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2012 JC1

Victoria Junior College


Stoichiometry Supplementary Questions

Relative masses of atoms and molecules

Q1

The relative atomic mass of boron, which consists of isotopes


What is the percentage of
A 0.8%
B 8.0%

10
5

B and

11
5

B is 10.8.

11
5

B atoms in the isotopic mixture?


C 20%

D 80%

E 92%

Let x and (100-x) be the percentage abundance of 10B and 11B respectively.

10 x + 11(100 x)
= 10.8
100
x = 20
Hence, 80% 11B.

Avogadros constant, molar mass and molar gas volume

Q2

Which of the following samples could be methane, CH4? A sample that contains
A
25% hydrogen, by weight, and 75% carbon, by weight.
B
0.40 mole of H atoms and 1.0 x 1023 C atoms.
C
4.0 g of H atoms and 1.0 g of C atoms.
D
0.40 mole of H2 molecules and 0.10 moles of C atoms.

Empirical and molecular formulae (by mass)

Q3

In an experiment, 1.00 g of titanium reacts with chlorine to give 3.22 g of a compound


TiXn. What is the value of n?
M

No of moles:

n
X2
2

1.00
47 .9
= 0.0209

Comparing the mole ratio,

MXn

3.22
47.9 + n(35.5)

3.22
= 0.0209
47.9 + n(35.5)
n = 2.99 3

Q4

An organic compound has a molecular mass of 62. The compound has a


composition of 38.7% carbon, 51.6% oxygen and 9.6% hydrogen. Calculate its
(i)
(ii)

empirical formula;
molecular formula.
Element
Mass in 100 g / g
No. of mol / mol
Relative no. of mol /mol

C
38.7
3.225
1

H
9.6
9.6
3

O
51.6
3.225
1

Empirical formula of organic compound is CH3O.


Let the molecular formula of the organic compound be (CH3O)n
31n = 62
n=2
Molecular formula of organic compound is C2H6O2.

Calculations involving reacting masses and gases

Q5

A sample of magnesium which is contaminated by magnesium oxide reacts


completely with 43.20 cm3 of 1.25 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid to liberate 600 cm3 of
hydrogen, all volumes were measured at room temperature and pressure. Calculate
the percentage by mass of magnesium oxide in the sample.
Mg + 2 HCl  MgCl2 + H2
MgO + 2 HCl  MgCl2 + H2O

600

1000 = 0.0250 mol


24.0

Amount of hydrogen gas liberated =

nMg = nH2 = 0.0250 mol


Mass of Mg in sample = 0.0250 x 24.3 = 0.6075 g
Amount of HCl used = c x v = 1.25
nMg + nMgO =

43.20
= 0.0540 mol
1000

1
nHCl = 0.0540 2 = 0.0270 mol
2

Amount of MgO present in sample = 0.0270 0.0250 = 0.0020 mol


Mass of MgO present in sample = 0.0020 x (24.3 + 16.0) = 0.0806 g
Percentage mass of MgO =
Q6

0.0806
100% = 11.7%
0.0806 + 0.6075

A tube filled with 50 cm3 of methane and 150 cm3 of oxygen at room temperature was
inverted over a vessel containing KOH (aq) as shown in the diagram.
The hydrocarbon was ignited for the following reaction to take place.
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

A. 50 cm3
B. 100 cm3
C. 150 cm3
D. 200 cm3

When the setup is cooled to room temperature, at which level will the liquid be?
Equation

CH4
3

Initial vol. /cm

Change in vol. /cm3


End vol. /cm3

2 O2

CO2

50

150

- 50

- 100

+ 50

50

50

CO2 produced is reacted with KOH, thus only excess oxygen remains.

2 H2O

Q7

In an experiment, 10 cm3 of an organic compound in the gaseous state were sparked


with an excess of oxygen. 20 cm3 of carbon dioxide and 5 cm3 of N2 were obtained
among the products. (All volume measurements are done at s.t.p.)
Which of the following could be the molecular formula of the compound?
1
C2H7N
2
C2H3N
3
C2H6N2
Equation

CxHyNz

Initial vol. /cm3

10

Change /cm3

- 10

End vol. /cm3

(x + y/4) O2

x
) + exs
4
x
- 10(4 + )
4

10(4 +

exs

xCO2

z
N2
2

y/2 H2O

+ 20

+5

20

Applying Avogadros Hypothesis, 1 mol of CxHyNz produces 2 mol of CO2.


Comparing stoichiometric coeff, x = 2
1 mol of CxHyNz produces

1
mol of N2. => z = 1
2

Volumetric analysis

Q8

Find the volume of water needed to convert 1.00 dm3 of a 2.50 mol dm-3 solution to a
concentration of 0.80 mol dm-3.
Let the volume of water needed be V
cV=cV
2.50 x 1.00 = 0.80 x (1.00 + V)
V = 2.125 dm3

Q9

A student made up a 0.100 mol dm-3 solution of Ba(OH)2.8H2O which he found in the
laboratory cupboard and left the solution in an open beaker. A week later, he
returned to the laboratory, used the solution for titration with 0.100 mol dm-3 HCl and
was surprised to discover his titres were lower than expected.
Which one of the following reasons explains why the volumes of HCl used were lower
than expected?
A Some water had evaporated from the barium hydroxide solution.
B The concentration of HCl was less than the stated 0.100 mol dm-3.
C The barium hydroxide crystals had less water of crystallization than stated.
D Some of the barium hydroxide had reacted with carbon dioxide in the air to form
solid barium carbonate.

5.4

Back-titration

Q10

1.60 g of a metallic oxide of the type MO, was dissolved in 100 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm-3
HCl. The resulting solution was made up to 500 cm3 with distilled water. 25.0 cm3 of
this solution than required 21.05 cm3 of 0.102 mol dm -3 NaOH for neutralization.
Calculate the molar mass of the oxide and hence the relative atomic mass of the
metal.
From NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O
nNaOH reacted = nHCl in 25.0cm3 = c v = 0.102
nHCl in 500 cm3 solution = 2.15 10 3
Original nHCl in 100 cm3 =

21.05
= 2.15 103 mol
1000

500
= 4.30 102 mol
25

100
1.00 = 0.100 mol
1000

From MO + 2HCl  MCl2 + H2O


nMO that reacted with HCl = x no. of moles of HCl reacted
=

0.100 0.043
2

= 0.0285 mol
Molar mass of MO =

m
= 1.60 / 0.0285 = 56.1 g mol-1
n

Ar of M = 56.1-16.0 = 40.1
Q11

It has been suggested that the engines of high-flying aircrafts produce small
amount of carbonyl sulfide, SCO.
A sample of 120 cm3 of SCO was absorbed at room temperature and pressure
into 25 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide remaining
was neutralized by 20 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. Which of the
following equations could represent the reaction between sodium hydroxide and
carbonyl sulfide?
A
B
C
D

SCO
SCO
SCO
SCO

+
+
+
+

2NaOH
2NaOH
3NaOH
4NaOH

Na2CO3
Na2S +
Na2CO3
Na2CO3

+ H2S
CO2 + H2O
+ NaHS + H2O
+ Na2S + 2H2O

NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O


nNaOH reacted with HCl = nHCl used =
nNaOH reacted with SCO =
nSCO =

nSCO
n NaOH

20
0.25 = 5.0 10 3 mol
1000

25
1.00 5.0 10 3 = 0.020mol
1000

120
24.0 = 5 10 3 mol
1000
1
=
4

5.5

Double-indicator titrations [H2 only]

Q12

F1 is a solution containing a mixture of potassium carbonate and sodium


hydrogencarbonate. 25.0 cm3 of F1 was titrated against 0.100 mol dm-3 hydrochloric
acid, using phenolphthalein as indicator. After 11.00 cm3 of acid had been used, the
indicator was decolorized. Methyl orange was then added, a further 27.80 cm3 of
hydrochloric acid was needed to turn the indicator orange. Calculate
(i) the no. of moles of potassium carbonate in 1 dm3 of F1, and
(ii) the no. of moles of sodium hydrogencarbonate in 1 dm3 of F1.
(i) Using phenolphthalein indicator, Na2CO3 + HCl NaCl + NaHCO3 ---- (1)
Na2CO3 HCl , or nNa 2CO3 = nHCl

nNa 2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 of F1= nHCl used in rxn (1)


= 0.100 x (11.00/1000)
= 1.10 103 mol
Hence, n Na2CO3 in 1 dm3 of F1 =

1.10 103
= 0.0440 mol
25.0
1000

(ii) Using methyl orange indicator, NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + CO2 + H2O ---- (2)
(Total)
NaHCO3 HCl, or n NaHCO 3 = nHCl
No. of moles of total NaHCO3 = nHCl used in rxn (2)
= 0.100 x (27.80/1000)
= 2.78 x 10-3 mol
And, nNaHCO3 produced from rxn (1)
= n Na 2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 of F1= 1.10 103 mol
Hence, no. of moles of original NaHCO3 in 25.0 cm3 F1
= 2.78 x 10-3 1.10 x 10-3
= 1.68 103 mol

1.68 103
n NaHCO 3 in 1 dm of F1=
= 0.0672 mol
25.0
1000
3