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Turning Center Programming,

Setup, and Operation Curriculum

For The Instructor


Please Read Before
Getting Started!

Important Information
About This Course Curriculum
This Manual Includes:
Getting Started With The Turning Center Curriculum
Putting It All Together - Getting Ready To Teach
Course Outline For Turning Center Curriculum
Hard copy of Review.ppt slide presentation
Answer Book For Turning Center Curriculum
Final Test For Turning Center Curriculum
Answers To Final Test For Turning Center Curriculum
One CD-rom disk including:
PowerPoint Slide Shows With Guidance
PowerPoint Slide Shows Without Guidance
PowerPoint Viewer
All Written Documentation In Adobe Acrobat (.PDF) Format
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Special note: All materials contained in this document are
included on the CD-rom disk in the Written Documentation
folder. Materials are in Adobe Acrobat (.PDF) format and can be
freely printed/copied & distributed to other instructors. In addition,
you may want to print/copy the final test that students will take.
44 Little Cahill Road
Cary, IL 60013
Ph: (847) 639-8847

Fax: (847)639-8847
Email: lynch@cncci.com
Web: www.cncci.com

Turning Center Programming, Setup, and Operation Instructors Curriculum


Four new features in this version of the curriculum:
! Presentation links slide in every lesson
Weve made each lesson more interactive. Instead of
having to find the slide that begins each topic on your
own, weve added a special links slide in each lesson.
This lets you start/continue your presentation at the
start of any major topic in the lesson. Here is an
example from lesson one.

! Instructor Notes manual


This version of the curriculum still includes the set of
slides containing audio guidance, and we think youll
agree that it makes the easiest way to gain an
understanding of how to present each topic throughout
the course. While we feel this audio guidance is
extremely helpful, weve received several comments
from instructors saying they want a way to prepare to
teach without having to have a computer available
and that theyd like a way to make notes of their own
as they present the course.
The Instructor Notes manual contains information that
parallels what is done with audio guidance, giving you
another way to prepare to teach. You can now do so
without having a computer. However, we do not
include every slide in this manual (there are over 5,000
slides in the curriculum). Instead, weve picked key
slides at transition points and provided a short
description of how to present the topic. Even so, this
manual is 830 pages long! Here is a sample page
from the Instructor Notes manual.

Each underlined topic is a text link that, if clicked, will


send the presentation to the chosen topic within the
lesson. To get back to the presentation links page,
simply click the return button in the lower left corner of
any slide.

Instructor Notes Manual


Slide 28

Lesson 1

The presentation links slide is always located in the


same place right after the lesson plan (about 10-15
slides into the lesson). If you want to present the
lesson in its entirety, simply skip this slide (use the
slide advance key). If class time ends before you finish
a lesson, this slide should make it easy to continue in
your next session.
As youre preparing to teach, you may decide not to
include certain topics in your presentation. Perhaps
you want to skip them for now and come back to them
later. In this case, when you get to the topic you wish
to skip, simply click on the return button to get back to
the presentation links page. Then click on the topic
after the one you wish to skip.
Note that when you click on a topic, PowerPoint will
jump to the slide beginning the topic youve chosen
and continues from there. It will not return to the
presentation links slide unless you click the return
button.
This slide will also make it much easier to review. It
makes a great set of bullet points, helping you
remember the topics that must be reviewed. If
students are having problems with a topic during the
review, you can simply click on the topic and present
the material again. In fact, presentation links slides are
identical to the slides in the review.ppt slide
presentation (another new feature).

This series of slides helps you describe the various components of CNC turning centers.
On this slide, were emphasizing the work holding device commonly a three jaw chuck.
Upcoming slides help you describe other major components, including the tailstock and the
turret.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Each page of the Instructor Notes manual includes


ample room for making notes of your own. And with
PowerPoint, you can easily create a Notes Page for
any slide youd like.
We provide one hard copy of this manual, and it is also
included on disk one in Adobe Acrobat format, so you
can make additional copies (be ready for a lot of
printing!). Or you can purchase more from us at an
additional price.

Turning Center Programming, Setup, and Operation Instructors Curriculum


Four new features in this version of the curriculum (continued):
! Fly-in text boxes
Regardless of how much preparation you do, it will be
impossible to memorize every presentation included in
this lengthy curriculum. Again, there are over 6,500
slides. It can be especially difficult during transition
points, when the presentation is shifting gears. If you
dont know whats coming up (as youre teaching), you
can look ill-prepared in front of your students. For this
reason, most slides now include fly-in text boxes to
help you stay on track. Here is an example. The text
boxes in the upper left corner will fly in from the right as
soon as this slide is displayed.

Sometimes the fly-in text box will keep you from


forgetting to make a key point. Other times it will help
at a transition point to remind you about where the
presentation is going. In many cases, what is in the
text box can be used as your first sentence for the
slide, helping you quickly dig into the material.
Admittedly, instructors that have a great deal of
experience with this curriculum will not need the fly-in
text boxes. But we think even experienced instructors
will find them helpful. They can, however, be easily
deleted from within PowerPoint if you dont want them.

! Review slide presentation


We cannot stress enough the importance of reviewing
information you have presented earlier in the class. In
the review slide presentation, we begin each key
concept with the key concept name and a list of
lessons related to the key concept. This lets you restress the importance of each key concept. We then
include a slide for each lesson in the key concept with
bullet points to help you remember the topics that need
reviewing. Actually, these bullet point slides are
identical to the presentation links slide (discussed
earlier) in each lesson, except they are all together in
one handy presentation. If students are having
problems with a topic, you can quickly call up the
lessons presentation and go to the presentation links
page. Then click on the topic to present it again.
A hard copy of this presentation is included in the To
The Instructor manual.

Still included in this version:


" For The Instructor manual
We include one hard copy of this manual with the
curriculum and it is also included on disk one in Adobe
Acrobat (PDF) format so you can print additional copies.
This manual includes:
Getting started An introduction to the curriculum,
including factors that contribute to a good learning
environment, the key concepts approach, lesson
structure, a description of the student and instructor
materials, and a list of things you still need to use this
curriculum.
Putting it all together a set of recommendations for
teaching with this curriculum.
Hard copy of review slide show Helps you prepare
to review information as you get deeper into the course.
Course outline The entire course in outline format.
Includes key concept names, lesson names, topics in
each lesson, and approximate slide numbers.
Answer book Answers to the exercises and
programming activities in the workbook (its a workbook
with answers filled in).
Final test with answers Your way to confirm that
students understand major points in the entire course.
" CD-rom disk
All instructors materials are included on one CD-rom
disk.
Slide presentations with guidance This set of slide
shows (one for each lesson) includes audio guidance on
selected slides (played by clicking a special icon) to
help you understand how to make presentations during
the course.
Slide presentations without guidance Since the
slide shows with audio guidance are very large files, we
provide another set of slides shows without the
guidance that will load much quicker. We recommend
using this set of slide shows as you actually teach to
minimize distracting file loading time.
Adobe Acrobat Reader Allows you to view/print the
written documentation.
PowerPoint Viewer Allows you to view/display the
slide shows, but we strongly recommend that you have
the actual PowerPoint software (not just the viewer) so
you can edit the slide shows.
" It is still free with initial textbook order
We will continue to provide this curriculum free of
charge to schools purchasing their initial set of student
materials (20 set minimum). Student materials include
manual ($50.00 each) and workbook ($14.95 each). In
essence, your first set of twenty students is paying for
this curriculum!

Getting Started With The Turning Center Curriculum:


Our course curriculums have been designed to address the needs of instructors working in
three similar, but subtly different, learning environments. First, instructors working for
colleges, vocational schools, technical schools, and universities will find our ready-made
course curriculums especially easy to learn and implement. They make it especially easy
to prepare to teach each lesson. It has been our experience that instructors teaching their
first CNC courses for technical schools come from one of but two backgrounds. Either
they have extensive CNC experience (possibly through working for a manufacturing
company), but limited teaching experience --- or they have extensive teaching experience
(teaching other courses for the school), but limited CNC experience. It is rare to find an
new CNC instructor who has extensive experience in both fields. These course
curriculums will help in both cases.
Our proven curriculums, structured lesson plans, audio guidance, instructor notes for each
lesson, and concise lesson format will minimize the amount of work an instructor must
do in preparation for teaching a new course -- and minimize the work that must be done
when getting ready to teach each lesson during the course. The proven key concepts
approach and fly-in text boxes make it easy for even an inexperienced instructor to stay
on track during each presentation. And - the high animated slide presentations and
comprehensive student manuals will make experienced instructors who may be a little
weak with their CNC skills look like CNC experts!
Second, instructors working for companies having their own in-plant training will also
find this curriculum easy to implement. Few companies have the resources (or the desire)
to completely develop this kind of program from scratch. Additionally, success for an
industrial training program is not a simple a matter of the student getting a good grade.
When finished, students must know how to safely program and/or operate the machine
tools. Training failure will result in scrapped parts, crashed machines, and possibly even
injured operators. The real-world exercises in the student workbook will prove the
students knowledge of presented materials each step of the way. When the student
successfully completes this course, you can rest assured that they comprehend the subject
matter.
Third, training consultants (or instructors working for technical schools) that provide
custom training for manufacturing companies will find that this course curriculum makes
it easy to teach CNC to their clients. Utilizing standard (and highly portable) computer
equipment, the comprehensive slide show can be done on-the-road, meaning instruction
can take place anywhere.

Getting Started
Page 1

Five factors that contribute to learning


While experienced instructors may find this information somewhat basic, we wish to
ensure that beginning instructors understand the importance of setting up a good learning
environment. Of course, the better the learning environment, the better the training
program will be, and the faster, and easier it will be for students to learn. This course
curriculum is well suited to facilitating the learning environment in all five ways.
Motivation is the most important factor in any learning environment. First and foremost,
students must be highly motivated to learn. Motivation will be the driving force that
makes students stick with it even when they are having trouble understanding information
being presented during training. Indeed, any problem with learning can be overcome if
the students motivation is high enough. But just as important, the instructor must also be
highly motivated to teach. They must have a burning desire to relate information during
training in a way students can understand. When student are having problems, the
instructor must be motivated enough to spend the extra time it takes to ensure that the
student eventually understands presented material. This can be very challenging since
students aptitude levels vary. This course curriculum inspires motivation on both counts.
The colorful and illustrative slide show, the tutorial nature of the manual, the pertinent
practice exercises, and the highly structured key concepts approach will capture and hold
your students attention, and make it easy for them to stay motivated. For the same
reasons, instructors should find this course almost fun to teach - and it is easy to stay
motivated with tasks you enjoy.
Aptitude will determine how quickly and easily learning will be. The aptitude of the
instructor for making attention holding presentations, giving pertinent analogies,
preparing illustrative visuals, designing realistic practice exercises, and in general,
keeping the students interested level high will contribute to determining how quickly and
easily students catch on to new material. Instructors with high aptitude make it easy for
students to learn. In similar fashion, the students aptitude for learning manufacturing
related functions and specifically CNC also contribute to how quickly and easily learning
takes place. Students with high aptitude make it easy for the instructor to teach. This
course curriculum pays particular attention to trouble spots. From our own teaching
experience, we know where students with minimal aptitude tend to have the most
problems and make ample analogies to keep even the most complex topics of CNC as
simple as possible to understand.
Presentation is the heart of training. The better the instructor prepares and delivers the
presentation, the easier it will be for students to learn. Presentation can consist of many
things, including the instructors orations, demonstrations, simulations, overhead and
projector slides, videos, and anything else that helps to convey an idea. This is the strong
point of our curriculums. You will find it very easy to get your ideas across with but a
small amount of preparation before delivering each lesson. While you still have to talk,
the slide show and instructor notes will make sure you know what to say!

Getting Started
Page 2

Repetition reinforces a students understanding of learned information. Even students


with extremely high aptitude will find it difficult to learn from presentations made only
once. All training sessions should begin with a review of recent presentations.
Depending upon the frequency and duration of each training session, entire sessions
should, at times, be devoted to reviewing what students should already know.
Reviews also help the instructor limit how much complex subject matter is presented
during each session. Knowing that certain information will be reviewed, the instructor
can avoid getting too deep into complicated topics during the first time the information is
presented. Only after students have a firm grasp of the basics will the instructor dive
deeper and introduce more complicated variations. The slide shows really help with
review. As you begin each session, you can easily call up the presentation/s made
recently and quickly skim material to ensure comprehension. For review purposes, you
can even hide slides during reviews (within Powerpoint) to keep from having to go
through all but the most important slides.
Practice with reinforcement acts as the gauge to judge the success of training. Well
designed practice exercises should be realistic, forcing the student to do things in the
same way they must when training is completed. Reinforcement must come as the result
of the students practice. If the student demonstrates a firm understanding of the
presented information, reinforcement should praise the success. On the other hand, if
practice exposes a students lack of understanding, reinforcement should come in the
form of repeated presentations, review, and more practice, ensuring that the student
eventually catches on. This course curriculum include a comprehensive set of practice
exercises, as well as a final test, to confirm understanding each step of the way.
The key concepts approach
Most training experts agree that students learn best when they have a light at the end of
the tunnel. The more complex the subject matter, the more important it is to tell (better
yet, show) the student early in the training program just what they must master to
complete the course. One important benefit of our proven key concepts approach you can
do just that. With our curriculum, there are ten key concepts to CNC. Six of the key
concepts are programming-related and the last four are operation-related. Early on in the
course you can truthfully say If you can understand just ten basic ideas, you are well on
your way to becoming proficient with CNC. This gives your students a light at the end
of the tunnel and makes learning CNC seem as easy as possible. Also, as you go through
the course, students will know where they stand each step along the way.
Another benefit of our key concepts approach is that it lets you work at a very broad level.
There are many different CNC machine and control manufacturers making this kind of
equipment. Though there are many commonalties in how basic machine utilization is
done among current CNC machines, no two machines will be handled exactly the same.
For this reason, students will likely have to adapt to their own machines once they
complete your course (especially if you teach in a technical school). In each key concept
you will be stressing the broad and general reasoning behind how CNC functions,
showing students why they must do things as importantly as how they do them. This
Getting Started
Page 3

reasoning can be applied to any form of CNC machine tool. Once the student
understands this reasoning, then you will show specific techniques needed to apply the
key concept to one very popular CNC control.
By the way, all of the specific examples we give in the student manual and during the
slide shows are in the format for a Fanuc control. We chose Fanuc as our sample control
since it is the most popular control in the industry, and since several control
manufacturers (Mitusbishi Meldas, Mazatrol, Yasnac, HAAS, Fadal, and others) claim to
be Fanuc-compatible. However, you must be prepared for the possibility that your
students will be working with a control made by a manufacturer that is not Fanuccompatible. Again, rest assured that the ten key concepts apply to every current CNC
control on the market. Only the specific techniques needed to apply each key concept
must change.
These same ten key concepts can be applied to any form of CNC machine tool. We
actually have available three course curriculums for three popular forms of CNC machine
tools for metal cutting, the CNC machining center and CNC turning center for
woodworking, the CNC router (three separate curriculums). The same ten key concepts
are applied to all three curriculums, and can also be applied to wire EDM machines, CNC
turret punch presses, CNC lasers, and any other type of CNC. This makes it quite easy to
teach courses for different machine types, or even include more than one machine type in
a give course.
Yet another benefit (from an instructors standpoint) of the key concepts approach is that
the course can end at any time once students understand the key concepts. One major
problem in any training program is the limited time available for training. While
manufacturing companies may have the luxury of extending a course if students are slow
in picking up the material, technical schools commonly work on a very rigid time frame.
If students are slow in picking up the material and getting bogged down with the details
of CNC machine utilization (asking many time consuming questions), the course may end
before you get through all the material. While this presents a problem even with the key
concepts approach, the effects of the problem can be minimized. As long as students
understand the reasoning behind each key concept, it will be just a matter of time until
they figure out the details. Given our extensive and highly tutorial course manual, any
student with motivation will eventually figure out the details (possibly even after the
course ends).
One last benefit well mention for the key concepts approach is that it makes reviewing
the material easy. Since there are only ten key concepts, they are easy to remember. You
can simply restate each key concept (using the review slide presentation) and ask
pertinent questions to confirm your students retention of material previously presented.
In the lesson plans, instructor notes, audio guidance, student manuals, and course outline,
you will find detailed explanations of what must be presented at each key point in the
course. Here we simply list the ten key concepts.
Getting Started
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Key concept: Description:


1
Know your machine (from a programmers viewpoint)
2
Prepare to write programs
3
Understand the motion types
4
Know the compensation types
5
Format your programs in a safe, convenient, and efficient manner
6
Know the special features of programming
7
Know your machine (from an operators viewpoint)
8
Understand the three modes of operation
9
Know the procedures related to operation
10
You must be able to verify programs safely
Lesson structure
These ten key concepts are divided further concise lessons. For the turning center
curriculum, there are twenty-eight lessons. Lessons do vary in length (from about 10
minutes of presentation to about an hour), and you can find an approximate time of
presentation in the course outline.
Turning center lesson structure
Lesson:
Description:
1
Machine configuration
2
Speeds and feeds
3
Visualizing program execution
4
Understanding program zero
5
Measuring program zero
6
Assigning program zero
7
Flow of program processing
8
Introduction to programming words
9
Preparation for programming
10
Types of motion
11
Introduction to compensation
12
Dimensional (wear) tool offsets
13
Geometry offsets
14
Tool nose radius compensation
15
Program formatting
16
The four kinds of program format
17
Simple canned cycles
18
Rough turning and boring multiple repetitive cycle
19
More multiple repetitive cycles
20
Threading multiple repetitive cycle
21
Subprogramming techniques
22
Control model differences
23
Other special features of programming
24
Control model differences
25
Machine panel functions
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26
27
28

Three modes of operation


The key operation procedures
Verifying new programs safely

Students Course Materials:


All student course materials are copyrighted and must be purchased from CNC Concepts,
Inc. Current pricing can be found on our website (www.cncci.com).
Student Manuals - These highly tutorial manuals precisely follows the slide show
presentations you will be making. They are very detailed and will provide the student
with an excellent way to review information you present, during the course and long after
the course is finished. There is one student manual for each curriculum. Of course, you
will also want to have this manual to use as a master as you present the course.
Student workbooks - This is the set of practice exercises students will be doing during the
course. There is one exercise for each lesson (28 exercises for the turning center
curriculum). The practice exercises are like quizzes you can use them as such or assign
them as homework. About half of the practice exercises additionally require the student
to do a programming activity.
Instructors Course Materials:
CD-rom disk including all instructor materials The disk includes the following
instructor materials:
To The Instructor manual:
This manual includes information to help you begin. It includes:
Getting started with the machining center curriculum provides information about how
we intend the curriculums to be used.
Instructors outline provides concise list of topics to be covered and slide numbers as
well as suggested presentation times.
Answers to exercises provides answers in the same format as the exercises.
Final test with answers to test the students overall comprehension of the course.
Instructor notes manual:
The manual includes instructions to the instructor on key slides. It provides another way
to prepare for the course if you dont have a computer available to view the slide shows.
Compiled in sequential order (lessons 1-28), this manual provides key information about
each topic in the course. On each page, weve selected a key slide and, at the top of the
page, show the slide being discussed. At the bottom of each slide, we provide a short set
of written instructions about what you will be saying at this point in the course. This
manual parallels the slide shows with audio guidance (see below), giving you an
alternative way to get ready to teach.
All written documentation is provided in Adobe Acrobat format (PDF files) on disk one
in the folder named Written documentation. All files are aptly named. In order to
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Page 6

view/print them, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. We
also provide this software on disk one in the folder Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Note that all written documentation provided on the CD-rom can be freely printed, copied
and distributed. So if you have additional instructors, you can print this information
yourself.
Hard copy of manuals:
One copy of the To The Instructor manual and the Instructor Notes manual is included
with the curriculum. Again, these materials help you prepare when you dont have a
computer available to actually view the slide shows. If you need extra copies, they can be
printed from the Adobe Acrobat files on the CD, or you can purchase additional copies
from CNC Concepts, Inc. Current pricing is provided on our website (www.cncci.com).
PowerPoint Slide shows:
Slide shows with and without audio guidance (over 5,000 slides in each!) Each lesson
includes a slide show to provide the visuals you need to teach. They are all computer
generated graphics and animations that really help you make your points during the class.
To help you prepare to teach, we provide one set of slide shows with audio guidance. On
selected slides, youll find an instructor icon that if clicked, will activate an audio
narration that explains our intentions at this point in the course. Note that this audio
guidance is not intended for students. Its aimed at instructors that will be teaching the
course. Some of the slide shows with guidance are very long and will take some time to
load. For this reason, we also provide another (identical) set of slide shows without
guidance. You can use them to minimize loading time (as is important when teaching)
once you get familiar with the course.
Presentation links slide Every lesson includes this special slide. It will always be
located immediately after the lesson plan. And every slide will have a return button in the
lower left corner that returns you to this slide. This slide lists the topic headings to be
covered by the lesson. When you click on a topic, the presentation will skip to the slide
that begins that topic. This can help in three ways. First, it provides a very interactive
way to get to topics of interest (you will be clicking on topics during your presentation) as
you teach. Second, you will be able to easily skip topics that you dont want to cover.
Just remember that once you click on a topic, the presentation will simply continue from
the slide that begins the topic. If you get into another topic (that you dont want to cover),
simply click the return button in the lower left corner. And third, this special slide should
really help when reviewing. It makes an excellent list of bullet points that you can review
in a nice logical order. And of course, if students are having problems, you can easily
click on the trouble-causing topic and re-present the information related to the topic.
Fly in text boxes In addition to graphics and animations throughout the slide shows, we
also include fly-in text boxes on most slides to help you understand where the presentation
is going. In some cases, the fly-in text box will remind you to make some important point
about the topic at hand. In other cases, they are included at a change of pace in the
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presentation, and provide the next few words of your presentation. In all cases, they will
help you stay on track and minimize the amount of preparation you must do to get ready
to teach.
Review slide presentation Located in the folder named Slide presentations without
guidance on disk one, this special presentation named review.ppt is intended to help you
review material throughout the course. As stated, at least ten percent of each session
should be spent reviewing information that you previously presented. This presentation is
made up of at least two slides for each key concept. The first slide for each key concept
shows the key concept name and the lesson/s related to the key concept. This is followed
by a list of bullet points for each lesson in the key concept. Each list of bullet points is
identical to the presentation links slide for the lesson. So if students are having problems
during the review, you can easily call up the related lesson, go to the presentation links
slide, and click on the topic of interest.
All presentation files are aptly named. In the folder named Slide presentations without
guidance (on disk one), youll find files named Lesson1.ppt through lesson24.ppt. In the
folder named Slide presentations with guidance 1-12 of 24 (on disk one), youll find files
named lesson1g.ppt through lesson12g.ppt. In the folder named Slide presentations with
guidance 13-24 (on disk two), youll find files named lesson13g.ppt through
lesson24.ppt.
PowerPoint Viewer software:
All slideshows are prepared in PowerPoint 2000. In order to view/display/print the slide
shows, you must either have the actual PowerPoint software (PowerPoint 95 or above) or
the PowerPoint Viewer. We provide the PowerPoint Viewer on disk one. Since the
PowerPoint Viewer does not let you modify slides, and since it requires that slide shows
always start from the first slide (not very convenient when youre trying to get to a slide
in the middle of a lengthy presentation), we urge you to get the actual PowerPoint
software. It can be purchased separately, and it comes with most versions of Microsoft
Office.
What you still need:
In order to show the PowerPoint slide presentations to a group of people, you need the
following items.
A computer with Windows 95 (or higher) - Just about any current model computer will
work. For best results, a Pentium class is recommended (minimum 64 megs internal). If
using a desktop computer, you can easily watch the monitor of the computer (facing your
audience) to see the slide show while slides are displayed behind you by the projection
system. Since the left mouse button advances the slides, you even have a remote slide
advance button (though you may prefer a true remote mouse designed for making
presentations, as can be supplied by a company like MindPath). If portability is an issue,
keep in mind that many of the notebooks and sub-notebooks have ample power to run the
presentation software. However, be careful in your selection. Many notebooks do not
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allow you to send data out through the VGA port and see the slide show on the LCD
screen of the notebook at the same time. Without this ability, you may have to turn
around to see your slides, which can be distracting to your audience.
Microsoft PowerPoint Software (PowerPoint 2000 was used to create the slide shows) Though you can display all presentations with PowerPoint Viewer (included with this
curriculum), you will need Microsoft PowerPoint (PowerPoint 95 or above) if you intend
to modify the slide shows given in this curriculum. We highly recommend that you have
this ability. This software can be found in any computer store for a price of about
$250.00 (it also comes with Microsoft Office). You will find this to be a very powerful
presentation generating program; one you can use to develop your own slide shows for
other courses (or again, modify those in this course curriculum).
A way of displaying the screen show - You have several alternatives in this regard. All
involve using a device that takes data from the VGA port of your personal computer.
First, many schools already have a projection system that can display information from a
personal computer. Basically, anything that can be shown on the computer screen can be
displayed through the projection system. Second, you can use a device that sits on top of
an overhead projector to display your screen shows. In essence, this device makes a
transparency of what ever is on the display screen of the computer (we dont like this kind
of device because of its brightness it can really hurt your eyes if you try to use it as a
normal overhead projector). Third, and especially if price is a concern, you can use a
simple scan converter (about $200.00 - $300.00) and display your screen show on any
television that has a video in connector (as most do). If you must use the RF connector of
the television (where an antenna plugs in), an RF converter must be purchased. Since
there are so many alternatives for displaying your slide shows, we welcome phone calls
(847) 639-8847 if you have questions about your alternatives.

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Putting It All Together


Getting Ready To Teach
As stated earlier, though these course curriculums dramatically reduce the amount of
preparation you must do, they do not eliminate it completely. And as any experienced
instructor will agree, the key to successful presentations is in becoming comfortable with
the material you present. And the only way to get comfortable is through adequate
preparation.
Before your first course:
Skim the entire curriculum - Though you do not have to be perfectly comfortable with
every detail of the curriculum to begin teaching, you will at least need to understand
where the course is going. You can use the course outline, lesson plans, instructor notes,
and student manual to gain an appreciation for the ten key concepts and the lesson
structure being used.
Before beginning each key concept:
Get comfortable will all lessons in the key concept - While some key concepts have but
one lesson, most have more. Be sure you feel comfortable with all points you need to
make before you begin teaching. Again, use the course outline, instructor notes, and
student manual to increase your comfort level with the entire concept.
Before you deliver a lesson:
Get ready to teach! - Study the lesson plan, instructor notes, and slide presentation hard
copy in order to gain an understanding of key points that must be delivered during your
presentation.
Practice! - Especially before your first few lessons, get comfortable with your equipment
and the material you present by practicing your presentation. In addition to getting you
ready to deliver each lesson, this should give you a rough idea of how long it will take to
deliver each lesson.
During your presentation of each lesson:
Tell them what youre going to tell them - The lesson plan (key points in the slide show
at the beginning of each lesson) will help you prepare your students for what they will be
learning. While you dont have to dwell on this slide too long, it will help them know
what is coming up.
Tell them - Go though the lesson, using your slide show as a guide. Be sure to point out
the page numbers and sections in the student manual where the information is also
included for their own independent study. Be sure everyone is catching on. Encourage
participation, questions, and comments. While you should find adequate analogies in the
slide show to stress the most complex topics, you must be prepared to handle special
questions and concerns. Have a blackboard or overhead available for making special
points.
Getting Started
Page 10

Tell them what you told them - The lesson summary (included in the slide show for each
lesson) will let you summarize the key points of each lesson.
After you finish each lesson:
Assign and check practice exercises - The students responses to the practice exercises
makes an excellent way to gauge your students understanding of the subject matter. If
you find that students are not doing well, it should be taken as a signal that you must
review key information. If students are doing well, be sure to praise them.
As you get deeper into the course:
Review often - No student will retain every word of every presentation you make during a
course as lengthy as these. On average, you should spend about 10% to 20% of your
session time in review, depending upon how well your students are doing. The more
problems they are having, the more time you should spend on review. One excellent way
to review is to question students from the previous exercises to confirm their retention.
Let students know where they stand - Be sure everyone knows how they are doing as
they progress through the course. Assign special exercises and labs for those students
having the most problems. Push those students doing well to go further.

Getting Started
Page 11

Getting Started
Page 12

INSTRUCTOR OUTLINE FOR TURNING CENTER PROGRAMMING AND OPERATION


Section one - Programming

Slide
1
2
13
18
25
27
98
102
107
117
122
127
134
139
142
144
149
165
169
172
174

Description
Lesson number one - Machine configurations
Key concept number one - know your machine
Lesson structure for key concept number one
Basic machining practice related to turning
Machine configurations
Universal slant bed turning centers
Chucking style slant bed turning centers
Twin spindle horizontal bed turning centers
Sub-spindle turning centers
Vertical single spindle turning centers
Twin spindle vertical turning centers
Mill/turn machines
Gang style turning centers
Sliding headstock turning centers
Programmable features
Turret programming
Spindle programming
Feedrate programming
Coolant programming
Other programmable features
Lesson summary

1
2
7
18
29
38
40
43

Lesson Number Two - Speeds And Feeds


Lesson plan
The two ways to control spindle speed
Constant surface speed mode
Rpm mode
The two ways to control feedrate
Feed per revolution
Feed per minute

1
2
6
7
14
25

Lesson Three - General flow of CNC usage


Lesson plan
Understand the big picture
The three kinds of CNC-using companies
Flow of programming process
Lesson summary

Lesson number four - Visualizing the motions


of a CNC program
Lesson plan
Understanding the flow of program execution
Program structure
Visualizing program execution
Lesson summary

2
7
16
19
56

CNC Concepts, Inc.

1
2
3
34
67
73
78
97

Lesson number five - Understanding program


zero
Lesson plan
The rectangular coordinate system
Graph analogy
How coordinates are calculated
Determining where to place the program zero
point
Incremental versus absolute
Lesson summary

Lesson number six - Determining program zero


assignment values
2
Lesson plan
8
Why program zero must be assigned for each
tool
13
How program zero assignment values are determined
19
The zero return position
41
Values for assigning program zero in the program
41
Values for use with geometry offsets
41
Values for use with geometry offsets and work
shift
41
Values for use with tool touchoff probes
(NOTE: Slide41 is a jump slide)
42
How program zero assignment values are determined for center cutting tools
46
How program zero assignment values are determined for boring bars
49
Lesson summary
1
2
7
16
19
26
1
2
6
12
29
36
52
63

Lesson number seven - The two ways to assign


program zero
Lesson plan
Assigning program zero in the program
Assigning program zero with geometry offsets
A few more points about program zero assignment
Lesson summary
Lesson number eight - Introduction to programming wordss
Lesson plan
Comparison to learning a foreign language
O word
Parentheses
N word
G word
X word

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 1

Course Outline

36

68
91
98
102
103
109
114
125
134
136
147
152
156

Z word
C word
R word
I, J, & K words
P word
L word
F word
S word
T word
M word
Slash code (/)
EOB (End of block)
Lesson summary

1
2
3
9
18
38
43
57
87
89
96

Lesson number nine - Preparation for


programming
Key concept number two
Lesson plan
Divide and conquer
Typical mistakes
Study and markup the print
Prepare the machining process
Plan the tool paths
Do the math
Plan the setup
Lesson summary

1
2
7
8
37
42
47
61
78
123

Lesson number ten - Motion types


Lesson plan
Key concept number three
Interpolation
Motion commonalities
Understanding the point youre programming
Rapid motion
Straight line motion
Circular motion
Lesson summary

1
2
8
14
41
51
55

Lesson number eleven - Introduction to


compensation
Key concept number four
Lesson plan
Marksman analogy
Understanding offsets
Trial machining
Lesson summary

1
2
8
11
19

Lesson number twelve - Geometry offsets


Lesson plan
Why geometry offsets are required
Review of program zero
Understanding work shift

Page 2

58

How accurate are program zero assignment values?


Lesson sumary

1
2
8
27
55
72
74

Lesson number thirteen - Wear offsets


Lesson plan
Why geometry offsets are requied
How wear offsets work
More on trial machining
Transitioning from job to job
Lesson summary

Lesson number fourteen - Tool nose radius


compensation
Lesson plan
Why tool nose radius compensation is required
Steps to programming
Programming example
TNR compensation from a setup persons point
of view
Programming offset entries
Lesson summary

2
8
30
59
84
97
103
1
2
3
9
13
28
31
47
59
76
81
1
2
7
61
125
1
2
3
7
9
26
43

Lesson number fifteen - Introduction to program formatting


Key concept number five
Lesson plan
The importance of formatting
Familiarization
Consistency
Re-running tools
Machine differences
The four types of program format
A few reminders
Lesson summary
Lesson number sixteen - The four types of program format
Lesson plan
Format for use when assigning program zero
with geometry offsets
Format for use when assiging program zero in
the program with G50
Lesson summary
Lesson number seventeen - One-pass canned
cyclest
Key concept number six
Lesson plan
Cycle consistencies
One pass turing and boring cycle
One pass facing cycle
One pass threading cycle

Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Course Outline

50

Lesson summary

25

Lesson summary

Lesson number eighteen - Rough turning and


boring multiple repetitive cycle (G71)t
Lesson plan
Introduction to multiple repetitive cycles
How G71 works
Words in the G71 command
The finish pass definition
Finishing with G70
Using G71 and G70 for rough and finish boring
What about tool nose radius compensation?
Lesson summary

Lesson number twenty-three - Other special


features of programming
Lesson plan
Optional block skip tecniques
N word techniques
Documenting in the program
Other G codes of importance
Other M codes of interest
Understanding parameters
Lesson summary

2
8
19
65
80
108
137
174
178
1
2
8
46
113
117
120

Lesson number nineteen - More multiple repetitive cyclest


Lesson plan
G72 rough facing cycle
G73 pattern repeating cycle
G74 peck drilling cyle
G75 grooving cycle
Lesson summary

1
2
9
32
49
62
76
85
92
111

Lesson number twenty - Threading cyclet


Lesson plan
How threading is done on a lathe
G32 - great for tapping
G76 threading cycle
Example program
Important points about threading
Taper threading
Multiple start threading
Lesson summary

1
2
9
13
24
27
75
92
1

Lesson number twenty-one - Subprogrammingt


Lesson plan
How subprogramming works
Applications for subprogramming
Related words
Examples
Introcuction to parametric programming
Lesson summary
Lesson number twenty-two - Control model
differencest
Lesson plan
Two styles of programming
Multiple repetitive cycle differences
G71
G72
G73
G76
G74
Subprogramming differences

2
7
9
10
12
13
16
22
23

CNC Concepts, Inc.

2
9
57
68
86
158
169
189

Setup and operation


1
Lesson number twenty-four - Setup versus operation tasks
2
Introduction to setup and operation
3
Key concept number seven
4
Lesson plan
11
Operator responsibilites
17
The difference betweensetup and operation tasks
24
Tasks related to setup
88
Tasks related to maintaining production
109
Lesson summary
1
2
6
9
13
35
102
131
1
2
8
18
21
51
101
1
2
10
19
94
134
170
340

Lesson number twenty-five - The two operation


panelsg
Lesson plan
The two operation panels
The control panel
Keyboard
Display screen
The machine panel
Lesson summary
Lesson number twenty-six - The three modes of
operation
Lesson plan
The importance of the mode switch
The three modes of operation
Manual mode
Manual data input (MDI) mode
Program operation mode
Lesson number twenty-seven - Key operation
procedures
Lesson plan
The importance of procedures
Manual procedures
Manual data input procedures
Setup procedures
Program manipulation procedures
Program running procedures

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 3

Course Outline

341

Lesson summary

Lesson number twenty-eight - Safely verifying


programs
Lesson plan
Safety priorities
New versus proven programs
Reminder about key verification functions
The most dangerous time
Program verification procedures
Re-running tools
Completing a production run
Lesson summary

2
10
37
49
60
67
92
105
112

Page 4

PROGRAMMING:
Lesson Min. Description
Lesson 1 20 Machine configurations
Lesson 2 20 Spreeds and feeds
Lesson 3 20 Visualizing program execution
Lesson 4 10 Flow of programming process
Lesson 5 22 Understanding program zero
Lesson 6 20 Two was to assign program zero
Lesson 7 18 Assigning program zero
Lesson 8 20 Introduction to programming words
Lesson 9 20 Preparation for programming
Lesson 10 20 Types of motion
Lesson 11 16 Introduction to compensation
Lesson 12 20 Dimensional tool offsets
Lesson 13 20 Geometry offsets
Lesson 14 20 Tool nose radius compensation
Lesson 15 20 Program formatting
Lesson 16 20 The four kinds of program format
Lesson 17 20 One-pass canned cycles
Lesson 18 20 Multiple repetitive cycle (G71 and
G70)
Lesson 19 20 More mult. rep. cycles (G72-G75)
Lesson 20 20 Threading multiple rep. cycle (G76)
Lesson 21 20 Subprogramming techniques
Lesson 22 16 Control model differences
Lesson 23 40 Other special features for programming
SETUP & OPERATION:
Lesson 24 30 Setup versus operation tasks
Lesson 25 40 The two operation panels
Lesson 26 20 Three modes of operation
Lesson 27 60 Key sequences of operation
Lesson 28 40 Verifying new programs safely

Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson
Copyright 2002, CNC Concepts, Inc.

Copyright 2002, CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center
Programming & Operation

Turning Center
Programming & Operation
Course Review

Key Concept
Number One

1: Machine configurations

You must know your


machine from a
programmers viewpoint!

!Machine configurations
!Understanding speeds & feeds
!General flow of the programming process
!Visualizing the execution of a CNC program
!Understanding program zero
!Locating program zero
!The two ways to assign program zero

Key concept #1
Basic machining practice
Machine configurations

Programmable features

Universal slant bed


Chucker
Twin spindle horizontal
Sub-spindle
Single spindle vertical
Twin spindle vertical
Mill / turn
Gang style
Sliding headstock

Turret
Spindle
Feedrate
Coolant

3: Flow of the programming process

2: Understanding speeds & feeds

Understand the big picture

Two ways to control spindle speed

Three company types

Calculating RPM
Constant surface speed
Benefits of constant surface speed
Limitations of constant surface speed
Two times when RPM mode must be used
Example commands

What will you be doing?


Flow of programming process
Study the print
Decide which machine
Determine the process
Choose tooling
Write program
Develop documentation
Load program

Two ways to control feedrate


Examples

Make workholding setup


Assemble cutting tools
Load cutting tools
Assign program zero
Verify program
Inspect first workpiece
Run production
Save corrected program

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson

4: Visualizing a programs execution


The importance of visualizing

5: Understanding program zero

Program structure notes

Travel instructions analogy

Program make-up
Sequential order of execution

Machinist vs programmer
Advantage of machinist
Programmers disadvantage

Rectangular coordinate system

Sequence numbers
Word order in a command
Decimal point usage
Modal words
Initialized words
Common mistakes

Absolute vs incremental
Absolute
Example
Incremental
Comparison

Axis drive make-up


Graph analogy
3d coordinate system

More on polarity

Inch versus metric

in XY
in Z

Where to place program zero

A job handled by:

in XY
in Z

Manual machinist
CNC programmer
7

6: Locating the program zero point

7: Two ways to assign program zero

Program zero must be assigned Calculating PZA values


Retaining PZA values
Zero return position
Using a spindle probe
Vertical machining centers

Assigning in the program


In XY
In Z
The G92 command
Limitation of G92
Using G28 for safety

Horizontal machining centers

Program zero assignment values


In XY
In Z

Assigning with fixture offsets


In XY
In Z
Advantage of fixture offsets

Measuring program zero


In XY for rectangular workpiece
In Z
In XY for round workpiece
9

8: Introduction to programming words


Intro to word types
Word types

10

Key Concept
Number Two

Word types (continued)

R rapid plane
I K directional vectors
O program number
Q peck depth
() messages
P pause time
N sequence number
L number of executions
G preparatory function
F feedrate
X X axis designator
S spindle speed
Z Z axis designator
T turret indexing
Decimal format (XZ)
M miscellaneous functions
Related words (XZ)
C Rotary axis designator / - block delete

You must prepare to write


programs!

!The importance of preparation

11

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

12

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson

Key Concept
Number Three

9: The importance of preparation


Key concept #2
Divide and conquer
Typical mistakes
Syntax mistakes
Mistakes of omission
Motion mistakes

Preparation steps
Study & mark up print
Develop the machining process
Do the math
Number all points
Develop a coordinate sheet
Plan the setup

You must understand the


motion types!

!Programming motion commands

Conclusion

13

10: Programming motion commands


Key concept #3
Interpolation
Three motion types
Motion commonalities
Programmed point
For hole-making tools
For milling cutters

14

Key Concept
Number Four

Circular motion
G02 or G03?
Specifying arc size
With R word
Example
Warning about R word
With Directional vectors

You must understand the


compensation types

! 11 What is compensation?
! 12 Geometry offsets
! 13 Wear offsets
! 14 Tool nose radius comp.

Rapid motion
Examples

Linear motion
Examples
15

11: What is compensation?

16

12: Geometry offsets

Key concept #4
Analogies

Why geometry offsets are required


Review of program zero
Understanding work shift

Marksman analogy
Related to CNC compensation

How accurate are program zero assignment measurements?

Understanding offsets
Offset tables
Wear offsets
Geometry offsets
Work shift offset

Trial machining
17

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

18

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson

13: Wear offsets

14: Tool nose radius compensation

Why wear offsets are required

Why tool nose radius compensation is required


Steps to programming
Instate
Cut the work surface
Cancel
Programming example
TNR from the setup persons point of view
Programming TNR offset entries

Imperfections during setup


Program zero assignment mistakes
Tool pressure
Tool wear
Tool position after replacement

How wear offsets work


More on trial machining
Transitioning from job to job
19

Key Concept
Number Five

20

15: Program formatting


You must know how to
structure your programs

Key concept number five


Importance of formatting
Familiarization
Consistency
Rerunning tools

! 15 - Program formatting
! 16 - Four kinds of program format

Four types of format


Machine Differences
Automatic tool changers
M codes
Accessories

Efficiency improvements
21

Key Concept
Number Six

16: The four kinds of program format


A few more notes
G50 vs geometry offsets
Safety commands
Documentation
How G28 works

22

Program formats
Using geometry offsets
Using G50 in the program

You have several special


features to help with
programming

Example program
Points about example program

23

! 17 One-pass canned cycles


! 18 Rough & finish turning and boring
! 19 Other multiple repetitive cycles
! 20 Threading cycle
! 21 Sub-programming commands
! 22 Differences among control models
! 23 Other special programming features

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

24

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson

17: One pass canned cycles

18: Rough and finish turning & boring

Key concept number six


Cycle consistencies
One pass turning or boring cycle
One pass facing cycle
One pass threading cycle

Introduction to multiple repetitive cycles


How G71 works
Words in the G71 command
The finish pass definition
An example of G71 for turning
Finishing with G70
Using G71 and G70 for rough boring
An example program of G71 & G71 for boring

What about tool nose radius compensation?


25

19: Other multiple repetitive cycles

26

20: G76 threading cycle

G72 rough facing cycle


G73 pattern repeating cycle
G74 peck drilling cycle
G75 grooving cycle

How threading is done on a lathe


G32 great for tapping
Point on the threading tool that is programmed
G76 threading command
Words involved
Example program
Other important points about threading
Taper threading
Multiple start threads
27

21: Sub-programming techniques

28

22: Control model differences

How sub-programming works


Applications for sub-programming
Related words
Examples

Two styles of programming


Multiple repetitive cycle differences
G71
G72
G73
G76
Sub-programming differences

Multiple identical machining operations (grooves)


Flip jobs
Utility application (bar feeding)

Introduction to parametric programming

29

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

30

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson

23: Other special programming features

Key Concept
You must understand the
Number Seven
machine from an
operators viewpoint

Other M codes of interest


Block delete techniques
M00 program stop
How block delete works
M02 end of program
Another optional stop
M13/M14 Spindle & coolant
Help with trial machining
Understanding parameters
N word techniques
Changing machining order
Documenting in the program
Other G codes of importance
G04 - dwell
G10 data setting
G20/G21 inch metric

! 24 Tasks related to setup & operation


! 25 The two operation panels

24: Tasks related to setup & operation

25: The two operation panels

31

32

The two operation panels


Buttons and switches on the control panel
Buttons and switches on the machine panel

Introduction to setup & operation


Key concept number eight
Operator responsibilities
Setup tasks versus operation tasks
Tasks related to setup
Tasks related to maintaining production

33

Key Concept
Number Eight

34

26: The three modes of operation

You must understand the


three modes of operation

The importance of the mode switch


The three modes of operation
Manual mode
Manual data input (MDI) mode
Program execution mode

! 26 The three modes of operation

35

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

36

Slides in the presentation named review


Each lesson outline slide is identical to the presentation links slide for that lesson

Key Concept
Number Nine

27: The key operation procedures

You must understand the


key operation procedures

Procedure importance
Manual procedures
Start machine
Zero return
Start spindle
Jog axes
Use handwheel
Load tools
Activate coolant
Reset axis displays
Enter offsets

! 27 Key operation procedures

MDI procedures
37

Key Concept
Number Ten

You must understand how


to safely verify CNC
programs

! 28 How to verify & run programs

Index turret
Start spindle

MDI procedures (continued)

Activate coolant
Zero return

Setup procedures
Program manipulation procedures
Load programs
Punch programs
Directory of programs
Delete programs
Call up a program
Search within a program
Alter, insert, and delete
38

28: How to verify and run CNC programs


Safety priorities
Rerunning tools
Typical mistakes
Completing a production run
New vs proven programs
Program verification functions
The most dangerous time
An example approach

Program verification procedures


Free flowing dry run
Normal air cutting run
Cautiously running first workpiece
Example
39

As you get deeper into the course, use this presentation to quickly review what you have
already covered. If students are having trouble with a review topic, simply recall the
presentation for the lesson, go to the presentation links slide for that lesson, and click on the
topic in question to repeat the related presentation.

40

Turning Center
Programming and Operation
Answers
FANUC

10T

O
X
I
F
M

X00.0000
Z00.0000

POWER
ON

OFF

N
Y
J
D
S]
V

PAGE

G
Z
K
H
T

P
Q
R
L

EOB)

A
B
C
#
/

8 9
5 6
2 3
0
=

7
4
1
+

Sp

RESET

START

CALC

CAN

INPUT

CURSOR
NC/PC

SHIFT

AUX

CYCLE
START

FEED
HOLD

MDI

JOG

AUTO
EDIT

MODE

100%

OFF

DRY
RUN

0%

X-

EMERGENCY
STOP

200%
FEEDRATE
OVERRIDE

ON

OFF
SPINDLE

0%

100%

130%

RAPID
OVERRIDE

0%

SLOW
100%

5
4
3

FAST

130%

OD

OPTIONAL
STOP

BLOCK
DELETE
ORIGIN

ON

MEMORY
PROTECT

Z+

JOYSTICK

MACHINE
LOCK

100%

10%

SINGLE
BLOCK

OFF

50%

25%

X+
Z-

X1
Z

X10

X100

9 10 11
12

TURRET INDEX

ID

AXIS LOAD

SPINDLE LOAD

CHUCK

ON

HANDLE
ZERO
RETURN

CLAMP
DIRECTION

TAILSTOCK

Contents:
Practice Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Programming Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Published By:

Copyright 1998, CNC Concepts, Inc.


NOTICE!!

Written by Mike Lynch

This manual is protected by copyright laws of the


United States Government. No part of this manual
may be reproduced without the written consent of
CNC Concepts, Inc. Additional copies of this document must be purchased directly from CNC Concepts, Inc. (847) 639-8847
Document number S00017

To the grader
This answer booklet provides answers to all of the exercises and programming activities given in the workbook. It is formmated in exactly the
same way as the workbook, which should make it very easy to do the
grading.
The exercises consist of true/false questions, multiple choice questions,
and questions students must answer. While there are many kinds of
CNC turning centers, and there are many ways to use certain CNC features, the answers we provide reflect the presentations in the student
manual. Since our methods are safe and proven, we recommend not
allowing students to stray too far from the answers we provide.
If you are holding this course in a live environment, be on the look-out for
students having problems. Though its rather obvious, special help
should be offered (or students themselves should ask for it) to anyone
having problems doing well with the exercises.
Every exercise and programming activity is worth one hundred points. We
simply divide one hundred by the number of possible answers to determine how much each answer is worth. When it comes to the programs
that students write completely on their own (programming activities
seven through twelve), it is likely that students will not perfectly match
the number of commands we show. To score these programming activities, start the student off with one hundred points and subtract for
each wrong command. (Instead of starting at zero and adding up correct commands.)
The inside back cover of this booklet provides you with a scoring sheet.
You can use it to track the progress of your students.
To students using this as a self-study course
Grading your own exercises can be a little difficult. While we provide the
answers to exercises in this booklet, we do nothing more. If you have
some problems during the course and score poorly on one or more of
the exercises, youll have no one but yourself to turn to for help. Rest
assured that all information were testing you on is included in the student manual, but youll have to dig it out.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Machine configurations
Name:

Date:

Basic machining practice (4.545 points each)


1) The single-most important topic a turning center programmer must understand is the basic machining practice of turning center-related operations.
n true

q false

2) Name five kinds of machining operations that can be performed on


turning centers.
Answers can include rough facing, rough boring, rough

Score (100 possible):


9) A series of machining passes used to remove the bulk of raw material
from the outside diameters of a workpiece is called rough turning.
n true

10) A boring bar should be used for all facing operations because turning
tools will have the tendency to bend as they machine in a facing mode.
q true

q true

4) External operations are done on the outside diameter (O.D) of the


workpiece.
q false

5) Most right hand tools require that the spindle be rotating in a reverse direction.
q true

n false

13) The act of cutting off a workpiece in a bar feed operation is called.
q a. facing
q b. rough turning
n c. parting
q d. grooving
Machine configurations (5.545 points each)
14) The most popular style of turning center is the universal-style slant
bed turning center.
n true

q false

15) When it comes to motion directions (axes), turning centers have radically different names and directions from one turning center style to
another.

6) High speed steel tools commonly have carbide inserts to form their cutting edges.
q true

n false

12) A factor that contribute to tool life is.


q a. tool nose radius
q b. tool material
q c. included angle
n d. all of the above

3) Of the following choices, which machining operation qualifies the very


end of a workpiece?
q a. grooving
q b. drilling
n c. facing
q d. turning

n true

n false

11) The act of machining threads with a series of thread-chasing passes is


called tapping.

turning, finish facing, finish boring, finish turning, drilling,


grooving, threading, and knurling.

q false

q true

n false

16) Name three of the turning center types described in lesson one.

n false

7) You are drilling a 0.375 in diameter blind hole (not a through hole) with
a 118 degree twist drill. The hole is specified on the print as 0.75 in
deep. Knowing that you must add the drill point to the hole depth in order to machine the hole to the proper depth, what hole depth would you
specify in the program?
q a. 0.8125
n b. 0.8625
q c. 0.750
q d. 0.7954
8) Name the two kinds of peck drilling and describe when they must be
used.
a. Peck drilling to break chips when material are gummy.

Answer could include chucking style, twin spindle


horizontal style, vertical style, twin spindle vertical style,
engine lathe style, and gang style. We also mentioned
swiss style turning centers
c.

17) Name and describe the two most common directions of motion (axes)
for a universal slant bed turning center.
a. The X axis is the motion direction perpendicular to the

b. Peck drilling to clear chips from deep holes.

spindle centerline. It is the diameter-controlling axis.


b. The Z axis is the motion direction to the spindle
centerline. It is the length-controlling axis.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 1

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

18) Explain which way is plus for the two most basic axes found on turning
centers..
a. X plus (for most machines) is the direction opposite
the spindle centerline (getting bigger in diameter)
b. Z plus is the direction opposite the chuck face
19) Name the letter address used for turret indexing and explain its format.
The T word has a four digit format. The first two digits
specify the tool station number. The second two digits
specify the wear offset number.
20) Name and describe the three M codes used for spindle activation.
M03 - spindle on forward
M04 - spindle on reverse
M05 - spindle off

21) What is the letter address used to specify spindle speed?


q a. M word
q b. F. word
n c. S word
q d. R word
22) What is the letter address used to specify feedrate?
q a. M word
n b. F. word
q c. S word
q d. R word
Extension questions (optional)
23) From a basic machining practice viewpoint, describe what is seriously
wrong with the following process.
Operation 1: Rough face and turn
Operation 2: Finish face and turn
Operation 3: Drill two inch diameter hole through workpiece
Operation 4: Rough bore
Operation 5: Finish bore
Operation 6: Finish face and turn
This process breaks an important rule of basic machining
practice which states you should rough everything before
you finish anything. The finish face and turn operation
should not be done until after the drilling and rough boring
is completed
24) Name other programmable functions of your company or schools
CNC turning center.
We cannot provide answers to this question. Your company
or school could have a bar feeder, steadyrest, tool touchoff probe, part catcher, live tooling, automatic tool changer,
and many other programmable devices.

Page 2

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Understanding turning center speeds and feeds


Name:

Date:

6.25 points each


1) Name three factors that affect spindle and feedrate selection
a. the operation being performed

2) Name the method by which most cutting conditions recommending


data will specify spindle speed
in surface feet per minute (meters per minute in metric)
3) Name the method by which most cutting conditions recommending
data will specify feedrate

G97 S550 M04

b. finish is consistent throughout workpiece


c tool life is improved
13) Name one potential limitation of constant surface speed if it is not
wisely programmed.
Increase in cycle time due to spindles constantly changing
speed in rpm during approach and retract movements

in per-revolution fashion
4) Give the formula to calculate rpm.
rpm = sfm times 3.82 divided by cut diameter
5) Name the two ways to specify spindle speed for CNC turning centers
and give the G codes used to invoke them.
a. in surface feet per minute (or meters per minute): G96
b. in rpm: G97

14) Name the feedrate mode that should be used for almost all machining
operations performed on turning centers.
per revolution mode (G99)
15) Name the only time when feedrate should be programmed in
per-minute fashion and give an example.
When you want to make a feedrate movement with the
spindle stopped. Drawing out the bar during bar feed,

6) Name the two ways to specify feedrates for CNC turning centers and
give the G codes used to invoke them
a. in per-revolution fashion (ipr or mmpr): G99
b. in per-minute fashion (ipm or mmpm): G98
7) Constant surface speed mode should be used whenever diameters are
changing during the machining operation.

light broaching, and live tooling operations are examples


of when the per-minute feedrate mode is required.
16) Which feedrate mode is initialized (automatically selected at
power-up)?
per-revolution mode (G99)
Extension question:

q false

8) Constant surface speed lets you specify spindle speed in rpm.


n false

17) What will happen if you have the inches per minute feedrate mode selected when you specify a feedrate in inches per revolution?
The machine will barely creep along, taking your programmed

9) Rpm mode should be used whenever drilling holes and chasing


threads.
n true

11) Give the command needed to turn the spindle on in the reverse direction at 550 rpm.

a. easy to program spindle speeds

c. the material of the cutting tool

q true

Score (100 possible):

12) Name three benefits of using the constant surface speed mode.

b. the material being machined

n true

feedrate (a tiny one) in inches per minute.

q false

10) Give the command needed to turn the spindle on in the forward direction at 400 sfm
G96 S400 M03

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

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Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 4

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

General flow of CNC usage


Name:

Date:

10 points each
1) If a company has more than one turning center, what kind of criteria determines which of the machines should be used for a given production
run?
q a. Which of similar machines q b. An accuracy advantage of
becomes available first.
one of the machines.
q c. Capacity specification ad- n d. All of the above.
vantages of one machine
over the others.
2) Why is it important to develop a machining process and order tooling
before the CNC program is written?
q a. To ensure that all tooling is q b. To keep the programmer
available when the program
from forgetting an important
is ready to run.
machining operation.
q c. To minimize the potential n d. Al of the above.
for mistakes in processing.
3) Name two ways to load programs into the controls memory.
a. Type program into the control using control keyboard.
b. Type program off line and load via communications port.
4) Which of the two ways given in question three is better? Why?
Loading via communications port. This way, the machine can
be running production as the program is typed, saving
production time.

q false

6) All CNC programs, and especially those written by beginning programmers, must be cautiously verified.
n true

q false

n true

q false

10) Name two things that should be included with setup documentation.
Answers could include tool list, work holding setup drawing,
Offset lists, and written setup instructions.
Extension questions:
11) You work in a job shop that hardly ever sees the same job twice. Is it
really necessary to save a copy of the program for future use? Why or
why not?
While a case could be made for not keeping copies of previous
work if jobs will never be seen again, it is still wise to keep
copies of all programs run if for no other reason than to help
people remember how problems were handled when similar
problems are faced in the future.
12) If you currently work for a company that uses CNC turning centers,
name the person (or position of the person) in your company that handles each of these tasks:
Note that each company will have different answers. You
must come up with these answers on your own.
Develops the machining process:
Checks/designs and orders tooling:
Writes the program:
Types the program:
Makes setup documentation:

7) Even if the program runs exactly as intended, modifications to the program will likely be made for optimizing purposes.
n true

9) In some companies one person will perform all steps discussed in this
lesson.

Decides which machine/s to use:

5) The setup should be made before the CNC program is run on the machine tool.
n true

Score (100 possible):

q false

Loads program into control:


Makes the setup:
Verifies the program at the machine:

8) If changes are made to the program during verification and optimizing,


what should be done before the program is deleted from the controls
memory?

Runs production:
Saves the program for future use:

The corrected version of the program should be sent back to


the storage device (computer) for future use.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

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Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 6

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Visualizing the execution of a CNC program


Name:

Date:

10 points each

Score (100 possible):


Extension Questions:

1) Why is it more difficult (even for an experienced programmer) to develop a CNC program to perform an operation than it is for a person
performing the operation manually.

11) Relate what was presented in lesson one about the importance of understanding basic machining practice to being able to visualize the
movements of the machine during the execution of a CNC program.

The person performing the operation manually has every-

In order to write CNC programs, a programmer must be able

thing in front of them and available. The person preparing

to visualize machining operations as the program is written.

the CNC program must do so with only print, pen, and paper.

Without this ability, it will be impossible to write the program.

2) CNC programs are made up of commands, and commands are made up


of words.
n true

q false

3) For most controls, words can be in any order within a command and the
control will interpret the command in exactly the same way.
n true

q false

q false

5) All words within CNC programs require a decimal point.


q true

n false

6) CNC words are comprised of a letter address and a numerical value.


n true

above the hole to tap. With the spindle running cw, the tool
reversed and the tool fed out of the hole. Finally the spindle
is reversed again to its original direction.
13) If you work in a company that currently uses CNC turning centers, investigate to find out what machining operations you will be performing
on a regular basis. Describe them here.
This set of answers will vary with company. The instructor
of this course can compare the students answers with

q false

7) Any given CNC command could be executed differently by the CNC


control, based on the length of the program.
q true

First the tool will move into the hole center position, just
is fed into the hole. At the hole bottom, the spindle is

4) The CNC control will almost always execute the commands of your
program in step-by-step, sequential order.
n true

12) Visualize and write down what you would want a tap to do as it machines a hole.

the operations the company performs.

n false

8) A programmer intends to specify an X word of X7., but by mistake,


omit the decimal point (programming the word as X7). How will the
control interpret this value?
n a. X0.0007
q b. X0.0070
q c. X0.0700
q d. X0.7000
9) Describe what it means when a CNC word is modal.
A modal word will set a state the remains in effect until
changed or canceled.

10) Describe what it means when a CNC word is initialized.


An initialized word will be automatically instated when the
machine power is turned on.

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Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 7

Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 8

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Understanding program zero


Name:

Date:

5 points each
1) The rectangular coordinate system makes it easy to specify positioning
movements in a CNC turning center program.
n true

q false

2) The horizontal and vertical baselines can be likened to the X and Z axis
of a turning center.
n true

q false

3) The least input increment in the inch mode for most turning centers is:
q a. 0.00001 in
n b. 0.0001 in
q c. 0.0010 in
q d. 0.0100 in
4) The least input increment in the metric mode for most turning centers
is:
q a. 0.00001 mm
q b. 0.0001 mm
n c. 0.0010 mm
q d. 0.0100 mm

Score (100 possible):


10) When you specify programmed coordinates from program zero, it is
called:
q a. incremental mode
q b. inch mode
q c. rapid mode
n d. absolute mode
11) When you specify programmed movements from the tools current
position, it is called:
n a. incremental mode
q b. inch mode
q c. rapid mode
q d. absolute mode
12) Which is better for beginning programmers, the absolute or incremental mode? Explain why.
The absolute mode is better. Mistakes are not compounded,
values going into the program make sense, and programs
written in the absolute mode are easy to follow.

5) What is the accuracy advantage of working in the metric mode?


13) What two words specify that you want motions to be made in the absolute mode?
a. X word
b. Z word
6) You must actually specify the sign (+ versus -) in all CNC words.
q true

n false

a. U word

7) The origin of a coordinate system on a turning center is called the program zero point.
n true

14) What two words specify that you want motions to be made in the incremental mode?

q false

8) How do you determine where to place the program zero point in the Z
axis?
q a. It should be placed in the q b. It should be placed at the mamiddle of the workpiece.
chines home position.
n c. It should be placed at the q d. It should be placed on a surlocation from which dimenface that has been machined in
sions are taken on the print.
a previous operation.

b. W word
15) Any series of motions can be performed in either the incremental or
absolute mode.
n true

q false

More questions on next page.

9) In the X axis program zero should always be placed at the center of the
workpiece.
n true

CNC Concepts, Inc.

q false

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 9

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Each value worth 1.364 points


15) Based on the way this print is dimensioned, draw a dot on this print at
the location that makes the best program zero point.
16) Using the print shown in question 15 as well as your selected program

Program zero
zero point location, give the X/Y coordi
Point

0.375

0.5

-0.0625

0.375

-0.625

0.75

-0.625

1.0

-1.625

1.0

-2.625

1.25

-2.625

1.5

-2.75

10

1.5

-3.125

11

2.0

-3.125

Page 10

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Determining program zero assignment values


Name:

Date:

5.385 points each


1) The CNC control will automatically know the location of your program
zero point
q true

n false

Score (100 possible):


8) Of the three ways given in your answer to question number seven,
which is best? Why? Which is second best? Why?
Though there is some controversy regarding the best way
to determine program zero values, we feel that using the
tool touch-off probe is best for most users since it provides

2) Describe the zero return position.


It is an accurate position in each axis that is used as the

many benefits. First, it is very easy to use. Second, it

machines reference position. It is usually close to the plus

eliminates calculations. Third, it minimizes mistakes.

over-travel limit of each axis. Though it has other purposes,

Fourth, if calibrated properly, it allows for discrepancies

its primary purpose is to provide a point of reference for

between measured values and the dynamics of the cutting

program zero assignment values.

operation. And fifth, it also helps at tool replacement.

3) The zero return position is important to the assignment of program zero


because
q a. the machine must be sent n b. the distance between proto this point at power-up.
gram zero and zero return must
be known in each axis to assign
program zero.
q c. the zero return position is a q d. the zero return position is
very accurate location.
very close to the extreme plus
limits of each axis.
4) For most turning centers, the machine must be sent to the zero return
position at power-up.
n true

q false

5) The assignment of program zero marries the work holding setup with
the program.
n true

6) A program zero assignment is required for each tool in the program because
q a. some tools are made of hss q b. each tool has a different cutwhile others are made of carting edge
bide
q c. some tools dont cut as n d. each tool will be in a different
well as others
location.
7) Name the three ways to determine program zero assignment values.
b. by manually measuring them
c. by calculating them

a. Make workholding setup and load a workpiece


b. Load cutting tools into turret & select tool to measure
c. Using jog & handwheel, skim cut outside diameter
d. Without moving X back the tool away in Z
e. Stop spindle and measure diameter just machined
f. Make the X value on the relative page (U) read zero
g. Send the machine to its zero return position in X
h. Add the diameter machined to the value shown on the
display screen (the U value)
i.

q false

a. by using a tool touch-off probe

9) Give the steps to manually measure the X axis program zero assignment value for a turning tool.

10) Give the steps to manually measure the Z axis program zero assignment value for a turning tool. Right end of part is program zero.
a. Make workholding setup and load a workpiece
b. Load cutting tools into turret & select tool to measure
c. Load cutting tools into turret & select tool to measure
d.Using jog & handwheel, skim cut face of workpiece to Z0
e. Without moving Z back the tool away in Z
f. Make the Z value on the relative page (W) read zero
g. Send the machine to its zero return position in Z
h. The value shown in the W register of relative display screen
page will be the Z axis program zero assignment value.
i.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 11

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

11) The control feature that eliminates the need for making calculations
when manually measuring program zero assignment values is
q a. the work shift function
q b. the floating zero system
n c. the measure function
q d. geometry offsets

Coordinate sheet:

12) The control feature that allows you to work from a consistent Z surface
(like the chuck face) when determining Z axis program zero assignment values is
n a. the work shift function
q b. the floating zero system
q c. the measure function
q d. geometry offsets
13) What machine device eliminates many of the tedious tasks related to
program zero assignment? How does it help?
The tool touch-off probe. It eliminates calculations and
entries for program zero assignment values and minimizes
the potential for mistakes with program zero assignment.
Each value is worth 1 point
13) Fill in the coordinate sheet for each numbered point on this print. Program zero is the center of the workpiece in X and the right end of the finished workpiece in Z.

Extention questions:
14) What do you think would happen if the setup person makes a mistake
when measuring or entering program zero assignment values?

15) How can measurements for the purpose of determining program zero
assignment values be eliminated for tools used in the previous setup
(still in the turret)?
As long as Z measurements are taken to the face of the

If the program zero assignment values are incorrect for any

chuck (or some other consistent Z surface), the program

tool, that tool will not go to the right positions to machine

zero assignment values will remain exactly the same for

the workpiece. If this mistake is not found during program

X and Z for any tool remaining in the turret from setup to

verification, the results could be disastrous.

setup. This assumes the work shift value will be used to


shift the program zero point for Z from the face of the chuck
to its actual position.

Page 12

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

The three ways to assign program zero


Name:

Date:

5 points each
1) The method of assigning program zero that is most error prone, cumbersome and dangerous is
q a. geometry offsets
q b. with a tool touch-off probe
n c. from within the program q d. with trial and error techniques
2) The method of assigning program zero that involves the measure function is
n a. geometry offsets
q b. with a tool touch-off probe
q c. from within the program q d. with trial and error techniques
3) The method of program zero that also takes into consideration the deviation between measuring and cutting is
q a. geometry offsets
n b. with a tool touch-off probe
q c. from within the program q d. with trial and error techniques
4) When program zero is assigned from within the program what G code is
used?

Score (100 possible):


7) The most important safety-related benefit of geometry offsets is
q a. program zero assignment q b. the operator doesnt have to
is separated from the prodo any calculations
gram
n c. the machine doesnt have q d. no offset entries are required
to be in a special position
8) What word in the CNC program invokes the geometry offset?
q a. the G word
n b. the T word
q c. the H word
q d. the O word
9) If geometry offset Z values are specified to the face of the chuck, what
value must be entered into the work shift value.
n a. the distance from the q b. the distance from the chuck
chuck face to program zero
face to the tool tip
q c. the distance from the q d. the distance from the chuck
face to the tailstock center
chuck face to the tool
touch-off probe
10) How is the geometry offset number chosen for a given tool?
It should be made the same number as the tool station
number

G50 (could be G92 on some controls)


5) Why should you seek a different method of assigning program zero
(other than doing so from within the program) if its available?
1) Because using G50s in the program can be dangerous.
If the machine is not in its planned position when the
program is activated, it will likely cause a crash.
2) Because this method requires that programs be edited
in order to assign program zero.
3) Because its not very efficient.
4) Because its difficult to move the planned starting
position to a more efficient location.
6) Describe the general steps to using for using the measure function with
geometry offsets to enter an X geometry offset.
a. Load workpiece and index the turret to desired tool
b. Skim cut a diameter, stop spindle, and measure
c. Bring up the offset page and send the cursor to offset
d. Type MX and the diameter just measured.

11) When a tool touch-off probe is used to measure and assign program
zero, a work shift value must be entered.
n true

q false

12) When a tool touch-off probe is used to assign program zero, what values go into the geometry offsets for each tool?
q a. the distance from program n b. the distance from the tool tip
at the zero return position to the
zero to the face of the chuck
face of the chuck
q c. the distance from program q d. the distance from the tool
zero to the tool tip at the zero
touch-off probe stylus to proreturn position
gram zero
13) When tool touch-off probes are used to assign program zero, every
tool in every setup must be touched to the probe stylus surfaces to determine the program zero position.
q true

n false

14) The use of tool touch-off probes will vary from one machine tool
builder to another (and possibly from one machine to another).
n true

q false

More questions on next page.

e. When you press input, the control enters geometry offset


f.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 13

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Each value is worth 1.154 points


15) Use the coordinate sheet given below and fill in the coordinates for
this drawing. Program zero is the center of the workpiece in X and the
right end of the finished workpiece in Z.

Coordinate sheet:
Point

0.275

0.375

-0.05

0.375

-0.44

0.495

-0.5

0.650

-0.5

0.75

-0.55

0.75

-0.75

1.25

-1.5

10

1.25

-2.44

11

1.37

-2.5

12

1.5

-2.5

13

1.75

-2.625

14

1.75

-3.125

Page 14

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Introduction to programming words


Name:

Date:

4.165 points each


1) Name five word types (letter addresses) that allow decimal point programming with current model controls
Any of C, E, F, I, J, K, Q, R, U, W, X, and Z.

n false

3) You must memorize every word introduced in lesson eight before you
can write CNC programs.
q true

n false

4) All controls allow you to place as many compatible G codes in a command as you wish.
q true

n false

5) Only one M code is allowed per command on most controls.


n true

13) For each of the following descriptions, give the correct letter address
used as the CNC word type. (0.769 points each)
Designates the radius of a circular command:
R
Specifies an absolute coordinate in the Z axis:
Z

2) Initialized means that all letter addresses must be in capital letters.


q true

Score (100 possible):

q false

6) What is the M code to turn the spindle on in the cw (forward) direction?


n a. M03
q b. M08
q c. M04
q d. M09
7) What is the M code to turn the spindle off?
q a. M03
n b. M05
q c. M04
q d. M09

Specifies the program number being called by a


sub-programming command:
P
This is word for a preparatory function:
G
This is the word for a miscellaneous function:
M
These three words are the old way to specify the
arc center for a circular command:
I, J, & K
Specifies a spindle speed :
S
Specifies feedrate:
F
Designates program number:
O
Specifies incremental motion in X:
U
Specifies incremental motion in Z:
W
Specifies an absolute coordinate in the X axis:
X

8) What is the M code to turn the coolant on?


q a. M03
n b. M08
q c. M04
q d. M09

This word is used if your machine has a rotary


axis (specifies rotary motion of workholding device):
C

9) What is the M code to turn the coolant off?


q a. M03
q b. M08
q c. M04
n d. M09

More questions on next page.

10) What is the G code to select the inch mode?


q a. G21
n b. G20
q c. G90
q d. G19
11) What is the G code to select the metric mode?
n a. G21
q b. G20
q c. G90
q d. G19
12) What is the M code to end and rewind the program?
q a. M00
q b. M06
n c. M30
q d. M99

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 15

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Each value is worth 1.25 points


14) Fill in the coordinate sheet for the following drawing. Program zero is
the center of the workpiece in X and the right end of the finished
workpiece in Z.

Extension questions
15) If you work for a company that currently has turning centers, find the M
codes list of your programming manual and list any M codes (as well
as their meanings) not shown in this lesson.

Coordinate sheet (1.25 points for each value):

Though we cannot provide answers to this question, you


Point

-4.0

1.0

-3.5

1.25

-3.5

1.25

-3.0

1.5

-3.0

1.5

-2.5

2.0

-0.5

2.0

-0.05

2.1

10

2.57

11

3.0

-0.09

will likely find that your own turning centers have several
other programmable functions, like automatic doors and
chip conveyer.

16) What do you think will happen if the you include more three compatible G codes in a command for a control that only allows three?
The control will only execute the last three of the G codes
in the command. Any prior to them will be ignored.

17) What do you think will happen if you specify two incompatible G codes
in one command (say G20 and G21).
Though some controls may generate an alarm in this case,
most will simply execute the latter of the two. The first will
be ignored.

Page 16

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

Preparation for programming


Name:

Date:

5.833 points each

5) Fill in a coordinate sheet for each calculated value

1) Most experienced programmers would agree that actually writing CNC


programs is the easy part of the programming process. The real work
is in the preparation stages.
n true

q false

2) With preparation properly done, writing a CNC program should be as


easy as translating what you want the machine to do in English to the
language the machining center control can understand.
n true

q false

3) Ill prepared programmers are dangerous programmers.


n true

q false

4) All coordinate calculations needed for turning center programs can be


done with simple addition and subtraction.
q true

n false

q false

6) Beginning programmers have a tendency to forget to include necessary


words and commands in the program.
n true

10) Name two things you should check about the cutting tools needed for
your CNC program.
1) That the tool is available
2) That the tool is capable of machining as required

11) You need not plan the work holding setup prior to writing the CNC
program since only the setup person will be concerned with the setup.
q true

n false

12) Name two things you should mark up on your print that help with the
programming process.
1) The location of program zero
2) Any workholding components (jaws, collet, etc.)

5) Motion mistakes, and especially small motion mistakes, are the most
deadly since the machine will not move in the desired manner.
n true

Score (100 possible):

3) If feasible, the points and their numbers for coordinates


4) Highlight the surfaces requiring machining
More questions on next page

q false

7) Process mistakes can be easily overcome with minor programming


changes.
q true

n false

8) Name three ways filling in the sequence of operations planning form


will help you prepare to write your CNC program.
1) It allows you to concentrate on processing separate from
programming 2) It minimizes mistakes in your process
3) Youll be less likely to forget an operation 4) You can also
determine other things like tooling and cutting conditions.
9) Describe the general process for calculating and documenting coordinates for CNC programs.
1) Determine each tools cutting path (in your mind)
2) Sketch the path of the tool on the print (or separate
page)
3) Draw a dot at each motion end point
4) Number each dot

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 17

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

0.714 points for each correct value


13) Fill in the coordinate sheet for the following drawing based upon the
tool paths shown below. Note that one position (the X of point 18) requires the use of right angle trigonometry. Use the trig chart in the
manual to determine the correct formula. Keep the tool 0.1 inch away
from the workpiece for all clearance positions (points 1,3, 4, 8, 11,
etc.).

Extension questions:
14) If you work for a company that currently has CNC turning centers, who
in your company does the processing of the specific machining operations to be performed on them?
We cannot provide the answer to this question

15) If your company has a computer aided manufacturing (CAM) system


to help with the creation of CNC programs, which preparation steps
discussed in this lesson can be ignored? Why?
1) The math. Most CAM systems do all (or most) coordinate
calculations 2) Cutting conditions. Most CAM systems
built-in material specifications 3) Possibly processing.
Some CAM systems can perform automatic processing,
especially for part families having similar processes.

Rough face and turning tool path:

Finish face and turn tool path:

Coordinate sheet:

Point

-1.25

0.5

-0.5

0.75

-0.5

0.75

-0.07

0.89

Point

11

1.51 (note finish stock)

12

-0.062

13

-0.062

0.1

14

1.125

0.1

15

1.25

16

1.25

-0.0625

1.75

17

1.25

-1.5

2.0

-0.125

18

1.5196

-1.5

2.0

-0.75

19

1.625

-1.5

2.25

-0.75

20

1.625

-3.0

10

2.5

-0.875

21

2.0

-3.0

Page 18

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

10

Types of motion commands


Name:

Date:

5 points each
1) Almost all axis movements made by CNC machine tools fall into one of
three categories.
n true

q false

Score (100 possible):


9) Name G codes related to rapid motion, straight line motion, and circular
motion.
G00 is rapid motion, G01 is linear motion, G02 is clockwise motion, and G03 is counter clockwise motion.

2) To interpolate means that the CNC control performs all calculations


needed for motion commands.
q true

n false

3) All CNC control manufacturers always include all interpolation (including polar coordinate interpolation) types as standard features of their
controls.
q true

n false

4) Name five things that all motion types have in common.


a. Theyre all modal
b. The end point is programmed in the command
c. Absolute or incremental mode can be used
d. You can leave out non-moving axes
e. You can leave out leading zeros (G1 is the same as G01)

5) For center cutting tools (drills, taps, reamers, etc.), you program the
tool tip (center in X and the point in Z).
n true

q false

6) For single point turning tools and boring bars, you program the extreme cutting edges of the tool in X and Z.
n true

q false

7) The control feature that allows you to ignore (for the most part) the
small radius on the tip of single point tools is
q a. geometry offsets
q b. interpolation
n c. tool nose radius compen- q d. rapid motion
sation
8) The point you program most commonly programmed on a grooving
tool is the extreme tip of the tool in X and
n a. the extreme left-most tip of q b. the extreme right-most tip of
the tool in Z
the tool in Z
q c. the face of the chuck in Z q d. the face of the turret in Z

10) Rapid motion is used


q a. to perform fast machining n b. to position the tool as quickly
operations on the workpiece.
as possible to and from its cutting positions.
q c. to form circular contouring q d. To machine at a specified
motions on the workpiece.
feedrate along a perfectly
straight line.
11) Straight line motion is used
q a. to perform fast machining q b. to position the tool as quickly
operations on the workpiece.
as possible to and from its cutting positions.
q c. to form circular contouring n d. To machine at a specified
motions on the workpiece.
feedrate along a perfectly
straight line.
12) If a straight line motion is to be used for fast approach, you must ensure that the feedrate is selected in inches per revolution.
q true

n false

13) Circular motion is used


q a. to perform fast machining q b. to position the tool as quickly
as possible to and from its cutoperations on the workpiece.
ting positions.
n c. to form circular contouring q d. To machine at a specified
motions on the workpiece.
feedrate along a perfectly
straight line.
14) Feedrate need not be programmed in every motion command, even
among straight line and circular motion commands.
n true

q false

15) The radius word of a circular command is modal.


q true

n false

16) Once a desired motion type is selected (by G00, G01, G02, or G03), it
need not be programmed again until the motion type changes.
n true

q false

More questions on next page.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 19

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

17) As a beginning programmer, how far should you rapid approach your
tools from qualified surfaces?
q a. 0.050
n b. 0.100
q c. 0.250
q d. 0.500
18) How far should you rapid approach your tools from un-qualified surfaces (like cast surfaces)?
q a. 0.050
q b. 0.100
n c. 0.250
q d. 0.500
19) It is easier to use directional vectors than the radius word to specify arc
size for circular motions.
q true

n false

20) If directional vectors are used to specify arc size in circular commands, the letter address used to specify the distance and direction
from the start point to the center of the arc in the Z axis is
q a. I
q b. J
n c. K
q d. R

26) From programming activity number one, rewrite all circular commands to use directional vectors instead of R words.
N175 G03 X0.75 Z-0.125 K-0.125 (24)
N185 G02 X0.936 Z-1.0 I0.093
N195 G03 X1.25 Z-1.0625 K-0.0625
N210 G03 X1.5 Z-1.8125 K-0.0625
N225 G03 X1.75 Z-2.3125 K-0.0625

21) Do programming activity number one (see page 57).

Extension questions
23) If you work for a company that currently has CNC turning centers, do
you have any motion types other than rapid, straight-line, and circular?
If so, what are they and what do you use them for?
We cannot provide an answer to this question.

24) What will happen if you forget the appropriate G code (G02 or G03) in
a circular motion command?
It depends upon the currently instated motion type. If
G01 straight line motion is instated, the control will continue
to move along straightly, even though a radius may be
included in the command.

25)When using the R word to specify arc size, what will happen if the values programmed in a circular command do not match the radius size
specified?
The R word is quite forgiving on most controls. Its likely that
the control will do something (not generate an alarm), but
the surface machined will not be correct.

Page 20

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

11

What is compensation?
Name:

Date:

11) All cutting tools require offsets.

7.142 points each


1) CNC compensation types allow CNC programmers to ignore certain
tooling problems as a program is written.
n true

q false

2) It is always possible to set cutting tools in such a way that they will machine perfectly the very first time they machine the workpiece.
q true

a. geometry offsets
b. wear offsets
c. tool nose radius compensation

4) Wear offset adjust for the normal wear-and-tear a machine experiences


in everyday use.
n false

5) Offsets are used with all turning center compensation types.


n true

n true

q false

12) The compensation type that allows you to fine tune the way a cutting
tool machines the workpiece is
n wear offsets
q geometry offsets
q tool nose radius compensa- q circular interpolation
tion
For question twelve, geometry offset can also be used for this purpose, but wear offsets are more commonly used.

n false

3) Name the three types of turning center compensation.

q true

Score (100 possible):

q false

13) The compensation type that allows you to assign program zero for
each tool is
q wear offsets
n geometry offsets
q tool nose radius compensa- q circular interpolation
tion
14) The compensation type that allows you compensate for the small radius on the tool tip is
q wear offsets
q geometry offsets
n tool nose radius compensa- q circular interpolation
tion
15) Do programming activity number two (see page 57 for programming
activities).

6) Offset values are lost when the machine is turned off.


q true

n false

7) How many registers are there per offset in the geometry offset table?
q a. one
q b. two
q c. three
n d. four
8) Trial machining involves
q a. a special power-up proce- n b. setting the offset prior to madure that helps ensure machining in such a way that exchining accuracy.
cess stock is left on a surface by
a cutting tool.
q c. a chance to see the q d. All of the above.
workpiece being cut on the
display screen of the CNC
control.

Extension questions:
14) If your company currently uses CNC turning centers, how many offsets are on the machines you will be working with?
We cannot provide an answer to this question.

9) What letter address is used to invoke offsets?


q a. H
q b. D
q c. C
n d. T
10) What offset register allows you to specify the tool nose radius value?
q a. X
q b. Z
n c. R
q d. T

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 21

Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 22

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

12

Geometry offsets
Name:

Date:

6.666 points each


1) If geometry offsets are used to assign program zero, only single point
tools (turning tools and boring bars) will use them.
q true

n false

2) For each tool using geometry offsets, the program zero assignment values are placed in the X and Z registers of the geometry offset.
n true

q false

n false

4) The geometry offset Z value should be specified as the distance from the
tool tip at the zero return position to the chuck face (or some other consistent Z surface).
n true

q false

5) How do you determine the geometry offset number for a tool?


q a. by adding 20 to the tool n b. it is the same as the tool stastation number
tion number
q c. it is the same as the se- q d. it is the same as the program
quence number in the pronumber plus five
g ra m th a t instates the
geometry offset
6) You must be careful with the Machine Lock function (if your machine
has it) because:
q a. The machine could get n b. It could cause incorrect
movements if geometry offsets
stuck in position if its left on
are used to assign program
too long
zero
q c. Its hard to move the ma- q d. You cannot open the machine after using it
chine door when this function
ist urned on
7) You must determine geometry offset values for every tool in every setup
you make?
q true

n false

8) When is the geometry offset instated?


q a. when the program is acti- n b. when the turret index comvated
mand is executed
q c. when the tool moves back q d. geometry offsets need not be
to its index position
instated
9) Once a geometry offset is instated, it remains in effect until the next tool.
n true

CNC Concepts, Inc.

10) You should clear (set to zero) all geometry offsets as part of making a
new setup.
q true

n false

11) If geometry offsets are not available on one or more of your machines,
how must program zero be assigned for each tool?
With G50 commands in the program at the beginning of
each tool

3) The geometry offset number is selected by the last two digits of the T
word.
q true

Score (100 possible):

12) The work shift value is much more critical when machining the second
end of the workpiece because
q a. it will control the length of q b. when machining the first
the workpiece being maend, there will be plenty of extra
stock left for the second end
chined
q c. the overall length of the n d. all of the above
workpiece after the first end
is machined is not very critical
13) Look at the drawing in programming activity number three. If geometry offsets are used to assign program zero, and if theyre taken from the
chuck face, to what should you set the work shift value?
q a. 1.6125
n b. 2.0125
q c. 2.125
q d. none of the above
14) If all cutting tools remain in the same turret stations from one job to the
next, only one offset value (the work shift value) must be remeasured
and entered.
n true

q false

15) What will happen if you forget to enter a geometry offset value for a tool
just placed in the turret?
The tool will not move correctly as the program is executed.
If the tools geometry offsets are zero (you cleared them
as you removed the last tool held in this station), the
machine will likely overtravel in the plus direction (no damage)
since the control would think the zero return position is
the program zero point for the tool.
16) Do programming activity number three. (See page 57 for programming activities.)

q false

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 23

Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 24

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

13

Wear offsets
Name:

Date:

5.882 points each


1) Name three tooling-related variations wear offsets are designed to handle.
a. Deviations in tool placement during setup
b. Trial machining to ensure a good first-workpiece
c. Tool wear during the production run

Score (100 possible):


10) Describe one situation that would cause a setup person or operator
not to target the mean value of a tolerance band as they adjust wear offsets.
When they want to minimize the number of offset adjustments they must make to allow for tool wear. If they target
one end of the tolerance band (based upon which way the
workpiece will grow during tool wear) the machine can cut
for a longer time without needing offset adjustments.

2) Wear offsets are invoked in the program by


q a. the first two digits of the T n b. the last two digits of the T
word
word
q c. the X and Z registers of ge- q d. an H word
ometry offset page
3) All machines will jump by the amount of the wear offset the instant wear
offsets are instated.
q true

n false

4) If wear offsets must be canceled, this is the word that does so.
n a. T0
q b. H0
q c. D0
q d. P0
5) You need not cancel wear offsets in the program if geometry offsets are
used to assign program zero.
n true

q false

6) When faced with uneven tolerances (not plus-or-minus), programmers


should program the mean value of the tolerance band.
n true

q false

12) One of the tools in a job performs a critical finish boring operation.
What can you do prior to running the tool to ensure that the boring bar
will not machine the hole too large on its very first cut?
q a. increase its wear offset by n b. decrease its wear offset by
0.010 or so
0.010 or so
q c. increase the programmed q d. decrease the programmed
dimensions by 0.010 or so
dimensions by 0.010 or so
13) While an initial adjustment to get a surface on size is commonly made
in a tools wear offset, give a reason why it might be better made in the
tools geometry offset.
If the tool will dull during the production run and need to be
replaced, the operator must set the wear offset back to

7) What is the mean value of the dimension 3.25 +/-0.002


q a. 3.251
q b. 3.248
q c. 3.25
q d. 3.3.252
8) What is the mean value of the dimension 3.4454/3.4448
q a. 3.4454
n b. 3.4451
q c. 3.4448
q d. 3.4452
9) What is the mean value of the dimension 2.501 +0.002/-0.001?
q a. 2.502
q b 2.5025
n c. 2.5015
q d. 2.503

CNC Concepts, Inc.

11) You measure an outside diameter and find it to be 3.2232. The target
value for this dimension is be 3.2238. What must you do to get the dimension properly adjusted?
n a. increase the wear offset it q b. decrease the wear offset by
by 0.0006
0.0006
q c. perform a dry run
q d. decrease the programmed
dimension for this diameter by
0.0006

(something close) to its initial value. If they make initial


adjustments in the geometry offset, the wear offset will
start at zero, which is easy to remember.
14) When should you clear (set to zero) wear offsets?
n a. as you remove the tool us- q b. for every tool during setup
ing it from the turret
q c. when it gets dull
q d. whenever you question the
size it will machine
15) When should you perform trial machining?
q a. as you remove the tool us- q b. for every tool during setup
ing it from the turret
q c. when it gets dull
n d. whenever you question the
size it will machine

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 25

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

16) If a tool is machining a workpiece correctly in one job, you shouldnt


have to clear or modify its wear offset if it is used in the next job.
n true

q false

17) Name two times when youll need more than one offset per tool.
a. For tools used on both ends of the same workpiece
machined in the same program (flip jobs)
b. Whenever tool pressure (deflection) is different in one area
of the workpiece than another and this difference is affecting
workpiece size differently. Unwanted taper, when grooving,
and two or more critical diameters are specific examples.
18) Do programming activity number four. (See page 57 for programming
activities.)

Page 26

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

14

Tool nose radius compensation


Name:

Date:

6.25 points each


1) Tool nose radius compensation is used to cause circular motion
q true

10) Name the word needed to instate tool nose radius compensation for
the following examples.

n false

2) The tool nose radius will not affect the quality of machining for straight
faces and straight turns.
n true

Score (100 possible):

a. G42

q false

3) Tool nose radius compensation is required to keep the tool tip radius
perfectly tangent (in contact with) all surfaces being machined.
n true

q false

4) Tool nose radius compensation allows the programmer to use print dimensions as programmed points for single point turning tools.
n true

b. G41

q false

5) Tool nose radius compensation is not required for


q a. roughing operations
q b. drilling, tapping, reaming,
and other center cutting operations
q c. finishing operations when n d. all of the above
the surfaces being machined
are not critical
6) Name the three steps to programming tool nose radius compensation.
a. Instate tool nose radius comp.
b. Make motions under influence of tool nose radius comp.
c. Cancel tool nose radius comp.

11) When is tool nose radius compensation instated in the program?


n a. during the tools approach q b. during the tools retract momotion
tion for tool change
q c. at every tool change
q d. you need not instate tool
nose radius compensation
12) When is tool nose radius compensation canceled in the program?
q a. during the tools approach n b. during the tools retract motion for tool change
motion
q c. at every tool change
q d. you need not instate tool
nose radius compensation
13) What else must the control know in order for tool nose radius compensation to work?
a. The tool nose radius
b. The tool type. This is specified with a special code number

7) Name and describe the two G codes used to instate tool nose radius
compensation
G41 - tool is on left side of surface during machining
G42 - tool is on right side of surface during machining

14) Where are the values from question 13 placed?


While they could be placed in the wear offset table, we
recommend that they be placed in the geometry offset table

8) The word used to cancel tool nose radius compensation is


q a. D0
q b. H0
q c. T0
n d. G40
9) Once tool nose radius compensation is instated, the control will keep
the tool on the left or right side of all programmed surfaces
n true

CNC Concepts, Inc.

q false

to minimize entries for tools using more than one offset.


15) Name the tool type code number for a turning tool and boring bar
turning tool: type three
boring bar: type two

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 27

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

16) What programming command allows the programmer to automatically enter the values from question 13 from within the program?
G10

17) Do programming activity number five.

Extension questions
17) If the programmer is absolutely sure that the tool nose radius will not
vary during the production run, what can be done to eliminate the need
for the setup person to enter tool nose radius compensation values
during setup.
Two ways are possible. If manual programming, the
programmer can include a G10 in the program for each tool
using tool nose radius compensation. If programming with
a CAM system, they can have the CAM system output
motions that take into consideration the planned tool nose
radius.

Page 28

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

15

Program formatting
Name:

Date:

8.333 points each


1) Program formatting is the task of writing a CNC program in a way that
the CNC control can recognize and execute safely, consistently, and
with a high degree of operator-friendliness.
n true

q false

2) CNC controls have progressed so far that you can write your program in
any manner you wish and the control will figure out what you intend to
do.
q true

n false

3) Our entry level formats will make your machines perform as efficiently
as possible.
q true

n false

4) Safety should be your primary concern as you begin writing your own
programs.
n true

Score (100 possible):


10) If you expect to re-run tools,
q a. you must provide your op- n b. you must include all comerators with a duplicate set of
mands necessary to get the machine running at the beginning
cutting tools.
of each tool.
q c. you must not make mis- q d. you must never include retakes in your programs.
dundant commands in your
program.
11) If a modal command is instated in one tool, you will not have to repeat
it at the beginning of the next tool.
q true

n false

12) Name two things that may make it necessary to modify the formats we
show.
Answers could include:
a. G code numbering style (standard or special)
b. M codes for various machine functions

q false

5) Name the three reasons why you must learn to format you programs in a
strict manner.

c. special machine accessories not addressed

a. to get familiar with programming


b. to be consistent from one program to the next
c. to be able to rerun tools

6) Of the answers given in question five, which one is the most important?
to be able to rerun tools
7) The program format offered in this course will provide you with a crutch
to use until you eventually have the formats memorized.
n true

14) Check with an experience person in your company or school to find


out which G code numbering style your turning center/s use. Once you
find out, how will you be specifying incremental motions?
q with U and W
q with G91 using X and Z

No answers can be provided.

n false

9) You have written a five tool program. During the verification of tool
number four, a mistake is found. After correcting the mistake, you
would
q a. run the entire program q b. skip to tool five.
from the beginning to get
back to tool four.
n c. restart the program from q d. turn the power off to clear the
the beginning of tool four.
commands instated by tools
one through three.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Extension questions

15) If your turning center has more than one spindle range, what M codes
specify the various ranges?

q false

8) CNC operators can use the same procedures to run the CNC program,
regardless of how the program is formatted.
q true

13) Do programming activity number six.

16) If your turning center has a tailstock, what M codes specify its activation?
No answers can be provided.

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Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

17) What M codes are used to specify the clamping and unclamping of the
chuck.
No answers can be provided.

Page 30

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

The four kinds of program format

16

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):


7) How do you determine which spindle range to select for a given tool?

6.666 points each


1) Name the four kinds of programming format used with a turning center.

One way is to follow the rule-of-thumb: rough in the low range


and finish in the high range.

a. program startup format


b. tool ending format
c. tool startup format

A better way is to use the machines main spindle power

d. program ending format

characteristics (the power curve chart) to determine how

2) If using our recommended formats, you wont have to memorize any


formatting commands.
n true

q false

8) How do you determine which direction to run the spindle?

3) It is wise not to assume the machines power up has correctly initialized


all modes needed by your program.
n true

q false

4) Look at the example program on page 5-17 through 5-19 using geometry offsets to assign program zero. Notice in line N080, the constant
surface speed mode (G96) is selected. Notice also that its repeated in
line N120, even though the speed mode has not changed from tool
three to tool four. Is the G96 in line N120 absolutely necessary? Why
or why not?
Yes the G96 is necessary if you expect to be able to run
the 3/4 finish boring bar by itself. If the G96 is not in line
N120, the control will start the spindle in what ever mode
(rpm or css) it happens to be in. If the 7/8 drill had just been
run, the spindle would start at 400 rpm in stead of 400
sfm.

This is based on the tooling style. Right hand tools usually


require forward (M03) direction. Left hand tools usually
require reverse (M04) direction.

9) What command will limit the spindle to 2,000 rpm for an entire program?
q a. G97 S2000 M03
q b. G96 S2000 M03
n c. G50 S2000
q d. M05 S2000
10) Though constant surface speed is a great feature, name and describe
one time when it can waste program execution time.
When the tool change position in X is at a large diameter.
The spindle will be constantly accelerating and decelerating
as each tool approaches and retracts. Since the spindle

5) How do you determine the tool change position in X and Z if youll be


using geometry offsets to assign program zero?
In X, make it just larger than the largest diameter being
machined. In Z, determine the overhang amount (the
distance from the shortest tool in the turret to the longest
tool. Add the over hang to about three inches to determine
the tool change position.

speed changes take time (usually more than the movement),


program execution time will be wasted.
11) What is the function of M01? Why must it be included at the end of every tool?
M01 is called an Optional Stop command. If programmed
at the end of each tool, the operator will be able to stop the
machine when each tool is finished by turning on the optional

6) Where should you make the tool change position (at least for a while) if
youll be assigning program zero in the program with G50s?
q a. the program zero position n b. the zero return position
q c. three inches away from the q d. ten inches from the face of
workpiece in X and Z
the chuck

CNC Concepts, Inc.

much power is available at the speeds the tool will be running.

stop switch.
12) What is the code used to end a program for most controls?
q a. M01
q b. M00
q c. G40
n d. M30

Turning Center Programming And Operation

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Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

13) Messages should be included in your program to


q a. designate the tool being q b. specify the part number beused at the beginning of each
ing machined by your program.
tool.
q c. specify the revision num- n d. all of the above
ber of the workpiece being
machined.
14) Look at the example program on page 5-17 through 5-19 using geometry offsets to assign program zero. You have run the entire program
before you notice that tool number four (finish boring bar) did not go
deep enough. You fix the problem (possibly be changing the tools
wear offset) and want to re-run tool number four by itself. With this
condition, what line number would you use as the pick-up block?

19) Name two things that could be done to increase the efficiency for the
formats given in this lesson.
Answers could include:
a. include spindle activation within approach movements
b. better formatting of constant surface speed
c. including all M codes within motion commands
d. turning spindle off as the last tool retracts
e. confirming the proper spindle range
f. minimizing spindle reversals

N115

15) Prior to rerunning the tool from the pick up block given in question
number 16, what on/off switch would you turn on to confirm that the
machine will stop after the tool is finished?
The optional stop switch

16) Do programming activity number seven.

Extension question
17) Which of the two machine format types (assigning program zero with
geometry offsets or G50s) will you use with your own programming
methods (ask your instructor or an experienced programmer in your
company).
We cannot provide an answer to this question.

18) You have written a program in the inch mode. However, you did not
include the G code (G20) in your program to select this mode. Earlier
in the day, someone ran a program that used the metric mode (G21).
What will happen when you run your inch-mode program? How could
you correct this problem?
The control would misinterpret ALL values in your program.
A value of 1.0 inch would be taken as 1.0 millimeter. You can
correct this problem by including a G20 or G21 to select the
appropriate measurement system at the beginning of all
programs (G20 for inch programs, G21 for metric
programs).

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Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

17

One=pass canned cycles


Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):

10 points each
1) One pass canned cycles will allow you to completely rough machine the
workpiece based upon one command
q true

n false

2) The one-pass canned cycle for turning and boring is


q a. G94
q b. G92
n c. G90
q d. G71

9) Describe the major limitation of the simple canned cycle for turning and
boring as compared to the multiple repetitive cycle for rough turning
and boring.
The one-pass turning and boring cycle provides no help for
chamfers, radii, and tapers. It is almost as difficult to use
as G00 and G01 in this regard.

3) The one-pass canned cycle for facing is


n a. G94
q b. G92
q c. G90
q d. G71
4) The one-pass canned cycle for threading is
q a. G94
n b. G92
q c. G90
q d. G71

10) Describe the major limitation of the simple canned cycle for threading
as compared to the multiple repetitive cycle for threading.

5) Name three things that all canned cycles have in common.

The one-pass threading cycle requires that you determine

a. You must send the tool to a convenient starting position

each pass depth for threading and does nothing to help

b. The tool will be left at the convenient starting position

with the compound infeed angle commonly needed to keep

when finished

machining on the front edge of the treading tool.

c. All cycles can be used for internal and external work

6) Define the convenient starting position for the one-pass turning cycle.
n a. flush with the stock diame- q b. flush with the face in Z and
clear of the diameter in X
ter in X and clear of the face in
Z
q c. On the spindle centerline q d. Clear of the diameter in X and
in X and and clear of the
clear of the face in Z
workpiece in Z

11) Do programming activity number eight.

7) Define the convenient starting position for the one-pass facing cycle.
q a. flush with the stock diame- n b. flush with the face in Z and
ter in X and clear of the face in
clear of the diameter in X
Z
q c. On the spindle centerline q d. Clear of the diameter in X and
clear of the face in Z
in X and and clear of the
workpiece in Z
8) Define the convenient starting position for the one-pass threading cycle.
q a. flush with the stock diame- q b. flush with the face in Z and
clear of the diameter in X
ter in X and clear of the face in
Z
q c. On the spindle centerline n d. Clear of the diameter in X and
in X and and clear of the
clear of the face in Z
workpiece in Z

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Answers To Practice Exercises

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Answers To Practice Exercises

G71 and G70 multiple repetitive cycles for turning & boring
Name:

Date:

7.143 points each


1) The multiple repetitive cycle for rough turning will completely rough
turn a workpiece based on one command and a finish pass definition.
n true

q false

2) Define the convenient starting position for the G71 cycle when it used
for rough turning.
n a. flush with the stock diame- q b. flush with the face in Z and
ter in X and clear of the face in
clear of the diameter in X
Z
q c. On the spindle centerline q d. Clear of the diameter in X and
in X and and clear of the
clear of the face in Z
workpiece in Z
3) Define these words used in the G71 command:

D: depth of cut

4) The finish pass definition must be specified between the commands


specified with P and Q in the G71 command.
q false

q false

6) A G00 cannot be placed in the first command of the finish pass definition.
n false

7) Any feedrate the control sees during the finish pass definition will be
used by the rough turning cycle.
q true

10) The finishing cycle is commanded by G70.


q false

n false

12) Why must you use the same convenient starting position for finishing
as was used for roughing?
Because the finishing tool will return to this position after
the finish pass is made. If this is the same position as the

5) The command following the G71 should be the starting block for the
finish pass definition

q true

10) How does G71 used for internal work differ from external work.
q a. the U word must be nega- q b. the finish pass definition
tive
must be done in a boring mode
q c. the convenient starting po- n d. all of the above
sition in X is the hole size instead of the stock diameter

q true

F: feedrate for entire roughing cycle

n true

9) When the control is finished with the G71 command it will execute
q a. the command beginning n b. the command after the last
the finish pass definition
command of the finish pass
definition
q c. the finishing movements q d. the command after the next
optional stop

11) When using G71 to rough, G70 requires that you use the same tool to
finish.

W: stock left for finishing on all faces

n true

Score (100 possible):

n true

U: stock left for finishing on all diameters

18

n false

roughing tool used, there can be no interference.

13) Optimizing is easy when using G71, since you can change the depth of
cut for the entire roughing cycle by changing one word.
n true

q false

14) Name two limitations of the G71 command.


a. It cannot be used for recessing (unless you have and option
called type C multiple repetitive cycles).

8) Describe the two phases of G71.

b. In some cases (large faces), the second phase of G71 is

Phase one: The tool will machine in each pass until it contacts

not very efficient.

a surface (face, chamfer, radius, or taper) in Z. It will then


return for another pass. After the first phase, there will be

15) Do programming activity number nine.

a series of steps on the workpiece.


Phase two: the tool will make one sweeping pass over the
entire workpiece, leaving finishing stock.

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Answers To Practice Exercises

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Answers To Practice Exercises

19

Other multiple repetitive cycles (G72 - G75)


Name:

Date:

12.5 points each

6) Describe the basic movements for the peck drilling cycle (G74).

1) G72 should be used for roughing in a facing mode for large diameter,
rather short workpieces.
n true

Score (100 possible):

q false

The drill will peck in a specified amount and then backup


about 0.005 to break the chip. It will continue to peck and
backup until the hole bottom is reached.

2) Name the three differences from G71 for programming G72.


a. the convenient starting position must be clear of the
diameter to be faced in X and flush with the raw material
in Z.
b. The line commanded by the P word must contain only
a Z motion and a G00 or G01
c. the finish pass definition must be done in the facing mode.
3) Describe the use for pattern repeating (G73)

7) What is the major limitation of G74?


q a. most programmers want a n
drilling cycle that can also
tap
q c. Most programmers want a q
drilling cycle that can machine with a carbide tool

b. most programmers want a


drilling cycle to clear chips for
deep hole drilling
d. most programmers want a
drilling cycle that can automatically control coolant

8) Name two limitations of the grooving cycle G75.


a. No chamfers or radii will be machined in the corners of the
groove.

To trace over a series of motions a specified number of


times.

4) Describe the meaning of the words D, I, and K when used in the pattern
repeating cycle.

b. this cycle wont help if the groove is wider than the grooving
tool (it will not make multiple passes)

9) Do programming activity number ten.

D is the number of passes.


I is the amount of stock to be removed on the side.
K is the amount of stock to be removed in Z.
(the depth of cut will be I and J divided by D)

5) Why is it not advisable to use pattern repeating to rough machine castings?


Because the control simply divides the I or (especially) K
by the D word to determine the depth of cut. For faces with
much material to be removed, this will bury the tool as
faces
are machined.

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Answers To Practice Exercises

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

20

G76 - multiple repetitive cycle for threading


Name:

Date:

9) Is it better to thread in the low or high spindle range? Why?

7.692 points each


1) For most threads, G76 will completely machine the entire thread in one
command.
q true

Score (100 possible):

q false

2) Describe the convenient starting position when threading with the G76
command.

The low range is better since there will be more torque


available to stabilize the threading operation.

10) Threading should be done in the constant surface speed mode.


q true

Clear of the surface to be threaded in X.


0.2 or four times the thread pitch in Z, whichever is smaller

n false

11) You can offset as many times in the X axis as you want (and rerun the
threading tool), but unless you can offset in increments of the thread
pitch in Z, you cannot offset the Z axis and rerun the tool.
n true

q false

12) Name three control functions that are modified when a G76 threading
command is being executed.
3) How do you calculate the pitch for a thread designated in inch?
q a 0.5 times the number of n b. one divided by the number of
threads per inch
threads per inch
q c. the pitch is designated as q d. 0.75 times the thread length
part of the thread specification
4) How do you determine the thread depth (specified with K for most controls)?
Since most design engineers do not specify this value, you
must reference a machining handbook. Some programmers
will approximate, making the thread depth 75% of the pitch.

5) If thread chamfering is off (or its amount is set to zero), the threading
tool will actually chamfer the end of the thread prior to machining it.
q true

n false

Feed hold and feedrate override will be disable to ensure that


the thread cannot be damaged. Single block will only cause
the machine to stop at the end of the pass, not at the end
of the motion for the same reason
13) The command you should use for tapping is
q a. G01
q b. G76
q c. G92
n d. G32
14) Do programming activity number eleven.
Extension questions:
15) Check in your machine tool builders list of M codes. Do you have M
codes to control thread chamfering? If so what are they. If not, look in
the Fanuc operators manual in the G76 discussions. What is the parameter number related to thread chamfering?
We cannot provide answers to this question

6) The word used to specify the depth-of-cut for the first threading command (for most controls) is
q a. A
n b. D
q c. P
q d. I
7) The word used to specify the taper amount when machining taper
threads (for most controls) is
q a. A
q b. D
q c. P
n d. I
8) The word that specifies the tool angle (for most controls) is
n a. A
q b. D
q c. P
q d. I

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Answers To Practice Exercises

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

21

Subprogramming techniques
Name:

Date:

9.090 points each


1) A subprogram can be used to keep from repeating commands in you
program over and over again.
n true

q false

Score (100 possible):


10) Subprogram nesting is the act of storing subprograms in a partitioned
segment of the controls memory.
q true

n false

11) Name the five applications categories for parametric programming.

2) Name the three categories of subprogramming applications.

a. part families

a. repeated identical machining operations

b. user created canned cycles

b. control programs

c. utilities

c. utilities

d. driving accessory devices


e. complex motions

3) Which of the three categories listed in question number two is likely to


be the most helpful to manual programmers?
repeated identical machining operations

12) Do programming activity number twelve.

4) From you answer to question three, name two secondary benefits


subprograms provide.
a. if the operation comes out right once, it always will.
b. the subprogram can be permanently stored in memory
and used among several main programs.

13) What do you think will happen if the subprogram you specify in your
subprogram calling command is not in the controls memory?
the control will go into alarm state and alert you that the
program is missing

5) Applications in the category you specified in your answer to question


number three must be written in the incremental mode.
n true

Extension questions

q false

14) Other than the specific applications shown in lesson 21, can you think
of any other subprogramming applications for turning centers that fall
into the category of repeating machining operations?
examples could include grooving, threading, hole machining,

6) The word that calls a subprogram is


q a. M99
n b. M98
q c. L
q d. P

knurling, among others.

7) The word that ends a subprogram is


n a. M99
q b. M98
q c. L
q d. P
8) The word that specifies the subprogram number to be executed is
q a. M99
q b. M98
q c. L
n d. P
9) For most controls, the word that specifies the number of times the
subprogram is to be executed is
q a. M99
q b. M98
n c. L
q d. P

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Answers To Practice Exercises

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Answers To Practice Exercises

22

Control model differences


Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):

11.111 points each


1) For 0TA, some 0TBs, and 3T controls, the format for the G76 threading
cycle is actually more helpful that for other Fanuc and
Fanuc-compatible controls.
n true

q false

2) If calling a subprogram one time, the format is the same for all Fanuc
and Fanuc compatible controls.
n true

q false

For the following exercises, write the command in the


format for a 0TA, 0TB, or 3T control (these are right
from programming activities 9 through 11)
3) N040 G71 P045 Q090 U0.06 W0.005 D2000
N040 G71 U0.2
N043 G71 P045 Q090 U0.06 W0.005
4) N155 G71 P160 Q210 U-0.06 W0.005 D1250 F0.008
N155 G71 U0.125
N158 G71 P160 Q210 U-0.06 W0.005 F0.008
5) N030 G72 P035 Q105 U0.06 W0.005 D1750 F0.012
N030 G72 U0.175
N033 G72 P035 Q105 U0.06 W0.005 F0.012
6) N170 G71 P175 Q255 U-0.06 W0.005 D1000 F0.008
N170 G71 U0.1
N173 G71 P175 Q255 U-0.06 W0.005 F0.008
7) N045 G71 P050 Q080 U0.06 W0.005 D1500
N045 G71 U0.15
N048 G71 P050 Q080 U0.06 W0.005
8) N045 G71 P035 Q095 U0.06 Q0.005 D1250 F0.013
N045 G71 U0.125
N048 G71 P035 Q095 U0.06 Q0.005 F0.013
9) Convert this command to call a subprogram six times to the format
needed for a 0TA, 0TB, or 3T control.
N050 M98 P1000 L6
N050 M98 P0061000

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Answers To Practice Exercises

23

Other special programming features


Name:

Date:

5.882 points each

9) The word used with automatic corner rounding and chamfering to specify a chamfer as the tool comes up a face is
q a. I
q b. J
n c. K
q d. R

1) The programmed word for optional block skip is


q a. M01
q b. M00
n c. the slash code (/)
q d. G04
2) The optional block skip word must be placed at the very beginning of
the command in order for optional block skip to work.
q true

n false

3) The most basic function for optional block skip is to give the operator a
choice between one of two possibilities.
n true

10) The word used with automatic corner rounding and chamfering to
specify a radius is
q a. I
q b. J
q c. K
n d. R
11) Automatic corner rounding and chamfering will only word with 90 degree faces and turns.
n true

q false

4) If the optional block skip switch is off when the control reads the optional block skip code in the program, all information to the right of the
code in the command will be skipped.
q true

Score (100 possible):

n false

q false

12) The command used to program a dwell is


q a. G82
q b. G89
q c. M00
q d. G04
13) The dwell command is modal

5) Name three applications for optional block skip.

q true

a. to give another optional stop (/M00)

n false

14) Write a command that would cause the machine to pause for two seconds.

b. with trial machining


c. to make the machine make the appropriate number of

answers could include: a. G04 X2.0 b. G04 U2.0

roughing passes when raw material is varying

c. G04 P2000

there are other applications, but these are the three named
6) Sequence numbers must be included in every line of your CNC program.
q true

n false

15) Name one time when a dwell command should be programmed.


answers could include: a. any time you must relieve tool
pressure. b. to program around machine problems (though
it is much better to repair the problem)

7) Name three times when you should include messages in your program
for documentation reasons.
answers could include: a. at every tool change to name the
tool. b. to document general information relative to the
program (header). c. to document what should be done at
every program stop. d. to document changes made after
a dispute. e. to document anything out of the ordinary.

16) The word used to set offset values from within a CNC program is
q a. G04
n b. G10
q c. G90
q d. H
17) The word used to command that the machine move to its second reference position is
q a. G28
q b. G40
n c. G30
q d. G17

8) Automatic corner rounding and chamfering is a standard feature on all


Fanuc and Fanuc-compatible controls.
q true

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n false

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CNC Concepts, Inc.

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Answers To Practice Exercises

24

Tasks related to setup and operation


Name:

Date:

4.762 points each


For questions 1-10, specify whether these specific tasks are more related
to setup or maintaining production. Note: some may be related to both,
but choose the most applicable.

Score (100 possible):


13) The program zero assignment values in X and Z are the distances in
each axis between program zero and the tool tip at the machines zero
return position.
n true

q false

14) Offset entries for known offset values can be programmed.

1) Tear down work holding setup

n true

n setup q maintaining production

q false

15) What technique will help ensure that tools machining close tolerance
dimensions will cut properly?
q a. dry running
n b. trial machining
q c. showing a tool path display q d. assigning program zero

2) Workpiece loading
q setup n maintaining production
3) Adjusting offsets to hold size

16) What machine function will help you confirm that each tool will approach the workpiece without mishap?
q a. dry run
q b. single block
q c. feed hold
n d. all of the above

q setup n maintaining production


4) Measuring program zero
q setup q maintaining production

17) What machine function will let you see how much further the machine
will move in a given command?
q a. dry run
q b. single block
n c. distance-to-go
q d. feed hold

5) Measuring work shift value


n setup q maintaining production
6) Loading the program
n setup q maintaining production

18) Describe the general steps to replace worn tools.


Tool insert (or entire tool, depending upon tool style) must

7) Boring jaws

be removed from the turret and replaced. If offsets were

n setup q maintaining production

adjusted during the tools life to allow for tool wear, they

8) CNC program verification

must be set back to their initial value.

n setup q maintaining production


9) Replacing worn tools
q setup n maintaining production
10) Machine warm-up

19) Name five rudimentary tasks a beginning operator must master before
they will be able to run CNC machining centers.

q setup n maintaining production


11) Program zero is
q a. a location in the setup from q b. a position that must be aswhich all programmed coorsigned before the program can
be run.
dinates are taken.
q c. commonly the position n d. all of the above
from which print dimensions
are specified
12) The program zero assignment values must be determined for every
tool in every setup you make.
q true

CNC Concepts, Inc.

n false

Answers include: manual axis motion, manual control of


turret index, manual spindle control, control of position
displays, program transfers, and mastery of accessory
devices

20) If you measure eachtools program zero assingment values correctly,


you are gauranteed that the first workpiece will come out perfectly.
q true

Turning Center Programming And Operation

n false

Page 47

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

21) Describe the two most basic axis motions of a turning center. Which
direction is plus? Which direction is minus?
The X axis is the diameter controling axis. Plus is the
direction getting bigger in diameter on most machines.
The Z axis is the length controling axis, parallel to the

Extension questions
26) Describe the tasks you will be responsible for as a CNC operator in
your own company. Note: Youll have to talk to your instructor or an
experienced person to learn your responsibilities.
We cannot provide answers to these questions.

spindle centerline. Plus is movin away from the work holding


device.
27) Where is the zero return position on the machines with which you will
be working?

28 How will you be assigning program zero (with G50s in the program or
with geometry offsets)?

Page 48

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

25

The two operation panels


Name:

Date:

5.555 points each


1) Name the two most basic operation panels on a turning center.
a. the control panel made by the control manufacturer

Score (100 possible):


9) Which mode switch positions allow you to manually move the machine
axes?
Answers can include jog or manual and handweel

b. the machine panel made by the machine tool builder

2) Which display screen key lets you display and edit programs in memory?
q a. position
q b. offset
q c. program check
q d. alarm
n e. program
q f. setting
3) Which display screen key provides the most help when verifying programs?
q a. position
q b. offset
n c. program check
q d. alarm
q e. program
q f. setting
4) Which display screen key lets you show the location of each axis?
n a. position
q b. offset
q c. program check
q d. alarm
q e. program
q f. setting
5) Which display screen key lets you modify the wear offsets?
q a. position
n b. offset
q c. program check
q d. alarm
q e. program
q f. setting
6) Which key is used to enter new words and commands into CNC programs?
q a. the input key
n b. the insert key
q c. the delete key
q d. the plus key
7) Which key is used to enter offset values?
n a. the input key
q b. the insert key
q c. the delete key
q d. the plus key

a. it rewinds the program in the edit mode


b. it clears alarms (after you fix the problem)
c. it clears the active look-ahead buffer (needed to take the

CNC Concepts, Inc.

zero return
11) Which mode switch position lets you run programs from the controls
memory?
memory or auto
12) Which mode switch position give you the most precise manual control of axis movement?
the handwheel mode
13) This conditional switch allows you to step through the program command by command.
q a. dry run
n b. single block
q c. optional stop
q d. machine lock
14) This conditional switch allows you to take control of motion rate during the execution of a program.
n a. dry run
q b. single block
q c. optional stop
q d. machine lock
15) Name the switch that lets you take change the machines rapid rate.
rapid override
16) Name the switch that lets you change the programs feedrate during
the execution of a program.
feedrate override
17) This button should be considered as your first panic button.

8) Name the three functions of the reset button.

machine out of cycle)

10) Which mode switch positions allows you to manually send each axis
to its reference position?

feed hold
18) What mode switch position must be used to command functions that
cannot be done manually?
manual data input (MDI) mode

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 49

Answers To Practice Exercises

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Extension questions
19) Do any of the controls you will be working with utilize soft keys on the
display screen?
We cannot provide answers to this question.
20) Do any of your machines allow complete manual control of the spindle
(on/off, direction, and speed)?
We cannot provide answers to this question.

Page 50

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

26

The three modes of operation


Name:

Date:

7.692 points each


1) Name the three most common mode switch positions related to the
manual mode.
a. jog or manual

Score (100 possible):


9) The memory mode switch position is used to modify programs in the
controls memory.
q true

n false

10) Name the three most basic program editing keys and describe their
functions.

b. handwheel

a. alter - modifies a current word or command

c. zero return

b. insert - brings in new words or commands

2) Name the two mode switch positions related to the manual data input
mode.

c. delete - removes words, commands, or programs

a. MDI
b. edit

3) Name the most common mode switch position related to the program
operation mode.
memory or auto

4) If your turning center does not allow complete manual control of the turret index function, what mode must you use to make manual turret indexes?

11) The most basic reason why you must use the MDI mode is
q a. to run programs that are n b. to manually execute functoo long to fit in the controls
tions that there are no manual
memory.
push buttons and switches to
execute.
q c. to be able activate CNC q d. to be able to edit CNC proprograms.
grams.
12) What will happen if you have the mode switch in the wrong position
when you attempt to perform the desired function?
q a. an alarm will sound.
q b. an over travel will occur.
q c. the control will hang-up. n d. nothing
13) What mode switch position must you select before activating a CNC
program from the controls memory?

MDI

5) Related to question four, what command must you give with most machines to index to station number six?

memory or auto

T0600
6) If your machine does not allow complete manual control of the spindle,
what command would you give to turn the spindle on in the forward direction at 400 rpm?
G97 S400 M03
7) What command could you give to return both axes to the zero return position?
G28 U0 W0
8) Name the two most popular ways to cause manual axis movement.
a. with the jog (or manual) mode using the joy-stick or pushbuttons.
b. with the handwheel

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 51

Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 52

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

27

The key operation procedures


Name:

Date:

10 points each

Score (100 possible):


8) How can you change the values of speeds and feeds in your program?
Follow the procedure to alter words within programs.

1) Name the six kinds of operation procedures.


a. manual sequences
b. manual data input sequences

9) What should you do if you must perform procedures not given in our
operation handbooks?

c. program loading & saving sequences


d. program editing sequence

After determining how to perform the procedure, document

e. setup sequences

it on one of the blank procedure forms.

f. program operation sequences


2) After powering up, what procedure must you follow before you can do
anything else with the machine?

10) The procedures given in the operation handbooks will work for all machines, even those built by different machine tool builders.
q true

n false

the procedure to zero return the machine


3) Name two procedures that you may be able to perform manually that are
better done in MDI mode.
a. to index the turret
b. to do a zero return
c. to start the spindle
4) How can you tell if your machine has a specific option G code?
Execute the G code in MDI mode. If you get alarm number
ten, you do not have the G code.
5) How can you tell if an important program is currently in the CNC control?
Follow the procedure to show a directory of programs.

6) How can you rid the control of unneeded programs?


Follow the procedure to delete programs.

7) How can you quickly get to the beginning of a specific tool in your program?
Follow the procedure to search to specific words within
CNC programs.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 53

Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 54

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Answers To Practice Exercises

28

Verifying programs safely


Name:

Date:

10 points each
1) Name the three safety priorities (in order of importance).
a. operator safety
b. machine safety
c. workpiece safety
2) CAM system generated CNC programs tend to have fewer program formatting mistakes than manual programs.
n true

q false

3) A new manually prepared CNC program is harder to verify than a proven


CNC program because almost every command must be treated as suspect.
n true

Score (100 possible):


8) With a normal air cutting run, the setup person can
n a. see if rapid motions and q b. see if there are any syntax
cutting motions are as they
mistakes in the program.
should be.
q c. see if the general motions q d. none of the above.
in the program look right.
9) Trial machining helps to confirm that critical surfaces will be machined
correctly.
n true

q false

10) Almost every new program will require modification, even if only for
the purpose of optimizing.
n true

q false

q false

4) Though a new CNC program is harder to verify than a proven CNC program, name three things that could be wrong that would cause a proven
program to fail.
a. program zero assignment
b. tool length compensation offsets
c. cutter radius compensation offsets

5) Name the four most basic kinds of mistakes that can be made with CNC
programs.
a. syntax mistakes
b. motion mistakes
c. setup mistakes
d. mistakes of omission

6) In addition to verifying programs, beginners must run the program (before making workpieces) enough times to get familiar with the cycle.
n true

q false

7) With a free flowing dry run, the setup person can


q a. see if rapid motions and q b. see if there are any syntax
mistakes in the program.
cutting motions are as they
should be.
n c. see if the general motions q d. none of the above.
in the program look right.

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page 55

Answers To Practice Exercises

Page 56

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To
Programming Activities

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 57

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Types of motion commands

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):

Instructions: This is the first complete program you will be


working on. Though it will not require
Print:
that you actually write tan entire program on your own (youll be simply filling in the blanks), it will stress much of
what is involved with the programming
task.
First, study the print and process sheet
to gain an understanding of the operations to be performed. Second, use the
tool path drawings to fill in the coordinate sheet. Use 0.1 inch approach for
clearance positions. Note that the point
numbering on the tool path sheets does
not perfectly match the sequential order
of movements. Youre simply documenting the coordinates for all locations
needed in the program. Third, fill in the
blanks for the program provided. Youll
be filling in motion commands, including appropriate G code, X and/or Z coordinates, and speeds & feeds.
Process:
Seq
.

Operation description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face & turn. Leave 0.03 stock on side (0.06 on dia.) and
0.005 on faces.

80 degree diamond

600 sfm

0.012 ipr

55 degree diamond

700 sfm

0.006 ipr

Finish face and turn

Tool paths:

Page 58

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Coordinate Sheet:

Program: (1.19 points for each correctly filled in blank)

Point

2.1

0.005

-0.0625

0.005

-0.0625

0.1

1.81

0.1

1.81

-3.045

2.0

-3.045

2.0

0.1

1.56

0.1

1.56

-2.245

10

1.81

-2.245

11

1.31

0.1

12

1.31

-1.745

13

1.56

-1.745

14

1.06

0.1

15

1.06

-0.995

16

1.31

-0.995

17

0.81

0.1

18

0.81

-0.995

19

1.01

20

-0.062

21

-0.062

0.1

22

0.5

0.1

23

0.5

24

0.75

-0.125

25

0.75

-0.907

26

0.936

-1.0

27

1.125

-1.0

28

1.25

-1.0625

29

1.25

-1.75

30

1.375

-1.75

31

1.5

-1.8125

32

1.5

-2.25

33

1.625

-2.25

34

1.75

-2.3125

35

1.75

-3.05

36

2.0

-3.05

CNC Concepts, Inc.

O0001 (Program number)


(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 T0101 M41
N010 G96 S600 M03
N015 G00 X2.1 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N020 G01 X-0.0625 F0.012 (2)
N025 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N030 X1.81 (4)
N035 G01 Z-3.045 (5)
N040 X2.0 (6)
N045 G00 Z0.1 (7)
N050 X1.56 (8)
N055 G01 Z-2.245 (9)
N060 X1.81 (10)
N065 G00 Z0.1 (4)
N070 X1.31 (11)
N075 G01 Z-1.745 (12)
N080 X1.56 (13)
N085 G00 Z0.1 (8)
N090 X1.06 (14)
N095 G01 Z-0.995 (15)
N100 X1.31(16)
N105 G00 Z0.1 (11)
N110 X1.81 (17)
N115 G01 Z-0.995 (18)
N120 X1.06 (15)
N125 G00 Z0.1 (14)
N130 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N135 M01
(Finish face and turn)
N140 T0202 M42
N145 G96 S700 M03
N150 G00 X1.01 Z0 (19)
N155 G01 X-0.062 F0.006 (20)
N160 G00 Z0.1 (21)
N165 X0.05 (22)
N170 G01 Z0 (23)
N175 G03 X0.75 Z-0.125 R0.125 (24)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 59

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

N180 G01 Z-0.907 (25)


N185 G02 X0.936 Z-1.0 R0.093 (26)
N190 G01 X1.125 (27)
N195 G03 X1.25 Z-1.0625 R0.0625 (28)
N200 G01 Z-1.75 (29)
N205 X1.375 (30)
N210 G03 X1.5 Z-1.8125 R0.0625 (31)
N215 G01 Z-2.25 (32)
N220 X1.625 (33)
N225 G03 X1.75 Z-2.3125 R0.0625 (34)
N230 G01 Z-3.05 (35)
N235 X2.0 (36)
N240 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N245 M30

Page 60

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 61

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of motion types

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain an understanding of what the program will be doing. Second, study the
tool paths and fill in the coordinate sheet for tool positions
needed by the program. Again, all clearance positions are intended to be 0.1 inch away from surfaces. Third, fill in the blanks
in the program with the appropriate G codes, spindle speeds,
feedrates, and axis positions. This exercise stresses the same
skills as programming activity number one.

Coordinate Sheet:
Point

Print:

2.2

0.005

-0.062

0.005

-0.062

0.1

0.1

-2.2

1.19

0.1

1.19

-1.37

0.875

-1.37

0.875

0.1

10

1.375

0.1

11

1.375

12

1.25

-0.0625

13

1.25

-1.375

14

1.1

-1.375

15

1.0

-1.425

16

1.0

-2.0

17

0.8

-2.0

18

0.8

0.1

19

2.075

20

1.05

21

1.05

0.1

22

1.75

0.1

23

1.75

24

1.875

-0.0625

25

1.875

-1.0

26

2.2

-1.0

Process:
Seq
.

Operation description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

80 degree diamond

400 sfm

0.012 ipr

7/8 hss twist drill

350 rpm

0.008 ipr

Rough face (leave 0.005 for finishing)

Drill 7/8 diameter hole

Rough bore (leave 0.06 on dia, 0.005 on face)

3/4 rough boring bar

350 srm

0.007 ipr

Finish bore

3/4 finish boring bar

400 sfm

0.005 ipr

Page 62

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 63

Answers To Programming Activity


Program (1.408 points for each correctly filled in blank)

O0002 (Program number)


(Rough facing tool)
N005 T0101 M41
N010 G96 S400 M03
N015 G00 X2.2 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N020 G01 X-0.062 F0.012 (2)
N025 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N030 X6.0 Z5.0
N035 M01
(7/8 drill)
N040 T0202 M41
N045 G97 S354 M03
N050 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (4)
N055 G01 Z-2.2 F0.008 (5)
N060 G00 Z0.1 (4)
N065 X6.0 Z5.0
N070 M01

Turning Center Workbook

N160 G00 X0.8 (17)


N165 Z0.1 (18)
N170 X6.0 Z5.0
N175 M01
(Finish face and turn tool)
N180 T0505 M42
N185 G96 S450 M03
N190 G00 X2.075 Z0 M08 (19)
N195 G01 X1.05 F0.006 (20)
N200 G00 Z0.1 (21)
N205 X1.75 (22)
N210 G01 Z0 (23)
N215 G03 X1.875 Z-0.0625 R0.0625 (24)
N220 G01 Z-1.0 (25)
N225 X2.2 (26)
N230 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N235 M30

(3/4 rough boring bar)


N075 T0303 M42
N080 G96 S350 M03
N085 G00 X1.19 Z0.1 M08 (6)
N090 G01 Z-1.37 F0.007 (7)
N095 X0.875 (8)
N100 G00 Z0.1 (9)
N105 X5.0 Z6.0
N110 M01
(3/4 finish boring bar)
N115 T0404 M42
N120 G96 S400 M03
N125 G00 X1.375 Z0.1 M08 (10)
N130 G01 Z0 F0.005 (11)
N135 G02 X1.25 Z-0.0625 R0.0625 (12)
N140 G01 Z-1.375 (13)
N145 X1.1 (14)
N150 X1.0 Z-1.425 (15)
N155 Z-2.0 (16)
Page 64

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 65

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of motion types

Name:

Date:

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain an understanding of what the program will be doing. Notice that this is
the opposite end of the workpiece you worked on in programming activity number two. Also note that the same tools are used
(with the exception of the 7/8 drill). Second, study the tool paths
and fill in the coordinate sheet for tool positions needed by the
program. Again, all clearance positions are intended to be 0.1
inch away from surfaces. Third, fill in the blanks in the program
with the appropriate G codes, spindle speeds, feedrates, and axis
positions.
Print:

Score (100 possible):


Coordinate Sheet:
Point

2.2

0.005

0.8

0.005

.08

0.1

1.8725

0.1

1.8725

0.005

2.0

-0.625

1.315

0.1

1.315

-0.245

0.8

-0.245

10

0.8

0.1

11

1.5

0.1

12

1.5

13

1.375

-0.0625

14

1.375

-0.25

15

1.1

-0.25

16

1.0

-0.3

17

0.8

-0.3

18

0.8

0.1

19

2.0125

20

1.175

21

1.175

0.1

22

1.8125

0.1

23

1.8125

24

1.9375

-0.625

25

1.9375

-0.913

26

2.1375

-0.913

Process:
Seq
.

Operation description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face and turn (leave 0.060 on dia, and 0.005 on faces)

80 degree diamond

400 sfm

0.012 ipr

Rough bore (leave 0.060 on dia, 0.005 on face)

3/4 rough boring bar

350 sfm

0.007 ipr

Finish bore

3/4 finish boring bar

350 sfm

0.005 ipr

Finish turn

55 degree diamond

450 sfm

0.005 ipr

Page 66

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

Program (1.613 points for each correctly filled in blank)

O0003 (Program number)


(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 T0101 M41
N010 G96 S400 M03
N015 G00 X2.2 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N020 G01 X0.8 F0.012 (2)
N025 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N030 X1.8725 (4)
N035 G01 Z0.005 (5)
N040 X2.0 Z-0.625 (6)
N045 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
CNC Concepts, Inc.

N050 M01
(3/4" rough boring bar)
N055 T0303 M41
N060 G96 S350 M03
N065 G00 X1.315 Z0.1 M08 (7)
N070 G01 Z-0.245 F0.007 (8)
N075 X0.8 (9)
N080 G00 Z0.1 (10)
N085 X6.0 Z5.0
N090 M01
(3/4" finish boring bar)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 67

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

N095 T0404 M42


N100 G96 S350 M03
N105 G00 X1.5 Z0.1 M08 (11)
N110 G01 Z0 F0.005 (12)
N115 G02 X1.375 Z-0.0625 R0.0625(13)
N120 G01 Z-0.25 (14)
N125 X1.1 (15)
N130 X1.0 Z-0.3 (16)
N135 X0.8 (17)
N140 G00 Z0.1 (18)
N145 X6.0 Z5.0
N150 M01
(Finish face and turn tool)
N155 T0505 M42
N160 G96 S450 M03
N165 G00 X2.0125 Z0 M08 (19)
N170 G01 X1.175 F0.005 (20)
N175 G00 Z0.1 (21)
N180 X1.8125 (22)
N185 G01 Z0 (23)
N190 X1.9375 Z-0.625 (24)
N195 Z-0.913 (25)
N200 X2.1375 (26)
N205 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N210 M30

Page 68

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 69

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of wear offsets

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):


Coordinate sheet:

Instructions: First study the print and process to ensure you understand what the program will be doing. Second, calculate the
mean value for each uneven tolerance and write it close to the dimension on the print. Third, study the tool path drawings and fill
in the coordinate sheet. Fourth, fill in the blanks in the practice
program.

Point

13

1.3115

-0.745

14

0.88

0.1

15

0.88

16

1.0

-0.06

17

1.0

-0.75

18

1.1315

-0.75

1.7495

19

1.2515

-0.81

20

1.2515

-1.7515

21

1.38

-1.7515

22

1.5

-1.8115

23

1.5

-3.0

24

1.6295

-3.0

25

1.7495

-3.06

26

1.7495

-3.5

27

1.9

-3.5

28

2.0

-3.55

29

1.7

-2.501

30

1.15

-2.501

31

1.7

-2.532

32

1.5

-2.532

33

1.438

-2.501

34

1.7

-2.47

35

1.5

-2.47

36

1.2

-0.5

37

0.65

-0.5

38

1.2

-0.531

39

1.0

-0.531

40

0.938

-0.5

41

1.2

-0.469

42

1.0

-0.469

1.2515
1.7515
Coordinate Sheet:

Process

Point

1.8095

0.1

1.8095

-3.495

2.0

-3.495

2.0

0.1

1.56

0.1

1.56

-2.995

1.8095

-2.995

1.3115

0.1

1.3115

-1.7465

10

1.56

-1.7465

11

1.06

0.1

12

1.06

-0.745

Seq.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough turn (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on


faces)

80 degree diamond

450 sfm

0.012 ipr

Finish turn

55 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.007

Neck two 1/8 wide grooves

1/8" wide groove tool

400 sfm

0.005

Page 70

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 71

Answers To Programming Activity


Program (0.893 points for each correctly filled in blank)

O0004 (Program number)


(Rough turning tool)
N005 T0101 M41
N010 G96 S450 M03
N015 G00 X1.8095 Z0.1 M08 (1)
N020 G01 Z-3.495 F0.012 (2)
N025 X2.0 (3)
N030 G00 Z0.1 (4)
N035 X1.56 (5)
N040 G01 Z-2.995 (6)
N045 X1.8095 (7)
N050 G00 Z0.1 (1)
N055 X1.3115 (8)
N060 G01 Z-1.745 (9)
N065 X1.56 (10)
N070 G00 Z0.1 (5)
N075 X1.06 (11)
N080 G01 Z-0.745 (12)
N085 X1.3115 (13)
N090 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N095 M01
(Finish turning tool)
N100 T0202 M42
N105 G96 S500 M03
N110 G00 X0.88 Z0.1 M08 (14)
N115 G01 Z0 F0.007 (15)
N120 G03 X1.0 Z-0.06 R0.06 (16)
N125 G01 Z-0.75 (17)
N130 X1.1315 (18)
N135 G03 X1.2515 Z-0.81 R0.06 (19)
N140 G01 Z-1.7515 (20)
N145 X1.38 (21)
N150 G03 X1.5 Z-1.8115 R0.06 (22)
N155 G01 Z-3.0(23)
N160 X1.6295 (24)
N165 G03 X1.7495 Z-3.06 R0.06 (25)
N170 G01 Z-3.5 (26)
N175 X1.9 (27)
N180 X2.0 Z-3.55 (28)
Page 72

Turning Center Workbook

N185 G00 X6.0 Z5.0


N190 M01
(1/8" grooving tool)
N195 T0303 M42
N200 G96 S400 M03
N205 G00 X1.7 Z-2.501 M08 (29)
N210 G01 X1.15 F0.005 (30)
N215 G04 P500 (Pause for 0.5 second)
N220 G00 X1.7 (29)
N225 Z-2.532 (31)
N230 G01 X1.5 (32)
N235 X1.438 Z-2.501 (33)
N240 G00 X1.7 (29)
N245 Z-2.47 (34)
N250 G01 X1.5 (35)
N255 X1.438 Z-2.501 (33)
N260 G00 X1.7 (29)
N265 Z-0.5 (36 Z)
N270 X1.2 (36 X)
N275 G01 X0.65 (37)
N280 G04 P500 (Pause for 0.5 second)
N285 G00 X1.2 (36)
N290 Z-0.531 (38)
N295 G01 X1.0 (39)
N300 X0.938 Z-0.5 (40)
N305 G00 X1.2 (36)
N310 Z-0.469 (41)
N315 G01 X1.0 (42)
N320 X0.938 Z-0.5 (40)
N325 G00 X1.1 (36)
N330 X6.0 Z5.0
N335 M30

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 73

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of tool nose radius compensation

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):

Instructions: First study the print, fixture drawing, and process


to ensure that you understand what the program will be doing.
Second, study the tool paths and fill in the coordinate sheet.
Third, fill in the blanks for the practice program, including the
values needed in the tool nose radius compensation offset table
(wear or geometry offset table). Notice that two of the tools require tool nose radius compensation, meaning youll have to
specify the instating and canceling commands.
Print:

Point

2.2

0.005

-.0.062

0.005

-0.062

0.1

1.81

0.1

1.81

0.005

1.935

-0.245

1.935

-0.495

2.06

-0.745

0.1

10

-2.1875

11

1.19

0.1

12

1.19

-0.4325

13

0.94

-1.1825

14

0.94

0.1

15

1.5

0.1

16

1.5

17

1.25

-0.125

18

1.25

-0.4375

19

1.0

-1.1875

20

0.8

-1.1875

21

0.8

0.1

22

1.95

23

1.15

24

1.15

0.1

25

1.75

0.1

26

1.75

27

1.875

-0.25

28

1.875

-0.5

29

2.0

-0.75

30

2.2

0.75

Process:
Seq.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face & turn (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on faces)

80 degree diamond

450 sfm

0.012 ipr

Drill 1.0 hole

1" drill

380 rpm

0.009 ipr

Rough bore (leave 0.06 on dia, 0.005 on face)

3/4 rough boring bar

400 sfm

0.008 ipr

Finish bore (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

34 finish boring bar

450 sfm

0.005 ipr

Finish face and turn (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

55 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.007 ipr

Page 74

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

Program (1.111 points for each correctly filled in blank)

Geometry offsets:
#4 - R: 0.031 T: 2
#5 - R: 0.031 T: 3
O0005 (Program number)
(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 T0101 M41
N010 G96 S450 M03
N015 G00 X2.2 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N020 G01 X-0.062 F0.012 (2)
N025 G00 Z0.1 (3)
CNC Concepts, Inc.

N030 X1.810 (4)


N035 G01 Z0.005 (5)
N040 X1.935 Z-0.245 (6)
N045 Z-0.495 (7)
N050 X2.06 Z-0.745 (8)
N055 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N060 M01
(1" drill)
N065 T0202 M41
N070 G97 S380 M03
N075 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (9)
N080 G01 Z-2.8175 F0.009 (10)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 75

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

N085 G00 Z0.1 (11)


N090 X6.0 Z5.0
N095 M01
(Rough boring bar)
N100 T0303
N105 G96 S400 M03
N110 G00 X1.19 Z0.1 M08 (11)
N115 G01 Z-0.4325 F0.008 (12)
N120 X0.94 Z-1.1825(13)
N125 G00 Z0.1 (14)
N130 X6.0 Z5.0
N135 M01
(Finish boring bar)
N140 T0404 M41
N145 G96 S450 M03
N150 G41 G00 X1.5 Z0.1 (15)
N155 G01 Z0 F0.005 M08 (16)
N160 G02 X1.25 Z-0.125 R0.125 (17)
N165 G01 Z-0.4375 (18)
N168 X1.0 Z-1.1875 (19)
N170 X0.8 (20)
N175 G00 Z0.1 (21)
N180 G40 X6.0 Z5.0 (Cancel tnr comp)
N185 M01
(Finish turn)
N190 T0505 M42
N195 G96 S500 M03
N200 G00 X1.95 Z0 M08 (22)
N205 G01 X1.15 F0.007 (23)
N210 G00 Z0.1 (24)
N215 G42 X1.75 (25, instate comp)
N220 G01 Z0 (26)
N225 X1.875 Z-0.25 (27)
N230 Z-0.5 (28)
N235 X2.0 Z-0.75 (29)
N240 X2.2 (30)
N245 G40 G00 X6.0 Z5.0 (cancel comp)
N250 M30

Page 76

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 77

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of program formatting

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):


Coordinate sheet:

First,study the workpiece drawing,setup drawing, and process to


get an understanding of what the program will be doing. Notice
that this workpiece is being run in a bar feeding turning center.
Most bar feeders will place a constant pushing force on the bar
being fed. As soon as the collet chuck opens, the bar will advance. A bar stop (held in the turret) will be programmed to restrict the bar advance to the proper amount (1.175 inches in our
case, which is the workpiece length plus the cutoff tool width
plus facing stock). The workpiece will then be machined and cut
off by the 1/8 wide cutoff tool. Second, study the tool path drawings and fill in the coordinate sheet. Third, fill in the blanks in the
practice program.

Point

1.45

-0.062

-0.062

0.1

1.025

0.1

1.025

1.125

-0.05

1.125

-1.05

1.45

-1.05

0.1

10

-1.21

11

0.6625

0.1

12

0.6625

13

0.5625

-0.05

14

0.5625

-1.03

Print:

15

0.4

-1.03

16

0.4

0.1

17

1.45

-1.125

18

1.025

-1.125

19

1.45

-1.075

20

1.125

-1.075

21

0.44

-1.125

Process:
Seq
.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Advance the bar to proper length

Bar stop

12

none

none

Finish face and turn

80 degree diamond

550 sfm

0.008 ipr

Drill 0.5" hole

1/2" drill

740 rpm

0.007 ipr

Finish bore

3/8 finish boring bar

300 sfm

0.004 ipr

Cut off the part

1/8 wide cutoff tool

450 sfm

0.005 ipr

Page 78

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

Program (1.587 points for each correctly filled in blank)

O0006 (Program number)


(Bar stop to advance workpiece)
N005 G20 G23 G40
N010 G50 S5000
N015 T1212 M05 (Index, stop spindle)
N020 G00 X0 Z-1.025
N025 M15 (Open collet chuck)
N030 G98 G01 Z0.05 F30.0 (Bar adv.)
N035 M14 (Close collet chuck)
N040 G99 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N045 M01
(Finish face and turn tool)
N050 T0101 M42

CNC Concepts, Inc.

N055 G96 S550 M03


N060 G00 X1.45 Z0 M08 (1)
N065 G01 X-0.062 F0.008 (2)
N070 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N075 G42 X1.025 (4)
N080 G01 Z0 (5)
N085 X1.125 Z-0.05 (6)
N090 Z-1.05 (7)
N095 X1.45 (8)
N100 G40 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N105 M01
(/12 drill)
N110 T0202 M42
N115 G97 S740 M03
N120 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (9)
N125 G01 Z-1.21 F0.007 (10)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 79

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

N130 G00 Z0.1 (9)


N135 X6.0 Z5.0
N140 M01
(Finish boring bar)
N145 T0303 M42
N150 G96 S300 M03
N155 G41 G00 X0.6625 Z0.1 M08 (11)
N160 G01 Z0 F0.004 (12)
N165 X0.5625 Z-0.05 (13)
N168 Z-1.03 (14)
N170 X0.4 (15)
N175 G00 Z0.1 (16)
N180 G40 X6.0 Z5.0
N185 M01
(1/8 wide cutoff tool)
N190 T0404 M42
N195 G96 S450 M03
N200 G00 X1.45 Z-1.125 M08 (17)
N205 G01 X1.025 F0.005 (18)
N210 G00 X1.45 (17)
N215 Z-1.075 (19)
N220 G01 X1.125 (20)
N225 X1.025 Z-1.125 (18)
N230 M18 (Activate part catcher)
N235 X0.44 (21)
N240 M19 (Retract part catcher)
N245 G00 X1.45 (17)
N250 X6.0 Z5.0
N255 M99 (Return to start and continue)

Page 80

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 81

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of program formatting

Name:

Date:

Score (100 possible):


Instructions: Note that this is the first program you are writing
completely on your own. While there are many ways to format
programs, in this exercise you will be graded on how well you
follow the methods shown in lesson 16. Though your instructor
may allow some latitude if you stray a little, we need to confirm
that you understand how to safely format programs. If your answer program does not match the program we show, work with
your instructor or an experienced programmer in your company
to determine whether your methods will work.
First study the print and process to ensure that you understand
what the program will be doing. Second, use the tool path drawings to help you fill in the coordinate sheet. Finally, write the
program for this workpiece. Note that we supply you with the
ample room to write this program (youll likely have extra
space).
Coordinate sheet:
Point

8.2

0.005

-0.062

0.005

-0.062

0.1

8.2

0.1

8.2

-0.12

4.06

-0.12

4.06

0.005

8.2

-0.245

7.06

-0.245

10

6.06

-0.12

11

8.2

-0.37

12

7.06

-0.37

13

0.1

14

-1.8425

15

1.69

0.1

16

1.69

-0.495

Process:
Seq
.

Description

Tool

Station

Rough face (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on faces)

80 degree diamond

450 sfm 0.012 ipr

Drill 1.375 hole

1-3/8" drill

225 rpm 0.009 ipr

Rough bore (leave 0.06 on dia, 0.005 on face)

1-1/4 rough boring bar

400 sfm 0.008 ipr

Finish bore (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

1-1/4 finish boring bar

450 sfm 0.005 ipr

Finish face (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

80 degree diamond

500 sfm 0.007 ipr

Page 82

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Speed

Feedrate

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Coordiant sheet:
Point

Point

17

1.375

-0.995

31

8.0

-0.455

18

1.375

0.1

32

7.84

-0.375

19

1.94

0.1

33

7.0

-0.375

20

1.95

-0.495

34

7.0

-0.25

21

2.125

0.1

35

6.0

-0.125

22

2.125

36

4.0

-0.125

23

2.0

-0.0625

37

4.0

-0.0625

24

2.0

-0.5

38

3.875

25

1.75

-0.5

39

-0.062

26

1.5

-1.0

27

1.75

-1.5

28

1.55

-1.5

29

1.55

0.1

30

8.2

-0.455

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 83

Answers To Programming Activity


Program (1.351 point for each correct line)
Be sure to use tool nose radius compensation for the finish boring
bar (station 4) and the finish facing tool (station 5). Machine has
a maximum speed of 4,000 rpm and this workpiece will run true
(not unbalanced).

O0007 (Program number)


(Rough facing tool)
N005 G23 G23 G40
N010 G50 S4000
N015 T0101 M41
N020 G96 S450 M03
N025 G00 X8.2 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N030 G99 G01 X-0.062 F0.012 (2)
N035 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N040 X8.2 (4)
N045 Z-0.12 (5)
N050 G01 X4.06 (6)
N055 Z-0.005 (7)
N060 G00 X8.2 (1)
N065 Z-0.245 (8)
N070 G01 X7.06 (9)
N075 X6.06 Z-0.12 (10)
N080 G00 X8.2 (5)
N085 Z-0.37 (11)
N090 G01 X7.06 (12)
N095 Z-0.245 (9)
N100 G00 X8.2 (8)
N105 G00 X10.0 Z5.0
N110 M01
(1.375 drill)
N115 T0202 M41
N120 G97 S225 M03
N125 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (13)
N130 G01 Z-1.8425 F0.009 (14)
N135 G00 Z0.1 (13)
N140 X10.0 Z5.0
Page 84

Turning Center Workbook

N145 M01
(Rough boring bar)
N150 T0303 M41
N155 G96 S400 M03
N160 G00 X1.69 Z0.1 M08 (15)
N165 G01 Z-0.-495 F0.008 (16)
N170 X1.375 Z-0.995 (17)
N175 G00 Z0.1 (18)
N180 X1.94 (19)
N185 G01 Z-0.495 (20)
N190 X1.69 (16)
N195 G00 Z0.1 (15)
N200 X10.0 Z5.0
N205 M01
(Finish boring bar)
N210 T0404 M42
N215 G96 S450 M03
N220 G00 G41 X1.94 Z0.1 M08 (21)
N225 G01 Z0 F0.005 (22)
N230 G02 X2.0 Z-0.0625 R0.0625 (23)
N235 G01 Z-0.5 (24)
N240 X1.75 (25)
N245 X1.5 Z-1.0 (26)
N250 Z-1.5 (27)
N255 X1.55 (28)
N260 G00 Z0.1 (29)
N265 G40 X10.0 Z5.0
N270 M01
(Finish facing tool)
N275 T0505 M42
N280 G96 S500 M03
N285 G00 G41 X8.2 Z-0.455 M08 (30)
N290 G01 X8.0 F0.007 (31)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

N295 X7.84 Z-0.455 (32)


N300 X7.0 (33)
N305 Z-0.25 (34)
N310 X6.0 Z-0.125 (35)
N315 X4.0 (36)
N320 Z-0.0625 (37)
N325 G02 X3.875 Z0 R0.0625 (38)
N330 G01 X-0.062 (39)
N335 G00 Z0.1 (40)
N340 G40 X10.0 Z5.0
N345 M30

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 85

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of one-pass canned cycles

Name:

Date:

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain an understanding of what the program will be doing. Second, use the tool
path drawings to fill in the coordinate sheet. Third, write the program to machine this workpiece. Use the single pass canned cycles to rough face, rough turn, and rough bore (dont do it with
G00 and G01).
Print

Score (100 possible):


Coordinate sheet:
Point

2.2

0.1

0.8

0.005

2.0

0.1

1.81

-0.745

1.0

0.1

1.19

-0.995

1.35

0.1

1.35

1.25

-0.05

10

1.25

-1.0

11

0.8

-1.0

12

1.35

0.1

13

1.35

14

1.65

15

1.75

-0.05

16

1.75

-0.75

17

2.2

-0.75

Process:
Seq
.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face and turn (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on faces)

80 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.012 ipr

Rough bore (leave 0.06 on dia, 0.005 on face)

7/8 rough boring bar

450 sfm

0.008 ipr

Finish bore (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

7/8 finish boring bar

500 sfm

0.005 ipr

Finish face (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

80 degree diamond

600 sfm

0.007 ipr

Page 86

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

Program (2.5 points for each correct line)


Be sure to use tool nose radius compensation for the finish boring
bar (station 4) and the finish facing tool (station 5). Machine has
a maximum speed of 4,000 rpm and this workpiece will run true
(not unbalanced).

O0008 (Program number)


(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 G20 G23 G40
N010 G50 S4000
N015 T0101 M42
N020 G96 S500 M03
CNC Concepts, Inc.

N025 G00 X2.2 Z0.1 M08 (1)


N030 G99 G94 X0.8 Z-.005 F0.012 (2->1)
N035 G00 X2.0 Z0.1 (3)
N040 G90 X1.81 Z-0.745 (4->3)
N045 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N050 M01
(Rough boring bar)
N055 T0202 M42

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 87

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

N060 G96 S450 M03


N065 G00 X1.0 Z0.1 M08 (5)
N070 G90 X1.19 Z-0.995 F0.008 (6->5)
N075 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N080 M01
(Finish boring bar)
N085 T0303 M42
N090 G96 S500 M03
N095 G00 G41 X1.35 Z0.1 M08 (7)
N100 G01 Z0 F0.005 (8)
N105 G02 X1.25 Z-0.05 R0.05 (9)
N110 G01 Z-1.0 (10)
N115 X0.8 (11)
N120 G00 Z0.1 (Must exit hole!)
N125 G40 X6.0 Z5.0
N130 M01
(Finish turning tool)
N135 T0404 M42
N140 G96 S600 M03
N145 G00 G42 X1.35 Z0.1 M08 (12)
N150 G01 Z0 F0.007 (13)
N155 X1.65 (14)
N160 G03 X1.75 Z-0.05 R0.05 (15)
N165 G01 Z-0.75
N170 X2.2
N175 G00 G40 X6.0 Z5.0
N180 M30

Page 88

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 89

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of G71 and G70 roughing and finishing

Name:

Date:

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain an understanding of what the program will be doing. Second, study the
tool paths and fill in the coordinate sheet. Note that we are not
supplying you with tool paths for finish boring and finish turning, since youll be using the G70 cycle and basing movements
on the values calculated for G71. While you are missing two or
three points for the finish turning operation, you should be able
to easily determine these points on your own. Third, write the
program for this workpiece using G71 to rough turn and bore and
G70 to finish turn and bore. Remember to use tool nose radius
compensation for the finishing operations.

Score (100 possible):


Coordinate sheet:

Print:

Point

4.2

0.005

-0.062

0.005

-0.062

0.1

4.0

0.1

3.15

0.1

3.15

3.25

-0.05

3.25

-0.125

3.5

-1.0

10

3.5

-1.25

11

3.65

-1.25

12

3.75

-1.3

13

3.75

-1.5

14

4.0

-1.5

15

0.1

16

-2.25

17

1.25

0.1

18

2.85

0.1

19

2.85

20

2.75

-0.05

21

2.75

-0.125

22

2.5

-0.25

23

2.25

-0.25

24

2.0

-0.375

25

2.0

-.05

26

1.5

-1.5

27

1.5

-1.75

28

1.25

-1.75

Process:

Process:
Seq
.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face and turn (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on faces)

80 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.012 ipr

Drill 1.25 hole

1-1/4 drill

270 rpm

0.009 ipr

Rough bore (leave 0.06 on dia, 0.005 on face)

1-1/4 rough boring bar

450 sfm

0.008 ipr

Finish bore (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

1-1/4 finish boring bar

500 sfm

0.005 ipr

Finish face and turn (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

80 degree diamond

600 sfm

0.007 ipr

Page 90

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool Paths:

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 91

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

Program (1.538 points for each correct line)


Note: The machine has a maximum speed of 4000 rpm and this
workpiece does not require spindle limiting. Rough turn with a
depth of cut of 0.200 inch and rough bore with a depth of cut of
0.125.

O0009 (Program number)


(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 G20 G23 G40
N010 G50 S4000
N015 T0101 M41
N018 G96 S500 M03
N020 G00 X4.2 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N025 G99 G01 X-0.062 F0.012 (2)
N030 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N035 X4.0 (4)
N040 G71 P045 Q090 U.06 W.005 D2000
N045 G00 X3.15 (5)
N050 G01 Z0 (6)
N055 G03 X3.25 Z-0.05 R0.05 (7)
N060 G01 Z-0.125 (8)
N065 X3.5 Z-1.0 (9)
N070 Z-1.25 (10)
N075 X3.65 (11)
N080 G03 X3.75 Z-1.3 R0.05 (12)
N085 G01 Z-1.5 (13)
N090 X4.0 (14)
N095 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N100 M01
(1-1/4 drill)
N105 T0202 M41
N110 G97 S270 M03
N115 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (15)
N120 G01 Z-2.25 F0.009 (16)
N125 G00 Z0.1 (17)
N130 X6.0 Z5.0
N135 M01
Page 92

(1-1/4 rough boring bar)


N140 T0303 M41
N145 G96 S450 M03
N150 G00 X1.25 Z0.1 M08 (17)
N155 G71 P160 Q210 U-.06 W.005 D1250
F0.008
N160 G00 X3.35 (18)
N165 G01 Z0 (19)
N170 X2.75 Z-0.05 (20)
N175 Z-0.125 (21)
N180 G03 X2.5 Z-0.25 R0.125 (22)
N185 G01 X2.25 (23)
N190 G02 X2.0 Z-0.375 R0.125 (24)
N195 G01 Z-0.5 (25)
N200 X1.5 Z-1.5 (26)
N205 Z-1.75 (27)
N210 X1.25 (28)
N215 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N220 M01
(1-1/4 finish boring bar)
N225 T0404 M42
N230 G96 S500 M03
N235 G00 G41 X1.25 Z0.1 M08 (17)
N240 G70 P160 Q210 F0.005
N245 G00 G40 X6.0 Z5.0
N250 M01
(Finish face and turn tool)
N255 T0505 M42
N260 G96 S600 M03
N265 G00 X3.45 Z0 M08 (finish face approach)
N270 G01 X2.55 F0.007 (finish face)
N275 G00 Z0.1
N280 G42 X4.0 (4)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

N285 G70 P045 Q090


N290 G00 G40 X6.0 Z5.0
N295 M30

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 93

Answers To Programming Activity

10

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of G72 rough facing cycle

Name:

Date:

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain


an understanding of what the program will be doing.
While you could probably rough this workpiece with
G71, since the the workpiece is large in diameter and
relatively short, instead use the G72 command to rough
the workpiece. Use G70 to finish. Second, study the
tool paths (we only provide them for the finish pass definition for facing and boring) and fill in the coordinate
sheet. Third, write the program for this workpiece.
Point

8.2

0.1

8.2

-1.25

8.0

-1.25

6.5

-1.0

6.5

-0.875

6.25

-0.75

5.75

-0.75

5.5

-0.625

5.5

-0.5

10

4.5

-0.25

11

4.125

-0.25

12

4.0

-0.1875

13

4.0

-0.09

14

3.82

15

-0.062

16

-0.062

0.1

17

0.1

18

-2.33

19

1.0

0.1

20

3.1

0.1

21

3.1

22

3.0

-0.05

Score (100 possible):


Print:

A special note to instructors: If the student


does not label sequence numbers exactly
as we do, the P and Q words for their multiple repetitive cycles will not match ours either. Just be sure that their P and Q words
point to the proper commands for their
program.
Process:

Seq
.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on faces), 0.175 depth

80 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.012 ipr

Drill 1.0 hole

1.0 drill

270 rpm

0.009 ipr

Rough bore (leave 0.06 on dia, 0.005 on face), 0.1 depth of cut

1.0 rough boring bar

450 sfm

0.008 ipr

Finish bore (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

1.0 finish boring bar

500 sfm

0.005 ipr

Finish face (tool has 0.031 nose radius)

80 degree diamond

600 sfm

0.007 ipr

Page 94

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool pahths

Program (1.492 points for each correct line).

Coordinate sheet:
Point

23

3.0

-0.245

24

2.74

-0.375

25

2.6

-0.375

26

2.5

-0.425

27

2.5

-0.81

28

2.12

-1.0

29

1.95

-1.0

30

1.75

-1.1

31

1.75

-1.44

32

1.87

-1.5

33

1.35

-1.5

34

1.25

-1.55

35

1.25

-2.1

36

1.0

-2.1

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Note: The machine has a maximum speed of 4,000 rpm and this
workpiece does not require spindle limitation.

O0010 (Program number)


(Rough facing tool)
N005 G20 G23 G40
N010 G50 S4000
N015 T0101 M41
N020 G99 G96 S500 M03
N025 G00 X8.2 Z0.1 M08 (1)
N030 G72 P035 Q105 U.06 W.005 D1750
F0.012
N035 G00 Z-1.25 (2)
N040 G01 X8.0 (3)

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 95

Answers To Programming Activity

N045 X6.5 Z-1.0 (4)


N050 Z-0.875 (5)
N055 G02 X6.25 Z-0.75 R0.125 (6)
N060 G01 X5.75 (7)
N065 G03 X5.5 Z-0.625 R0.125 (8)
N070 G01 Z-0.5 (9)
N075 X4.5 Z-0.25 (10)
N080 X4.125 (11)
N085 G03 X4.0 Z-0.1875 R0.0625 (12)
N090 G01 Z-0.09 (13)
N095 X3.82 Z0 (14)
N100 X-0.062 (15)
N105 Z-0.1 (16)
N110 G00 10.0 Z5.0
N115 M01

N200 G01 X2.6 (25)


N205 X2.5 Z-0.425 (26)
N210 Z-0.81 (27)
N215 G03 X2.12 Z-1.0 R0.19 (28)
N220 G01 X1.95 (29)
N225 X1.75 Z-1.1 (30)
N230 Z-1.44 (31)
N235 G03 X1.87 Z-1.5 R0.06 (32)
N240 G01 X1.35 (33)
N245 X1.25 Z-1.55 (34)
N250 Z-2.1 (35)
N255 X1.0 (36)
N260 G00 X10.0 Z5.0
N265 M01
(Finish boring bar)
N270 T0404 M42
N275 G96 S500 M03
N280 G00 G41 X1.0 Z0.1 M08 (19)
N285 G70 P175 Q255 F0.005
N290 G00 G40 X10.0 Z5.0
N295 M01

(1.0 drill)
N120 T0202 M41
N125 G97 S270 M03
N130 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (17)
N135 G01 Z-2.33 F0.009 (18)
N140 G00 Z0.1 (17)
N145 X10.0 Z5.0
N150 M01
(Rough boring bar)
N155 T0303 M41
N160 G96 S450 M03
N165 G00 X1.0 Z0.1 M08 (19)
N170 G71 P175 Q255 U-.06 W.005 D1000
F0.008
N175 G00 X3.1 (20)
N180 G01 Z0 (21)
N185 X3.0 Z-0.05 (22)
N190 Z-0.245 (23)
N195 G03 X2.74 Z-0.375 R0.13 (24)
Page 96

Turning Center Workbook

(Finish facing tool)


N300 T0505 M42
N305 G96 S600 M03
N310 G00 G41 X8.2 Z0.1 M08 (1)
N315 G70 P035 Q105 F0.007
N320 G00 G40 X10.0 Z5.0
N325 M30

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 97

Answers To Programming Activity

11

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of G76 threading cycle

Name:

Date:

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain an understanding of what the program will be doing. Second, study the
tool path drawings and fill in the coordinate sheet. Third, write
the program for this workpiece using G76 to machine the thread.
Print

Score (100 possible):


Coordinate sheet:
Point

2.1

0.005

-0.062

0.005

-0.062

0.1

2.0

0.1

0.8

0.1

0.8

1.0

-0.1

1.0

-0.5

1.35

-0.5

10

1.5

-0.575

11

1.5

-1.375

12

2.0

-1.375

13

1.2

14

-0.062

15

-0.062

0.1

16

2.0

0.1

17

1.7

-1.275

18

1.5

-1.375

19

1.3

-1.375

20

1.7

-0.33

21

1.4168

-1.335

Process:
Seq
.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough face and turn (leave 0.06 on dia., 0.005 on faces)

80 degree diamond

400 sfm

0.013 ipr

Finish face and turn

55 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.007 ipr

Neck 1/8 wide thread relief groove

1/8 wide groove tool

550 sfm

0.005 ipr

Chase 1.5 - 18 thread

60 deg. threading tool

1146 rpm

0.0555 ipr

A special note to instructors: If the student


does not label sequence numbers exactly as we
do, the P and Q words for their multiple repetitive cycles will not match ours either. Just be
sure that their P and Q words point to the proper
commands for their program.

Page 98

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

Program (2.083 points for each correct line)


Note: Machine has a maximum spindle speed of 5,000 rpm and
no spindle limitation is necessary for this workpiece. Remember
to use tool nose radius compensation for the finish turning operation.

O0011 (Program number)


(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 G20 G23 G40
N010 G50 S5000
N015 T0101 M41
N020 G96 S400 M03
N025 G00 X2.1 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N030 G99 G01 X-0.062 F0.013 (2)
N035 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N040 X2.0 (4)
CNC Concepts, Inc.

N045 G71 P050 Q080 U.06 W.005 D1500


N050 G00 X0.8 (5)
N055 G01 Z0 (6)
N060 X1.0 Z-0.1 (7)
N065 Z-0.5 (8)
N070 X1.35 (9)
N075 X1.5 Z-0.575 (10)
N078 Z-1.375 (11)
N080 X2.0 (12)
N085 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N090 M01

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 99

Answers To Programming Activity

Turning Center Workbook

(Finish face and turn tool)


N095 T0202 M42
N100 G96 S500 M03
N105 G00 X1.2 Z0 M08 (13)
N110 G01 X-0.062 F0.007 (14)
N115 G00 Z0.1 (15)
N120 X2.0 G42 (16)
N125 G70 P050 Q080
N130 G00 G40 X6.0 Z5.0
N135 M01
(1/8 grooving tool)
N140 T0303 M42
N145 G96 S550 M03
N150 G00 X1.7 Z-1.275 M08 (17)
N155 G01 X1.5 Z-1.375 F0.005 (18)
N160 X1.3 (19)
N163 G04 X0.5 (1/2 second dwell)
N165 G00 X1.7
N170 Z-1.275 (17)
N175 X6.0 Z5.0
N180 M01
(Threading tool)
N185 T0404 M41
N190 G97 S1146 M03
N195 G00 X1.7 Z-0.33 M08 (20)
N200 G76 X1.4168 Z-1.335 D0080
K0.0416 F0.0555 A60
N205 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N210 M30

Page 100

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Answers To Programming Activity

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 101

Answers To Programming Activity

12

Turning Center Workbook

Tests comprehension of subprogramming

Name:

Date:

Instructions: First, study the print and process to gain an understanding of what the program will be doing. Notice the four identical reliefs. These (or something like them) could be grind
reliefs to be machined by the 55 degree diamond shaped finish
turning tool (after finishing rest of the workpiece with G70).
You might even have the same grind relief to machine on several
workpieces. Second, study the tool path drawings and fill in the
coordinate sheet. Third, write the subprogram to the motions
needed to machine one of the grind reliefs (do so incremental).
Fourth, write the main program that uses the subprogram. Use
the first position of the grind relief as a kind of convenient starting position in the main program. Rapid the tool to this position
(for each recess) using absolute positions, and then call the
subprogram.
Print:

Score (100 possible):


Coordiante sheet:
Point

2.0

0.1

0.9

0.1

0.9

1.0

-0.05

1.0

-0.75

1.15

-0.75

1.25

-0.8

1.25

-1.75

1.4

-1.75

10

1.5

-1.8

11

1.5

-2.5

12

1.65

-2.5

13

1.75

-2.55

14

1.75

-3.375

15

2.0

-3.375

16

2.0

0.1

17

1.95

-3.175

18

1.7

-2.3

19

1.45

-1.55

20

1.2

-0.55

21

U-0.2

W0

22

U-0.12

W-0.11

23

U0

W-0.09

24

U0.12

W0

25

U0.2

W0.2

Process:

Seq.

Description

Tool

Station

Speed

Feedrate

Rough turn (leave 0.06 on diameters, 0.005 on faces, 0.125


depth of cut)

80 degree diamond

400 sfm

0.013 ipr

Finish turn

55 degree diamond

500 sfm

0.007 ipr

A special note to instructors: If the student does not label sequence


numbers exactly as we do, the P and Q words for their multiple repetitive cycles will not match ours either. Just be sure that their P
and Q words point to the proper commands for their program.

Page 102

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Workbook

Answers To Programming Activity

Tool paths:

Programs (2.083 points for each correct line):


Note: Machine has a maximum spindle speed of 5,000 rpm and
no spindle limitation is necessary for this workpiece. Remember
to use tool nose radius compensation for the finish turning operation.

O1000 (Subprogram to machine recess)


N001 G01 U-0.2 (21)
N002 U-0.12 W-0.11 (22)
N003 W-0.09 (23)
N004 U0.12 (24)
N005 G00 U0.2 W0.2 (25
CNC Concepts, Inc.

N006 M99
O0012 (Main program)
(Rough turning tool)
N005 G20 G23 G40
N010 G50 S5000
N015 T0101 M41
N020 G99 G96 S400 M03
N025 G00 X2.1 Z0.1 M08 (1)
N030 G71 P035 Q095 U.06 W.005 D1250
F0.013

Machining Center Programming And Operation

Page 103

Answers To Programming Activity

N035 G00 X0.9 (2)


N040 G01 Z0 (3)
N045 X1.0 Z-0.05 (4)
N050 Z-0.75 (5)
N055 X1.15 (6)
N060 X1.25 Z-0.8 (7)
N065 Z-1.75 (8)
N070 X1.4 (9)
N075 X1.5 Z-1.8 (10)
N078 Z-2.5 (11)
N080 X1.65 (12)
N085 X1.75 Z-1.55 (13)
N090 Z-3.375 (14)
N095 X2.0 (15)
N100 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
N105 M01

Turning Center Workbook

N195 M30

(Finish turning tool)


N110 T0202 M42
N115 G96 S500 M03
N120 G00 G42 X2.0 Z0.1 M08 (16)
N125 G70 P035 Q095 F0.007
N130 G00 G40 X1.95 (17 X)
N135 Z-3.175 (17 Z)
N140 M98 P1000 F0.005 (Machine first
recess)
N145 G00 Z-2.3 (18 Z)
N150 X1.7 (18 X)
N155 M98 P1000 (Machine second recess)
N160 Z-1.55 (19 Z)
N165 X1.45 (19 X)
N170 M98 P1000 (Machine third recess)
N175 Z-0.55 (20 Z)
N180 X1.2 (20 X)
N185 M98 P1000 (Machine fourth recess)
N190 G00 X6.0 Z5.0
Page 104

Machining Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

student
initials

11
12
21
15
22
25
16
17
2
3
6
7
8
9
1
4
5
10
13
20
18
24
23
14
19
26
on son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son son 27
s
les
les les
les
les les
les
les les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les
les son
8
les 2

Scores

Tool paths:

CNC Concepts, Inc.


44 Little Cahill Road
Cary, IL 60013
Phone: (847) 639-8847 Fax: (847) 639-8857
web site: http://www.cncci.com

Final Test For Turning Center Programming And Operation


Name:

Date:

Section One: General CNC Questions


1) The spindle speed for a particular tool in a program is incorrect
and you wish to reduce it. The kind of CNC word you must
change is:
q A) an F word q C) an S word
q B) a G word q D) a T word
2) You determine that a feedrate for a particular tool must be 5.0
inches per minute (or 5 millimeters per minute in the metric
mode). The correct designation in the program would be:
q A) F0.5
q C) F5.0
q B) S5.0
q D) F0.005
3) You are running a proven program (one run before) for the first
time in a new setup. You are cautiously allowing the first tool
come into its approach position when you determine that the
tool is not going where it is supposed to. It is most likely that:
q A) the spindle speed is not correct
q B) the program zero designation is not correct
q C) the dry run switch should be turned on
q D) the programmed coordinates are not correct
4) When coordinates going into a program are specified relative to
the program zero point, it is called:
q A) the incremental mode
q B) the absolute mode
q C) the rapid mode
q D) the canned cycle mode
5) What mode switch position allows programs to be modified?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
6) What mode switch position allows a program to be run from
within the CNC control?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
7) What mode switch position allows the activation of a single CNC
command?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
8) What mode switch position allows you to send the machine to its
reference (home) position?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)

9) What mode switch position lets you move the machine axes
manually?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
10) Which on/off switch works in conjunction with a slash code in
the program?
q A) Dry Run
q D) Single Block
q B) Optional Stop q E) Machine Lock
q C) Optional Block Skip/Block Delete
11) Which on/off switch works in conjunction with an M01 in the
program?
q A) Dry Run
q D) Single Block
q B) Optional Stop q E) Machine Lock
q C) Optional Block Skip/Block Delete
12) Which on/off switch makes the control activate one command in
the program at a time and then stop?
q A) Dry Run
q D) Single Block
q B) Optional Stop q E) Machine Lock
q C) Optional Block Skip/Block Delete
13) The Feedrate Override switch lets the operator control the machines movement rate during cutting commands.
q True q False
14) The button used to activate a CNC program is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
15) The button used to temporarily stop the CNC cycle is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
16) The button that will reactivate the CNC program after temporary
stoppage is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
17) The button that will clear data in the look-ahead buffer after a
temporary program stoppage is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On

Test Page One

Final Test
General CNC Questions (continued)
18) The button that will actually turn off the power to the machine
tool is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
19) The display screen mode that lets the operator actually see the
CNC program is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page
20) The display screen mode that lets the operator enter tooling related data is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

meaning (if the program is correct) there is never an excuse to


scrap the first workpiece in a production run.
q True q False
28) How often should you check the way lubrication levels on your
CNC machine?
q A) Once every hour q C) Once every shift
q B) Once every week q D) Once every month
29) While there is never a good excuse for a crash, if you do have a
mishap and your machine crashes, you should:
q A) check visually to see that there is no damage and
continue running production
q B) immediately notify your supervisor
q C) fix any damage and continue running production
q D) stop running production for the balance of your shift

21) The display screen mode that lets the operator most easily see
axis data is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

30) As you are verifying a new program that has never run before,
you find what you consider to be a serious mistake in the programs motions. You should:
q A) do your best to fix the mistake and continue
q B) notify your supervisor so the programmer can be
contacted
q C) assume that the program has been well checked by
the programmer and run the program as it is

22) The display screen page that will be automatically displayed


when the CNC control determines a problem is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

31) When having a problem of almost any kind, it is often helpful to


be able to look at a list of all currently instated commands. The
display screen mode that allows this is:
q A) Program
q C) Offset
q B) Program Check q D) Position

23) The display screen page that allows the operator to see a the
distance-to-go in the current CNC command is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

32) A program stop is encountered (M00) and the machine stops.


However, you are not sure why the program stop is in the program. You should:
q A) press cycle start to resume the programs execution
q B) call up the PROGRAM display screen mode and see if
there is a message telling you what to do near the M00
q C) turn on single block to cautiously step through the
next few commands

24) Say your machine does not allow manual control of the spindle,
yet you must start the spindle during setup. You must:
q A) contact the machine tool builder to have them fix the
machine
q B) write a CNC program that starts the spindle at your
desired speed
q C) use the MDI mode to activate the spindle
q D) give up. There is no way to start the spindle
25) As part of the machine start up procedure, you must send the
machine to its zero return (home) position.
q True q False
26) Proven CNC programs (those run before) require no program
verification procedures.
q True q False
27) There is always some way to adjust offsets to ensure that every
tool in every program will machine with a little excess stock,

Test Page Two

33) While running a new program, the machine goes into alarm
state and shows alarm number 41 with the message Overcutting
will occur during cutter radius compensation. You should:
q A) restart the program and try again
q B) turn on single block and cautiously run the next few
commands
q C) consult the alarm list in the operation manual to further diagnose the alarm
34) After diagnosing an alarm it is possible that you must:
q A) change a tool offset value
q B) edit commands in the program
q C) press the reset button to cancel the alarm
q D) all of the above

Final Test
Section Two: Turning Center Questions
35) A turning centers diameter controlling axis is its X axis.
q True q False
36) Spindle speed for a turning center can be specified in:
q A) only RPM
q B) only surface feet per minute (SFM)
q C) both RPM and SFM
q D) inches per revolution
37) Feedrate can be specified in:
q A) only feed per revolution (IPR in inch mode)
q B) only feed per minute (IPM in inch mode)
q C) both feed per minute and feed per revolution
q D) RPM
38) For almost all turning centers, program zero must be assigned
for every tool. These numbers almost always represent:
q A) the distance between program zero and the chuck face
q B) the distance between program zero and the machines
zero return (home) position
q C) the largest diameter and length the machine can turn
q D) the distance from the floor to the spindle centerline
39) Once the program zero assigning values are determined for
each tool, they must be placed:
q A) in the program at the beginning of each tool in a G50
command (G92 on some machines)
q B) in the corresponding geometry offsets
q C) in tool wear offsets
q D) A or B, depending on the method of program zero assignment
40) You need to index the turret to station number five. However,
the machine has no manual buttons and switches to allow turret
indexing. You must:
q A) contact the machine tool builder to fix the machine
q B) write a short program to make the turret index
q C) use the MDI mode to command the turret to index using program-like commands
q D) you cannot manually activate the turret index on this
machine
41) You are verifying a new program, cautiously allowing each tool
to approach the workpiece using single block and dry run. Tools
one and two run just fine. However, you are worried that tool
number three will not stop in its proper approach position, so
when the tool comes within about one inch of the workpiece in Z,
you press feed hold and check the DISTANCE-TO-GO page on
the display screen. Sure enough, the distance to go page reads a
distance of -3.5057 inches. It is likely that:
q A) the Z axis geometry offset for tool three is incorrect
q B) the programmed approach coordinate is incorrect
q C) the Z axis work shift value is incorrect
q D) any of the above

42) You are running the first workpiece with a proven program (one
that has run before). Tool number two is a finish turning tool
that machines a 3.0000 in +- 0.0005 diameter. After running
tool number two and find this diameter to be 3.0020 in. You
must
q A) increase tool number twos wear offset in X by 0.0020
q B) decrease tool number twos wear offset in X by
0.0020
q C) increase tool number twos wear offset in Z by 0.0020
q D) decrease tool number twos wear offset in Z by
0.0020
q E) change the program to make the tool cut 0.0020 in
smaller
43) After the problem described in question number 53 is corrected,
you must rerun tool number two. You must:
q A) rerun the entire program to get to tool number two
q B) you cannot rerun tools once they have cut
q C) write a small program just for tool number two
q D) turn on the optional stop switch, scan to the beginning block of tool number two, and run the program
from there
44) You are running the first workpiece in a new setup with a proven
program. You notice a very close tolerance on an outside diameter that is to be finish turned by tool number three. You should:
q A) simply run the finish turning tool. If the geometry offset and the programmed coordinates are correct, the
workpiece will come out right to size.
q B) increase tool number threes wear offset by a small
amount to force it to leave some excess stock on the diameter. Let tool three cut an measure what it does. Adjust the wear offset accordingly and rerun tool three.
q C) there is no way to ensure that this diameter will be
machined perfectly for the first workpiece.
q D) adjust the Z offset so the tool stays away from the
surface being machined.
45) As the finish turning tool described in question 55 continues to
machine workpieces, it will eventually begin to wear. What will
you have to do several times during the tools life in order to
keep the tool machining the workpiece to the proper diameter?
q A) Reduce the tools wear offset value in X.
q B) Reduce the tools wear offset value in Z.
q C) Increase the tools wear offset value in X.
q D) Increase the tools wear offset value in Z.
46) Eventually the insert in the finish turning tool described in
question 55 must be replaced (or indexed). When this is done,
you must also:
q A) increase the X offset back to its original value
q B) decrease the X offset back to its original value
q C) increase the Z offset back to its original value
q D) decrease the Z offset back to its original value

Test Page Three

Final Test For Turning Center Programming And Operation


Name:

Date:

Section One: General CNC Questions


1) The spindle speed for a particular tool in a program is incorrect
and you wish to reduce it. The kind of CNC word you must
change is:
q A) an F word n C) an S word
q B) a G word q D) a T word
2) You determine that a feedrate for a particular tool must be 5.0
inches per minute (or 5 millimeters per minute in the metric
mode). The correct designation in the program would be:
q A) F0.5
n C) F5.0
q B) S5.0
q D) F0.005
3) You are running a proven program (one run before) for the first
time in a new setup. You are cautiously allowing the first tool
come into its approach position when you determine that the
tool is not going where it is supposed to. It is most likely that:
q A) the spindle speed is not correct
n B) the program zero designation is not correct
q C) the dry run switch should be turned on
q D) the programmed coordinates are not correct
4) When coordinates going into a program are specified relative to
the program zero point, it is called:
q A) the incremental mode
n B) the absolute mode
q C) the rapid mode
q D) the canned cycle mode
5) What mode switch position allows programs to be modified?
q A) Jog
n D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
6) What mode switch position allows a program to be run from
within the CNC control?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
n B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
7) What mode switch position allows the activation of a single CNC
command?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
n C) MDI (manual data Input)
8) What mode switch position allows you to send the machine to its
reference (home) position?
q A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
n E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)

9) What mode switch position lets you move the machine axes
manually?
n A) Jog
q D) Edit
q B) Auto
q E) Zero return
q C) MDI (manual data Input)
10) Which on/off switch works in conjunction with a slash code in
the program?
q A) Dry Run
q D) Single Block
q B) Optional Stop q E) Machine Lock
n C) Optional Block Skip/Block Delete
11) Which on/off switch works in conjunction with an M01 in the
program?
q A) Dry Run
q D) Single Block
n B) Optional Stop q E) Machine Lock
q C) Optional Block Skip/Block Delete
12) Which on/off switch makes the control activate one command in
the program at a time and then stop?
q A) Dry Run
n D) Single Block
q B) Optional Stop q E) Machine Lock
q C) Optional Block Skip/Block Delete
13) The Feedrate Override switch lets the operator control the machines movement rate during cutting commands.
n True q False
14) The button used to activate a CNC program is:
q A) Reset
n D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
15) The button used to temporarily stop the CNC cycle is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop n E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
16) The button that will reactivate the CNC program after temporary
stoppage is:
q A) Reset
n D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
17) The button that will clear data in the look-ahead buffer after a
temporary program stoppage is:
n A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
q B) Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On

Test Page One

Final Test
General CNC Questions (continued)
18) The button that will actually turn off the power to the machine
tool is:
q A) Reset
q D) Cycle Start
n B Emergency Stop q E) Feed Hold
q C) Coolant On
19) The display screen mode that lets the operator actually see the
CNC program is the:
q A) Offset page
n D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page
20) The display screen mode that lets the operator enter tooling related data is the:
n A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

meaning (if the program is correct) there is never an excuse to


scrap the first workpiece in a production run.
n True q False
28) How often should you check the way lubrication levels on your
CNC machine?
q A) Once every hour n C) Once every shift
q B) Once every week q D) Once every month
29) While there is never a good excuse for a crash, if you do have a
mishap and your machine crashes, you should:
q A) check visually to see that there is no damage and
continue running production
n B) immediately notify your supervisor
q C) fix any damage and continue running production
q D) stop running production for the balance of your shift

21) The display screen mode that lets the operator most easily see
axis data is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
n B) Position page q E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

30) As you are verifying a new program that has never run before,
you find what you consider to be a serious mistake in the programs motions. You should:
q A) do your best to fix the mistake and continue
n B) notify your supervisor so the programmer can be
contacted
q C) assume that the program has been well checked by
the programmer and run the program as it is

22) The display screen page that will be automatically displayed


when the CNC control determines a problem is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page q E) Program Check page
n C) Alarm page

31) When having a problem of almost any kind, it is often helpful to


be able to look at a list of all currently instated commands. The
display screen mode that allows this is:
q A) Program
q C) Offset
n B) Program Check q D) Position

23) The display screen page that allows the operator to see a the
distance-to-go in the current CNC command is the:
q A) Offset page
q D) Program page
q B) Position page n E) Program Check page
q C) Alarm page

32) A program stop is encountered (M00) and the machine stops.


However, you are not sure why the program stop is in the program. You should:
q A) press cycle start to resume the programs execution
n B) call up the PROGRAM display screen mode and see if
there is a message telling you what to do near the M00
q C) turn on single block to cautiously step through the
next few commands

24) Say your machine does not allow manual control of the spindle,
yet you must start the spindle during setup. You must:
q A) contact the machine tool builder to have them fix the
machine
q B) write a CNC program that starts the spindle at your
desired speed
n C) use the MDI mode to activate the spindle
q D) give up. There is no way to start the spindle
25) As part of the machine start up procedure, you must send the
machine to its zero return (home) position.
n True q False
26) Proven CNC programs (those run before) require no program
verification procedures.
q True n False
27) There is always some way to adjust offsets to ensure that every
tool in every program will machine with a little excess stock,

Test Page Two

33) While running a new program, the machine goes into alarm
state and shows alarm number 41 with the message Overcutting
will occur during cutter radius compensation. You should:
q A) restart the program and try again
q B) turn on single block and cautiously run the next few
commands
n C) consult the alarm list in the operation manual to further diagnose the alarm
34) After diagnosing an alarm it is possible that you must:
q A) change a tool offset value
q B) edit commands in the program
q C) press the reset button to cancel the alarm
n D) all of the above

Final Test
Section Two: Turning Center Questions
35) A turning centers diameter controlling axis is its X axis.
n True q False
36) Spindle speed for a turning center can be specified in:
q A) only RPM
q B) only surface feet per minute (SFM)
n C) both RPM and SFM
q D) inches per revolution
37) Feedrate can be specified in:
q A) only feed per revolution (IPR in inch mode)
q B) only feed per minute (IPM in inch mode)
n C) both feed per minute and feed per revolution
q D) RPM
38) For almost all turning centers, program zero must be assigned
for every tool. These numbers almost always represent:
q A) the distance between program zero and the chuck face
n B) the distance between program zero and the machines
zero return (home) position
q C) the largest diameter and length the machine can turn
q D) the distance from the floor to the spindle centerline
39) Once the program zero assigning values are determined for
each tool, they must be placed:
q A) in the program at the beginning of each tool in a G50
command (G92 on some machines)
q B) in the corresponding geometry offsets
q C) in tool wear offsets
n D) A or B, depending on the method of program zero assignment
40) You need to index the turret to station number five. However,
the machine has no manual buttons and switches to allow turret
indexing. You must:
q A) contact the machine tool builder to fix the machine
q B) write a short program to make the turret index
n C) use the MDI mode to command the turret to index using program-like commands
q D) you cannot manually activate the turret index on this
machine
41) You are verifying a new program, cautiously allowing each tool
to approach the workpiece using single block and dry run. Tools
one and two run just fine. However, you are worried that tool
number three will not stop in its proper approach position, so
when the tool comes within about one inch of the workpiece in Z,
you press feed hold and check the DISTANCE-TO-GO page on
the display screen. Sure enough, the distance to go page reads a
distance of -3.5057 inches. It is likely that:
q A) the Z axis geometry offset for tool three is incorrect
q B) the programmed approach coordinate is incorrect
q C) the Z axis work shift value is incorrect
n D) any of the above

42) You are running the first workpiece with a proven program (one
that has run before). Tool number two is a finish turning tool
that machines a 3.0000 in +- 0.0005 diameter. After running
tool number two and find this diameter to be 3.0020 in. You
must
q A) increase tool number twos wear offset in X by 0.0020
n B) decrease tool number twos wear offset in X by
0.0020
q C) increase tool number twos wear offset in Z by 0.0020
q D) decrease tool number twos wear offset in Z by
0.0020
q E) change the program to make the tool cut 0.0020 in
smaller
43) After the problem described in question number 53 is corrected,
you must rerun tool number two. You must:
q A) rerun the entire program to get to tool number two
q B) you cannot rerun tools once they have cut
q C) write a small program just for tool number two
n D) turn on the optional stop switch, scan to the beginning block of tool number two, and run the program
from there
44) You are running the first workpiece in a new setup with a proven
program. You notice a very close tolerance on an outside diameter that is to be finish turned by tool number three. You should:
q A) simply run the finish turning tool. If the geometry offset and the programmed coordinates are correct, the
workpiece will come out right to size.
n B) increase tool number threes wear offset by a small
amount to force it to leave some excess stock on the diameter. Let tool three cut an measure what it does. Adjust the wear offset accordingly and rerun tool three.
q C) there is no way to ensure that this diameter will be
machined perfectly for the first workpiece.
q D) adjust the Z offset so the tool stays away from the
surface being machined.
45) As the finish turning tool described in question 55 continues to
machine workpieces, it will eventually begin to wear. What will
you have to do several times during the tools life in order to
keep the tool machining the workpiece to the proper diameter?
n A) Reduce the tools wear offset value in X.
q B) Reduce the tools wear offset value in Z.
q C) Increase the tools wear offset value in X.
q D) Increase the tools wear offset value in Z.
46) Eventually the insert in the finish turning tool described in
question 55 must be replaced (or indexed). When this is done,
you must also:
n A) increase the X offset back to its original value
q B) decrease the X offset back to its original value
q C) increase the Z offset back to its original value
q D) decrease the Z offset back to its original value

Test Page Three

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 1

Lesson 1

Turning Center
Programming And Operation
Lesson One:
Machine Configurations
Copyright 2002, CNC Concepts, Inc.

Note that we provide a presentation named Introduction to let you introduce some
important points about the course. In this presentation, were digging in to subject
matter.
Lesson one is the first of seven consecutive lessons related to key concept number
one. In this lesson you will introduce students to the various types of turning
centers available, and to their most common programmable features.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes

Lesson 1

Slide #: 2

You must understand the


Key Concept
Number One machine youll be working with!
FANUC
POWER
ON

10T

O
X
I
F
M

X00.0000
Z00.0000

OFF

N
Y
J
D
S]
V

P AGE

G P A
Z Q B
K R C
H L #
T EOB /

Sp

8 9
5 6
2 3
0
=

7
4
1
+

RESET

START

CALC

CAN

INPUT

CURSOR
NC/PC

SHIFT

AUX

CYCLE
START

FEED
HOLD

MDI

JOG

AUTO
EDIT
100%

ON

HANDLE

OFF

DRY
RUN

ZERO

MODE RETURN

X+

0%

X-

200%

ON

OFF
SPINDLE

OPTIONAL
STOP

BLOCK
DELETE
ORIGIN

ON

MEMORY
PROTECT
7

X1
Z

X10

X100

9 10 11
12

5
4
3

SLOW

FAST

TURRET INDEX

100%

100%
0%

RAPID
OVERRIDE

FEEDRATE
OVERRIDE

JOYSTICK

EMERGENCY
STOP

MACHINE
LOCK

OFF
100%

10%
Z+

Z-

SINGLE
BLOCK

50%

25%

130%

0%

130%

OD

ID

AXIS LOAD

SPINDLE LOAD

CLAMP
DIRECTION

Key concept #1
CHUCK

TAILSTOCK

From programmers viewpoint


Key concept #7
From operators viewpoint
Lesson one is part of key concept number one, Know Your Machine. You must
point out that it is from two distinctly different perspectives a beginner must
understand the CNC turning center. Here, in key concept number one, we
concentrate on having the student view the machine from a programmers
viewpoint. Later, in key concept number seven, well have them look at it from an
operators standpoint.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 3

Lesson 1
3

You must understand the


Key Concept
Number One machine youll be working with!

Seven Lessons
!Machine configurations
!Understanding turning center feeds and speeds
!General flow of CNC Usage
!Visualizing the execution of a CNC program
!Understanding program zero
!Determining program zero assignment values
!Three ways to assign program zero

We begin each key concept by listing the lessons related to the key concept. Here
are the seven lessons related to key concept number one.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes

Lesson 1

Slide #: 17

17

Lesson One Lesson Plan

!
!

Basic machining practice


Machine configurations

Programmable functions

1 1

! Universal slant bed


! Chucker slant bed
! Twin spindle horizontal
! Single/twin spindle vertical
! Mill/turn machines

Each lesson begins with a lesson plan to help you introduce the main topics of the
lesson. Here is the lesson plan for lesson number one. Note that each lesson plan
will also point out the page number at which the lesson begins in the student manual
(in upper right corner).

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 18

Lesson 1
18

Presentation links
Key concept #1
Basic machining practice
Machine configurations
Universal slant bed
Chucker
Twin spindle horizontal
Sub-spindle
Single spindle vertical
Twin spindle vertical
Mill / turn
Gang style
Sliding headstock

Programmable features
Turret
Spindle
Feedrate
Coolant

This slide (with underlined topics) provides hypertext links to each of the topics. Notice the return
button at the lower left hand corner of each slide. Clicking on it at any time will return you to this
slide. This will provide you with several ways to make presentations.
1) Make the entire presentation
You can simply skip this slide (advance to the next slide) if you want to make the entire presentation.
Just remember that if you get into an area that youd not like to cover at the present time, you can
always click the return button to come back to this slide.
2) Skipping topics
To skip topics all together, simply click on the topic at which youd like to start. When finished,
click the return button to come back to this page. This makes a great way to get around if you ended
the last session at the end of one of the topics.
3) Use the elevator bar to get to a specific slide.
Remember that in the full version of PowerPoint (not just the viewer), you can click on the elevator
bar and move it to bring the presentation to a specific slide. The slide numbers at the top of each of
these pages (instructor notes) match slide numbers in the actual presentation.
4) Bullet points for reviews
Having this slide available when you review will allow you remember to recap all important topics.
If students are confused during your review, you can quickly jump to the topic in question and represent the material.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 19

Lesson 1
19

Basic Machining Practice


The Key To Proper CNC
Machine Usage!

You must understand basic machining


practice as it relates to turning centers

We assume that students entering this course already know basic machining practice
as it relates to turning centers. Here we simply list those things the student should
already know. Depending upon the level of your own students, you may have to
dive deeper, explaining more about basic machining practice. However, if students
know little in this area, it should be taken as a signal that they should take a course
specifically for basic machining practice.
We do provide a lengthy presentation in the student manual about the kinds of
machining operations turning centers can perform. While this will acquaint students
with many important points about those things a student must know to complete this
course, it is not intended to replace a full course on basic machining practices.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 26

Lesson 1
26

Machine Configurations

Turning centers are


available in several styles

This series of slides helps you explain the various types of turning centers available.
However, you may wish to minimize how much you present to avoid confusing
newcomers with too many machine types. We recommend showing just those
machine types that you know your students will be working with in class (and in the
near future). Generally speaking, this means two axis universal slant bed turning
centers.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 27

There are many forms of CNC


turning centers
Universal slant bed
Chucker slant bed
Twin spindle horizontal
Single spindle vertical
Twin spindle vertical
Mill/turn machines
Gang type
Sliding headstock
In all cases
X will be the diameter controlling axis
Z will be the length controlling axis

Lesson 1
27

Here is a list of machine types that we provide introductions to. Again, (using the
presentation links slide) you may want to show only the style of machine that you
know students will be working with.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes

Lesson 1

Slide #: 33

Turret

Universal style slant bed turning center

This is the last slide in a series that helps you introduce the most basic components
(headstock, chuck, tailstock, and turret).

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 34

Lesson 1
34

Thats why its called a universal style

A universal slant bed turning


center can perform all types of
turning applications:
Chucker work
Shaft work
Bar work

Universal style slant bed turning center

This slide helps you explain why this machine type is called a universal style.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes

Lesson 1

Slide #: 35

Z Axis

Universal style slant bed turning center

The next series of slides is an animation that helps you illustrate the Z axis. After
that, we show the X axis.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 95

Lesson 1

+
If you want to turn a 3.0 inch diameter

3.000

X Axis

X is DIAMETER

X3.0
X3.0 will be the commanding word

Universal style slant bed turning center

Also be sure to point out that, for most turning centers, the X axis specifies the
diameter of the workpiece being machined.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 96

Lesson 1
96

X Axis

X is DIAMETER
Once again:
3.000
X is always the diameter-controlling axis
Z is always the length controlling axis

Also:
X+: always gets bigger in diameter
Z+: always away from the spindle

X3.0

Though some machine tool builders


reverse the polarity of the X axis

Universal style slant bed turning center

Upcoming slides help you illustrate all other popular forms of CNC turning centers.
Point out that they all share two things in common. X always controls diameter Z
always control workpiece length. And X plus is always getting bigger in diameter
Z plus is the direction away from the spindle face.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes

Lesson 1

Slide #: 100
Same basic components, but

Headstock
Chuck
Turret
NO Tailstock!

Chucker style slant bed turning center

We do the same things for chucker style, twin spindle horizontal style, single
spindle vertical style, and all other styles of CNC turning centers. First we
introduce the main components - and then we introduce the axes (including
polarity).

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 130

Lesson 1
130

Could be a drill, tap,


reamer, end mill, etc.

These machines can rotate


cutting tools (called live tooling)
Mill/Turn Machines

We also include visuals to help you describe mill/turn machines.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 143

Lesson 1
143

Programmable Features

All turning centers have several


important programmable features

This series of slides helps you describe the most popular programmable features of
turning centers.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 144

All turning centers have certain


programmable features
Turret index
Spindle activation
Feedrate
Coolant

Lesson 1
144

Some turning centers have additional


programmable features

Jaw open/close
Tailstock positioning
Door open/close
Others?
Here are the most popular programmable features. With upcoming slides, youll be
introducing them one by one.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 147

Lesson 1
147

Turret index:
Four digit T word

Wear offset number

T0101
Turret station number &
geometry offset number
With most turning centers, the turret will simply
take the shortest direction to the commanded
station (bi-directional turrets)

In this series of slides, you explain that the turret of a turning center is
programmable. A T word specifies the turret index and with most machines, it is a
four digit word. The first two digits specify the station number and geometry offset
number. The second two digits specify the wear offset number.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 151

Lesson 1
151

Spindle activation:
Spindle is programmable in four ways:
1) Speed type
2) Speed
3) Direction
4) Range

Point out that the spindle is programmed in four ways. Upcoming slides help you
illustrate each way.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 167

Lesson 1
167

Feedrate:
You can specify the feedrate for
cutting motions in one of two ways
G98 In per minute fashion

Inches or millimeters
per minute

or
G99 In per revolution fashion

Inches or millimeters
per revolution

An F word specifies the feedrate


In inch mode:

G99 F0.005 (0.005 inches per revolution)


G98 F15.0 (15.0 inches per minute)
Explain that feedrate is also programmable and it can be handled in two ways
feed per revolution and feed per minute. Upcoming slides help you illustrate how.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 171

Lesson 1
171

Coolant:
Two more M codes control flood coolant:
M08: Turn flood coolant on
M09: Turn flood coolant off
Coolant is, of course, used to cool and
lubricate the cutting operation

Next point out that flood coolant is also programmable.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Instructors Notes
Slide #: 173

All turning centers have certain


programmable features
Turret index
Spindle activation
Feedrate
Coolant

Lesson 1
173

Some turningThese
centers
have additional
functions are almost
programmable
features
always
handled with M codes

Jaw open/close
Tailstock positioning
Door open/close
Others?
Be sure students understand that turning centers vary when it comes to how many
programmable features they have.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Turning Center
Programming And Operation
Second Edition
FANUC

10T

O
X
I
F
M

X00.0000
Z00.0000

POWER
ON

OFF

N
Y
J
D
S]
V

PAGE

G
Z
K
H
T

P
Q
R
L

EOB)

A
B
C
#
/

8 9
5 6
2 3
0
=

7
4
1
+

Sp

RESET

START

CALC

CAN

INPUT

CURSOR
NC/PC

SHIFT

AUX

CYCLE
START

FEED
HOLD

MDI

JOG

AUTO

OFF

DRY
RUN

ZERO

EDIT

MODE RETURN

100%

0%

X-

200%
FEEDRATE
OVERRIDE

EMERGENCY
STOP

ON

OFF
SPINDLE

0%

100%

130%

RAPID
OVERRIDE

0%

SLOW
100%

5
4
3

FAST

130%

OD

OPTIONAL
STOP

BLOCK
DELETE
ORIGIN

ON

MEMORY
PROTECT

Z+

JOYSTICK

MACHINE
LOCK

100%

10%

SINGLE
BLOCK

OFF

50%

25%

X+
Z-

X1
Z

X10

X100

9 10 11
12

TURRET INDEX

ID

AXIS LOAD

SPINDLE LOAD

CHUCK

ON

HANDLE

CLAMP
DIRECTION

TAILSTOCK

Published By:

Copyright 1998, CNC Concepts, Inc.


Written by Mike Lynch

NOTICE!!
This manual is protected by copyright laws of the
United States Government. No part of this manual
may be reproduced without the written consent of CNC
Concepts, Inc. Additional copies of this document
must be directly purchased from CNC Concepts, Inc.
(847) 639-8847
Document number S00015 rev 5

Turning Center Programming Quick Reference Card


G Codes
Code Description

InitialStatus ized Modal

Code

Description

InitialStatus ized Modal

G00
G01
G02
G03
G04

Rapid motion
Straight line cutting motion
CW circular cutting motion
CCW circular cutting motion
Dwell

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

Yes
No
No
No
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No

G70
G71
G72
G73
G74

Finishing cycle
Rough turn/bore cycle
Rough facing cycle
Pattern repeating cycle
Peck drilling cycle

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

G09
G10
G17
G18
G19

Exact stop check, one shot


Offset input by program
XY plane selection- (Y axis
XZ plane selection- machines
YZ plane selection- only)

Std
Opt
Std
Std
Std

No
No
Yes
No
No

No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes

G75
G76

Grooving cycle
Threading cycle

Std
Std

No
No

Yes
Yes

G20
G21
G22
G23
G27

Inch mode
Metric mode
Stored stroke limit instating
Stored stroke limit cancel
Zero return check

Std
Std
Opt
Opt
Std

Yes
No
No
Yes
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No

G80
G81
G82
G83
G84

Cancel canned cycle


Drilling cycle
Counterboring cycle
Deep hole peck drilling cycle
Right hand tapping cycle

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

Yes
No
No
No
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

G28
G29
G30
G31
G40

Zero return command


Return from zero return
Second reference point return
Skip cutting for probe
Cancel tool nose radius comp.

Std
Std
Opt
Opt
Std

No
No
No
No
Yes

No
No
No
No
Yes

G85
G86
G87
G88
G89

Reaming cycle
Boring cycle
Back boring cycle
Boring cycle
Boring cycle with dwell

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

G41
G42
G50
G54

Tool nose radius comp. left


Tool nose radius comp. right
1) Spindle speed limiter
2) Program zero designator
Instate fixture offset #1

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

G90
G92
G94
G96
G97

One pass turn/bore cycle


One pass treading cycle
One pass facing cycle
Constant surface speed mode
RPM mode

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

G55
G56
G57
G58
G59

Instate fixture offset #2


Instate fixture offset #3
Instate fixture offset #4
Instate fixture offset #5
Instate fixture offset #6

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

G98
G99

Feed per minute mode


Feed per revolution mode

Std
Std

No
Yes

Yes
Yes

G61
G64
G65
G66
G67

Exact stop check mode


Normal cutting (cancel G61)
Custom macro call
Custom macro modal call
Cancel custom macro call

Std
Opt
Opt
Opt
Opt

No
No
No
No
Yes

Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No

Notes about G codes: 1) Machine tool builders vary


dramatically with regard to which G codes they make
standard. 2) Parameters control the initialized state of
certain G code groups (like G20-G21). 3) Not all
control models include all G codes shown in this list.

Common M codes
Code Description

G80-G89 live tooling only

Other M codes you may have


InitialStatus ized Modal Code Description

InitialStatus ized Modal

M00
M01
M02
M03
M04

Program stop
Optional stop
End of program (no rewind)
Spindle on forward (CW)
Spindle on reverse (CCW)

Std
Std
Std
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
No

No
No
No
Yes
Yes

____
____
____
____
____

Jaw open command


Jaw close command
Tailstock body forward
Tailstock body back
Tailstoc quill forward

___
___
___
___
___

___
___
___
___
___

___
___
___
___
___

M05
M06
M07
M08
M09

Spindle off
Bar feeder command
Mist coolant
Flood coolant
Coolant off

Std
Std
Opt
Std
Std

No
No
No
No
Yes

Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes

____
____
____
____
____

Tailstock quill back


Low jaw clamping pressure
High jaw clamping pressure
________________________
________________________

___
___
___
___
___

___
___
___
___
___

___
___
___
___
___

M30
M98
M99

End of program (rewinds)


Subprogram call
Subprogram return

Std
Std
Std

No
No
No

No
No
No

____
____
____
____

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

___
___
___
___

___
___
___
___

___
___
___
___

As with G codes, M code numbers vary dramatically from one machine tool builder to another. Be sure
to check the M codes list that comes with your machine to see what other M codes you may have.

Table of Contents
Part One: Programming, 1-1
Key concept number one - know your machine, 1-1
Lesson 1 - Machine configurations, 1-1
Basic machining practice related to turning centers, 1-1
External versus internal operations, 1-2
Right hand versus left hand tools, 1-3
High speed steel (hss) versus carbide insert tools, 1-4
Carbide insert tools, 1-4
Chip breaker, 1-4
Clamp and retaining pin, 1-4
Clearance angle, 1-5
Cutting edge, 1-5
Insert, 1-5
Lead angle, 1-5
Holder, 1-5
Nose radius, 1-5
Tool life, 1-5
Chatter (vibration), 1-6
Part finish, 1-6
Rake angle and relief angle, 1-6
Seat, 1-6
Square shank versus round shank, 1-6
Understanding tool geometry, 1-6
How carbide inserts are specified, 1-6
First letter (shape):, 1-7
Second letter (relief angle):, 1-7
Third letter (tolerances):, 1-8
Forth letter (type of insert), 1-8
First digit (size of insert), 1-9
Second digit (thickness), 1-9
Third digit (tool nose radius), 1-9
Tool holder types, 1-9
Diamond shaped carbide insert turning tools, 1-9
Eighty degree diamond shaped insert turning tools, 1-10
Positive lead angle 80 degree tool holders, 1-11
Positive lead angle 80 degree facing tool holder, 1-13
Eighty Degree Profiling Tool, 1-13
Fifty-five degree diamond turning tool holders, 1-14
Thirty-five degree diamond tools, 1-16
Triangular shaped insert turning tool holders, 1-17
Turning tool holders for round inserts, 1-18
Carbide insert grooving tools, 1-20
Contour grooving, 1-22
Cut-off tools (also called parting tools), 1-23
Single point threading tools, 1-23
Internal machining operations on turning centers, 1-25
Drilling, 1-25
Boring Bars, 1-28
Clearance angle, 1-29

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page One

Insert, 1-29
Lead angle, 1-29
Nose angle, 1-29
Nose radius, 1-29
Protrusion, 1-30
Rake angle and relief angle, 1-30
Shank diameter, 1-30
Shank support, 1-30
Rough boring, 1-30
Back boring bars, 1-34
Internal grooving tools, 1-35
Internal threading tools, 1-36
Roughing versus semi-finishing versus finishing, 1-36
Conclusion to turning center machining operations, 1-37
Machine configurations, 1-39
The two most basic directions of motion, 1-39
Any other axes?, 1-39
Universal slant bed turning centers, 1-40
Chucking style slant bed turning centers, 1-41
Twin spindle horizontal bed turning centers, 1-41
Vertical single spindle turning centers, 1-42
Twin spindle vertical turning centers, 1-42
Engine lathe style CNC turning centers, 1-43
Gang style turning centers, 1-44
Programmable functions of turning centers, 1-44
Turret indexing (tool changing), 1-44
Spindle speed and activation, 1-45
Feedrate specification, 1-45
Spindle range changing, 1-45
Coolant, 1-46
Tailstock, 1-46
Bar feeders and chuck activation, 1-46
Part catchers, 1-46
Programmable steady rests, 1-47
Live tooling and rotary devices, 1-47
Exceptions to X axis, 1-47
Two turrets on the same cross slide, 1-47
Center cutting axis, 1-47
Tool touch off probes , 1-48
Automatic tool changing devices, 1-48
Lesson 2, 1-49
Understanding turning center speeds and feeds, 1-49
The two ways to select spindle speed, 1-49
Two times when rpm mode must be used, 1-51
The two ways to specify feedrate, 1-51
Warning about feedrate modes, 1-52
Lesson 3, 1-53
General flow of CNC usage, 1-53
Company types that use CNC turning centers, 1-53
Product-producing companies, 1-53
Workpiece-producing companies, 1-53
Tooling-producing companies, 1-53

Page Two

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Prototype-producing companies, 1-53


Factors that further determine company profile, 1-53
Personnel utilization, 1-54
Repeat business, 1-54
Percentage of new business, 1-54
Lead time, 1-54
Lot sizes, 1-55
Cycle times, 1-55
Similarity of work, 1-55
Typical flow of the CNC process, 1-55
Decision is made as to which turning center to use (new and repeat jobs), 1-55
The machining process is developed (new jobs only), 1-55
Tooling is ordered and checked (new and repeat jobs), 1-56
The program is developed (new jobs only), 1-56
Set up and production run documentation is made (new programs only), 1-56
Program is loaded into the CNC controls memory (new and repeated jobs), 1-57
The setup is made (new and repeated jobs), 1-57
The program is cautiously verified and optimized (new and repeated jobs), 1-57
Production is run (new and repeated jobs), 1-57
Corrected version of the program is stored for future use (new jobs), 1-58
Lesson 4, 1-59
Visualizing the execution of a CNC program, 1-59
Program make-up, 1-59
Method of program execution, 1-60
An example of program execution, 1-60
A few notes about program structure, 1-61
Decimal point programming, 1-61
Modal words, 1-62
Initialized words, 1-62
Word order in a command, 1-62
Lesson 5, 1-63
Understanding program zero and the rectangular coordinate system, 1-63
Where to place the program zero point, 1-66
Print dimensioning for chamfers, tapers, and radii, 1-68
Absolute versus incremental programming, 1-69
Lesson 6, 1-72
Determining program zero assignment values, 1-72
What are program zero assignment values?, 1-72
The program zero assignment values, 1-73
Measuring program zero assignment values, 1-74
Measuring program zero assignment values - tool touch-off probe, 1-74
Manually measuring program zero assignment values, 1-76
Calculating and retaining program zero assignment values, 1-78
Other considerations with program zero assignment values, 1-79
Lesson 7, 1-81
The three ways to assign program zero, 1-81
Assigning program zero from within the program, 1-81
Making the machine more efficient, 1-82
Assigning program zero with geometry offsets, 1-84
What about work shift?, 1-86
Assigning program zero with tool touch-off probes, 1-86

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page Three

What about work shift?, 1-87


Lesson 8, 1-88
Introduction To Programming Words, 1-88
G and M codes, 1-91
G codes, 1-91
Note on option G Codes, 1-91
What does initialized mean?, 1-91
How many G codes are allowed per command?, 1-92
List of G codes for a typical turning center, 1-92
Typical M codes, 1-93
How many M codes are allowed per command?, 1-93
Why Learn Manual Programming?, 1-94
Conclusion to key concept number one, 1-94

Key concept number two - Preparation for programming, 2-1


Lesson 9, 2-1
The importance or preparation, 2-1
Preparation and safety, 2-2
Steps for preparing to write a CNC program, 2-3
Prepare the machining process, 2-3
Check the required tooling, 2-6
Develop the needed cutting conditions, 2-6
Do the math, 2-6
Mark up the print, 2-12
Plan the set-up, 2-12
Documenting as you write the program, 2-14
Is it all worth it?, 2-14

Key concept number three - Types of motion commands, 3-1


Lesson 10, 3-1
Types of Motion Commands, 3-1
What is interpolation?, 3-1
Motion commonalties, 3-2
Understanding the programmed point of each cutting tool, 3-3
G00 Rapid motion (also called positioning), 3-6
What is a safe clearance distance?, 3-7
Understanding acceleration and deceleration, 3-7
G01 linear interpolation (straight line motion), 3-8
Using G01 for a fast feed approach, 3-10
G02 and G03 Circular motion commands, 3-11
Circular motion with directional vectors (I and K), 3-12

Key concept number four - Three types of compensation, 4-1


Lesson 11, 4-1
Introduction to compensation?, 4-1
What is trial machining?, 4-1
Compensation commonalties, 4-2
What are offsets?, 4-2
Lesson 12, 4-5
Geometry offsets, 4-5

Page Four

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Reasons for using geometry offsets to assign program zero, 4-5


How geometry offsets work, 4-5
Minimizing program zero assignment measurements from job to job, 4-6
So when do you clear geometry offsets?, 4-8
Lesson 13, 4-9
Wear offsets, 4-9
How wear offsets are programmed, 4-9
What about wear offset cancellation?, 4-10
Wear offsets from a setup persons and operators point of view, 4-11
What are you shooting at?, 4-12
How much do you adjust wear offsets?, 4-13
What causes the size deviation for the first workpiece?, 4-13
What about critical tolerances?, 4-14
What about tools used in the last job?, 4-15
When do you clear wear offsets?, 4-15
Secondary wear offset applications., 4-15
Flip jobs, 4-15
Two or more critical diameters, 4-15
Unwanted taper, 4-16
Grooving in different areas of the workpiece, 4-16
Lesson 14, 4-17
Tool nose radius compensation, 4-17
Steps to using tool nose radius compensation, 4-19
Instating tool nose radius compensation, 4-19
Motion commands under the influence of tool nose radius compensation, 4-20
Canceling tool nose radius compensation, 4-21
Tool nose radius compensation from the setup persons point of view, 4-21
Example program showing tool nose radius compensation, 4-23

Key concept number five - Program Formatting, 5-1


Lesson 15, 5-1
Program formatting, 5-1
Reasons for program formatting, 5-1
Familiarization, 5-1
Consistency, 5-2
Rerunning tools, 5-2
Format priorities, 5-4
One activity per command, 5-4
Poor use of constant surface speed, 5-4
Rapid approach distance, 5-4
Machine differences that affect our given formats, 5-5
G code numbering, 5-5
M code numbering, 5-6
Other machine accessories, 5-7
How to use the formats, 5-7
Lesson 16, 5-8
The four kinds of program format, 5-8
Important format-related points, 5-8
A note about initialized modes, 5-8
Determining the tool change position, 5-9
Understanding spindle limiting, 5-9
Choosing the appropriate spindle range, 5-10
What direction do you run the spindle?, 5-10

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page Five

How do you check what each tool has done?, 5-11


Format for assigning program zero with geometry offsets, 5-11
Program start-up format (using geometry offsets), 5-11
Tool ending format (using geometry offsets), 5-12
Tool start-up format (using geometry offsets), 5-12
Program ending format (using geometry offsets), 5-12
Format for assigning program zero in the program with G50, 5-13
A reminder about the programs starting point and tool change position, 5-13
Program start-up format (using G50s), 5-13
Tool ending format (using G50s), 5-14
Tool start-up format (using G50s), 5-14
Program ending format (using G50s), 5-14
Understanding the formats, 5-15
G Words, 5-15
M Words, 5-15
Other M Words Related to Turning Centers, 5-16
Other Words In The Format, 5-16
Example programs showing format for turning centers, 5-17
Example when assigning program zero with geometry offsets, 5-17
Example when assigning program zero in the program, 5-19
Final notes about program formatting, 5-20
Suggestions for cycle time improvements., 5-21
Combine M codes in motion commands, 5-21
Minimize spindle dead time, 5-21
Program spindle range changing efficiently, 5-24
Minimize spindle reversals, 5-25

Key concept number six - Special programming features, 6-1


Introduction to special programming features, 6-1
Control series differences, 6-2

Lesson 17, 6-2


One-pass canned cycles, 6-2
Cycle consistencies, 6-2
One-pass canned cycles, 6-3
G90 - One pass turning and boring cycle, 6-3
G92 - One pass threading cycle, 6-3
G94 - One pass facing command, 6-4
Example of G90 and G94, 6-5
Example of G92 command, 6-6
Lesson 18, 6-9
G71 and G70 multiple repetitive cycles for turning and boring, 6-9
G71 - Rough turning and boring, 6-9
Understanding the G71 command words, 6-11
P word, 6-11
Q word, 6-12
U word, 6-12
W word, 6-12
D word, 6-12
F word, 6-12
What about finishing?, 6-12
Example showing G71 for rough turning and G70 for finishing, 6-12
Using G71 for rough boring, 6-15
Limitations of the G71 command, 6-16

Page Six

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Different format for 0TA, some 0TBs, and 3T controls, 6-17


Lesson 19, 6-18
G72- Rough facing, G73- pattern repeating, G74- peck drilling, G75- grooving, 6-18
G72 - Rough facing, 6-18
Different format for 0TA, some 0TBs, and 3T controls, 6-19
G73 - pattern repeating, 6-20
D word, 6-20
I word, 6-20
K word, 6-20
Example of G73 pattern repeating, 6-20
Using G73 for castings and forgings, 6-22
Different format for 0TA, some 0TBs, and 3T controls, 6-22
G74 - peck drilling, 6-23
Different format for 0TA, some 0TBs, and 3T controls, 6-24
G75 - grooving cycle, 6-24
Lesson 20, 6-26
G76 - threading command, 6-26
X word, 6-26
Z word, 6-26
What is tread chamfering?, 6-26
K word, 6-27
D word, 6-27
A word, 6-27
F word and E word, 6-27
I word, 6-28
Q word, 6-28
Example program for threading, 6-28
Other tips on threading, 6-29
Thread in the low spindle range, 6-29
Thread in RPM mode only, 6-29
Thread with thread chamfering off, 6-29
Finish the thread before removing workpiece, 6-29
Right hand threads versus left hand threads, 6-29
Offsetting for threading tools, 6-29
Start the tool far enough from the thread being machined, 6-29
Minimum depth of cut, final pass depth, and number of spring passes, 6-30
Disabled control functions during threading, 6-30
Tapered threads, 6-30
Multiple start threads, 6-31
Different format for 0TA, some 0TBs, and 3T controls, 6-33
What about tapping?, 6-33
Tap in the rpm mode, 6-33
Tap in the low range, 6-33
Use G32 as the motion command for tapping, 6-33
Use a tension/compression tap holder, 6-34
Keep the approach position 0.2 from the Z surface to tap, 6-34
Lesson 21, 6-35
Sub-programming techniques, 6-35
Applications for sub-programming, 6-35
Repeated machining operations, 6-35
Control programs, 6-35
Utility applications, 6-35

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page Seven

Words related to sub-programming, 6-36


Example for repeating machining operations - multiple identical grooves, 6-36
Example for control program applications - flip jobs, 6-38
Example for utility applications - bar feeder activation, 6-40
Special notes about M99, 6-41
Changing machining order, 6-42
What is parametric programming?, 6-44
Part families, 6-45
User defined canned cycles, 6-45
Utilities, 6-45
Complex motions and shapes, 6-46
Driving optional devices (like probes), 6-46
Lesson 22, 6-47
Differences to 0TA, 0TB, and 3T controls, 6-47
Lesson 23, 6-49
Other special features of programming, 6-49
Optional block skip (also called block delete), 6-49
Applications for optional block skip, 6-49
Warning about optional block skip applications, 6-51
Sequence number (N word) techniques, 6-52
Documenting your programs with messages in parentheses, 6-53
General information about the job, 6-54
Tool information, 6-54
At every program stop, 6-55
To document anything out of the ordinary, 6-55
For changes made after a dispute, 6-56
Automatic corner rounding and chamfering, 6-56
Other G codes of interest, 6-57
G04 - dwell command, 6-57
G10 - offset setting by programmed command, 6-58
G30 - Second reference position, 6-59
Other G codes, 6-60

Appendix to programming, 7-1

Programming special accessories and machine types, 7-1


Work holding and work support devices, 7-1
Work holding devices, 7-1
Three jaw chucks, 7-2
Programmable features of three jaw chucks, 7-5
Collet chucks, 7-6
Bar feeding with collet chucks, 7-7
Index chucks, 7-8
How an index chuck works, 7-10
Program zero selection for index chucks, 7-10
Work support devices, 7-12
Tailstocks, 7-13
The tailstock body, 7-13
Spindle considerations, 7-13
Tailstock quill, 7-13
Center, 7-14
Tailstock alignment problems, 7-14
Programming considerations, 7-14

Page Eight

Turning Center Programming And Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Steady rests, 7-16


Bar feeders, 7-16
How a bar feeder works, 7-17
Workholding considerations, 7-17
Styles of bar feeders, 7-18
How to program for bar feeders, 7-18
Determining how much to feed the bar, 7-18
The steps to bar feeding, 7-19
Position the tool close to the bar end, 7-20
Open the chuck to allow the bar to come out, 7-20
Draw the bar out, 7-20
Close the chuck and move the stock stop away, 7-21
The redundancy of bar feed programming, 7-21
When to program the bar feed, 7-21
Ending a bar feed program, 7-21
An example bar feeding program, 7-22
Part catchers, 7-24
Bar pullers, 7-24
Bar puller limitations, 7-25
Bar puller programming, 7-26
Automatic tool changing systems, 7-27
Live tooling, 7-28
Additional features of turning centers with live tooling, 7-29
Rotating tools, 7-29
Special tool holders, 7-29
Precise control of main spindle rotation, 7-30
Only one speed and feedrate mode, 7-30
Cutter radius compensation, 7-30
Hole machining canned cycles, 7-30
Polar coordinate interpolation, 7-30
Selecting the main spindle mode, 7-30
Programming an indexer, 7-31
Programming a rotary axis, 7-33
Angular values, 7-33
Zero return position, 7-33
Rapid versus straight line motion, 7-34
Program zero assignment, 7-34
Absolute versus incremental, 7-34
Canned cycles for hole machining, 7-35
How do you specify the machining direction?, 7-36
Canned cycle types, 7-36
Words used in canned cycles, 7-36
An example program, 7-37
Understanding polar coordinate interpolation, 7-37
Other machine types, 7-42
Twin spindle turning centers, 7-42
Sub-spindle turning centers, 7-42
Swiss-type turning centers (also called traveling headstock turning centers), 7-42

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Turning Center Programming And Operation

Page Nine

Part two: Operation


Key concept number seven - Know your machine, 8-1
Lesson 24 - Tasks related to setup and operation, 8-1
Machine components and directions of motion from an operators point of view, 8-1
The two most basic directions of motion, 8-1
Universal slant bed turning centers, 8-2
Chucking style slant bed turning centers, 8-2
Tasks related to setup and operation, 8-3
Setup tasks versus production maintaining tasks, 8-3
Tasks related to setup, 8-4
Tear down previous setup, 8-4
Make work holding setup, 8-4
Machining soft jaws during setup, 8-4
Other devices related to work holding setup, 8-7
Assemble cutting tools, 8-7
Load cutting tools into the turret and adjust coolant lines, 8-7
Assign program zero for each new tool, 8-7
Programming the program zero assignment, 8-8
Measuring program zero assignment values, 8-8
What if you dont have geometry offsets?, 8-11
The static nature of measured offset values, 8-11
Enter tool nose radius compensation offset values, 8-12
Load the CNC program/s into the control, 8-13
Verify the correctness of the CNC program, 8-13
Cautiously machine first workpiece, 8-14
First workpiece inspection, 8-15
Program optimizing, 8-15
Saving corrected version of the program, 8-15
What will you be doing?, 8-15
Tasks related to maintaining production, 8-15
Workpiece unload and load, 8-15
Maintaining critical dimensions (with close tolerances) during each tools life, 8-16
Replacing worn tools , 8-16
Other tasks to be done during the production run, 8-17
Machine warm-ups, 8-17
Machine cleaning & chip removal, 8-17
Preventative maintenance tasks, 8-17
A sample of setup and production run documentation, 8-18
Rudimentary tools to accomplish operation tasks, 8-18
Manual axis motion, 8-19
Manual control of turret index, 8-19
Manual spindle control, 8-19
Control of position displays (digital readouts), 8-20
Program transfers, 8-21
Mastery of accessory devices, 8-21
Lesson 25, 8-22
The two most basic operation panels, 8-22
Buttons and switches found on the control panel, 8-23
Power buttons, 8-23
Display screen control keys, 8-23
Position, 8-23

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Program , 8-24
Offset, 8-24
Program check, 8-24
Setting and parameter , 8-24
Letter Keys, 8-25
The shift key, 8-25
The slash key (/), 8-25
Number keys, 8-25
Decimal point key, 8-25
Arithmetic operator keys, 8-25
The input key, 8-25
Cursor control keys, 8-25
Program Editing Keys, 8-26
Insert key, 8-26
Alter key, 8-26
Delete key, 8-26
Reset button, 8-26
Other keys on the control panel, 8-26
I/O keys, 8-26
Graphic control keys, 8-27
Soft keys, 8-27
Buttons and switches found on the machine panel, 8-27
Mode switch, 8-27
Edit mode, 8-28
Memory or auto, 8-28
Tape mode, 8-28
Manual data input (MDI) mode, 8-28
Manual or jog mode, 8-28
Cycle start, 8-29
Feed hold, 8-29
Feedrate override, 8-29
Rapid traverse override, 8-30
Emergency stop, 8-30
Conditional switches, 8-30
Dry run, 8-30
Single block, 8-31
Machine lock, 8-31
Optional block skip (also called block delete), 8-31
Optional stop, 8-32
Manual controls, 8-32
Handwheel controls, 8-32
Jog controls, 8-32
Turret index controls , 8-33
Spindle control, 8-33
Indicator lights and meters, 8-33
Spindle horsepower meter, 8-33
Axis drive horsepower meter, 8-33
Cycle indicator lights, 8-33
Zero return position indicator lights, 8-33
Optional stop indicator light, 8-33
Handwheel indicator light, 8-33
Other buttons and switches on the machine panel, 8-34

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Page Eleven

Key concept number eight - The three modes of machine operation, 9-1
Lesson 26, 9-1
Three modes of operation, 9-1
The manual mode, 9-1
The manual data input mode, 9-1
The manual data input position of the mode switch, 9-2
The edit position of the mode switch, 9-3
Entering a new program, 9-3
Modifying a previously entered program, 9-4
The program operation mode, 9-4
The memory (or auto) mode switch position, 9-5
The tape mode switch position, 9-5

Key concept number nine - Key procedures of operation, 10-1


Lesson 27, 10-1
Key operation procedures, 10-1
Understanding the operation handbooks, 10-1
The most important procedures, 10-2
0T, 3T operation handbook, 10-3
6T operation handbook, 10-11
10T, 11T, 15T operation handbook, 10-19
16T, 18T operation handbook, 10-28

Key concept number ten - Program verification, 11-1


Lesson 28, 11-1
Program verification techniques, 11-1
Safety priorities, 11-1
Operator safety, 11-1
Machine tool safety, 11-1
Workpiece safety, 11-2
Typical mistakes, 11-2
Syntax mistakes in the program, 11-2
Motion mistakes in the program, 11-2
Set up mistakes, 11-3
Procedures to program verification, 11-3
Free flowing dry run, 11-3
Normal air cutting cycle execution, 11-4
Running the first workpiece, 11-4
Making good parts, 11-4
Running production and optimizing, 11-5
Conclusion to Program Verification, 11-5

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Know Your Machine

Key concept number one - know your machine

The first key concept is that you must understand the basic make-up of the CNC machine tool you will be

working with. Though this may sound like a simplistic statement, there are actually two vantage points
from which you must understand the CNC turning center. To become fully versed with the machine, you
must understand the machine from the programmers viewpoint as well as from the operators viewpoint.
Since key concept number one is related to programming, we will discuss those things about the CNC turning center that the programmer must comprehend. Much later, in key concept number seven, we will discuss those things about a CNC turning center a setup person or operator must know.
Lesson 1 - Machine configurations

1.1. Basic machining practice related to turning centers


The single-most important topic a CNC turning center programmer must understand is related to the basic
machining practice of turning operations. The more a beginning programmer knows about turning operations, the easier it will be to become proficient as a turning center programmer, and the better programmer
they will be.
From a beginners standpoint, a CNC turning center can easily be compared to any form of manual lathe.
Many of the same operations required of an engine lathe are also performed on a CNC turning center. And if
you have experience on an engine lathe, you already have a good machining practice foundation on which
you can build your understanding of CNC turning centers.
Think of it this way. A person who already has a good knowledge of basic machining practice for turning already knows what they want the CNC turning center to do. It will be a relatively simple matter to learn the
various programming commands needed to tell the CNC turning center how to perform the desired operations.
This is why machinists make the best CNC programmers. With a good understanding of basic machining
practice under your belt, learning to program CNC equipment is quite easy. Again, a good machinist already knows what they want the turning center to do. It is a relatively simple matter of learning how to tell
the machine to do it.
If you have experience with operations like rough and finish turning, rough and finish boring, drilling, tapping, threading, grooving, and knurling, and if you understand the processing of turned workpieces, you are
well on your way to understanding how to program a CNC turning center. Your previous experience has
done a great deal to prepare you for learning to program a CNC turning center.
On the other hand, if you have little or no basic machining practice experience, unfortunately, your task will
be much greater. You will not only have to learn the basics of CNC, you will also have to learn what turning
centers are intended to do. For this, we would strongly recommend that you enroll in one of the courses offered for basic machining practice at a local technical school. Or at the very least, if there is someone in your
company who is well versed in basic machining practice and is willing to share his or her knowledge, by all
means, take advantage of this help. Without a good understanding of basic machining practice, a beginning
CNC programmer will be in for a great deal of frustration.
We compare a beginning programmers need for basic machining practice experience to a person preparing
a speech. The speaker must of course be well versed in the topic to be presented. If they are not, they will
not be able to make much sense during their presentation. In the same way, a CNC turning center programmer who is not well versed in the basic machining practice related to turning will not be able to prepare programs that make any sense to experienced machinists.
Throughout this course we do assume that you have a good background in basic machining practice. While
many of our presentations will be quite simple to follow and we will not be making complex presentations
related to processing, setup, tooling, and cutting conditions, the beginner to the shop environment should
seek outside help in order to truly be prepared to write CNC turning center programs.
What follows is not intended to replace a full course on basic machining practice. Instead, it is for those students who may be a little weak in their basic machining practice skills or need a refresher in this area. In this
section, we offer a brief discussion of the most common turning center operations. Again, note that we are

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Key Concept Number One

not trying to eliminate the need for you to learn more about basic machining practices. We are simply going
to review the specific cutting tools and machining operations we assume you understand throughout this
course.
1.1.1. External versus internal operations
With but one exception, turning centers will cause machining by rotating the workpiece while a stationary
cutting tool is brought into contact with it. As the cutting tool is forced into the spinning workpiece material, this contact will cause the tool to shear material. The drawing shows how a stationary turning tool
shears material from a rotating workpiece held in the chuck of the turning center.

How workpiece material is removed on a turning center.


The only exception is with turning centers equipped with live tooling. These machines can also keep the
workpiece stationary and stable while a rotating tool (drill, end mill, reamer, etc.) performs the machining
operation.
Generally speaking, turning center operations can be broken into two categories. External machining operations are performed on the outside diameter of the workpiece This is also called O.D. work (O.D. for outside diameter). Internal machining operations (also called I.D. work) are performed in a hole in the middle
of the workpiece. The hole could exist in the raw material, as would be the case with a piece of tubing, or it
could be machined, commonly by some kind of drill, during the turning center cycle. See the drawings for
examples of external versus internal work.

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Know Your Machine

External work

Internal work

External versus internal machining operations


For the most part, the same basic principles apply to external as well as internal machining operations. In
fact, many machining operations that are done externally are also done internally (grooving and threading,
for example).
1.1.2. Right hand versus left hand tools
The style of tool holder you use (right versus left hand) determines the direction of spindle rotation. For the
most part, right hand tools require a forward spindle direction while left hand tools require reverse spindle
direction. The drawing shows the difference between right and left hand tools. Though the drawing shows
turning tools (external work), the same principles apply to boring bars (internal work).

Drawing illustrates the difference between a right hand and a left hand turning tool
The decision as to which style of tool you use is closely related to how cutting forces will be distributed during machining operations. Most machine tool builders recommend that, for powerful roughing operations,
you use the style of tooling that forces the power of the cut to be driven against the machines rigidity. For
most slant bed turning centers, this means using left hand tools and running the spindle in a reverse direction.

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Key Concept Number One

1.1.3. High speed steel (hss) versus carbide insert tools


The cutting edge for the types of tools we are talking about are usually available in high speed steel (hss) or
carbide insert type. Generally speaking, carbide insert tools are the more popular type, especially for medium to high production volumes.
With high speed steel tools, many times the machinist is responsible for the preparation and sharpening of
the tool. This requires more skill on the machinists part, and generally means production will suffer while
the machinist is sharpening tools.
With carbide insert tools, changing (or indexing) inserts is quick and easy. The tool holder itself is made
precisely to allow the CNC operator or setup person to simply index or replace the insert when it becomes
dull. By indexing an insert we mean this: Most carbide inserts allow two or more edges of the insert to be
used for machining. When indexing an insert, the machinist is simply taking the insert out of the holder, rotating it to a fresh side, and replacing the insert back in the holder.
1.1.4. Carbide insert tools
The most common form of turning tools in manufacturing today is the carbide insert tool. There are many
different configurations of carbide insert tool, and it is important that you have a basic understanding of
their capabilities. Well begin by looking at an example of a carbide insert turning tool and discussing the
general attributes for this popular tool style. Then we will look more closely at the various types.

Notations for a typical carbide insert turning tool


1.1.4.1. Chip breaker
While there is no chip breaker depicted in our example, some form of chip break control must be designed
with every turning tool. While some materials to be machined do not require much in the way of chip control due to the nature of the material (like cast iron), other materials form stringy chips when machined. The
chip breaker will deflect the chip being machined so severely that the chip will break before it reaches a
length that is difficult to handle. The chip breaker could be a shim that is mounted to the top of the insert and
held in place by the clamp, or it could be incorporated into the shape of the insert itself (as would be the case
in our example).
1.1.4.2. Clamp and retaining pin
There must be some method of securing the carbide insert into the tool holder. Depending on the style and
purpose for the tool, carbide insert tools will utilize a clamp or a retaining pin, or both. If a clamp is incorporated, usually it is designed in a way that lets the insert be securely held, yet will swing out of the way when it
is loosened for insert changes.

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Know Your Machine

If a retaining pin is utilized in the holder, it will either be an eccentric pin that will pivot around its centerline
and hold the insert from the side of the pin or the pin may act like a screw and hold the insert down from the
top.
It is important for the operator to be very careful when indexing or changing carbide inserts to place the new
insert (or new side of the same insert) in the holder in the same manner each time. They should take care to
always tighten clamps for eccentric pins in the same direction, ensuring that the insert is seated against the
same tool holder surfaces. This will ensure consistent positioning of the inserts cutting edge, which in turn
will make the tool machine the next workpiece in a consistent fashion.
1.1.4.3. Clearance angle
This angle determines the ability the turning tool has to plunge into a recess. The smaller this angle the more
restricted the tool will be related to machining recesses. But this angle also has a lot to do with the strength
of the tool. Generally speaking the smaller this angle, the stronger the tool.
This angle also provides the clearance on the back side of the tool as it is turning a part, keeping it from
scraping or rubbing on this surface.
1.1.4.4. Cutting edge
This is the surface of the tool that is capable of machining. Many carbide insert turning tools have more than
one cutting edge. The same tools can do two or more types of turning operations. For example, the tool depicted above has the ability to turn and to face. More on this a little later.
1.1.4.5. Insert
This is the carbide insert itself. There can be many different configurations of carbide inserts, but the most
basic shapes are round, square, diamond and triangular.
Also, there are many grades of carbide to choose from based on the material to be machined. The grade of
the insert determines, among other things, its resistance to breaking down during machining operations.
Some inserts are even coated with a titanium nitride material to allow longer tool life for machining harder
materials. Others are intentionally un-coated for machining softer materials.
1.1.4.6. Lead angle
In a similar way to the clearance angle, the lead angle has a lot to do with what the tool is capable of machining. For tools with two cutting edges (as the tool shown above), the lead angle and the clearance angle can
actually reverse, depending on the direction the tool is cutting. When switching from turning to facing, for
example, the lead angle and clearance angle are reversed.
1.1.4.7. Holder
The turning holder is the tools shank, and can come in many different configurations. Depending on the
application of the turning tool, the holder could be designed to hold the carbide insert in a turning manner,
facing manner, face profiling manner, or any way that allows the insert to be secured for machining.
1.1.4.8. Nose radius
ALL turning tools will have some nose radius on the very point of the tool. The size of the nose radius determines many things about how the tool will perform. The basic purpose of the nose radius is to increase tool
life. If there were no radius at all, the tool would soon dull.
Carbide inserts have standard nose radius sizes to choose from. The choices are 1/64 (.015), 1/32 (.031),
3/64 (.047), and 1/16 (.062). While you can buy inserts with other nose radius sizes, they are usually specials.
Here are some generalizations related to how the size of a tools nose radius affects machining.
1. Tool life
Generally speaking, the larger the nose radius, the longer the tool will last. Small nose radius tools 1/64 or
smaller) should only be used if the workpiece specification dictates it. Unless the design engineer has spe-

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Key Concept Number One

cifically stated that an inside radius on the part be very small, it is wise to choose a tool with a larger nose radius (1/32 or bigger).
2. Chatter (vibration)
The size of the nose radius on a turning tool has a lot to do with how prone the tool will be to vibration (commonly called chatter). Generally speaking, the larger the nose radius, the more prone the tool will be to chatter.
3. Part finish
Generally speaking, the size of the turning tools radius has an impact on the finish at a given feedrate. That
is, a larger radius will have the tendency to provide a better finish. However, this is assuming that no chatter
or vibration occurs during machining. To attain a good finish with a smaller tool nose radius will require a
slower feedrate, which in turn, takes more time.
1.1.4.9. Rake angle and relief angle
The cutting edge of a carbide turning tool is determined by the combination of the rake angle and the relief
angle. The sharper (more positive) the rake angle, the more tendency the tool will have to freely shear material from the workpiece. The relief angle supplies clearance under the tool, ensuring that the insert does not
rub on the workpiece being machined. Many turning tools, especially roughing tools, have negative rake
angles (as the tool shown in our example). While this doesnt make for easy machining (more power is required), it does lengthen tool live. Note that many tool holders are designed to have negative rake angles,
but the actual insert placed into the holder has a positive rake angle ground into its cutting edge. Again,
there are many variations for rake angle and relief angle. Generally speaking, the softer the material being
machined, the larger (more positive) the rake angle can be without fear of premature breakdown.
1.1.4.10. Seat
The seat in any carbide insert turning holder supplies a nice quality, flat surface for the insert to locate
against. Also, if the tool holder is damaged due to a mishap, many times, only the seat must be replaced.
1.1.4.11. Square shank versus round shank
The shank of most carbide insert turning holders is square. This allows the tool holder to be secured in the
machine by several methods (wedge clamps, set screws, etc.).
Everything weve just seen with carbide insert turning tools applies directly to carbide insert boring bars
(tools used for internal machining). The only real difference is the shank configuration. Boring bars have
round shanks.
1.1.5. Understanding tool geometry
Tool geometry refers to the general size and shape of the tool holder and insert combination. It determines
what surfaces the tool will be capable of machining. Novices to turning center basic machining practice
commonly have problems determining the best style of tool to use for a given operation. Admittedly,
theres a lot to think about.
For example, a general purpose 80 degree included angle carbide insert might do the job just fine for low
production. But as production quantities grow, the general purpose 80 degree included angle tool will wear
more quickly than desired. The company could save money by using a more special tool.
This determination is related to the geometry of the tool. By geometry, we mean the shape of the tool holder,
the manner in which the tool holder holds the insert, and the shape of the insert itself. These three factors determine the tools machining capability.
1.1.5.1. How carbide inserts are specified
While carbide inserts come in many shapes and sizes, there is a high degree of standardization among tooling manufacturers when it comes to carbide insert specifications. We are most interested in those inserts
that apply to turning operations, but the discussions we give also includes inserts used for other purposes
(like milling).

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Preparation For Programming

Key concept number two - Preparation for programming


Lesson 9

The importance of preparation


Any complex project can be simplified by breaking it into small pieces. This can make seemingly insurmountable tasks much easier to handle. CNC turning center programming is no exception. Writing a CNC
program can be quite intimidating to a novice programmer viewing a complex workpiece that requires numerous machining operations and complex contours to be machined. Learning how to divide the task of
programming into small, easy-to-handle pieces will be the main thrust of key concept number two.
The actual task of writing a CNC program is but part of what the CNC programmer must do. Here we intend
to explore those things that help the programmer get ready to write a CNC program. Though this key concept has nothing whatsoever to do with actual programming commands, it is among the most important key
concepts. The preparation that goes into getting ready to write a CNC program is directly related to the success of the program. You know the old saying garbage in, garbage out! It truly applies to CNC programming. The better prepared the programmer, the easier the programming task will be.
Preparation for programming is especially important for beginning programmers. For the first few programs, a novice will have trouble enough remembering the various command words, structuring the program correctly, and in general, getting familiar with what it takes to develop CNC programs. This problem
is made infinitely more complicated if the novice is not truly ready to write the program in the first place.
Without the proper preparation, writing and verifying a CNC program can be equated to doing a jigsaw puzzle. A person doing a puzzle has no idea as to where each individual piece will eventually fit. For the most
part, pieces must be assembled using trial and error methods. The puzzle worker makes a guess as to
whether two pieces will fit together and then tries it. Maybe the pieces will fit and maybe not. Since the
worker has no idea as to whether pieces will truly fit together until assembly is attempted, it is next to impossible to predict how long it will take to finish the puzzle.
In similar fashion, if a CNC program is attempted without preparation, the programmer will have a tendency to piecemeal the program together. The programmer cannot be sure that anything will work until it is
tried. The program may be half finished before it becomes obvious that something is wrong with their process. Or worse, the program may be finished and running on the CNC turning center before some basic error is found. Always remember that CNC machine time is much more expensive than the programmers
time. There is no excuse to waste precious machine time for something as basic as a lack of preparation.
You can liken the preparation that goes into writing a CNC program to the preparation needed for giving a
speech. The better prepared the speaker, the easier it is to make the presentation, and the more effective the
speech will be. Truly, the speaker must think through the entire presentation (probably several times) before
the speech can be delivered. Similarly, the CNC programmer must think through the entire CNC process
(possibly several times) before the program can be written.
The better prepared the programmer, the easier it will be to write the program. Most experienced programmers would agree that writing the program is actually the easy part of the programming process. The real
work is done in the preparation stages. If preparation is done properly, writing the program will be a simple
matter of translating what you want the machine to do (from English) into a language the CNC machine can
understand. Of course, this language that the control can understand is called manual programming (also
called G code level programming).
Though preparation is so very important, you would be surprised at how many experienced programmers
muddle through the writing of a CNC program with no previous preparation. While an experienced person
may be able to write workable programs for simple applications without preparation, even so-called expert
(yet ill-prepared) programmers will become lost and confused when writing complex programs. To think
that you are saving time by not preparing to write a program can be a grave mistake. In reality, you usually
add time to the programming process if you do not prepare (not to mention the time that can be wasted at the
machine as programs are corrected).

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Key Concept Number Two

Without preparation, the programmer will be constantly backtracking to repair problems during programming and rewriting programming commands. And when the program is finally finished, it must be verified
at the machine. If the programmer was ill prepared to write the program, chances are there will be many
problems yet to present themselves at the machine. And if an experienced programmer would have problems programming without preparation, the ill-prepared novice will be doomed to failure.
2.0.1. Preparation and safety
When a CNC program is executed, you can rest assured that the CNC machine tool will follow your programs instructions to the letter. While the control may go into an alarm state if it cannot recognize one
command or another, it will give absolutely no special consideration to incorrectly specified motion commands. The severity of problems encountered due to motion mistakes range from relatively minor to catastrophic.
Minor motion mistakes usually do not result in any damage to the machine or tooling, and the operator is not
exposed to a dangerous situation. However, the workpiece may not come out correctly.
For example, say a programmer intends to drill a hole at feedrate word of F.015" (0.015 ipr) in the drilling
command. But when writing the program, they place the decimal point in the wrong place. If they specify
the F word as F0.0015" instead of F0.015", the control will run the drill at a much slower feedrate than intended. Its likely that no damage to the tool or machine would result, but at the very least, the machining
cycle time would be much longer than necessary.
Catastrophic mistakes, on the other hand, can result in damage to the machine, workpiece, & cutting tools,
and injury to the operator. For example, a programmer intends to position a tool at the machines rapid rate
to clearance diameter position to get ready to face the end of the workpiece. Say the command they intend is
N015 G00 X3.2 Z0.005
But again, the decimal point is misplaced (for the X word) and this command is given instead
N015 G00 X.32 Z0.005
In this case, the control would crash the tool right into the workpiece at the machines very fast rapid rate.
Its likely that the workpiece, cutting tool, and possibly the machine will be damaged. And if the workpiece
comes flying out of the workholding device (as it probably would), the operator could be injured.
This is not being stated to scare novice programmers. There are several verification procedures that, if followed, almost guarantee no that crash will occur. The setup person will find the mistakes during these program verification procedures. (Program verification procedures are shown during key concept number
ten.) However, as a CNC turning center programmer, you must recognize the potential for dangerous situations. This recognition should lead to your being as careful as possible when developing programs and doing everything possible to avoid mistakes. Adequately preparing to write CNC programs is the single-most
important thing you can do to avoid mistakes.
In a joking way, we say there are two kinds of CNC operators - those that have had a crash and those that are
going to! It seems inevitable that someday every operator will have a mishap of one sort or another, just as it
seems inevitable that anyone who drives an automobile every day will eventually be involved in an accident.
But all joking aside, there is never an excuse for having a crash. Again, during the operation section of this
course (in key concept number ten), well show several verification procedures that will help the setup person find mistakes in a CNC program before a crash can occur.
We cannot over-emphasize the importance of preparation for the purpose of avoiding mistakes. Just as the
well prepared speaker is less apt to make mistakes during the delivery of their speech, so will the well prepared CNC programmer be less apt to make mistakes while writing the CNC program.

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Preparation For Programming

Steps for preparing to write a CNC program


As you now know, preparation for programming will simplify programming, make programs safer to run,
and in general, improve the potential for efficient and successful CNC turning center utilization.
2.0.2. Prepare the machining process
Process sheets, also called routing sheets, are used by most manufacturing companies to specify the sequence of machining operations that must be performed on a workpiece during the manufacturing process.
The person who actually prepares the process sheet must of course, have a good understanding of machining practice. They must also be well acquainted with the various machine tools the company owns. Based
upon the companys equipment, this person determines the best way to produce the workpiece to the required specifications in the most efficient and inexpensive possible way.
In most manufacturing companies, this involves routing the workpiece through a series of different machine tools. Each machine tool along the way will perform only those operations the process planner intends, as specified on the process sheet.
When a CNC machine is involved in the process plan, many times the CNC machine will be required to perform several machining operations on the workpiece. (As you know, all CNC turning centers can hold several tools.) Companies vary with regard to how explicit their routing sheets are.
In some companies, the process sheet will clearly specify the order of machining operations to be performed
on the CNC machine (in step-by-step fashion). But the vast majority of companies leave it completely up to
the programmer to determine how the workpiece should be machined. If the programmer is the person determining machining order, they must, of course, possess a good knowledge of workpiece processing as it
relates to the CNC turning center being used.
In any case, the machining process for a workpiece must be developed before the CNC program can be developed. The programmer must know the exact step-by-step order of machining operations in order to write
the program. An experienced programmer may be able to develop this process for simple work while the
program is being written. But as work becomes more complicated, (and all work is usually quite complicated for novice programmers), the machining process must be prepared before the program can be written.
As experienced programmers will agree, the process used to machine a workpiece will have a dramatic impact on the success of the program. Even a poorly formatted CNC program can eventually be made to work
if the process is good. On the other hand, even a perfectly formatted CNC program (one that does exactly
what the programmer intends) will fail if the process being used will not allow a good workpiece to be machined. This can be most frustrating for novice programmers having limited turning center-related basic
machining practice experience. If you are at all weak in your machining practice skills related to processing, be sure to have an experienced machinist check your process for a workpiece before you go to the trouble of writing a CNC program that machines it.
Heres an example of how the process can affect the success of a CNC program. The programmer is developing this process for a workpiece to be run on a CNC turning center. It breaks a rule of basic machining
practice. Can you spot the mistake?
1) Rough face and rough turn
2) Finish face and finish turn
3) Drill a 2.0 diameter hole in the center of the workpiece
4) Rough bore
5) Finish bore
While you may see nothing wrong with this process, one important rule of basic machining practice states
that you should rough everything before you finish anything. In the process just shown, the workpiece is
finished faced and turned before a large hole is drilled and rough bored. It is possible that the part may shift
in the workholding device during the drilling or rough boring operation due to the extreme pressures exerted during these very powerful machining operations. If the workpiece shifts during these operations, the

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 2-3

Key Concept Number Two

outside diameter (machined prior to drilling and rough boring) will not be concentric to the inside diameter
(machined after drilling and rough boring).
Here is a revised machining process that eliminates the problems caused by workpiece shifting. Notice that
the finishing operations are done last (after any shifting that occurs).
1) Rough face and rough turn
2) Drill a 2.0 diameter hole in the center of the workpiece
3) Rough bore
4) Finish bore
5) Finish face and turn
Notice the difference in this improved process. In the second process, the part is completely rough machined before any finishing starts. Most experienced machinists will agree that this is better machining
practice.
Whether you agree with the machining process-related points in this specific example is not the point. The
real point to this discussion is that you must be able to develop a workable process before you can write a
CNC turning center program. In our specific example, if the programmer decides to develop the process
while writing the program (and makes the processing mistake), they may not discover the mistake until the
program is run at the machine. And at this point, its too late. A great deal of machine time will be wasted as
the program is changed to match an improved process.
Developing your machining process before the program is written will actually serve several purposes (in
addition to helping avoid mistakes with processing). When it comes to dividing the seemingly complex
task of programming into smaller pieces, processing up-front will allow you to separate the task of processing from programming. Youll be able to concentrate on basic machining practice skills as you develop the
process and programming skills as you write the program. If you use a processing form similar to the one
shown in Figure 2.1, it will allow you to document your process for all to see. This form will become the
English version of your program. As youll see while we discuss the processing form in greater detail, processing up-front will also force you to think about other important programming information (like cutting
tools and cutting conditions) before you start writing the program.

Page 2-4

Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Preparation For Programming

Figure 2.1 Example sequence of operations form

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 2-5

Key Concept Number Two

Figure 2.1 shows an example planning form that can help you organize your process. This form also provides documentation for others to see about the machining process for the workpiece being programmed. If
this will be a long running job (repeated many times over the next few months or years), its likely that
someone else will have to work on your program. Engineering revisions, optimization, and changes to
available cutting tools are among reasons why CNC programs must be changed on a somewhat regular basis.
We offer one more reason to develop your process prior to programming. If you use a form similar to the
one shown in Figure 2.1, it will provide you with a checklist of the operations that must be performed. As
stated earlier, novice programmers tend to make mistakes of omission. Its not unlikely, for example, for a
novice to forget to drill a hole before rough boring it! With a checklist of operations already written, youll
be less likely to make such a basic mistake.
2.0.3. Check the required tooling
The planning form shown in Figure 2.1 has space to write down what kind of cutting tool will be used for
each operation. There are, of course, several basic machining practice considerations related to your cutting tool choices. As discussed in lesson one, tool holder style, cutting edge material, tool nose radius, and
other tool geometry factors will affect the machining operations being performed by the tool. The cutting
tool choices you make are very important. Once youve decided which cutting tools to use, youll want to
confirm that they are available.
You must also be sure that each tool is capable of machining the surfaces you expect them to machine. A recess may require a turning tool with a small nose angle an large clearance angle. An inside radius designation on the print may require an small tool nose radius insert to be used. Grooving tools must be equal to or
narrower than the groove to be machined. And so on.
2.0.4. Develop the needed cutting conditions
Notice that the form shown in Figure 2.1 has room to write the speed and feed for each operation. It is helpful to come up with the various cutting conditions needed in the program before actually writing the program. This will keep the you from having to break out of your train-of-thought while programming. While
the form we offer does not show it, it may also be wise to determine other cutting conditions-related criteria
before writing your program. These criteria can include depth-of-cut-per-pass and finishing allowance for
roughing operations.
2.0.5. Do the math
How dimensions are described on the part print will determine how much math is required for your program. Progressive companies have their design engineering departments supplying all dimensions with
datum surface dimensioning. When this technique is used, each dimension on the print will be taken from
only one position in each axis. While this may reduce the need to do calculations, it does not completely
eliminate the need for doing math. Youll see why in just a bit.
Of course, not all design engineers use datum surface dimensioning techniques. You may be expected to do
a great deal of math in order to determine X and Z coordinates required in the CNC program. Regardless of
how much math is required to determine program coordinates, it is wise to perform these calculations before you write the program. This will keep you from having to break out of your train-of-thought to calculate coordinates as you write the program.
If you have been doing the practice exercises that accompany this course, youve already done some coordinate calculations. Youve also seen our method of numbering points (dot-to-dot) and placing each points
X and Z values on an easy-to-read coordinate sheet. (If you havent been doing the practice exercises, we
have an example showing these techniques coming right up.) However, our practice exercises have only required that you calculate positions that are right on workpiece surfaces. And weve provided the points for
you to calculate. In reality, there will be many times when coordinates required in the program will not actually be on the workpiece (especially for clearance positions and when finishing stock must be allowed).
And youll be on your own to determine which positions are required in the program. Once again, this
brings up the need to understand basic machining practice. You must be able to plan each cutting tools
movement path (commonly called the tool path) in order to plot the points needed for your program. This
drawing show a cross section of a workpiece to be machined.

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

The Three Types Of Motion Commands

Key concept number three - Types of motion commands


You now know how to calculate coordinates for positions used in CNC turning center programs. While the
ability to calculate coordinates is very important, it is but only part of what must be done to actually cause
cutting tool motion. It will be the focus of this lesson to show you how to command that motions be made.
Lesson 10

3.1. Types of Motion Commands


More often than not, youll be commanding that motions be made in a controlled manner. During approach
and retract motions, youll want to make the tool move as quickly as possible in order to minimize program
execution time. During the machining of the workpiece, youll need to make the tool face workpieces (involving only the X axis) or turn a diameters (involving only the Z axis) at a specific feedrate. Youll need to
make the tool machine chamfers and tapers, requiring that both axes move along a perfectly straight line.
And youll need to make the cutting tool machine fillets and outside radii, requiring that it move in a circular
path.
Weve just described the three most popular motion types. Rapid motion will make the cutting tool move as
quickly as possible. Linear interpolation will make the cutting tool move along a straight line at a specified
feedrate. And circular interpolation will make the cutting tool move along a circular path at a specified
feedrate.
3.1.1. What is interpolation?
In the early days of NC (before computers were incorporated in the control), it was quite difficult to cause
articulated motion. Even a two-axis motion needed for machining a chamfer or taper was difficult to command. A series of tiny, single-axis motions (in the form of steps) was required. A circular motion required
the same kind of steps. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 illustrate the steps. The step size determines the quality of the
motion. The smaller the steps, the better the motion. A computer was required to calculate all positions
along the way to completing the motion. And as you can imagine, programs in the early days of NC were
quite long.

Figure 3.1 - Illustration of steps required for linear motions

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 3-1

Key Concept Number Three

Figure 3.2 - Illustration of steps required for circular motions


Even with todays turning centers, articulated motions (linear and circular) are still broken into tiny single-axis steps. But the computer internal to the CNC control will be doing the calculations required to make
the steps. The feature that performs the calculations and causes the motions is called interpolation. With all
current turning centers, youll be allowed to command motions with but a limited amount of data and the
CNC control will do the rest. All motion types, for example, require that you include the motions end point
(a coordinate you calculate). Any cutting motion (linear and circular, for example) requires that you specify
a feedrate for the motion. And circular motions require that you additionally specify, by one means or another, the arc size for the motion. More on the actual techniques for commanding motions will be shown a
little later.
Rapid motion, linear motion, and circular motion comprise the most popular motion types. Almost every
program you write will require that you use each of them, so its quite important that you master them.
However, CNC turning center control manufacturers can provide other, less needed, motion types on an
as-needed basis. Polar coordinate interpolation, for example, is commonly required with turning centers
having a C axis (a rotary axis within the main spindle) and live tooling. This feature allows a milling cutter
pointing along the Z axis to machine contours around the outside diameter of the workpiece by combining
X and C axis movements. (Well describe polar coordinate interpolation in detail during key concept number six). In similar fashion, most control manufacturers can provide parabolic interpolation if you need to
make motions in the form of a parabola. So can spline interpolation be supplied if you need to make motions in the form of curves. There are other interpolation types available to make almost any definable motion.
Knowing how a CNC control interpolates motion is not of primary concern to the programmer. It is much
more important is that you understanding the available interpolation types and how to command them.
Knowing that there are only three commonly used motion types should come as quite a relief to novice programmers. In most programs, every motion the turning center makes can be broken into one of these three
categories. Once you master these three motion types, youll be able to command the movements needed
for almost all machining operations.
3.1.1.1. Motion commonalties
The three motion types share five things in common. First, they are all modal, meaning they remain in effect until changed or canceled. If more than one consecutive motion of the same type is to be commanded,
you need only include the motion type (with a G code) in the first motion.

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

The Three Types Of Motion Commands

Second, all motion types require that you specify the end point for the motion. The control will assume the
axes are at the start point as the motion is commanded. For this reason, you can think of motion commands
as a series of connect-the-dots or point-to-point motions.
Third, all motion commands allow you to work in either the absolute or incremental mode. As you know
from key concept number one, the absolute mode should be your positioning mode of choice. In the absolute mode, all coordinates will be specified from the program zero point. For most controls, absolute coordinates are specified with the letter addresses X and Z. Incremental departure distances are specified with
letter addresses U and W. While it may not be of immediate importance, its nice to know that you can combine incremental and absolute motions in a command. The command including
U0.002 Z-1.5
will cause the cutting tool to increase in diameter by 0.002 inch (incrementally) while moving to a position
of 1.5 to the negative side of the program zero point in the Z axis.
Fourth, all motion types allow you to leave out a non-moving axis. If youre simply turning a diameter (requiring only a Z axis motion), the X axis specification can be left out of the command. If youre facing a
workpiece (requiring only X axis motion), you can leave out the Z specification. The control will not attempt to move the tool in an axis left out of the motion command.
And fifth, current CNC controls allow leading zeros to be left out of the motion-invoking G code. For rapid
motion, G00 or G0 can be used. For linear motion, G01 or G1 can be used. For clockwise circular motion,
G02 or G2 can be used. And for counterclockwise circular motion, G03 or G3 can be used.
3.1.1.2. Understanding the programmed point of each cutting tool
In order to generate accurate motions with your cutting tools, you must know the location on each cutting
tool you are actually programming. In some cases, you will have to modify your programmed coordinates
to allow for some cutting tool-related criteria.
Hole-machining tools like drills, taps, and reamers will all have a certain amount of lead that must be compensated when Z axis coordinates are calculated. As is discussed in lesson number one, you can n calculate
the lead for a 118 degree twist drill by multiplying 0.3 times the drill diameter. This lead must be added to
the holes depth when plunging through holes.
Unfortunately cutting tool manufacturers vary when it comes to how much lead there will be on certain
hole-machining tools. A tap, for example, may have two, three, or four imperfect crests at the cutting end of
the tap. Reamer lead will vary with reamer size. Youll have to be quite familiar with the hole-machining
tools your company uses in order to accurately program hole depths.
Single point tools, like turning tools, boring bars, and grooving tools will have a
small radius on the cutting edge. For the
most part, youll be programming the extreme edges of these tools in the X and Z
axes. The drawing shows an example of
this.

Point programmed

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 3-3

Key Concept Number Three

There will be many times when


youll have to compensate for the
tools radius as you calculate coordinates for your program. One time is
when facing. The drawing shows
this.

Workpiece center

Tool must move past


center when facing

If you simply bring the programmed


point of the facing tool to the
workpiece center (X0), the tool will
not completely machine the face.
There will be a tiny unmachined nub
left on the workpiece. You must program an X coordinate that is slightly
past center to clean up the whole
face. How much past center your
tool must go is based on the tool nose
radius. If using a tool with a 0.031
(1/32) tool nose radius, your end
point for the facing operation should
send the tool to an X position of
X-0.062 (remember that X is specified in diameter).

The tool nose radius for single point tools will actually affect almost every positioning movement. A feature called tool nose radius compensation will let you to program workpiece coordinates and, for the most
part, allow you to ignore the tool nose radius as you calculate coordinates. Well discuss tool nose radius
compensation during key concept number four.
There is another common time you must compensate your programmed coordinates based on tooling criteria that we wish to acquaint you with. It has to do with grooving tools. Most programmers
will program the leading edge (chuck side cutting edge) of grooving
tools. The drawing shows the point most programmers use for programming grooving tools.

Point programmed

All movements the grooving tool makes must be based on the point
programmed. The drawing shows the positions required for grooving when chamfers must be machined on the outside corners of the
groove.

1 3 7
4

8
9

5
6

10

When machining the chamfer on


the left side of the groove, the
point of the grooving tool being
programmed will be in contact
with the workpiece. However,
when machining the right side of
the groove, you must compensate for the groove tool width
when coming up with Z coordinates since the programmed
point of the grooving tool will be
the tool width away from the
chamfer being machined.

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

The Three Types Of Motion Commands

One last time we show that youll have to compensate for


tooling during motion calculations has to do with threading.
Though it is not a location on the cutting edge, most programmers program the extreme leading edge of the threading
tool in the Z axis. The drawing shows this.

Point programmed

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Though some programmers do program the very point of the


threading tool insert, using the inserts leading edge as the
programmed point will avoid the possibility of interference
when threading up to a shoulder. The programmer can command a Z axis position quite close to the shoulder without
fear of having the tool contact the shoulder. If the very point
of the threading insert is programmed, calculating the Z end
point will be more difficult when threading up close to shoulders. And if the setup person changes insert sizes (going to a
bigger insert) a collision could occur.

Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 3-5

Key Concept Number Three

3.2.

G00 Rapid motion (also called positioning)

Rapid motion, commanded by G00 (or G0), will cause the machine to move at its fastest possible rate.
Rapid motion is used in programs whenever the tool will not be machining anything during the motion.
Generally speaking, if the tool wont be cutting, it should be moving at rapid. Rapid motions are used for
approaching the workpiece, making quick motions internal to the machining operation that are not cutting
(like moving back into position for another roughing pass), and when retracting the tool to the tool change
position.
Current model turning centers have extremely fast rapid rates. Some can rapid at rates well over 1,200
inches per minute. Even older turning centers have pretty fast rapid rates (at least 300 ipm). With these extremely fast rapid rates, you must be very careful when allowing the turning center to move at rapid. Turning center manufacturers offer two feature that give you control over the machines rapid rate.
First, the rapid override function will allow you to slow the rapid rate any time you wish. However, machine tool builders vary with regard to how much control they provide with the rapid override switch. Some
allow you to slow the machine in large increments. With one popular style, youll have a four-position
switch that allows 100%, 50%, 25%, and 10% of the rapid rate. While this is nice, 10% of rapid can still be
quite fast. For example, if your turning center has a 1,200 ipm rapid rate, youll only be able to slow the
rapid rate to 120 ipm (10% of 1,200). This is still too fast to catch rapid motion mistakes. Other turning center manufacturers provide more of a rheostat for rapid override control. With this kind of machine, your
rapid override function will allow you to slow motion to a crawl.
Second, the dry run function allows you to use a special multi-position switch to control all motions the machine makes (including rapid motions). This function also lets you slow motion to a crawl, but is only necessary if you dont have adequate control of rapid rate with rapid override. Well discuss more about how
you take control of machine motions for the purpose of program verification during key concept number
ten. For now, just rest assured that youll be able to keep the machine from moving at its very fast (and
scary) rapid rate while youre getting familiar with the machine.
The G code G00 (or G0) is used to specify rapid mode. Since all motion types are modal, you need only include a G00 in the first of consecutive rapid motion commands. Also included in the G00 command will be
the X and/or Z end points for the motion.
If both axes will be moving together in a rapid motion, it is important to know how the motion will be made.
Each axis will be allowed to move at its rapid rate (some turning centers have a slower rapid rate for the X
axis) until it reaches its destination. If the motions arent equal distances, or if each axis has a different rapid
rate, one axis will reach its destination before the other. This means that straight motion will not occur. The
motion will appear as a dog-leg or hockey stick.
Figure 3.3 shows a drawing well be using to demonstrate the points weve made so far.

Figure 3.3 - Rapid motion example

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Types of Compensation

Key concept number four - Three types of compensation


The fourth key concept is that you have three kinds of compensation designed to let you forget about tooling
(cutting and workholding) as you develop CNC programs. Each of these compensation types make things
easier for programmers, setup people, and operators. Though this is the case, these features can be used in
different ways based upon your specific needs and will take some time and practice to completely master.
Lesson 11

Introduction to compensation
Before digging in too deep, we must ensure that you understand the word compensation. When you compensate for something, you are allowing for some unpredictable (or nearly unpredictable) variation. A race
car driver must compensate for track conditions as they negotiate a turn. A airplane pilot must compensate
for wind velocity and direction as they set headings. A marksman must compensate for the distance to the
target before they can fire a shot. The marksman analogy is remarkably similar to what happens with most
forms of CNC compensation. Lets take it further.
Before a marksman can fire a rifle, they must gauge the distance to the target. The quality of their first shot
will be directly related to how well they can gauge this distance. Once the distance is estimated, they adjust
rifles sight accordingly. But its likely that this first sight adjustment will not be perfect. Even if the distance to the target is perfectly judged, for example, some other unpredictable variation (like wind) may also
affect the quality of the first shot. When the marksman actually fires the first shot, they will be able to better
judge how well the sight is adjusted. Probably some fine tuning of the sight will be necessary. In most cases,
the second shot will be closer to the targets middle than the first. Depending upon the marksmans skill
level, it may be necessary to repeat the sight adjustment several times to get it perfectly adjusted.
When it comes to CNC turning center compensation types, the setup person will do their best to judge and
adjust the machine during setup in a way that allows it to machine acceptable workpieces. But until the first
workpiece is machined, they will not know for sure whether their adjustments are correct. During the machining of the first workpiece, its likely that theyll need to make further adjustments to their original settings to machine acceptable workpieces.
With the compensation type youve already been exposed to (geometry offsets), for example, someone
(usually the setup person) must determine the precise distances in X and Z between the program zero point
and each cutting tool tip while the machine is resting at the zero return position (techniques for doing so are
discussed in key concept number one). While they do their best to measure these distances, they will not
know for sure whether their measurements are correct until the tool machines the first workpiece. And even
if their original measurements are perfect, some other unpredictable variation, like tool pressure, may affect the quality of the machining operation. During machining of the first workpiece, its likely theyll need
to fine tune their original geometry offset settings.
4.0.1. What is trial machining?
The tolerances on turned workpieces are usually quite small, especially on turned diameters and bored
holes. Its not unusual for a company to hold tolerances smaller than 0.001 inch overall (plus or minus
0.0005 inch) on CNC turning centers. There is very little margin for error for cutting tools used to machine
surfaces with these tight tolerances. If the tool is mis-positioned by just a tiny amount, it will not machine
the surface correctly. This, of course, will result in the tool machining the surface too large or too small, depending upon the direction of mis-positioning. Its possible that the workpiece can be saved by
re-machining, or the workpiece might be beyond repair (scrap). And under normal circumstances, you
wont know which condition will exist until you machine the workpiece, in which case, it may be too late.
The more expensive the workpiece being machined, the more companies try to minimize scrap workpieces,
even for the very first workpiece being machined. While companies vary with regard to how much effort
theyll put into minimizing scrap workpieces machined coming from turning centers, there is a technique
called trial machining that will help setup people minimize scrap during the machining of the first
workpiece. Though this technique is not perfect, it does greatly increase the potential for making each critical cutting tool machine perfectly to size (or at least somewhere in its tolerance band), and almost guaran-

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Turning Center Programming and Operation

Page 4-1

Key Concept Number Four

tees that the first workpiece being machined will be an acceptable one. Of course, correctly adjusted cutting
tools is but one important factor contributing to making good workpieces. There are other problems that
could cause scrap workpieces to be machined (incorrect movements in the program, improper cutting conditions, bad process, etc.). Our discussions in this key concept relative to making the first workpiece an acceptable one are limited to what you can control with the compensation types. We assume the program,
cutting conditions, and process are correct.
Trial machining involves modifying the original adjustment for each critical tool (like finishing tools that
machine close tolerances) in such a way that a small amount of excess stock is left on the workpiece when
the tool machines for the first time. Once the tool has machined the workpiece, critical surfaces can be measured to determine precisely how much excess stock is on the workpiece. A second, more precise adjustment can then be made and the tool will be run again. The second time the tool machines, it will machine
critical surfaces within their tolerance bands.
While trial machining is most important for finishing tools that machine critical surfaces (surfaces with the
tightest tolerances), it can also be helpful for roughing tools since the amount of stock to be left by the
roughing tool for finishing is usually quite important. How the finishing tool machines, of course, has a lot
to do with the amount of stock its removing.
Admittedly, trial machining takes time. And there are those in this industry (especially those that machine
relatively inexpensive workpieces) that feel the additional time a setup person spends performing trial machining operations for several tools during setup is wasteful. Theyll gladly scrap the first workpiece or two
as long as they eventually learn enough to adjust each tool in an acceptable manner. This assumes of course,
that they have extra pieces of raw material. Regardless of workpiece cost, we feel it is important that all
CNC setup people and operators have the ability to perform trial machining operations. Someday, youll be
faced with the task of machining a given number of workpieces without the benefit of extra (practice)
workpieces.
This brings up an important benefit of tool touch-off probes (introduced in key concept number one). If
properly calibrated, current model tool touch-off probes all but eliminate the need for trial machining. With
just a little trial and error (during the probes calibration), the tool touch-off probe can be adjusted to perfectly measure program zero assignment values, even taking into consideration deviations caused by tool
pressure during machining operations. If one or more of your machines has tool touch-off probes, you
shouldnt have to do much trial machining. Unfortunately, there are a number of turning centers being used
(by far, the majority) that do not have tool touch-off probes. For them, youll be using trial machining techniques on a regular basis if you expect to machine your first workpiece to size. Most of the presentations we
give relative to holding size assume your machine/s do not have a tool touch-off probe.
4.0.2. Compensation commonalties
The three kinds of compensation used on turning centers are:
Geometry offsets - used to assign program zero
Wear offsets - used for fine tuning or sizing purposes
Tool nose radius compensation - used to compensate for the small radius on single
point tools
4.0.2.1. What are offsets?
All compensation types involve offsets. Offsets are storage registers for numerical values. Theyre used to
specify the value (adjustment amount) related to each compensation type. From the marksman analogy,
you can think of CNC offsets as being like the amount of adjustment required for the sight. With geometry
offsets, theyre used to store the program zero assignment values for each tool. With wear offsets, theyre
used to store the fine-tuning values needed as tools wear. With tool nose radius compensation, theyre used
to store the insert radius and tool type for the single point tool.
Once entered, offsets remain in the control until they are changed or cleared (set to zero). You can turn off
the power to the machine without fear of losing offset data.
You access offsets through the offset display screen page. Here is the geometry offset page as used on one
popular Fanuc model.

Page 4-2

Turning Center Programming and Operation

CNC Concepts, Inc.

Types of Compensation

10T

FANUC
(GEOMETRY)

TOOL OFFSET
NO.

G01
G02
G03
G04
G05
G06
G07
G08

00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000

Z
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000

O0040 N00000
R

00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

EDIT *** STOP **** *** *** *** *** ****


POSITION PROGRAM

OFFSET

PRG_CHK

Geometry offset page


As you know from key concept number one, the X and Z registers on the geometry offset page are used to
specify program zero assignment values. The R and T registers are used to specify tool nose radius compensation values. Though there are actually two places you can place the tool nose radius compensation values,
we recommend using the R and T registers of the geometry offset page in which to place the insert radius and
tool type for tools using tool nose radius compensation. More on why as we discuss tool nose radius compensation.
Here is the wear offset display screen page.

10T

FANUC
(WEAR)

TOOL OFFSET
NO.

W01
W02
W03
W04
W05
W06
W07
W08

00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000

Z
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000

O0040 N00000
R

00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000
00.0000

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

EDIT *** STOP **** *** *** *** *** ****


POSITION PROGRAM

OFFSET

PRG_CHK

Wear offset page


First of all, notice the close similarity between the wear and geometry offset pages. Youll need to be extra
careful when entering offset values to be sure you have the correct offset page selected. The X and Z registers on this page are used to specify wear offset values. The R and T registers can be used to enter tool nose

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Key Concept Number Four

radius compensation values. However, we recommend entering tool nose radius compensation values on
the geometry offset page (more on why and the usage of wear offsets as we discuss each compensation
type).
Notice that offsets are specified with numbers (offset number one, offset number two, offset number three,
etc.). In this sense, theyre much like the memories of an electronic calculator. When making calculations
on a calculator, if you want to store a commonly needed value for use during calculations, you can place it in
memory number one. Whenever you need to recall the value, you simply recall memory number one. In
similar fashion, youll be invoking offsets by offset number.
When selecting offset numbers, we strongly recommend that you match the offset number to the tool station
number using it. Make tool station number one, for example, use offset number one. Tool number two
should use offset number two. And so on. The offset number is invoked in the program as part of the T word.
For most controls, the first two digits of the T word specify the tool station number (for turret indexing) and
the geometry offset number to be used. The second two digits specify the wear offset number. For example,
in the command
T0707
The first two digits tell the control to index to station number seven and invoke geometry offset number
seven. The second two digits invoke wear offset number seven. As stated, most applications are easily handled with one offset per tool. For the most part, this single offset will allow any adjustments needed to make
the tool hold size, and well refer to it as the primary offset. However, there are a few times when it is impossible to hold size with but only one offset per tool. Tool pressure, for example, may be different for one surface being machined than it is for another. In these rare cases, a second offset (well call a secondary offset)
may be required. More on applications for secondary offsets will be given as we discuss wear offsets in
greater detail.
Control models vary with regard to how many offsets they provide. For most applications, only one offset
will be required for each tool. If your turret can hold twelve tools, you shouldnt need more than twelve offsets in most cases. Its not uncommon for machine tool builders to equip their turning centers with at least
thirty-two offsets, meaning youll have more than enough offsets.
STOP!! Do practice exercise number:

11

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Types of Compensation

Lesson 12

Geometry offsets
You know from key concept number one that current model Fanuc controls are equipped with geometry
offsets that are used to assign program zero. But you should also know that if your turning center was manufactured prior to about 1988, its likely that it does not have geometry offsets. If it does not (you can tell by
pressing the offset key several times), you must assign program zero in the program with a G50 command
for each tool (as is shown in key concept number one). If your machine/s dont have geometry offsets, you
can skip this lesson.
4.0.3. Reasons for using geometry offsets to assign program zero
As stated in key concept number one, there are several advantages to using geometry offsets as compared to
assigning program zero within the program. Here is a quick list of the major advantages shown in key concept number one.
Program zero assignment is separated from the program (improved ease of use)
Only two values must be entered for each tool (as opposed to four)
If the control is equipped with the measure function, error prone calculations and offset
entries are eliminated (safety is improved)
With the feature work shift, redundant Z measurements for cutting tools left in the turret
from job to job can be eliminated (improved efficiency)
The turret can be in any location at the beginning of the program (improved efficiency
and ease of use)
The turret can be in any location when picking up in the middle of the program to re-run a
tool (improved efficiency and ease of use)
For tool changing, the turret can be sent to any safe index point (improved efficiency)
4.0.4. How geometry offsets work
As you know from key concept number one, the control must know the distances in X and Z from the cutting
tool tip while the machine is resting at its zero return position to the program zero point. Weve been calling
these distances the program zero assignment values. And in key concept number one, we show several
ways to actually determine and enter these values, so we wont repeat the presentation here.
You also know that each cutting tool will have a different set of program zero assignment values. When geometry offsets are used, program zero assignment values (one set per tool) are placed in each tools geometry offset. The geometry offset number will match the tool station number, so the program zero assignment
values for tool number six will be placed in geometry offset number six.
You can get a better understanding of how geometry offsets actually work by monitoring the absolute position page (with X and Z) during power up. While monitoring this page, and having just turned on the power,
manually send the machine to its zero return position in both axes. When the machine is resting at its zero
return position, youll notice that the absolute position display page will display X00.0000 and Z00.0000.
At this point, the control actually thinks the zero return position is the program zero point!
When a geometry is invoked (with the first two digits of the T word) the distances from the tool tip at the
zero return position to program zero will be transferred to the absolute position display screen registers. If
the machine is at the zero return position, the absolute position displays values (X and Z) will match the
tools geometry offset values (though theyll be plus instead of minus). If the machine is not at the zero return position when a geometry offset is invoked, the control will take into consideration the machines current position (relative to zero return) as it updates the absolute position display page. If a work shift value is
being used, the control will also take it into consideration as it updates the absolute position display screen
page.
Warning about the machine lock feature: This brings up an important point about a feature called machine lock. Machine lock will keep the machines axes from moving. It can be used during verification to

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Key Concept Number Four

allow the control to scan a questionable (new) program for syntax mistakes. With machine lock turned on,
you can run the program an let the control check for mistakes. The control will go through the program,
thinking the machines axes are moving when in fact, they are is not.
While machine lock is helpful for finding mistakes, it can cause major problems with geometry offsets.
When turning off the machine lock switch after completing the machine lock dry run, if the axes are not in
exactly the same location they were when the machine lock switch was turned on, the control will not know
the true location of the axes. This can result in a crash when the program is run again. To re-calibrate the
absolute position displays, do another manual zero return. When the machine gets to its zero return position, the X and Z values on the absolute position display must each be zero. Many current model turning
centers are not equipped with the machine lock function due to this potential for catastrophic problems.
4.0.5. Minimizing program zero assignment measurements from job to job
This drawing shows the method of program zero assignment we recommend when geometry offsets are
used.
Values related to program zero assignment when geometry offsets are used

Turret at zero return


Z geometry offset

Program zero point

X geometry offset
(diameter)

Work shift

With this method, the spindle center (in X) and the chuck face (in Z) is used as one point of reference for the
geometry offset X and Z values. Since both remain consistent from job to job, so will the program zero assignment values remain consistent for any cutting tool left in the turret from job to job.
Notice that the setup person must specify a work shift value representing the distance from the chuck face to
the programmers chosen program zero point. In most cases, this distance can be easily measured with a
common depth gauge. This illustration shows the work shift page.

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Program Formatting

Key concept number five - Program Formatting


Lesson 15

5.1. Program formatting


Until now, we have been introducing the building blocks of CNC programming for a turning center. Weve
shown a few full programs, and if youve been doing the programming activities, youve seen much of what
is involved with developing complete programs. You may be getting quite comfortable with the various
words and commands making up CNC programs, but you have not yet written a complete CNC program by
yourself. In this key concept, well present information that will make you a self-sufficient CNC turning
center programmer.
Formatting a CNC program is the act of writing it in such a way that the CNC control can recognize and execute it safely, consistently, and with a high degree of operator-friendliness. CNC controls have come a
long way in this regard. Early CNCs were quite cumbersome, requiring every command in the program to
be just so. Words had to be in a particular order. The implied decimal point in each word had to be perfect
(there was no decimal-point programming ability). The list of tedious limitations related to older CNCs is
almost endless. By comparison, todays CNC controls are much easier to work with. While there are still a
few general rules you must obey, current CNCs are quite flexible when it comes to command interpretation.
There are many successful ways to format CNC programs. Criteria for determining which method best suits
your needs include safety, ease-of-use, read-ability, and efficiency. Though the decision as to how you format your programs should be based upon your companys requirements, our given formats are aimed at beginning CNC turning center programmers. We freely admit that our given formats sacrifice efficiency for
safety and ease-of use. Though well explain why our formats are not very efficient and give alternatives
for improvements, beginners should learn to walk before they run. Once you have a few successful jobs
running (regardless of how inefficient they are), you can streamline your methods.
Our recommendations assume youre starting from scratch. But it is possible that you have some prior turning center programming experience. Or you may have an established CNC programmer in your company
who is already preparing programs with a format that differs from what we recommend. Or your machine
tool builder may have taught something different than what we recommend. If you are comfortable with
your current format, dont change to our method simply for the sake of change. However, our proven formats are safe and reliable. Once you understand our reasoning, you may elect to modify your current methods.
5.1.1. Reasons for program formatting
We have been stressing throughout this course that it is just as important to understand why things are done
as it is to know how to do them. We offer three reasons why you should format you programs in a strict manner.
5.1.1.1. Familiarization
Its unlikely that anyone whos driven a car could recite from memory every road sign used for directing
traffic. Yet when the driver actually sees a road sign, its likely theyll recognize its meaning. In similar
fashion, its unlikely that even an experienced programmer could recite from memory every word used with
CNC turning center programming. Yet when they see a word (especially in the context of a CNC command), they will easily recognize its function. If youve been doing the programming activities, its likely
that even at this early stage in your CNC career, youre beginning to recognize and remember the most often-used words.
Our first reason for strictly formatting CNC programs is to keep you from having to memorize the related
words and commands. Instead, youll be able to fashion your programs after proven examples (templates).
After writing a few programs on your own, youll have the format memorized, but in the meantime, youll
be able to use our example format as a crutch, providing the road signs you need to get through your first
few programs.

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Key Concept Number Five

Our templates will guide you through program startup, tool ending, tool startup, and program ending formats. Though youll be completely on your own to develop the machining commands for each tool, a large
percentage of all CNC programs is nothing more than format information.
5.1.1.2. Consistency
If youve been doing the programming activities, youve surely noticed the high degree of consistency from
program-to-program and from tool-to-tool within each program. Doing things in a consistent manner will
help you repeat past successes. What works for one program will work for another and what works for one
tool within the program will work for another.
Our program formats facilitate a high degree of consistency from one program to the next. This not only
makes it easier to develop programs, it makes it easy for anyone having to work with your CNC programs.
If programs are consistently formatted, setup people and operators will get comfortable with the manner by
which programs are written. This consistency should carry over from one programmer to another within the
company. Though it can be difficult to get two experienced programmers to agree on all aspects of program
formatting, the more consistent the CNC programs within a company, the easier it will be for everyone involved.
5.1.1.3. Rerunning tools
CNC setup people and operators will have the constant need to rerun tools within the program. During our
discussion of wear offsets in key concept number four, for example, we discuss the need for trial machining. As you know, this technique can be used when you question whether a tool will machine some
workpiece surface to its intended size. You first adjust an offset in such a way that excess stock is left on the
surface. You let the tool run to machine the surface/s with excess stock. After the tool is finished, you stop
the machine and measure the surface/s machined. It will have excess stock, so you fine tune the offset adjustment, and rerun the tool. The second time the tool machines, you can rest assured the surface will be
within its tolerance band.
Trial machining is but one of several times when tools must be rerun. You may for example, be testing a
new program when you discover that the fifth tool (of eight) in the program has done something wrong.
You stop the machine and correct the mistake. At this point, it would be wasteful to run the entire program
again just to get to tool number five. Instead, youll want to start from tool number five.
In order to allow setup people and operators to rerun tools, all information necessary to get the machine up
and running must be included at the beginning of every tool. This commonly requires including some
redundant words at the beginning of each tool: words that would not be needed if the program is run in its
entirety, but are required if the machine is to run from the beginning of a specific tool.
If youve been doing the programming activities, you may have noticed some of the seemingly redundant
words were talking about. Heres the five-tool program from programming activity number five.
O0005 (Program number)
(Rough face and turn tool)
N005 T0101 M41
N010 G96 S450 M03
N015 G00 X2.2 Z0.005 M08 (1)
N020 G01 X-0.062 F0.012 (2)
N025 G00 Z0.1 (3)
N030 X1.810 (4)
N035 G01 Z0.005 (5)
N040 X1.935 Z-0.245 (6)
N045 Z-0.495 (7)
N050 X2.06 Z-0.745 (8)
N055 G00 X6.0 Z5.0

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Program Formatting

N060 M01
(1" drill)
N065 T0202 M41
N070 G97 S380 M03
N075 G00 X0 Z0.1 M08 (9)
N080 G01 Z-2.8175 F0.009 (10)
N085 G00 Z0.1 (11)
N090 X6.0 Z5.0
N095 M01
(Rough boring bar)
N100 T0303
N105 G96 S400 M03
N110 G00 X1.19 Z0.1 M08 (11)
N115 G01 Z-0.4325 F0.008 (12)
N120 X0.94 Z-1.1825(13)
N125 G00 Z0.1 (14)
N130 X6.0 Z5.0
N135 M01
(Finish boring bar)
N140 T0404 M41
N145 G96 S450 M03
N150 G41 G00 X1.5 Z0.1 (15)
N155 G01 Z0 F0.005 M08 (16)
N160 G02 X1.25 Z-0.125 R0.125 (17)
N165 G01 Z-0.4375 (18)
N168 X1.0 Z-1.1875 (19)
N170 X0.8 (20)
N175 G00 Z0.1 (21)
N180 G40 X6.0 Z5.0 (Cancel tnr comp)
N185 M01
(Finish turn)
N190 T0505 M42
N195 G96 S500 M03
N200 G00 X1.95 Z0 M08 (22)
N205 G01 X1.15 F0.007 (23)
N210 G00 Z0.1 (24)
N215 G42 X1.75 (25, instate comp)
N220 G01 Z0 (26)
N225 X1.875 Z-0.25 (27)

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Key Concept Number Five

N230 Z-0.5 (28)


N235 X2.0 Z-0.75 (29)
N240 X2.2 (30)
N245 G40 G00 X6.0Z5.0 (cancel comp)
N250 M30
As you worked on this exercise, for example, you may have questioned why the spindle (M03) and coolant
(M08) are being activated at the beginning of each tool. If the program runs from beginning to end (without
stopping), the spindle and coolant are never turned off. Yet an M03 and M08 are included in the program at
the beginning of each tool. These are two seemingly redundant words included in the program for the purpose of allowing each tool to be rerun if necessary. If for example, you wish to trial machine with tool number four (the finish boring bar), youll need the ability to rerun the boring bar by itself. The pick-up-block
for the boring bar is line N140. At the time when the boring bar is rerun, the spindle and coolant are not
turned on. In this case, if the M03 and M08 (in lines N145 and N155) are not included in the program, the
spindle and coolant would not start as the tool is rerun.
As a novice programmer, youll be tempted to leave out tool rerunning redundant words because they are
modal. And admittedly, if the program runs from the beginning, youll have no problem. But we recommend including all commands and words needed to get the machine up and running at the beginning of each
tool.
Heres another example that further stresses the point. In the program just shown, say the rough face and
turn tool (station one) and the 1" drill (station two) are both to be run at a feedrate of 0.010 ipr. You may be
tempted to leave out the F0.01" word in the tool startup format for the drill, since feedrate is modal. But if
you do, the drill will not be independent from the rest the program. If you run the entire program before you
determine that the drill must be rerun, it will run at the same feedrate as the last tool in the program (0.007 ipr
in our case), and not the drills intended feedrate.
When you think about it, strictly formatting as we recommend allows you to break up your programs into
smaller and easier-to-handle segments, each segment being made up of one tool. The program segment for
each tool will be a kind of mini program, self sufficient and capable of activating all necessary machine
functions on its own.
5.1.2. Format priorities
As stated earlier, these formats place the highest emphasis on safety. This is followed closely by understand-ability and ease-of-use. We want you to become familiar with CNC turning center programming in as
safe and easy a manner as possible. However, we freely admit that these formats are not very efficient. Here
are some examples.
5.1.2.1. One activity per command
For the most part, our formats do one thing at a time. While this makes it very easy to see just what is happening in each command, your turning centers may have the ability to do multiple functions, which of
course, will reduce program execution time. One example of this is with spindle activation. In our format,
you turn the spindle on in one command and then approach the workpiece in the next. For most turning centers, you can combine spindle activation with approach motion to minimize program execution time.
5.1.2.2. Poor use of constant surface speed
The method by which we recommend you activate constant surface speed (G96) is not very efficient.
Youll likely notice pauses in the programs execution as the spindle speeds up during the approach motion
and slows down during the retract motion to and from the tool change position.
5.1.2.3. Rapid approach distance
We recommend making your clearance distances 0.1 inch for qualified surfaces and at least 0.25 inch for
unqualified (cast) surfaces. While this is very safe, its not very efficient.
After we show the formats (in lesson sixteen), well show some alternatives that can be used to reduce cycle
time.

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Program Formatting

5.1.3. Machine differences that affect our given formats


Well be showing two sets of program format. Which one youll be using depends upon how you assign
program zero (with geometry offsets or within the program with G50 commands). While our formats will
work for most turning centers, you must be prepared for some variations.
First of all, were showing formats for two axis turning centers. Were assuming your turning center has a
turret to hold tools that moves to form the X and Z axes. There are a number of twin spindle turning centers
that can also use our recommended formats. While these machines have four axes (two sets of X and Z),
theyre really much like having two machines in one.
There are some other styles of turning centers that cannot use our given formats without some modification.
The four axis turning center that has two tools working on the same workpiece at the same time is one such
type of machine. Another is the traveling headstock (also called the Swiss-type) turning center. Yet another family of turning centers with which our formats will not perfectly work is the mill/turn or live tooling
turning center that has a rotary axis built into the main spindle. Some of these machines even have
sub-spindle and up to six axes (X, Z, and C for two spindles). And there are live tooling turning centers that
have a Y axis to allow motion in a plane perpendicular to the XZ plane.
Though there may seem to be many exceptions to what our given formats cover, remember first of all that
simple two axis turning centers make up the majority of turning centers in use today. So what we show in
this key concept will apply to a vast number of turning centers currently in use. Second, what we show will
pretty much still apply to these other machine types. Theyll simply require more in the way of special formatting than what we present in this key concept. In key concept number six, well show the additional
functions you must understand in order to handle other turning center types.
5.1.3.1. G code numbering
Machine tool builders can vary when it comes to certain G code numbers. Even if you have a Fanuc or
Fanuc-compatible control, you must be aware of this potential for variation. Generally speaking, imported
machines (Japanese, Korean, Taiwanese, etc.) use what Fanuc calls the standard G code specifications. We
use this set of G code specifications throughout this course. American machine tool builders, on the other
hand, tend to use the special G code specifications. Rest assured that the meaning remains exactly the same,
only the invoking G code number will vary. The numbering for most G codes remains exactly the same for
the most basic CNC functions. Here is a list of the G codes that vary based upon being standard or special.
Standard Special Description
G50
G92
Program zero assignment and maximum rpm designator
G90
G92
G94
G98
G99
X/Z
U/W

G77
G78
G79
G94
G95
G90
G91

One-pass turning cycle


One pass threading cycle
One pass facing cycle
Feed per minute
Feed per revolution
Absolute mode
Incremental mode

Again, most of these differences simply require that you translate a G code number (G92 instead of G50, for
example) if your machine/s require the special G code specifications. However, notice that how incremental and absolute motions are commanded. With the standard G code specification (that weve been using),
X and Z specify absolute positions. U and W specify incremental motions. With the special G code specification, G90 specifies incremental mode and G91 specifies incremental mode. With both special G codes, X
and Z are used to specify motion. The command
G90 G00 X1.0 Z1.0
tells the control to rapid to a position (relative to program zero) of one inch in X and one inch in Z. On the
other hand, the command
G91 G00 X1.0 Z1.0

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Key Concept Number Five

tells the control to rapid from its current position one inch up (positive) in diameter, and one inch positive in
the Z direction.
For most machines, the only other functions affected by the G code numbering are feedrate modes and simple canned cycles (discussed in key concept number six).
5.1.3.2. M code numbering
As you know, M codes specify a series of miscellaneous or machine functions. M code number selection is
left completely to the machine tool builder, and no two builders seem to be able to agree on the numbering of
all M codes. While there is some consistency when it comes to basic M code functions, you must look in
your machine tool builders programming manual to determine which M codes are related to specific machine functions. Here is a list of the M codes and their functions that almost all turning center manufacturers
adhere to.
M00 - Program stop
M01 - Optional stop
M03 - Spindle on in forward direction
M04 - Spindle on in reverse direction
M05 - Spindle off
M08 - Coolant on
M09 - Coolant off
M30 - End of program
M98 - Subprogram call
M99 - Return from subprogram
But there are many other turning center accessories that are programmed with M codes, and machine tool
builders do not agree with the M code numbering of these functions. Spindle range selection, for example,
is commonly programmed (as our course shows) with
M41 - low range
M42 - high range
But we know of one machine tool builder that uses M23 for low range selection and M25 for high range selection.
Here are some other functions commonly programmed with M codes, but not consistently numbered by
machine tool builders. Weve left a blank next to each M code number. Using your machine tool builders
programming manual fill in the blanks for machine functions equipped on your CNC turning center/s.
_______ - Coolant on and spindle on forward (together)
_______ - Coolant on and spindle on reverse (together)
_______ - Open chuck jaws
_______ - Close chuck jaws
_______ - Open machine door
_______ - Open machine door
_______ - Tailstock body forward
_______ - Tailstock body back
_______ - Tailstock quill forward
_______ - Tailstock quill back
_______ - Activate bar feeder
_______ - Deactivate bar feeder
_______ - Activate tool touch-off probe
_______ - Deactivate tool touch-off probe

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