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Solutions

Components of Solutions
Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase. Does not
scatter light or separate on standing. Cannot be separated by filtration.
Soluble: capable of being dissolved.
Solvent: the dissolving medium in a solution.
Solute: the substance dissolved in a solution.
Suspensions
If the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out, unless the mixture is
constantly stirred or agitated, the mixture is called a suspension.
Particle size greater than 1000nm.
Particles can settle out.
Can be separated by filtration.
May scatter light, but not transparent.
Colloids
Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form
mixtures known as colloidal dispersions, or simply colloids.
Particle size 1-1000 nm.
Do not settle or separate on standing.
Cannot separate by filtering.
Scatters light (Tyndall effect).
Solutes: Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes
Electrolyte: a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric
current
Nonelectrolytes: a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not
conduct an electric current
Light bulb demo.
Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution
Increasing the surface area of the solute
Agitating a solution
Heating a solvent
Solubility
Solution Equilibrium: the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution
and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
Saturated Solution: a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated Solution: a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under
the existing conditions
Solubility continued&‐
Supersaturated Solution: a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated
solution contains under the same conditions
Solubility: the amount of that substance required to form a saturated solutions with a
specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
What is the relationship between temperature and solubility? (KNO3 graph)
Solute-Solvent Interactions
Hydration: the solution process with water as the solvent
Immiscible: liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other

0g NaCl solution volume= 3.0g of silver chromate.50 L Sample Problem #2 You have 0.Miscible: liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion Solute-Solvent continued& ¡ Henry’s Law: the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid Effervescence: the rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved. Sample problem #3 To produce 40. you need at least 23. What volume of the solution is needed to give you the 23.4g K2CrO4 needed for the reaction? Molality Sample #1 A solution was prepared by dissolving 17. All you have on hand in the stock room is 5L of a 6. Alka-selzer Heats of Solution Solvated: a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules Heat of Solution: the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent. C12H22O11) in 125 g of water. What is the molarity of that solution? Given: solute mass= 90.8L concentration of the solution: 0.5M HCl solution.5 M Unknown: Moles of HCl in a given volume.8 L of a 0.0 M K2CrO4 solution.50 L of solution that contains 90. NaCl. Solutions Components of Solutions Suspensions Colloids Solutes: Electrolytes vs.0g of sodium chloride. How many moles of HCl does this solution contain? Given: volume of the solution: 0. Find the final molal concentration of this solution. kJ/mol Concentration of Solutions The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution Molarity: the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution Molality: the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent Sample Problems& ¡ You have 3.1 g of sucrose (table sugar. Nonelectrolytes Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution Solubility Solubility continuedÖ Solute-Solvent Interactions .4g of potassium chromate in solution as a reactant.

Solute-Solvent continuedÖ Heats of Solution Concentration of Solutions .