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Design of reinforced concrete sections

according to EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-2
Validation Examples

Brno, 21.10.2010

IDEA RS s.r.o. Jihomoravské inovační centrum, U Vodárny 2a, 616 00 BRNO
tel.: +420 - 541 142 063, fax: +420 - 541 143 011, www.idea-rs.cz

Foreword
The introduction of European standards is a significant event as, for the first time, all design
and construction codes within the EU will be harmonized. These Eurocodes will affect all
design and construction activities.
The aim of this publication, Design of reinforced concrete sections according to EN 1992-1-1
and EN 1992-2, is to illustrate how the Code is treated on practical examples. In order to
explain the use of all relevant clauses of Eurocode 2, an example of a simply supported oneway rib-shaped slab and an example of column with high axial load and bi-axial bending is
introduced.

IDEA RS s.r.o. Jihomoravské inovační centrum, U Vodárny 2a, 616 00 BRNO
tel.: +420 - 541 142 063, fax: +420 - 541 143 011, www.idea-rs.cz

Design of reinforced concrete sections according to EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-2

October 2010

Contents
1.

Rib T1 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4
1.1.

Project details.......................................................................................................................................................... 4

Actions and analysis of Rib T1 ............................................................................................................................................. 5
1.1.1.
1.2.

Cross section ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

1.3.

Ultimate section resistance.................................................................................................................................... 10

1.4.

Shear check ........................................................................................................................................................... 13

1.5.

Torsional check ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

1.6.

Interaction ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

1.7.

Crack width calculation ........................................................................................................................................ 19

1.7.1.

Crack witdh according to EN 1992-1-1 ....................................................................................................... 19

1.7.2.

Example - Calculation of crack width according to EN 1992-1-1 .............................................................. 20

1.8.

Calculating stiffness .............................................................................................................................................. 22

1.8.1.
2.

Section forces ................................................................................................................................................ 7

Example - calculating the stiffness of the T-section according to EN 1992-1-1 ................................ 22

Column .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
2.1.

Project details........................................................................................................................................................ 26

2.2.

Second order effects .............................................................................................................................................. 28

2.2.1.

Simplified method based on nominal stiffness ............................................................................................ 29

2.2.1.

Simplified method based on nominal curvature .......................................................................................... 29

2.2.2.

Biaxial bending ........................................................................................................................................... 30

Page 3

r. Rib T1 1.1 ..Schematic layout of structure Page 4 .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 1.stavebniklub.Příklady posouzení betonových prvků dle Eurokódů". Miloš Zich. online publication "Konstrukční Eurokódy .cz/konstrukcni-eurokody-onbecd/ First floor slab Figure 1. http://www.1. 2010. and others. o. Ph. Project details Example is taken from: Ing. nakl. Verlag Dashöfer s.D.

2 – Sections Actions and analysis of Rib T1 Figure 1.3 –Static schema of Rib T1 Page 5 .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Section A Section B Figure 1.

Permanent load calculation Variable load: qk = 10 kN/m2 * 2. A1.Floor composition for the calculation of loads Figure 1. 1.0m = 20 kN/m quasi-permanent value: Factors defining the representative values of variable actions.1 of EN1990 (also in attachment A4 in this document) 0. 2 are shown in table.4 . Page 6 .5 .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Figure 1.

3. load can be further reduced according to equation (6.1. There are 3 SLS-combinations: Characteristic combination of loads (Unacceptable cracking or deformation) Frequent load combination Quasi-permanent load combination Actions for Ultimate limit states (ULS) It is considered as a persistent design situation for ultimate limit state where partial factors are: G= 1. we get the value of design load Alternatively. Q = 1. Section forces Page 7 .4.35.10) and (6.10) Substituting.50.3.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Actions for Serviceability limit states (SLS) Loads for serviceability limit state are determined acc.1.10b) and consider the less favorable value of both terms: 1.2 EN 1990 is prescribed the following equation marked as the equation (6. to EN 1990 clause 6.5. To determine the design load in Article 6.

683 m from the theoretical support.33 124.93 Table 1.98 70. Estimated value of d is based on the assumption that the moment near the support will be positive. Value d = 458 mm.Internal forces for individual SLS and ULS load combinations The shear force is calculated at distance d from the face of the support.87 41.73 214. Page 8 .05 kN.225 + 0.87 21. Values: VEd1 and MEd1 are calculated at distance lx = 0.29 155.33 76.13 113. MEd1 = 84.VEd1= 105.29 kNm.1 .53 133.33 96.87 23.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Combination/Value Loads [kN/m] Vz(a) [kN] My (b) [kNm] SLS characteristic SLS frequent SLS quasi-permanent ULS 29.458 = 0.

Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1.2.6 – Cross section Materials Concrete C25/30 fck = 25 MPa fcd = fck / c = 25 / 1.78 MPa Page 9 .6 /  MPa fyk = 500 MPa fyd = fyk / s = 500 / 1.15 = 434.7 2.5 = 16.7 fctm / Steel B500B c = 0.66 MPa fctm = 2.6 MPa fctd = 0. October 2010 Cross section Figure 1.

9–Strain in ultimate compression fiber (picture from program IDEA RCS) Modulus of elasticity is calculated from stress-strain diagram  Page 10 . Figure 1.Resulted plane of strain calculated by IDEA RCS Strain calculation in end fibers:      Figure 1.0005876y =0. For reinforcing steel the stress-strain relation is assumed to be bi-linear without strain hardening.8 . October 2010 Ultimate section resistance The cross section resistance (capacity) is the calculation of stress.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1.given by program IDEA RCS Input data.0 z= . For concrete the stress-strain relation is assumed to bi-linear. Bending moment at middle section from basic combination of loads.0.3.7 . Plane of strain: x = 0.01034961 Figure 1.Response . strain and internal forces status on the calculated cross section for its limit state.

follow from:   Concrete force in compression (as. the section is loaded in the plane of symmetry and reinforcement is not in one layer.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010  Defining the depth of compression zone (depth to neutral axis) in concrete. these layers can be replaced by one layer with an area equal to the sum of all areas of reinforcement)  Tensile force in reinforcement Page 11 .10–Stress in reinforcing steel ( Diagram is taken from program IDEA RCS) Calculating of stress in reinforcing steel (whereas. the stress along the section is linear in concrete) Concrete lever arm in the compression Concrete moment in compression Strain in reinforcing steel     Figure 1. the strain in concrete is outside the plastic branch.

the design moment My has opposite sign.52 = -214.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Moment in tensile reinforcement Figure 1.654 Note: Due to coordination system that is used inside the program.134 -52.11 – Comparing with results calculated by IDEA RCS program Equilibrium of forces Equilibrium of moments = -162. Page 12 .

15 0.08*0.002123604= 0.0012348+0. the concrete part does not carry all the shear force.004684m4 S= 1.6613/2 251/2 = 0.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1.2*0.091 + 0.42*0.0 MPa cp= bw= 0.458 m min = 0.5 = 0.035 k3/2 fck1/2 = 0.01373 m3 bw= 0.85*0.0912+1/12*0.0 MPa cp= l= 1 Deriving from the above text.3745 MPa Page 13 .18 / 1.c= 0. hence shear reinforcement will be required.2 * 0. Figure 1.08 * 0.2*0.Comparing with results calculated by RCS program Resistance without shear reinforcement in zones with cracks under bending loads CRd.4.85 * 0.035 1.001225588+0. October 2010 Shear check Resistance without shear reinforcement in zones without cracks under bending loads Calculated in center of gravity of concrete section I= 1/12*1.051/2 = 0.2 m 0.18 / c = 0.423+ 0.1592= 7.083+ 1.8933e-5+0.051 *0.2 m d= 0.85*0.12 k1= 0.12 .

Resistance without shear reinforcement Asw= 2 * 0.437m For calculation of strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear 1must be checked if the design stress of the shear reinforcement is over the 80% of the characteristic yield stress fywk.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Minimally Deriving from the above text.7MPa = 21.9*0.655e-5 m2 s= 0.437 m fywd = fyd = 434.0 bw= 0.24m z= 0.412 m exact value is 0.8 cw = 1.2 m z= 0. hence shear reinforcement will be required.9*0. .458 = 0.0062 * PI /4 = 5.412 m exact value is 0. Page 14 .458 = 0. the concrete part does not carry all the shear force.

13 – Comparison of results calculated by RCS program Page 15 .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Figure 1.

85 + 0.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1.232 m2 A / u = 0.5) = 4.5) = 0.85 + 0.5.Comparison of results calculated by RCS program Page 16 .0 Figure 1.14 .7 = 0.6 cw = 1.049 m Torsional capacity without shear reinforcement Torsional capacity with shear reinforcement = 0.232 / 4.7 m 2 * (1. October 2010 Torsional check Section characteristics for torsional check u= A= tef = 2 * (1.

Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1. torsion and bending = Page 17 . October 2010 Interaction Combined shear and torsion Shear reinforcement is not allowed to design according to detailing rules Compression strut check for combined shear and torsion Shear reinforcement check for combined shear and torsion Longitudinal reinforcement check for shear.6.

15 .Comparing with results calculated by RCS program Page 18 .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Figure 1.

7.0002092938 y= 0.73 kNm Plane of strain calculated by program IDEA RCS: x = 0.7. follow from:   Figure 1.16 .1.00282806 Defining the depth of compression zone (depth to neutral axis) in concrete.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1.0 z = -0.Strain-stress diagram on fully cracked cross section Strain calculation in end concrete fibres:      Stress calculation in end concrete fibres:  Concrete force in compression: Concrete moment in compression: Strain in reinforcing steel:      Page 19 . Crack width according to EN 1992-1-1 Check is introduced at midsection of beam My= 113. October 2010 Crack width calculation 1.

Calculation of crack width according to EN 1992-1-1 Effective ratio of reinforcement: Maximal spacing of the cracks: Factors: k1= 0.5 Effective height 7. pure bending k3= 3. the section is loaded in the plane of symmetry and reinforcement is in one layer.2.3. this layer can be replaced by one bar with an area equal to the sum of all areas of reinforcement)  Tensile force in the bar: Moment in tensile reinforcement: Equilibrium of forces: = 258.97 = 0 Equilibrium of moments: 1.5 Cross section loaded by bending moment.2 (3) hc.4 k4= 0.7. Example .97– 258.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Calculating of stress in reinforcing steel (whereas.ef: Page 20 .8 in example is considered steel B500B k2= 0.

clause 7.17 .Comparison of values with IDEA RCS results Page 21 .3. long term action Crack width according to (EN 1992-1-1.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Effective area: Mean strain in the reinforcement          Mean value of the tensile strength of the concrete effective at the time when the cracks may first be expected to occur: factor: .4) is :   Figure 1.

y = 0. Example .73 kNm x = 0.8. the plane of strain is computed for a cracked section loaded by internal forces at the time when the cracks may first be expected to occur from the quasi-permanent combination.0002092938.0. for short-term stiffness. z = -0.Strain – stress diagram on cracked concrete cross section Sectional characteristics of transformed concrete section without cracks Cross sectional area of transformed cross section (steel area is transformed to concrete)  Center of gravity of transformed cross section  Moment of inertia of original cross section Page 22 .calculating the stiffness of the T-section according to EN 1992-1-1 Considering the strain. stress and internal forces in the previous examples are already calculated. the difference in the calculation of shortand long-term stiffness is only taking into account the effective modulus of elasticity: where: (. To calculate.8.t0) is the final value of creep coefficient Calculation will be carried out at mid-span section of quasi-permanent combination My = 113.00282805826 Figure 1.1.18 . October 2010 Calculating stiffness 1.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 1.

Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Moment of inertia of transformed cross section  Sectional characteristics of transformed concrete section with cracks Compression zone:   Cross sectional area of transformed cross section (steel area is transformed to concrete) Page 23 .

0009763408 Page 24 . z = -0. y = 0.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Center of gravity of transformed cross section  Moment of inertia of original cross section Moment of inertia of transformed cross section  Rematk: Current IDEA RCS version calculates cross sectional characteristics related to original center of gravity of cross section Since the same assumptions for calculating the limit state and stiffness and width of cracks were used.0. x = 0.00007225525. This plane is taken over from program IDEA RCS. we assume the stress in the reinforcement from the example of the calculation of crack width: Now we calculate the tensile force from ultimate load on the cracked section immediately prior to cracking.

Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Strain in reinforcing steel:     Stress in reinforcing steel   Reduction factor/distribution coefficient bending stiffness of uncracked cross section: bending stiffness of fully cracked cross section: Stiffness is interpolated according to following expresion (Interpolation is done on level of stiffnesses)     Page 25 .

It is stand-alone element perpendicular to the Y-axis and braced Figure 2. .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 2. Column 5 m. Page 26 . First order end moments: At the beginning: At the end: . t0) = 1.68. and the plane XZ. Quasi-permanent combination for the serviceability limit state: . Material C35/45.1.1 . Column 2. . oneboth-sidedly fixed in that is unbraced to the Z axis . 4 m2 reinforced in four corners by bars of 25 mm . .4 x 0. . Project details Square cross section 0. Laterally fixed in the XY plane. . . creep coefficient in infinity φ (∞. . stirrup with diameter 10 mm. concrete cover 25 mm. Reinforcements B 500B.Cross section and column geometry The internal forces obtained by calculating a linear structure in the investigated section: Combination for the ultimate limit state: .

Eccentricity: . Reduction factor for number of members . .1 (4): . . . Total eccentricity including effects of geometrical imperfections: . Inclination =0. . Page 27 . .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Calculating geometrical imperfections: Effective length l0 Reduction factor for length: . Minimum eccentricity according to paragraph 6. .00447. The first order moment with geometrical imperfections: .

Conditions are not fulfilled. because end moments are equal ( ). Relative normal force . Necessary values for calculating the limit slenderness: End moments ratio: . . 2nd order effects can be neglected. because member is unbraced perpendicularly to Y axis.2. the effect of creep must not be ignored Effective creep ratio: . Slenderness criterion: slender column. Mechanical reinforcement ratio . only difference is we are not taking account the condition for minimum eccentricity. October 2010 Second order effects Slenderness and limit slenderness: Slenderness ratio . Limit slenderness: . including the effects of the first order we received from the same calculation as for the design moment.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section 2. non-slender column. . Page 28 . . . the moment from the quasi-permanent combination. if the following free conditions are met   .  The effect of creep may be ignored. .

.2. method can be used. .Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 2. . . .1. Effective depth: .1. Simplified method based on nominal curvature Necessary factors: . Nominal stiffness: Euler critical load: Second order moment: Total design moment including second order moment: 2.2. Page 29 . Simplified method based on nominal stiffness Necessary factors: . . . .

Biaxial bending No further check is necessary if the slenderness ratios satisfy the following conditions first condition is not fulfilled.Validation Examples Reinforced Concrete Section October 2010 Deflection: The nominal second order moment: Total design moment including second order moment: 2.9 (4).8. Page 30 .2.2. biaxial bending must be taken account according to paragraph 5.