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Community Nutrition Quiz

Student ID

: Syarfina Rosyadah
: 030.10.262

1. Please explain briefly about three major determinants for maternal and
child undernutrition !
There is three major determinants for maternal and child undernutrition.
The first major determinant is basic causes, this basic causes consist of
social, economic, political context, and lack of capital.
The second major determinant is underlying causes, these underying causes
are income poverty, employment, self-employment, dwelling, assets,
remittance, pensions, transfers etc. household food insecurity, inadequate
care, unhealthy household environment, and lack of health service are the
effects of this causes
The third major determinant is immediate causes,these immediate causes
are disease and inadequate dietary intake.
2. What is stunting? Explain briefly why stunting is important!
Stunting is very low height for age. It is the failure to reach ones genetic
potential for height. The definition of stunting according to the World
Health Organisation (WHO) is for the "height for age" value to be less than
two standard deviations of the WHO Child Growth Standards median.
children who have been chronically deprived of sufficient macronutrients
(fat, carbohydrates, and protein) can become stunted. The lack of nutrients
often combined with chronic infection and/or stress impacts the childs
length more than weight.
Stunted growth in children has the following public health impacts apart from the
obvious impact of shorter stature of the person affected:

greater risk for illness and premature death

may result in delayed mental development and therefore poorer school

performance and later on reduced productivity in the work force
reduced cognitive capacity

Women of shorter stature have a greater risk for complications during child
birth due to their smaller pelvis, and are at risk of delivering a baby with low birth

Stunted growth can even be passed on to the next generation (this is called the
"intergenerational cycle of malnutrition")
3. What is the right time to introduce the complementary feeding to infant?
The best time to introduce complemetary feeding is in six month of infant
age. From 0 to 6 months, breast milk is completely enough to fulfil energy
requirements. Theres no gap between breast milk nutrition and the energy
requirement. After 6 months, energy requirements is bigger so breast milk
no longer enough to supply the energy. The energy is very important
because the 6 rapid phase of growth very essential (0-2 years) and the
nutrition must meet the requirement. Based on the reason, the nutrion gap
need to be fulfiled by giving complementary feeding to the baby.
Please explain why fortified food should be given to young children!
Fortified food should be given to young children because to prevent macro
and micro nutrient deficiencies in children. Beside that, efforts to increase
the purchasing power requires sustainable economic development and propoor. While the results can not be expected to be seen in a short time. The
children with Micro nutrient deficiencies (KGM) in need of help today. So,
the fortified food program should be given to young children, so they can
avoid negative impacts on health Micronutrients deficiencies, intelligence
and productivity, when they mature

4. In malaria endemic area, what is the role hepcidin if iron supplementation is

given to anemic patient?
hepcidin as the main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin
synthesis is induced by iron loading and inflammation and suppressed by
erythropoiesis. In the case of an iron load, increased hepcidin levels limit
further enteral iron absorption and release of iron from the liver and the
reticuloendothelial system to normalize plasma iron levels. With increased
inflammation, elevated hepcidin levels cause the same sequence of events,
leading to reticuloendothelial blockade and the anemia of inflammation.
Conversely, by suppressing hepcidin production, erythropoietic activity
increases the availability of iron by enhancing enteral absorption and
release of iron from the liver and the reticuloendothelial system. RBCs, red
blood cells; Fe-Tf, iron-transferrin complex.
5. Why do you think it is necessary to conduct dietary survey in the
community? Please mention your opinion !
Dietary survey in comunity is very important because diet also related
with disease. For example, most Indonesian people consume carbohyrates
in a larger amount than any nutrients. That could be a reason why diabetes
prevalence is quite high in this country. By doing dietary survey in the
comunity we can identify diet-disease relationship, and also disease risk in
community. This also help the government to monitor and improve the
nutritional status of the citizen. Then the government can do some
intervention after defining the nutritional status of the citizen.