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Submitted To :

Submitted By :

Mr. Anand Mishra

Shubham Rai
XII-S1
ROLL.No. 44

Submitted To :

Submitted By :

Mr. S.K. Tiwari

SAURABH PRATAP
PARIHAR
XII-S2
ROLL.No. ...........

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my deep sense of gratitude of
my guide Mr. Mayank

Singh

his

valuable guidance, inspiration and help


provided in every aspect of this project.
I am thankful to him for his constant
evaluation of this project and subsequent
in this regard.
Last but not the least; I extend my
sincere thanks to my Parents, school and
Friends, who played an important role in
proper tunings of my project.

Neha Verma

Mr. S.K. Tiwari

Class : 10th

Physics Teacher

CERTIFICATE
This

is

certify that

Jyoti

Rai of class XII-S2 'Science of


Sant

Atulanand

Academy,

Residential

Varanasi

has

prepared this Physics project


Half wave Rectifier.
In accordance with guide
lines followed by C.B.S.E., New
Delhi. She has worked as per
the instruction and certifies
that this process is unique and
not copied.
Teacher's Signature
Mr. S.K. Tiwari

Physics Teacher

CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION
2. BASIC HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
CIRCUIT
3. WORKING

OF

HALF

WAVE

RECTIFIER
4. POWER

SUPPLY

SPECIFICATIONS
5. ADVANTAGES

AND

DISADVANTAGES
6. HALF WAVE RECTIFIER DIODE
REQUIREMENTS
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to
flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy
may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling
through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine,
a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source
of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power
for electric power grids

THEORY
1. The strong magnetic field is produced by a current flow
through the field coil of the rotor.
2. The field coil in the rotor receives excitation through the use
of slip rings and brushes.
3. Two brushes are spring-held in contact with the slip
rings to provide the continuous connection between

the

field coil and the external excitation circuit.


4. The armature is contained within the windings of the stator
and is connected to the output.
5. Each time the rotor makes one complete revolution, one
complete cycle of AC is developed.
6. A generator has many turns of wire wound into the slots of the
rotor.
7. The magnitude of AC voltage generated by an AC generator is
dependent on the field strength and speed of the rotor.
8. Most generators are operated at a constant speed; therefore,
the generated voltage depends on field excitation, or strength.

WORKING
All metals contain a movable substance called "electric charge".
Even uncharged wires are full of charge! After all, the atoms of
the metal are made half of positive protons and half of negative
electrons. Metals are special because their electrons don't stay
connected to the metal atoms, instead they fly around inside the
metal and form a type of electric "liquid" inside the wires. All
wires are full of electric fluid. Modern scientists call this the
"electron sea" or "electron gas." It is not invisible, it actually
gives metals their silvery shine. The electron gas is like a silvery
fluid.
When a circle of wire surrounds a magnetic field, and the
magnetic field then changes, a circular "pressure" called Voltage
appears. This circular voltage trys to force the movable charges in
the wire to rotate around the circle. In other words, moving
magnets create electric currents in closed circles of wire. A
moving magnet causes a pumping action. If the circuit is not
complete, if there is a break, then the pumping force will cause
no charge flow. But if the circuit is "complete" or "closed", then
the magnet's pumping action can force the electrons of the coil to

begin flowing. This is a basic law of physics, and it is used by all


coil/magnet electric generators.
When the circuit is closed and the magnet is moving, charges in
the metal are forced to flow. The charges of the light bulb's
filament are pushed along. When the charges within the copper
wire pass into the thin light bulb filament, their speed greatly
increases. When the charges leave the filament and move back
into the

USES
1. Aircraft auxiliary power generation, wind generators,
high speed gas turbine generators.

2. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive systems,


automotive starter generators.

3. An ac generator, or 'alternator', is used to produce ac


voltages for transmission via the grid system or, locally, as
portable generators.

4. All of our household appliances runs on ac current.


Ex: Refrigerator, washing machines, oven, lights, fan etc.

EFFICIENCY
Expression for Instantaneous e.m.f. Produced:
Let position of the coil at any time t. It make angle q with
vertical. If w is uniform angular speed of the coil.
Then q = wt
B be the strength of magnetic field n be the number of turns in
the coil and A area of the coil then magnetic flux with the coil in
this position is given by:
f = nBA Cos q = nBA Cos wt.
Differentiate w.r.t. time
= nBA (-Sin wt) w
= -nBA w Sin wt
e = - (-nBA w Sin wt)
maximum value of e.m.f. say E0
e = E0 Sin wt.

1) Efficiency of an AC generator is the ratio of the useful


power output to the total power input.
2) Because any mechanical process experiences some losses,
no AC generators can be 100 percent efficient.

3) Efficiency of an AC generator can be calculated using


Equation.
4) Efficiency =(Output /Input ) 100

I want to give my special thanks


to subject teacher Mr. S.N. Mishra
for

giving

him

precious

time

in

completion of my project work and


also to the Lab assistance Mr. Kashi
for guiding me in my practical works.
They helped me from the moment I
started my project to the end of it.