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Kitchen Fire Suppression Systems

&
LPC Certification Scheme and Proposed
Changes
Alan Elder
Sales Director, Engineered & Pre-Engineered Systems,
EMEA, Tyco Fire Protection Products

How to Extinguish a Fire


Three elements needed for a fire
1. Fuel
2. Oxygen
3. Heat
These elements in a certain combination
Chain reaction Fire
Extinguish a Fire
Remove or reduce any one or a
combination of the elements
stop chain reaction

Fire Tetrahedron

Breaking the Chain Reaction

Heat
Heat

Chain
Chain
Reaction
Reaction

Oxygen
Oxygen

Fuel

Fuel

Typical Protection Scheme

Why do we need Kitchen Fire Suppression Systems?


Kitchen fires can start at any time
Kitchen fires can lead to the loss of a whole property
Kitchen fires easily spread into other neighbouring areas
Kitchen fires difficult to extinguish

Minimize Business Interruption and Other Risks


Most restaurants do not re-open again after a kitchen fire
Most of the responsibility of a kitchen fire is with the operator or
owner of the property!
Business Interruption (very often whole property affected)
Liability towards other tenants, visitors, third parties
Damages due to fire and firefighting
Bad publicity
Gives impression of poor house-keeping

Statistics

Major Causes
Open Flame, torch
3.3%

Exposure
1.8%

Natural Causes 1.5%

Other Heat Sources


1.5%

Smoking Materials
4.6%
Cooking Equipment
42.2%

Appliance, Tool, AC
5.1%
Heating Equipment
6.5%
Other Equipment
9.7%

Intentional
10.7%

Electrical
13.1%

Source: US Fire Administration Fire Loss Data Published by the National Fire Protection Association June 03
https://www.ansul.com/en/Products/kitchen_sys/Ansul_Restaurant_Interactive/Documents/EatingandDrinkingEstablishments.pdf

Overview of the U.S. Structure Fire


20002004 Annual Average
Property Use

Fires

Civilian
Deaths

Eating &
Drinking

8,520

Civilian
Injuries

113

Property
Damage

$ 190 M

Source: U.S. Eating and Drinking Establishment Property Structure Fires, Jennifer Flynn, National
Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, February 2007.

https://www.ansul.com/en/Products/kitchen_sys/Ansul_Restaurant_Interactive/Documents/EatingandDrinkingEstablishments.pdf

Overview of the U.S. Structure Fire


20002004 Annual Average

Five Year Average number of fires each year in Eating &Drinking


Establishments = 8,520

Equivalent to 163 Fires per WEEK

23 fires will have occurred in Eating &Drinking establishments


during today

Source: U.S. Eating and Drinking Establishment Property Structure Fires, Jennifer Flynn, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, February 2007.
10https://www.ansul.com/en/Products/kitchen_sys/Ansul_Restaurant_Interactive/Documents/EatingandDrinkingEstablishments.pdf

11

Rules and Regulations

1
2

Requirements Across Different Countries


France

INTE0500763A

Spain

CTE (DBSI)_2006

Denmark

Dedicated protection for fryers


Danish translation of CEA 4001:2006

Norway

Insurances demanding fire suppression system

Portugal

Artigo 194

US

UL 300, NFPA 17A, NFPA 96

UK

No legal basis, but LPS 1223 well known

13

Where do Requirements Come From?


Legislation
Insurances
Fire brigades
In-house specifications from

14

Hotel & restaurant chains

Property owners & operators

Risk Potential and Risk Measurement


The core safety hazard is located in the hood and extract duct
Cooking appliance are primarily ignition sources for the further
distribution of the fire
Independent from the amount of cooking oil
Independent from the power consumption of the appliances/
kitchen
Independent from the kitchens footprint (e.g. m)

The main risk is in the ventilation hood


and exhaust duct!

16

Risk Factors
Poor cleaning of the ventilation system?
Common ducts?
Structural construction & condition of the exhaust ducting?
Reliability of fire dampers?

17

Risk Factors
The fire hazard is largely depending on working procedures in the
kitchen
Depending on the temperature grease and grease residues will self
ignite
The way of cooking?

18

Risk factors which role do


Size of damage or loss in case of a fire incident?
Financially?
For health and safety?
Relation of costs for fire prevention compared with costs of a fire?
play in the specification of a kitchen fire protection system?

19

The Role of Standards

NFPA 17A
Standard for
Wet Chemical
Extinguishing
Systems
XXXX Edition

20

Widely Accepted Standards


Underwriters Laboratories: UL 300
(Test standard for commercial cooking appliances)
National Fire Protection Association
NFPA 17A (2009)

Wet Chemical systems

NFPA 96 (2008)

Ventilation Control and Fire Protection


of Commercial Cooking Operations

LPCB / LPS 1223

LPS 1223: issue 2.2

VdS

Testing of kitchen protection equipment

21

UL 300
Test - Standard
UL 300 test oriented
Main subjects are:

Extinguishing tests for cooking


commercial appliances

Extinguishing tests for kitchen


hoods and exhaust ducts (full
scale)

UL 300 Testing Hood and Duct

Ansul Test Centre


Marinette worst case
testing scenarios

Fryer Protection

UL 300 Testing Splash Test for Fryers

Grease
Agent

Splash Test:
@ Cooking Temperature
after 2 minute pre-burn

UL 300 Testing Splash Test for Fryers

After successful fire testing, splash testing is required.


No splashing grease droplets in excess of 3/16 in. dia.

Broiler Protection
Chain Broilers / Char Broilers
Gas Radiant
Lava Rock
Natural Charcoal
Wood (Mesquite, Apple, Hickory, Oak, Cherry)

UL 300 TestingBroilers

LPS 1223

Design Requirements
System Manual Requirements
Authorized Installer Requirements
Quality Management
Extinguishing Performance Tests
Extinguishing Agent Distribution Test
Component Examination and Tests

29

Pre-Engineered Kitchen Fire Suppression Systems


LPS 1223, NFPA 17A and UL 300 provide a solid basis in which
to determine the design and layout of kitchen fire suppression
systems
Pre-engineered systems tested according to these Standards
have proven to suppress fires successfully

Certificates of Witnessed Extinguishments


Versus Third Party Test Protocols
Many do not follow test protocols
No Worst Case Testing
No comparability
No repeatability
No examination of competence

31

Internet-links for Standards


These are the links where you can purchase the relevant NFPA and UL standards and download
LPS 1223:
NFPA 17A , Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
https://www.nfpa.org/aboutthecodes/AboutTheCodes.asp?DocNum=17A
NFPA 96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations
https://www.nfpa.org/aboutthecodes/AboutTheCodes.asp?DocNum=96#
UL300 Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Commercial Cooking
Equipment
http://ulstandardsinfonet.ul.com/catalog/stdscatframe.html
http://www.comm2000.com/category.aspx?sendingPageType=BigBrowser&CatalogID=Standards&CategoryID=UL+Stand
ards(ULStandards2)
The LPS standards you can download under:
LPS 1223: Issue 2.2 - Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB Certification and Listing of
fixed fire extinguishing systems for catering equipment
://www.redbooklive.com/pdf/LPS1223-2_2.pdf

Fixed installed kitchen fire suppression systems


vs.
other means to extinguish the fire

33

Other Fire Extinguishing Means

Portable Extinguishers
Fire Blankets
Fire Brigade

3
4

Portable Extinguishers
Needs to be F-class
Only if kitchen is manned?
Operator needs to be skilled how to use the portable
extinguisher?
Not suitable for hood, duct and obstructed areas?
Do not shut down cooking appliances
Operator positioning?
Recommended back-up protection!
3
5

Fire Blankets

May not always be suitable for use!

Are prohibited for fires on fryers at Germany


Do not shut down cooking appliances

36

Fire Brigades
How long will the fire brigade take to arrive?
What are the fire brigades tasks?
What will the kitchen, the restaurant and the building look like
afterwards?

37

Heathrow Airport T1 (1997)


http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-760028.html

A fire that started in a fast-food restaurant at


Heathrow Airport delayed hundreds of flights at
the world's busiest airport yesterday and snarled
air traffic across Europe. No injuries were
reported.
The fire started before dawn in a ventilation shaft
above a deep-fat fryer at a xxxxx xxxxx Terminal 1
and quickly spread through the air ducts.
Flames leapt through the terminal roof for two
hours. Firefighters worked for 3 1/2 hours before
bringing it under control, extinguishing it two
hours later. The fire temporarily shut down three
of the airport's four ...
3
8

Vilnius Shopping Mall (2009)

39

Conclusions
What does all this mean for you?
Can you count on the existing rules and legislation?
What is most important for you?

4
0

LPS 1223 Installer Scheme


Proposed Revisions

LPS 1223: Proposed Revisions


Proposal to Separate Product & Installer Requirements

LPS 1223: Proposed Revisions


Proposal to Separate Product & Installer Requirements
Why?
Clarify and refine product standard to reflect product requirements
and manufacturer specific processes and responsibilities
Improve visibility of system designers, installers, service companies
to end users & product manufacturers
PROPOSAL BEFORE EXPERT GROUP B

LPS 1223: Proposed Revisions


Product Based Scheme Under Review
Development of new test requirements based on experience
Duct protection & fire suppression tests
Additional equipment types (salamanders, broilers, woks, grills
etc.)
Closer to UL300?
Scheme document to be produced to clarify requirements

LPS 1223: Proposed Revisions


Product Based Scheme Under Review

Review of authorised agents *


Review of in service failures *
Assessment of installers *
Two fire extinguishment tests *
Maximum and minimum flow distribution tests *
Component checking against drawings *
Review of manufacturer container / cartridge test records *
Container strength and pressure tests **
Cartridge strength and pressure tests **

* Annual review

** Bi-annual review

Timing: revision to be published late Spring / early Summer

LPS 1223: Proposed Revisions


Installer Scheme Under Development
Listing of approved installers
Clear visibility of which products are in scope,
Identify staff proficiency, for example in:
design, installation, maintenance
Cross match competencies of installer company staff v training records
held by manufacturer
Technical assessments & site audits
Use of genuine parts in servicing & maintenance
ISO 9000
Timing: to be finalised following issue of revised product scheme =
coming this year

LPS 1223: Proposed Revisions


FIA SUPPORTS THIRD PARTY ACCREDITATION
Questions /considerations:
Do you have any concerns / suggestions?
One thing appears certain:
LPC needs to promote LPS1223
and any related installer schemes
actively for them to be successful