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TEMPERATURE CONTROL SYSTEM

AIM: To study the performance of various types of controller used to control the temperature of an oven. APPARATUS: Temperature control unit Techno meter -1 Stop clock - 1 CERCUIT DIAGRAM:

1

PROCEDURE:

I. OPEN LOOP TESTING:

1. Keep switch ‘S1’ to ‘WAIT’, ‘S2’ to ‘SET’ and open ‘FEED BACK’. 2. Connect potentiometer (p) output to driver i/p and switch on the unit. 3. Set potentiometer ‘P’ to 0.5 which gives Kp = 10 adjust reference potentiometer to read 5 on the dmm. 4. Put switch ‘S2’ to the measure position and note down the room temperature. 5. Put switch ‘S1’ to run position and note down the room temperature readings every 30 seconds till the temperature becomes almost constant. 6. Plot temperature time curve on a graph paper calculate T1 and T2 hence write the transfer function of the oven including it’s driver as G(s) = Ke –(ST2) / (1+ST1) with ‘T’ in 0C.

II. P – CONTROLER:

Kp for P – controller is a Kp = T1 / (K T2) 1. starting with cool oven, keep switch ‘S1’ to ‘WAIT’ position & connect ‘P’ to output to the driver i/p keep R, D, and I o/p’s disconnected short ‘ FEED BACK’ terminals. 2. Set up potentiometer to the above calculated value of ‘Kp’ keeping in mind that maximum gain is 10. 3. Plot the observation on a linear graph paper and observe the rise time, study state error and output overshoot.

III. P – I CONTROLER:

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1. Starting with cool oven, keep switch ‘S1’ to ‘WAIT’ position & connect P & I output to the driver i/p and disconnect R, D. o/p’s short ‘FEED BACK’ terminals. 2. Set P and I potentiometer to the above values of KP and K respectively select and set the desired temperature to say 60 keep switch ‘S2’ to ‘RUN’ position and record temperature plot the observation on graph. 3. Starting with a cool oven, keep switch ‘S1’ to ‘WAIT’ position & connect P, I, and D o/p’s to driver i/p keep ‘R’ output disconnected short feed back terminals. 4. Set P, I & D potentiometer according to calculated values.

IV. P ID CONTROLER:

1. Starting with cool oven, keep switch ‘S1’ to ‘WAIT’ position & connect P & I output to the driver i/p and disconnect R, D. o/p’s short ‘FEED BACK’ terminals. 2. Set P, I, D according to the above calculated values of KP, KI (or) KD keeping in mind that there is a maximum value are 20, 0.0245 and 23.5 respectively. 3. Select & set the desired temperature time readings. 4. Plot the response on a graph paper and observe Tr Steady state error and percentage over shoots.

OBSERVATIONS: P – CONTROLER:

S.N o

TIME

TEMPERATURE

3

P I– CONTROLER:

S.N o

TIME

TEMPERATURE

PID – CONTROLER:

S.N o

TIME

TEMPERATURE

EXPETED GRAPH:

4

RESULT:

The performance of various types of controllers i.e., P, PI and PID controllers to control the temperature of an oven are studied.

VIVA VOCE: • • • • Define control system. Define open loop control system. Define open loop control system. Is temperature control system open loop are closed loop control system?

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**2. TRANSFER FUNCTION OF A DC MOTOR
**

AIM: To study the torque – speed characteristics and determine the transfer function of a Dc motor. APPARATUS: 1. Trainer kit of a DC motor 2. DMM meters 3. Connecting wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: -2

6

PROCEDURE:

MOTOR AND GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Set ‘Motor’ switch to ‘ON’ set ‘RESET’ switch to ‘RESET’ set ‘LOAD’ switch to ‘0’ position. 2. Vary Ea in small steps and take readings. 3. Plot N VS Ea and Eg VS N obtain the slopes and compute Km and KG.

TORQ SPEED CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Set ‘Motor’ switch to ‘OFF’ set ‘RESET’ switch to ‘RESET’ set ‘LOAD’ switch to ‘0’ position. 2. Connect Ea to the voltmeter and set Ea = 6V

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3. Shift the ‘Motor’ switch to ‘ON’ measure armature in put (Ea), motor current (Ia) & motor speed in rpm record the readings. 4. Set the ‘LOAD’ switch to 1, 2. . 5 and take readings as above. 5. Complete the table motor voltage Ea = 6 volts; Ra = 4.42Ω. 6. Plot torque VS speed cures on a graph paper. 7. Complete ‘B’ from the slope of torque – speed curve and average Kb from the table. 8. Repeat above for Ea = 8v, 10v, 12v and record the average values of motor parameters B and Kb

STEP RESPONSE:

1. Set ‘Motor’ switch to ‘OFF’ set ‘RESET’ switch to ‘RESET’ set ‘LOAD’ switch to ‘0’ position. 2. Connect Ea to the volt meter and set it to 8V. 3. Switch ‘ON’ the motor and measure ‘Eg’ & the speed in rpm these are the steady state generator voltage ‘Eg’ and steady state motor speed ‘N’ respectively. 4. Set ‘ES’ to 63.2% of Eg measure above this is the generator Vg at which the counter will stop counting. 5. Switch ‘OFF’ the motor set ‘RESET’ switch to ‘READY’. 6. Now switch the motor ‘ON’ record the counter reading as time constant in mille seconds. 7. Repeat above with Ea = 10V, 12V and tabulate the results. 8. Substitute the values of Km and Tm in equation Gm(s) = Km / (STm + 1) = w(s) / Ea(s). 9. Using the average values of Tm, B, Kb and Ra calculate the motor inertia from equation I = Tm (B+Kb2/Ra).

OBSERVATION:

MOTOR AND GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS:

8

S.No

Ea (volts)

Ia (mA)

N (rpm)

Eg (volts)

TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS:

S.N o

Load Step

Ia (mA )

N (rpm )

W= 2∏n/60 (rad/sec)

Eb = Ea-IaRa (volts)

Kb = Eb / W

Tm = KbIa (N-m)

STEP RESPONSE:

S.N o

Ea (volts )

Eg (volts )

N (rpm )

Es = 0.632Eg (volts)

Time constant ‘Tm’ msec

Gain constant Km = ∏N/ 30 Ea

EXPETED GRAPH:

9

FORMULAE USED: Motor gain constant = Km = KT / RaB+KTKb Motor time constant = Tm = Ra j / RaB+KTKb Steady state armature current, Ia = (Ea – Eb)/ Ra = (Ea/Ra) – (KbW/Ra) Steady state torque generated, Tm = KTIa Tm = - KTKb / Ra(w) + KT / Ra (Ea) Kb = Eb / W = (Ea - IaR) / W [volts/rad/sec] Average Kb = 22.53x10-3 volts/rad/sec B- Coefficient of viscous friction (N-m/rad/sec) CALCULATIONS:

RESULT: The transfer function of a DC motor is derived.

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VIVA VOCE: • • • Define transfer function. How transfer function is different from voltage gain ? Explain the advantages of transfer function.

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3. BODE PLOT USING MATLAB

OBJECTIVE: To obtain the Bode Plot for the given transfer function and to verify it using MATLAB.

G(s) = 50 ( s + 2) ( s +1)( s + 3)( s + 4)

APPARATUS: PC with MATLAB software. THEORY:

BODE PLOT USING MATLAB: A stable linear system subjected to a sinusoidal input gives sinusoidal output of the same frequency after steady state conditions are reached. However, the magnitude and phase angle change. The output magnitude and phase depends on the input frequency. Bode plot give this relation in a graphical way. It can be proved that if ‘s’ is replaced by ‘jw’, the transfer function gives steady state response to sinusoidal inputs where w is the angular frequency. The command bode (num, den) produces the bode plot. The command (mag, phase, w) =bode (num, den, w) can be used for specified frequency points contained in w-vector. Result is stored in magnitude and phase matrices. The command mag dB=20*log (mag) produces magnitude in dB. 12

The command log space (d1, d2) generates 50 points between 10d1 and 10d2, w=log space (1, 2) generates 50 points between 10-1 and 102 i.e., and 100 rad/sec. but if we have to generate 100 points use the command, w=log space (-1, 2, 100).

50 ( s + 2) ( s +1)( s + 3)( s + 4)

G(s) =

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

(- to be done by the student-)

PROGRAM: NUM = INPUT(‘ENTER NUMERATOR OF THE TF’); DEN = INPUT(‘ENTER DENOMINATOR OF THE TF’); SYS=TF (NUM, DEN); BODE (SYS) GRID

RESULT: The Bode plot for the given transfer function has been obtained and verified it by using MATLAB. VIVA VOCE: • • Give the advantages of bode plot over Nyquist plot. Define gain cross over frequency.

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• • •

Define phase cross over frequency. Define gain margin. Define phase margin.

4. PID CONTROLLER

AIM: To study the performance characteristics of an analog PID controller using simulated system. APPARATUS: 1. PID Controller kit

2. Connecting wires 3. C R O 4. Digital voltmeter. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

14

PROCEDURE: Controller Response: 1. Apply a square wave signal of 100 mv, P-P at the in put of the error detector connect P I and D o/p s to the summer and display controller O/P on the CRO. 2. With P-potentiometer set to zero obtain maximum value of P-P Square wave O/P o/p Kc = --------------------------------P-P square wave I/P = 0.1 ----------------------------P-P Square wave

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3. with I - potentiometer set to maximum and P, D potentiometer to zero , a ramp will be seen on C R O .maximum value of K is then given by 4 x f x (P-P) triangular curve O/P ramp in K I (max) = ------------------------------------------------------P-P square wave amplitude in volts Where ‘ f ’ is the frequency of I/P 4. Set D - potentiometer to maximum and P and I potentiometers to zero. A series of sharp pulses will be seen on C R O. this is obviously not suitable for calibrating the D -potentiometer applying a triangular wave at the I/P of the error detector a square wave is seen on the C R O P-P Square wave O/P Kd(max) = ------------------------------------4 x f x (P-P) Triangular wave I/P 5. Set all the three potentiometers = P, I and D to maximum values and apply a square wave I/P of 100 mv (P-P). Observe and trace the stop response of P I D controller, identify the effects of P, I and D controls individually on the shape of this response. II. Proportional control: 1) Make connections as shown in the fig, with process made up of time delay and time constant blocks. Notice that the C R O operations in the X - Y mode ensures stable display even at low frequencies. 2) Set input amplitude to 1v (P-P) and frequency to low value.. 3) For various values of Kc = 2-2, 2-4 . . . . . measure from screen the value if peak over shoot and steady state error and tabulate graph. EXPETED GRAPH: 16

CALCULATIONS: (a) P- control: I/P = Square wave amp ----0.1v (p-p) O/p = square amps --amp –2.0 (p-p) O/p voltage (p-p) Kc (max) 2.0/0.1 =20 = --------------------------I/p voltage (p-p) (b) I - control: I/p = square wave amplitude of 0.1v (p-p) T=?

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F = 1/T O/P=Triangular wave of amplitude v (P-P) Ki (max) = 4 x f x o/p voltage (p-p) -------------------------------I/P Voltage [P-P] (c). D - Control: Input Triangular wave of amplitude V (p-p) Time =? F =1/t O/P Square wave of amplitude V(P-P) O/P voltage (P-P) K d (max) = ---------------------4 x f x I/P voltage (P-P) RESULTS: The performance characteristics of analog controller using simulated system are drawn. VIVA VOCE: 1. What is the need to add proportional control scheme in the system? 2. Give the advantages of integral control over proportional control. 3. Explain the advantages of derivative control scheme. 4. What is need have included PID controller in the system?

**5. STATE SPACE MODEL FOR CLASSICAL TRANSFER FUNCTION USING MATLAB – VERIFICATION
**

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(I) CONVERSION OF TRANSFER FUNCTIONS TO STATE SPACE MODEL: OBJECTIVE: To obtain the state space model for the given transfer function and verifying it using MATLAB.

T ( s) = s 2 + 3s + 3 s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3s + 1

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

(-to be done by the student-)

PROGRAM: NUM = [1 3 3] DEN = [1 2 3 1] [A, B, C, D] = TF2SS(NUM, DEN)

RESULT: The state space model of the given transfer function has been verified using MATLAB. -2 -3 -1 A= 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 B= 0 C=1 3 3 D=

19

(II) CONVERSION OF STATE SPACE MODEL TO TRANSFER FUNCTION OBJECTIVE: To obtain the transfer function for the given state space model and Verifying it using MATLAB. -2 1 0 A= -3 0 1 -1 0 0 THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS: B= 1 3 C=1 0 0 3 D=0

( - to be done by the student - )

PROGRAM: A = [-2 1 0; -3 0 1; -1 0 0] B = [1; 3; 3] C = [1 0 0] D = [0] [NUM, DEN] = SS2TF (A, B, C, D) RESULT: The Transfer Function of the given state space model has been verified using MATLAB.

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s 2 + 3s + 3 T ( s) = 3 s + 2 s 2 + 3s + 1

VIVA VOCE: 1. What do you understand by state space model? 2. Explain the advantages of state space model over transfer function approach. 3. Give the formula for transfer function in state space model. 4. What do mean by state vector?

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**6. DC SERVO MOTOR SPEED TORQUE CHARACTERISTCS
**

AIM: To study dc servo motor speed torque characteristics APPARATUS: DMM 2 no s

Connecting wires DC Servo Motor kit THEORY: It is a Dc shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirement of a servo motor. The field is excited by a constant DC supply. If the field current is constant then speed is directly proportional

PROCEDURE:

FOR PLOTTING SPEED TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERVO MOTOR

1) Adjust spring balance so that there is minimum load on the servo motor. Note that you have to pull the knob K in up ward direction to apply load on the servo motor. You may make use of holes to apply a fixed load in the system by using screw. 2) Ensure the pot ‘P’ (speed control) is in maximum and

anticlockwise position.

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3) Switch on the supply and slightly press the control knob in anti clock wise direction so that self start relay is turned ON and armature voltage is applied to the armature from zero onwards. 4) Connect the digital or analog millimeter across the terminal marked armature voltage in the range o to 35 volts 5) Adjust P so that Va = 10v and P2 so that Vf = 20v 6) Note down T1 ,T2 and speed and enter the result in the table 1 7) Keeping Va= 10v, adjust T1 up to 500 gm in suitable steps to get a set of readings. 8) Now for Va= 15, 20v repeat step 6. 9) Plot speed torque characteristics. 10) You may repeat above steps for various values of field Vg by controlling pot P2. OBSERVATION: Table 1 ; Radius of pulley ; R=3.54 cms/cm , VF=20 volts Armature voltage constant Va =10, 15, 20, 25 etc S.N o T1 gm T2 gm T=(T1T2) Torqu e =T *3.5 Speed[RP M] Ia [amps]

TYPICAL READINGS: A

Pulley R=3.5cms FIED VOLTAGE VF=20V ARMATURE VOLTAGE VA=10V

23

S.N o

T1 gm

T2 gm

T=(T1T2)

Torqu e =T *3.5

Speed[RP M]

Ia [amps]

B: VF= 20V and VA =15V

FIED VOLTAGE VF=20V S.N o T1 gm T2 gm T=(T1T2)

ARMATURE VOLTAGE VA=15V Torque Speed[R Ia =T *3.5 PM] [amps ]

C: VF= 20V and VA =20V

FIED VOLTAGE VF=20V S.N o T1 gm T2 gm T=(T1T2)

ARMATURE VOLTAGE VA=20V Torqu Speed[RP Ia e M] [amps] =T *3.5

D: VF= 20V and VA =25V

24

FIED VOLTAGE VF=20V S.N o T1 gm T2 gm T=(T1T2)

ARMATURE VOLTAGE VA=25V Torqu Speed[RP Ia e M] [amps] =T *3.5

EXPECTED GRAPH:

PRECAUTIONS: 1) The speed control knob should be always in the most anti clock wise position before switching ON the equipment 2) In order to increase Va, rotate the knob in the clock wise direction in a gentle fashion. 3) In order to increase the load on servo motor adjust the spring balance in a care full fashion. RESULT: The speed torque characteristics of DC servo motor are drawn.

25

VIVA VOCE: 1. What is meant by servo motor? 2. How it is different from DC motor? 3. Explain the advantages of DC servo motor. 4. Draw the characteristics of DC servo motor.

**7. ROOT LOCUS USING MATLAB
**

OBJECTIVE: To plot the Root locus for the given transfer function and to verify it using MATLAB.

G (s) = k ( s +1) s ( s + 1)( s 2 + 2 s + 5)

26

APPARATUS: PC with MATLAB software. THEORY: ROOT LOCUS: Roots of the transfer function move on the s-plane tracing a particular path when gain is changed from 0 to ∞. This path is called root locus. Open loop transfer function = G (s ) Closed loop transfer function =

G ( s) (1 +G ( s ) H ( s ))

**The characteristic equation is 1 +G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0
**

1 ⇒ G( s) H (s) =−

**To make above equation true, G ( s ) H ( s ) =180 0 (2k +1)
**

| G ( s ) H ( s ) |=1

------(1)

------(2)

**A plot satisfying (1) and (2) is the root locus. The constant part in
**

G ( s ) H ( s ) is called the “Gain”.

**ROOT LOCUS PLOT USING MATLAB: The characteristic equation can be written as 1 + k
**

num =0 . den

The command rlocus (num, den) gives the root locus plot. If the system is defined in state space, root locus is obtained by the command rlocus (A, B, C, D). THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS: (-to be done by the student-)

27

PROGRAM: NUM = INPUT(‘ENTER NUMERATOR OF THE TF’); DEN = INPUT(‘ENTER DENOMINATOR OF THE TF’); SYS=TF (NUM, DEN) RLOCUS (SYS) GRID RESULT: The Root locus for the given transfer function has been obtained and verified it by using MATLAB. VIVA VOCE: 1. Define root locus plot. 2. Give the advantages of root locus. 3. Is root locus plot drawn on open loop or closed loop system? 4. What are the different types of feed backs and explain?

**8. EFFECT OF FEED BACK ON A GIVEN DC MOTOR
**

AIM: 28

To study the effect of feed back on given DC motor. APPARATUS: Trainer kit Tachometer generator Connecting wires THEORY:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

CLOSED LOOP PERFORMANCE:

29

1. Set VR = 1V and KA = 5 2. Record the speed ‘N’ in rpm and the techo generator voltage ‘V’T’ and steady state error ESS = VR - VT. 3. Repeat the above procedure for different values of ‘KA’. 4. Compare in each case, the steady state error computed using the formula.

TRANSFER FUNCTION OF MOTOR TACHO GENERATOR:

1. Set VR = 1V and KA = 3. 2. Record the speed ‘N’ in rpm and the tacho generator output ‘V’T’. 3. Repeat the same with VR = 1V and KA = 4, 5, 6, 7 . . . 10 & tabulate the measured motor voltage (VM = VRKA) steady state motor speed ‘N’ in rpm and tacho generator out put ‘VT’. 4. Plot N VS VM and VTVSN obtain KM from the linear regain of the speed in rad/sec. WSS/motor voltage tacho generator gain KT = VT, volt – sec / Wss rad 5. Apply square wave signal and find the time constant using formula given below. 6. Obtain the motor transfer using, G(s) = Km / STm+1 OBSERVATION:

MOTOR TACHO GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS:

S.N o

KA setting

N (rpm)

VT (volts)

Vm = VRKA (volts)

Experime ntal Ka = Vm / VR

30

CLOSED LOOP PERFORMANCE: S.N o KA setting N (rpm) VT (volts) Ess = VR-VT (volts)

EXPECTED GRAPH:

THEORETICAL FORMULAE: Keff = (KAKMKT) / (1+ KAKMKT) Teff = 1 / (2f in [1-VT (p-p) / Vm (p-p)KMKT] ) Km = shaft speed (N) / motor voltage (Vm) Where Km – motor gain constant And KT = VT / Wss voltage/rad Where KT – tacho generator gain

31

RESULT: Effect of feed back on a given control system is studied. VIVA VOCE: 1. What is meant by feed back? 2. Explain the advantages of negative feed back over the positive feed back. 3. What happen when positive feedback is given a motor? 4. Give one example for closed and open loop control system.

32

9. CONVERSION OF STATE SPACE MODEL TO NYQUIST PLOT

OBJECTIVE: To obtain the Nyquist plot from the given state model and to verify it using MATLAB. 0 A= 1 B= 0 1 C = 10 0 D=0 -3 -4

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS: ( - to be done by the student - ) PROGRAM: A = [0 1;-3 -4] B = [0;1] C = [10 0] D = [0] [NUM, DEN] = SS2TF (A, B, C, D) NYQUIST (TF (NUM, DEN)) TITLE (‘NYQUIST PLOT’); GRID RESULT:

33

Nyquist plot for the given state model has been obtained and verified it using MATLAB. VIVA VOCE: 1. Define the term “state”. 2. Define the term “state variable”. 3. Is state space model unique, explain?

**10. TIME RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM
**

OBJECTIVE: To determine the time response specifications of a second order system using MATLAB.

G(s) = 81 s + 4 s + 81

2

APPARATUS: PC with MATLAB software THEORY: When the resistance, inductance and capacitance are connected in series to the voltage source ‘e’ and the voltage across the capacitor is taken as output. The mathematical equations are e(t) = R i(t) +L di/dt+(1/C) ∫ i dt and eo =(1/C) ∫ i dt Ei(s)/Eo(s) = (s2+(R/L) s+(1/LC))LC Eo(s)/Ei(s) =1/(s2+(R/L) s+(1/LC))LC Compare with characteristic equation s2+2ζ wns+wn2=0 wn = 1/√LC, ζ = (R/2)* √C/L, Ø = cos-1(ζ ) Damping frequency = wd = wn√1-ζ

2

34

TIME RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS: (i) Delay Time: It is the time taken to reach 50% of its final value. td = (1+0.7ζ )/ wn (ii) Rise Time: It is the time taken to rise from 10% to 90% for over damped system. It is the time taken for the system response to rise from 0 to 100% for under damped system. It is the time taken for the system response to rise from 5% to 95% for the critically damped system. td = [(π -tan-1(√1-ζ 2/ζ )]/wd (iii) Peak Time: It is the time taken for the response to reach peak value for the first attempt. tp = π /wd (iv) Settling Time: It is the time taken to reach and stay within the tolerable limit (2-5%). ts = 4/(ζ wn) (v) Peak Overshoot: It is the ratio of maximum peak value measured to the final value. Mp = eπ ζ /(√1-ζ 2)

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

(- to be done by the student-)

35

PROGRAM: NUM=[0 0 81]; DEN=[1 4 81]; SYS=TF(NUM,DEN) STEP(SYS) TITLE(‘STEP RESPONSE’); GRID OBSERVATION TABLE: Time td(mse c) tr msec) tp(mse c) ts(mse c) Mp (%) Theoretical values Practical Values

RESULT: The time response specifications of second order system are determined and verified using MATLAB. VIVA VOCE: 1. What is the need to analyze the time response? 2. Define transient response. 3. Define steady state response. 4. Define steady state error.

36

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