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ap physics part II

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- Ap03 Frq English Lang 23013
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- Balfour Stewart - The Conservation of Energy (1873)
- Chapter 12 the Nature of Matter
- Acceleration of a Cart by Newton's Second Law
- APUSH6
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CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

UNITS

1 unified atomic mass unit,

1 u = 1.66 10 -27 kg

Name

= 931 MeV c 2

meter

kilogram

kg

Proton mass,

m p = 1.67 10 -27 kg

Neutron mass,

mn = 1.67 10 -27 kg

Electron mass,

me = 9.11 10 -31 kg

Avogadros number,

Universal gas constant,

Boltzmanns constant,

Speed of light,

Plancks constant,

10

kelvin

10

mole

mol

k B = 1.38 10 -23 J /K

hertz

Hz

h = 6.63 10

-34

J is

0 = 8.85 10 -12 C2 N im 2

k = 1 4 p 0 = 9.0 109 N im 2 C2

m0 = 4 p 10 -7 (T im) A

k = m0 /4 p = 10 -7 (T m) A

G = 6.67 10 -11 m 3 kgis2

g = 9.8 m s

= 1.0 105 Pa

1 electron volt,

10

c = 3.00 108 m s

1 eV = 1.60 10

-19

newton

pascal

Pa

joule

watt

106

10

Vacuum permittivity,

1 atmosphere pressure,

10

= 1.24 103 eV i nm

Acceleration due to gravity

at Earths surface,

second

Prefix Symbol

giga

G

Factor

ampere

hc = 1.99 10 -25 J im

Magnetic constant,

Symbol

e = 1.60 10 -19 C

Vacuum permeability,

PREFIXES

3

-2

-3

-6

10 -9

10

-12

mega

kilo

centi

milli

micro

nano

pico

VALUES OF

TRIGONOMETRIC

FUNCTIONS FOR COMMON

ANGLES

sin q

cos q tan q

coulomb

volt

30

1/2

3/2

3/3

ohm

henry

37

3/5

4/5

3/4

farad

45

2/2

2/2

tesla

53

4/5

3/5

4/3

degree

Celsius

60

3/2

1/2

electronvolt

eV

90

I. Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial.

II. The direction of any electric current is the direction of flow of positive charge (conventional current).

III. For any isolated electric charge, the electric potential is defined as zero at an infinite distance from the charge.

-2-

MECHANICS

u = u0 + at

x = x0 + u0 t +

1 2

at

2

u 2 = u02 + 2a ( x - x0 )

F = Fnet = ma

F=

dp

dt

J = F dt = Dp

p = mv

F fric m N

W =

K =

1 2

mu

2

P=

dW

dt

dr

P = Fv

DUg = mgh

ac =

a

F

f

h

I

J

K

k

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

L =

m=

N =

P =

p =

r =

r =

T =

t =

U=

u =

W=

x =

m =

q =

t =

w =

a =

acceleration

force

frequency

height

rotational inertia

impulse

kinetic energy

spring constant

length

angular momentum

mass

normal force

power

momentum

radius or distance

position vector

period

time

potential energy

velocity or speed

work done on a system

position

coefficient of friction

angle

torque

angular speed

angular acceleration

u

= w2 r

r

Fs = - k x

Us =

t = t net = I a

I = r dm = mr

2

rcm = mr m

E=

F

q

T =

1 2

kx

2

UE

L = r p = Iw

1 2

Iw

2

FG = -

w = w0 + at

UG = 1 2

at

2

r2

Gm1m2

r

1 q1q2

= qV =

4 p0 r

C =

Q

V

C =

k0 A

d

Ci

Cp =

1

1

=

Cs

C

i i

dQ

dt

r

A

V = IR

Rs =

Ri

1

=

Rp

R

i

P = IV

FM = qv B

-3-

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

area

magnetic field

capacitance

distance

electric field

emf

force

current

current density

inductance

length

number of loops of wire

per unit length

number of charge carriers

per unit volume

power

charge

point charge

resistance

distance

time

potential or stored energy

electric potential

velocity or speed

resistivity

magnetic flux

dielectric constant

N =

P

Q

q

R

r

t

U

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

V=

u =

r =

fm =

k =

d = m0 I

dB =

F=

I = Neud A

Gm1m2

E = rJ

m

k

Tp = 2 p

rii

1

4 p0

V =

F

I

J

L

dV

dr

E =-

R=

2p

1

=

f

w

Ts = 2 p

dA=

A

B

C

d

E

1

1

Uc = QV = CV 2

2

2

u = rw

q = q0 + w0t +

1 q1q2

4 p 0 r 2

I =

t=rF

K =

F =

m0 I d r

4p r 3

I d B

Bs = m0 nI

fm = B d A

d fm

dt

=-

= -L

UL =

dI

dt

1 2

LI

2

GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY

Rectangle

A = bh

Triangle

A=

1

bh

2

Circle

A = pr2

C = 2p r

Parallelepiped

V = wh

Cylinder

A=

C=

V=

S =

b =

h =

=

w=

r =

CALCULUS

df

d f du

=

dx

du dx

area

circumference

volume

surface area

base

height

length

width

radius

d n

( x ) = nxn - 1

dx

d x

(e ) = e x

dx

d

(1n x ) = 1

dx

x

d

(sin x ) = cos x

dx

d

(cos x ) = - sin x

dx

V = pr2

S = 2p r + 2p r 2

Sphere

V =

4 3

pr

3

a

c

tan q =

a

b

dx = e x

dx

= ln x

x

sin x dx = - cos x

a 2 + b2 = c 2

b

c

dx =

cos x dx = sin x

Right Triangle

cos q =

S = 4p r 2

sin q =

1

x n + 1 , n -1

n +1

a

90

q

b

-4-

PHYSICS C: MECHANICS

SECTION II

Time45 minutes

3 Questions

Directions: Answer all three questions. The suggested time is about 15 minutes for answering each of the questions,

which are worth 15 points each. The parts within a question may not have equal weight. Show all your work in the

pink booklet in the spaces provided after each part, NOT in this green insert.

Mech. 1.

A block of mass m is pulled along a rough horizontal surface by a constant applied force of magnitude F1 that acts at

an angle q to the horizontal, as indicated above. The acceleration of the block is a1 . Express all algebraic answers

in terms of m, F1 , q , a1 , and fundamental constants.

(a) On the figure below, draw and label a free-body diagram showing all the forces on the block.

(b) Derive an expression for the normal force exerted by the surface on the block.

(c) Derive an expression for the coefficient of kinetic friction m between the block and the surface.

(d) On the axes below, sketch graphs of the speed u and displacement x of the block as functions of time t if the

block started from rest at x = 0 and t = 0.

(e) If the applied force is large enough, the block will lose contact with the surface. Derive an expression for the

magnitude of the greatest acceleration amax that the block can have and still maintain contact with the ground.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

-5-

Mech. 2.

In March 1999 the Mars Global Surveyor (GS) entered its final orbit about Mars, sending data back to Earth.

Assume a circular orbit with a period of 1.18 102 minutes = 7.08 103 s and orbital speed of 3.40 103 m s .

The mass of the GS is 930 kg and the radius of Mars is 3.43 106 m .

(a) Calculate the radius of the GS orbit.

(b) Calculate the mass of Mars.

(c) Calculate the total mechanical energy of the GS in this orbit.

(d) If the GS was to be placed in a lower circular orbit (closer to the surface of Mars), would the new orbital period

of the GS be greater than or less than the given period?

_______Greater than

_________Less than

(e) In fact, the orbit the GS entered was slightly elliptical with its closest approach to Mars at 3.71 105 m

above the surface and its furthest distance at 4.36 105 m above the surface. If the speed of the GS at

closest approach is 3.40 103 m s , calculate the speed at the furthest point of the orbit.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

-6-

Mech. 3.

The apparatus above is used to study conservation of mechanical energy. A spring of force constant 40 N/m is held

horizontal over a horizontal air track, with one end attached to the air track. A light string is attached to the other

end of the spring and connects it to a glider of mass m . The glider is pulled to stretch the spring an amount x from

equilibrium and then released. Before reaching the photogate, the glider attains its maximum speed and the string

becomes slack. The photogate measures the time t that it takes the small block on top of the glider to pass through.

Information about the distance x and the speed u of the glider as it passes through the photogate are given below.

Trial #

x (m)

Speed of Glider

u (m/s)

Extension Squared

x2 m2

Speed Squared

u 2 m 2 s2

0.30 10 -1

0.47

0.09 10 -2

0.22

0.60 10 -1

0.87

0.36 10 -2

0.76

0.90 10 -1

1.3

0.81 10 -2

1.7

1.2 10 -1

1.6

1.4 10 -2

2.6

1.5 10 -1

2.2

2.3 10 -2

4.8

( )

(a) Assuming no energy is lost, write the equation for conservation of mechanical energy that would apply to this

situation.

(b) On the grid below, plot u 2 versus x 2 . Label the axes, including units and scale.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

-7-

(c)

i. Draw a best-fit straight line through the data.

ii. Use the best-fit line to obtain the mass m of the glider.

(d) The track is now tilted at an angle q as shown below. When the spring is unstretched, the center of the glider is

a height h above the photogate. The experiment is repeated with a variety of values of x.

i. Assuming no energy is lost, write the new equation for conservation of mechanical energy that would

apply to this situation.

ii. Will the graph of u 2 versus x 2 for this new experiment be a straight line?

_____ Yes

_____ No

END OF EXAM

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

-8-

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