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Math 280 Final Exam Study Guide

7.1 Integration by parts:

FINAL EXAM
Monday, June 1
6:05 8:05pm
Room 359

u dv = u v v du

L Logs
I Inverse Trig
A Algebraic
T Trig
E Exponential

Higher on the list: u


Lower on the list: dv

7.2 Trigonometric Integrals


If

sin

If

tan

x cos n x dx , use u = sinx if n odd, u = cosx if m odd, or if both even powers, half angle formula

x sec n x dx , use u = tanx if n even, u = secx if m odd

7.3 Trigonometric Substitution


Expression in the
integrand

a2 x2
x2 + a2
x2 a2

Substitution

x = a sin
x = a tan
x = a sec

7.4 Partial Fractions


7.5 Strategy for Integration
7.7 Approximate Integrals: Midpoint, Trapezoidal, Simpsons Rule

7.8 Improper Integrals:

f (x)dx = lim

f (x)dx

t a

f (x)dx = lim
t b

infinite interval or

f (x)dx

infinite discontinuity at endpoint

Chapter 11 Sequences and Series!!!


a. What is a sequence? What does it take for a sequence to converge?
b. What is a series? What does it take for a sequence to converge?
c. How is a series different from a sequence?
d. Your SENSE about a series convergence/divergence VS. PROVING convergence/divergence
e. Divergence Test
f.

Geometric Series and their sums

g. Telescoping Series and their sums


h. p-series
i.

Integral Test: If integral converges, so does series

j.

Remainder estimate for the integral test

k. Direct Comparison Test


l.

Limit Comparison Test

m. Alternating Series Test: Check conditions! 1. Limit is 0, and 2. Decreasing function (find derivative)
n. Remainder estimate for alternating series
o. Absolute Convergence, Conditional Convergence, Divergence: Cant use Alt. Series Test to prove
Absolute Convergence!
p. Ratio and Root Tests: If L<1, converge. If L>1, diverge. Use with products of factorials, exponentials
These tests dont work on p-series, rational or algebraic functions of n.
q. Power Series centered at x = a
r.

Radius of convergence and Interval of convergence

s. Geometric Power Series representations of functions of the form


t.

1
1 X

Differentiation and Integration of power series

u. Taylor and MacLaurin Series


v. Binomial Series
10.1 Parametric Equations
10.2 Calculus of Parametric Equations: Tangents, Concavity, Arc length
10.3 Polar Coordinates, Graphs and Equations
10.4 Calculus in Polar Coordinates: Areas, points of intersections
10.6 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates

Sample Practice Problems:

r=

ed
1 ecos

or

r=

ed
1 esin

The conic is:


a) an ellipse if e < 1
b) a parabola if e = 1
c) a hyperbola if e > 1

1. Evaluate the integrals.


e

d.

ln x
x 2 dx
e

a.

xe

g.

16 x 2 dx

c.

dx

e.

b.

2x
dx
7 x + 12

h.

ln( x + 2) dx

x ( 4 x )dx
2

f.

dx

x ln x
2

ln x

2. For each of the following integrals, name one integration technique you could use to evaluate the integral
effectively. DO NOT INTEGRATE!!

a.

dx

b.

(1 x )

f ( x)
3. Let =

2 3/2

2)
( 1) ( x +=

n =1

n2

x e

2 x3

dx

c.

dx
4x 5

1
1
1
2
3
x + 2)
x + 2 ) +
( x + 2) +
2 (
3 (
1 2
22
3 2

a. Find the radius of convergence and interval of convergence of the power series representing the
function f(x).
b. Estimate f (1) using the first four terms of the power series.
c. Estimate f ( 1) using the first four terms of the power series.
d. Which estimate f (1) or f ( 1) is better? Explain.
4. Consider the function described by r = 1 2 cos .
A. Sketch the graph of the polar equation.
B. Find the slope of the tangent line to the polar
curve when =

C. Finding the area between the inner and outer loops

5. Determine whether the series converges or diverges. It the series is geometric and converges, find the sum.
Work on problems in section 11.7 in your textbook.

a.

n!

e
n =1

b.

( 1)

2
n = 2 n ( ln( n) )

g.

n+2
n(n + 3)

c.

3n + 2
n =1

2
n =1 n + n

e.

5 n +1

n =1

n =1

d.

( 1)

f.

n
n =1

5
10

h.

n 2 3n

n!
n =1

6. Use the integral test to determine convergence or divergence.

(4n + 1)
n =1

7. Find the Maclaurin series representation for the given function. Specify the interval of convergence.

f ( x) =

1
1 4x

8. Given the polar equation r =

a. Find

10
and its graph below:
3 2 cos

dy
dx =

/3

1
10

b. The integral
d is used to evaluate the
2
3
2
cos

/6
area of a sector within the shape to the right. Draw and
shade the sector on the graph and estimate the integral by
estimating the area contained within the sector.
c. Find the following for this ellipse: eccentricity, directrix, exact y-intercepts (in polar coordinates)

xn
x
9. Given the Maclaurin series for e =
on ( , ) , derive the Maclauren series for f ( x) = xe .
n =0 n !
x

Indicate the radius of convergence for the new series.

10. Consider the infinite series given by

n =0

( 1) ( n + 1) 3n
n

22 n +1

A. Determine whether the series converges absolutely, converges conditionally, or diverges.


B, Does the series satisfy the conditions of the alternating series test? How many terms must you use so
that your error is less than 0.00001?

11. Given the general formula for a Taylor polynomial

n =0

f(

n)

(a)

n!

( x a)

(a) Find a third degree Taylor polynomial, T3 ( x ) for cos x centered at

.
3

70
using the Taylor polynomial, T3 ( x ) .

180

( )

(b) Estimate the value of cos 70 = cos

n( x 4) n

n3 + 2
n =1

12. Find the interval of convergence for the power series:

13. Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve x = t 2 + 4t + 1 ,

y = 2t t 2

at t = 1

14. Sketch the parametric curve x =


1 + e2t , y =
et and eliminate the parameter to find the Cartesian (in x and y)
equation of the curve. Is the curve concave up or concave down at (2, 1)?

15. Find dy dx and d 2 y dx 2 for x =


1 + t2, y =
t t 3 . At what points does the curve has horizontal or
vertical tangents? Set up an integral that represents the length of the curve once around the loop. Use your
calculator to estimate the length of the loop.
16. Sketch the polar graphs and find the area of the region that lies inside the curve r= 2 + cos 2 but outside
the curve r= 2 + sin

17. Decide whether the following represent a parabola, hyperbola, or ellipse:


a. r =

12
3 + sin

b. r =

1
1 2sin

c. r =

5
3 3cos

18. Write a polar equation of a conic with the focus at the origin and the given data:
a. Parabola, vertex at ( 3, )
b. Ellipse, eccentricity , directrix y = 3

Answers to Practice Problems from


Math 280 Final Exam Study Guide
1.

a.

2
e

d.

b.
2048/15
2 e
1
1
1

ln 2 x + ln x + 2 + C (partial fraction decomp)


4 x 16
16
1
e.
x ln x + 2 + 2 ln x + 2 x + C

f.

diverges

h.

1 6
1
x ln x x 6 + C
6
36

c.

2.

729
ln
(partial fraction decomp) 8ln 2 8ln 4 + 6ln 3 =

256

g.

a. trig substitution, x = sin

b. u-substitution

c. partial fraction decomp

3.
a. R = 2 , Interval: (4, 0]
b.
5.015625
c.
0.682
d.
f (1), since x = 1 is within the radius of convergence. (This means f (1) diverges)

4.a.

dy
= 2
dx

b.

1
1
2
2
2 (1 2 cos ) d 2 (1 2 cos ) d =
+3 3
c. =
2
2
3
0
5.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Converges (Ratio Test)


Converges (Alternating Series Test); Converges conditionally (limit comp. test)
Diverges (Divergence Test)
Converges (Alternating Series Test) ; Converges absolutely (integral test)
Converges (Comparison test)
Converges (Limit comp. test)
Diverges (Geometric Series with r > 1)
Converges (Ratio Test)

6.

Converges by integral test, since

7.

4
n =0

x n , for x <

( 4 x + 1)
1

dx =

1
10000

1
1 1
. Interval: ,
4
4 4
6

8.

This problem is super messy!


dy
4
=
3
a.
dx = 3
6

b. My Area estimate

( 6.2 )

10.1
6
2
WolframAlpha integral estimate = 10.7538
10
10 3
c. e = 2/3; directrix: x = 5 ; y-intercepts: , and ,
3 2
3 2
( 1) n x n +1
R=
n!
n =0
Absolutely convergent by Ratio Test.
Yes (alternating, decreasing (check derivative), limit goes to 0)
Need 52 terms (n=0 up to and including n=51)

xe x =

9.
10.

a.
b.

12.

1
3
1
a. T3 ( x ) =
x x +
x
2 2
3 4
3 4 3
3
7
b.
cos(70 ) T3
0.3420
18
[3,5]

13.

y = 2x + 1

11.

Cartesian: x =
1 + y 2 , y > 0.

14.

d2y
1
= 3t , which is < 0 for all t. Concave down at t = 0.
2
dx
4e

dy 1 3t 2
15.
,
=
dx
2t

dy 1 3t 2
;
=
dx
4t 3

2
1
4
vertical tangent at (1,0) when t = 0; horizontal tangent at ,
when t =
;

3
3 3 3

2
dt
(2t ) 2 + (1 3t 2 )=

2
+ 1 2.71559
9t 4 2t=

=
16. A 2

1
2
2
d 51 3
2 + cos 2 ) ( 2 + sin =
(
)

22
16

5
,
2 6

1,
2

17.

18.

ellipse, e=1/3, d=12, directrix: y = 12

b.

hyperbola, e=2, d=1/2, directrix: y = -1/2

c.

parabola, e=1, d=5/3, directrix: x = -5/3

a.

r=

6
1 cos

b.

r=

3
2 + sin

Math 280 FINAL EXAM Formula/Theorem Sheet


Vanden Eynden

(You will be provided a fresh copy on exam day)

Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions:

1
d
sin 1 x =
dx
1 x2
d
1
cos 1 x =
dx
1 x2

d
1
sec 1 x =
dx
x x2 1
d
1
csc 1 x =
dx
x x2 1

Established Integration Formulas

=
x dx
tan
=
x dx
cot
sec x dx=
csc x dx=

d
1
tan 1 x =
dx
1 + x2
1
d
cot 1 x =
dx
1 + x2

Trigonometric Substitution

ln sec x + C
ln sin x + C
ln sec x + tan x + C
ln csc x cot x + C

Half-Angle Formulas

1
(1 cos 2 x )
2
1
2
cos=
x
(1 + cos 2 x )
2
1 cos 2 x
tan 2 x =
1 + cos 2 x

2
sin=
x

Expression in the
integrand

a2 x2
x2 + a2
x2 a2

Substitution

x = a sin
x = a tan
x = a sec

Double-Angle Formulas

sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A


cos
=
2 A cos 2 A =
sin 2 A 2 cos 2 A 1 = 1 2sin 2 A
2 tan A
tan 2 A =
1 tan 2 A

Product Formulas

1
[sin( A B) + sin( A + B)]
2
1
sin A sin
=
B
[cos( A B) cos( A + B)]
2
1
cos A cos
=
B
[cos( A B) + cos( A + B)]
2

=
B
sin A cos

Math 280 FINAL EXAM Formula/Theorem Sheet

Page 1 of 4

(A) Definition Partial Sums:

Given a series

n =1

= a1 + a2 + a3 + , let sn denote its nth partial sum,


n

sn = ai = a1 + a2 + a3 + + an
i =1

If the sequence {sn } , the sequence of partial sums {s1 , s2 , s3 ,} is convergent and its limit is a real number,

lim sn = s , then the series


n

n =1

is called convergent and we write

a1 + a2 + a3 + + an + =
s

or

n =1

=s

The number s is called the sum of the series. Otherwise, the series is called divergent.
(B) Geometric Series: The series

ar

n 1

n =1

=a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + is convergent if r < 1 and its sum is

a
. If r 1 , the series is divergent.
ar n 1 =

1 r
n =1
(C) Test for Divergence: If lim an does not exist or if lim an 0 , then the series
n

a
n =1

is divergent.

(D) Integral Test: Suppose f is a continuous, positive, decreasing function on [1, ) and let an = f ( n ) . Then
the series

n =1

an is convergent if and only if the improper integral

(i) If

f ( x )dx is convergent, then a

(ii) If

f ( x )dx is convergent. In other words,

n =1

f ( x )dx is divergent, then

a
n =1

(E) P-series: The series

n
n =1

is convergent.

is divergent.

is convergent if p > 1 and divergent if p 1 .

(F) Remainder Estimate for the Integral Test: Suppose f ( k ) = ak , where f is a continuous, positive,
decreasing function for x n and

is convergent. If Rn= S S n , then

n +1

(G) Series Sum Estimate for the Integral Test:

sn +

n +1

f ( x ) dx Rn f ( x )dx .
n

f ( x)dx s sn +

f ( x)dx
n

The midpoint of this interval is an estimate of s, with error < (half the intervals length).

Math 280 FINAL EXAM Formula/Theorem Sheet

Page 2 of 4

(H) The Comparison Test: If

and

are series with positive terms and

b is convergent and a b for all n , then a is also convergent.


(ii) If b is divergent and a b for all n , then a is also divergent.

(i) If

(I) The Limit Comparison test: Suppose

an and
n =1

n =1

are series with positive terms.

an
= c where c is a finite number and c > 0 , then either both series converge or both diverge.
n b
n

If lim

(J) The Alternating Series Test:

If the alternating series

(1)

n 1

bn = b1 b2 + b3 b4 + b5 b6 + .....

n =1

where bn > 0 satisfies

bn +1 bn
lim bn = 0

(i)
(ii)

then the series converges.


(K) Alternating Series Estimation Theorem:

If s =

(1)
n =1

n 1

bn is the sum of an alternating series that satisfies

(i) 0 bn +1 bn

(ii) lim bn = 0

and

Rn = s sn bn +1

Then

(L) Absolute Convergence:


If

converges, then

converges (absolutely).

(M) The Ratio Test for Absolute Convergence:


Let

be a series with non-zero terms and suppose lim

the series

i.

If L < 1,

ii.

If L > 1 or L = , then the series

iii.

If L = 1 ,

an +1
an

=L ;

is absolutely convergent.

diverges.

the test is inconclusive. The series may be convergent or divergent.


Use another test (not The Root Test)

Math 280 FINAL EXAM Formula/Theorem Sheet

Page 3 of 4

(N) The Root Test for Absolute Convergence:


Suppose lim

an = L
then the series

i.

If L < 1,

ii.

If L > 1 or L = , then the series

iii.

If L = 1 ,

is absolutely convergent.

diverges .

the test is inconclusive. The series may be convergent or divergent.


Use another test (not The Ratio Test)

Taylor Series Expansion of f (x ) at x = a (or about a, or centered at a)

f (x ) =

n=0

f (n) (a)
(x a)n
n!

Maclaurin Series Expansion of f (x ) at x = 0 :

f (x ) =

n=0

f (n) (0) n
f (0)
f (0) 2 f (0) 3
(x ) = f (0) +
x+
x +
x + ...
n!
1!
2!
3!
dy
dy dt
=
dx dx
dt

First Derivative of parametric equations:

if

d dy
d y dt dx
=
dx
dx 2
dt
2

Second Derivative of parametric equations:

Arc Length for parametric equations, for < t < :

First Derivative of polar equations:

Area of polar region:

A=

ed
1 ecos

or

L=

dx
0
dt

dx
dy
+
dt
dt

dt

dr
dy d sin + r cos
=
dx dr cos r sin
d

1
2
f ( )] d
[
2

Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates

r=

if

dx
0
dt

r=

ed
1 esin

The conic is:


d) an ellipse if e < 1
e) a parabola if e = 1
f) a hyperbola if e > 1

Math 280 FINAL EXAM Formula/Theorem Sheet

Page 4 of 4