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TOTAL STATION

Total Station is a device that can be used to measure slope distance, horizontal
angle and vertical angle and these can apply automatically trigonometric values
so that horizontal and vertical distances are determined.
Original name was Tachometer. Hawlett Packard introduced the name of Total
Station. Simply Total Station is a combination of Theodolite and EDM. i.e. Angle
measuring device and Linear measuring device respectively.
Classification of Total Station
a. Manual: - These make use of the same telescope for distance and angle
measurement to obtain the horizontal and vertical distances. They are
read optically and calculation for horizontal and vertical distances is made
with on board calculation with pocket calculator. E.g. Pentax PX10D
b. Semi-Automatic Total Station: - It contains a vertical angle sensor for the
automatic calculation of vertical and horizontal distances. Horizontal
angles are read optically.
c. Automatic Total Station: - With these instrument, horizontal angles and
vertical angles and slope distance are read electronically in internal
computer and it gives horizontal and vertical distances automatically.
# DATA LOGGER OR RECORDER
These are electronic field book which collects and stores distance, horizontal and
vertical angles from the Total Station. Calculation can be performed on the data
logger so that measurement can be verified in the field. E.g. Sokia SPR Range,
Leica GRE4 etc.

# ADVANTAGES OF TOTAL STATION


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

High Speed
Long range laser EDM
World-proved, time tested angle reading system
Highest protection against dust and water
Quick Operation
Easy data management
User Friendly
High angle accuracy
Can Storage maximum data
High battery backup

# DISADVANTAGES OF TOTAL STATION


i.
ii.

It does not provide hard sets of note so difficult in checking. In order to


check, one has to return to office.
It cannot be used in direct sun light. (Shade has to be provide)

1. TRAVERSING
Traversing in survey is done to collect the details of unknown point.

STEPS:
A. Creating a new file
a. Press Esc until a default window appears on the screen. Click on
Menu button which is located at the right top corner. Menu helps
us to create a new file, delete a file, read a previously saved
data, transfer data from Total station to compute and vice versa.
b. A list appears on the screen
i. F1: Data collect
ii. F2: Layout
iii. F3: Memory Manager
Here F1, F2 and F3 denote the button to be pressed to perform
the given operation. For e.g. press F1 for data collect, press F2
for Layout and so on.
The symbol (P) denotes there is another page. Press F4 to
switch to another page.
c. Press F1 for data collect in order to carry out traversing. Then it
asks for "Select a file" select the job or a file, with the help of up
and down arrow, from which you want to use the co-ordinate
data. (Please note: Only 10 jobs i.e. job1~job10 can be
assigned). To input a new file press F1, and with the help of
Alphabet and number assign a new file. Only in case you have
already worked in the same field with different file name, then
you should select that particular file with the help of up and
down arrow.
d. Press F4 for enter:
e. A new file is created in the machine and a screen will return to
new display window.
i. F1: Occupation point input
ii. F2: Backsight
iii. F3: FS/SS (Foresight)

Select F1 and define the details of instrument station or control


point. The details includes
i. Point number- point number should always be in
increasing order and should always be number only.
ii. ID: - It is a description or remarks assigned to the point in
order to identify the points.
iii. Ins. Ht. - This is a height of instrument from top of peg to
the center of optical axis.
iv. After assigning all this details, a pre existing co-ordinates
will appear on the screen. If the co-ordinates resemble the
co-ordinates of the control points then press F3 for "YES"
and again press F3 for "Record".
v. Else press F4 for "NO" and again press F4 to define OCNEZ
(i.e. Northing, Easting and R.L. of the occupation points)
vi. Press F3 for "NEZ" and define Northing, Easting and R.L. of
the points.
vii. Then press F3 for "Record".
f.

With all the steps mentioned above a new file is created and a
details of control points has been defined. A window will return
to the previous stage.

B. Backsight:
In Survey, Backsight is done to align the working space to the certain
grid. If we are working on site for a first time then we do not need to
align the site to any grid. But if we are working on a site which has
already been surveyed then we should not forget to backsight to the
known points. Otherwise the surveyed done will give us a huge error
that cannot be adjusted. For Backsight follow the following steps:
1. Press F2 for "Backsight"
2. Assign the details of the points with the following datas
a. Point no. : - It should always be in increasing order.
b. PCODE: - This is the description of the points.
c. R. HT.:- This is the height of the prism from the top of peg
to the center axis of prism.
d. Press F4 for "BS" and again F3 for "NE/AZ" and define
Northing and Easting of the known points.
e. Then focus the instrument to the prism and press F3
twice for Measure.
f. Once all this is done, the backsight is complete and it
returns to the previous window and a working space is
set to a certain grid.
C. Foresight:
Foresight in survey is done to collect the details of unknown points. i.e.
Northing, Easting and R.L. of the points. For foresight, follow the given
steps:
1. Press F3 for "FS/SS
2. Define

i.

Point number: - It should always be in increasing order.


And it should be mentioned only once when foresight is
being done for the first time.
ii. PCODE: - This is the description of the points. It is not
necessary to change if the description is same but it
should be change every time it varies.
iii. R. Ht.: - This is the height of the prism from top of peg to
the center axis of prism. It should be change every time
we make changes to the height of prism else the machine
will automatically update the prism height.
iv. Once all these steps are complete, place the prism at the
point whose details has to be obtained and press F4 for
"All" this will automatically gives us the co-ordinate of the
desired location.

2. LAYOUT
Layout in survey is done to fix the known data in the field. It can be done
in several ways but while doing from Total station Topcon- GOWIN, we have
follow the following steps
A. On the main window, select Menu. A list will appear on the screen
a. F1: Data collect
b. F2: Layout
c. F3: Memory Manager
Here F1, F2 and F3 denote the button to be pressed to perform
the given operation. For e.g. press F1 for data collect, press F2
for Layout and so on.
The symbol (P) denotes there is another page. Press F4 to
switch to another page.
B. Press "F2" for Layout. Press F1 for "Input" and give a new file name. A
new file is created in the machine and a screen will return to new
display window.
a. F1: Occupation point input
b. F2: Backsight
c. F3: Layout
Select F1 and define the details of instrument station or control point.
The details includes
a. Press F3 for NEZ and define Northing, Easting, and R.L. of the
instrument point.
b. Measure and input the height of instrument and press F4 for
Enter.
Now select F2 for backsight and define the details of known points. The
details includes

a. Press F3 and define NE/AZ


b. Now focus a machine towards the referenced points and press
"YES". This will set the working space to a desired grid.
(Please note: Generally while sighting for back sight, sighting is
basically done on the foot of prism rod or on the top of peg in order to
eliminate the possible error due to parallax.)
3. TRANSFERING THE DATA
Here data can be transferred from computer to Total Station and from Total
station to the computer. For this we need to install the total station
software as well as data cable software in the computer. When cable is
connected to the computer, it occupies a certain port number. This can be
checked from device manager. Look for the ports and look for profolic USB
to serial port. Check the COM?.

In the machine
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

From the main window, select Menu


Press F3 for "Memory Manager"
Press F4 twice to go to the next page .
Press F1 to select "Data Transfer"
Select either F1 or F2
Press F1 for "Send Data"
Press F1 for Measured Data or F2 for Coordinate data
Now select the file with up and down arrow
A new window will appear on the screen with the message Send
Measured data?
Now complete the remaining operation from the computer you press F3
for "Yes"

In the Computer
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Open the Topcon link


From File menu select "Import from device"
Double click on "Topcon total station"
Double click on "Add new file"
Give a file name.
Select the port. ( This can be checked from the device manager as
discussed earlier.)
G. Select the model no. of the Topcon machine.
H. Press OK.
I. Now double click on the file created to open it.
J. Double click on file1.txt
K. Click on Start
In the machine

A. Click F3 to select "Yes"]


Now the data will be transferred to the computer. Save the file in. *.csv
format or *.txt format.