1013

(b) 112 x 1014


(f) 351 x 1014

(c) 895 x 1013


(g) 437 x 1014

(d) 560 x 1013


(h) 772 x 1015

4.

(a) 2226 x 107

(b) 72 x 107

(c) 2981 x 108

(d) 5796 x 107

5.

(a) (i) 1462 x 109

(ii) 2719 x 108 (b) (i) 353 x 108

(ii) 4645 x 107

Checkup
1.

(a) 1 000
(e) 672

(b) 00001
(f) 0004

(c) 23 000
(g) 00301

(d) 5910 000


(h) 000008721

2.

(a) 5672 x 103


(e) 34 x 103

(b) 183 x 104


(f) 675 x 105

(c) 234 x 105


(g) 86 x 101

(d) 634 x 106


(h) 81 x 108

(a) 1575 x 1014

(b) 365 x 1010

(c) 1296 x 109

(d) 8686 x 109

3.

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

51

Specimen Assessment Questions


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

Y=9
4x + 10
13x 10
2(x + 6)
x = 38
x>2

(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

A = 15
27 18y
3a + 10b
2(3s 4)
n=5
x<5
(b)

(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)

D = 30
2xy + 8x
4x + 15
p(q + m)
s=4
x 65

y = 2x 3

y = 2x

x
y

(e)

y = 1 /2 x 2

(f)

y = x + 4

y = 3x 2
x

(g)

(e) v = 7

(c) y

y = 3x

(d)

(d) 3y(3 5x)


(d) p = 65

(h)

y=6

x=3
x

8. (a) 1435 cm

(b)

285 cm

(c)

873 cm

9. (a) 5434

(b)

5541

(c)

4442

10. 487 m
11. (a) 1000000
(e) 0562

(b)
(f)

0001
(c) 28000
00000896 (g) 00007

12. (a) 326 x 103

(b)

8932 x 104
(c)
4
(f) 21 x 10

(b)

15 x 1011 (c)

(e) 614 x 102


13. (a) 98 x 1017

(d)

313000000

1276 x 106
(g) 6 x 107

20812 x 1019

(d)

(d)
(h)

94 x 102
57 x 101

2916 x 1011

Mathematics Support Materials: Mathematics 3 (Int 1) Student Materials

52